WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre intervention survey

  1. Predictors of breast cancer screening uptake: a pre intervention community survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Gan, Daniel Eng Hwee; Taib, Nur Aishah; Pritam, Ranjit; Lim, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Despite health education efforts to educate women on breast cancer and breast cancer screening modalities, the incidence of breast cancer and presentation at an advanced stage are still a problem in Malaysia. To determine factors associated with the uptake of breast cancer screening among women in the general population. This pre-intervention survey was conducted in a suburban district. All households were approached and women aged 20 to 60 years old were interviewed with pre-tested guided questionnaires. Variables collected included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on breast cancer and screening practice of breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 41.5% of a total of 381 respondents scored above average; the mean knowledge score on causes and risks factors of breast cancer was 3.41 out of 5 (SD1.609). 58.5% had ever practiced BSE with 32.5% performing it at regular monthly intervals. Uptake of CBE by nurses and by doctors was 40.7% and 37.3%, respectively. Mammogram uptake was 14.6%. Significant predictors of BSE were good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.654, 95% CI: 1.033-6.816), being married (OR=2.213, 95% CI: 1.201-4.076) and attending CBE (OR=1.729, 95% CI: 1.122-2.665). Significant predictors for CBE included being married (OR=2.161, 95% CI: 1.174-3.979), good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.286, 95% CI: 1.012-5.161), and social support for breast cancer screening (OR=2.312, 95% CI: 1.245-4.293). Women who had CBE were more likely to undergo mammographic screening of the breast (OR=5.744, 95% CI: 2.112-15.623), p<0.005. CBE attendance is a strong factor in promoting BSE and mammography, educating women on the importance of breast cancer screening and on how to conduct BSE. The currently opportunistic conduct of CBE should be extended to active calling of women for CBE.

  2. Using a mass media campaign to raise women's awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer: cross-sectional pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G; Pratt, Iain S; Scully, Maree L; Miller, Jessica R; Patterson, Carla; Hood, Rebecca; Slevin, Terry J

    2015-03-11

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based, statewide public health intervention designed to improve women's awareness and knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer. Cross-sectional tracking surveys conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention (waves I and III of campaign). Western Australia. Cross-sectional samples of Western Australian women aged 25-54 years before the campaign (n=136) and immediately after wave I (n=206) and wave III (n=155) of the campaign. The 'Alcohol and Cancer' mass media campaign ran from May 2010 to May 2011 and consisted of three waves of paid television advertising with supporting print advertisements. Campaign awareness; knowledge of drinking guidelines and the link between alcohol and cancer; intentions towards drinking. Prompted recognition of the campaign increased from 67% following wave I to 81% following wave III (adjusted OR (adj OR)=2.31, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.00, p=0.003). Improvements in women's knowledge that drinking alcohol on a regular basis increases cancer risk were found following wave I (adj OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.30, pmedia campaign can reach the target audience and raise awareness of links between alcohol and cancer, and knowledge of drinking guidelines. However, a single campaign may be insufficient to measurably curb drinking behaviour in a culture where pro-alcohol social norms and product marketing are pervasive. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The Effects of a Constructivist Intervention on Pre-Service Teachers

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    Kathryn DiPietro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pre-service teachers’ participation in a constructivist intervention supported by technology on their confidence in their own ability to plan and create six technology-supported, constructivist, learning activities, as well as to understand their perceptions of the experience. Participants were 23 pre-service teachers accepted into the College of Education’s Masters program at the University of Tennessee Knoxville and enrolled in an introduction to instructional computing course during the summer of 2001. A survey was used to assess pre-intervention confidence levels and experience with six technology-supported, constructivist, learning activities. Students were then situated in a class that employed constructivist methodology to facilitate their own exploration of constructivist pedagogy supported by technology. Once students completed the class, they were asked to re-take the survey. A paired samples t-test was used to compare pre-intervention confidence levels with post-intervention confidence levels. The results revealed a significant difference, p < .001, in each of the six areas. Journals, focus groups, and interviews were used to gain insight into the participants’ perceptions of the experience and suggested a reflective process.

  4. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's hull plating, then a representative of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  5. Correcting for Survey Effects in Pre-election Polls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPre-election polls can suffer from survey effects. For example, surveyed individuals can become more aware of the upcoming election so that they become more inclined to vote. These effects may depend on factors like political orientation and prior intention to vote, and this may cause bi

  6. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominant means to examine the vessel's hull plating, then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is qualified to discuss the ROV's capabilities and limitations of your vessel's hull design and configuration...

  7. 北京市社区妇女干预前后乳腺癌认知情况调查及评价%Survey on the pre-and post-intervention cognition of breast cancer among women in Beijing communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范金虎; 王建炳; 姜勇; 付凤环

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查北京社区妇女干预前后对乳腺癌的认知情况,为完善社区乳腺癌防治的健康教育提供科学依据.方法:采用社区试验研究方法:,选择北京社区40岁及以上妇女2952名,评价干预前后社区妇女对乳腺癌的知晓率.问卷调查妇女人口统计学信息、乳腺癌的认知情况等信息.结果:干预社区妇女在干预前每年至少一次到专业诊所进行乳腺检查的比例为27.26%,而干预后该比例提高为41.19%(P<0.01).对于每月进行乳房自我检查,干预后提高了32.88%(P<0.01).加强干预社区妇女干预前妇女每年至少一次到专业诊所进行乳腺检查的比例为24.15%,而干预后该比例提高了5.33%(P<0.01).干预前14.70%的妇女每月进行乳房自我检查,干预后提高到21.92%(P<0.01).结论:健康教育能够显著提高北京社区女性对乳腺癌的知晓率,将来需要进一步开展社区健康教育,以利于乳腺癌的防治.%Objective To investigate the cognition of breast cancer among women in Beijing pre- and post-intervention, and to provide data for improving health education of breast cancer. Methods A community trial was conducted among 2952 women aged 40 - 95 years in Beijing communities. The cognition of breast cancer was evaluated in the pre- and post-intervention survey. Questionnaire data, including sociodemography, knowledge of the cognition of breast cancer were collected. Results At the baseline survey, the proportion of" women doing breast examination in professional clinic once a year" in intervention community was about 27. 26% and the proportion was 41.19% after intervention (P <0. 0l ). And the proportion of" women doing breast self-examination every month" increased by 32. 88% after intervention (P <0. 01 ). In the intensified intervention community, the proportion of" women doing breast examination in professional clinic once a year" increased by 5. 33% after intervention (P <0. 01 ). The proportion

  8. Impact of Pre-Procedure Interventions on No-Show Rate in Pediatric Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric endoscopy has evolved into an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal diseases in children. However, there is limited literature focusing on quality improvement initiatives in pediatric endoscopy. The primary goal of this project was to reduce the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. Also, we aimed to improve patient and family satisfaction with the procedure by identifying opportunities for improvement. A checklist was designed based on the potential causes of no-show. The endoscopy nurse coordinator reviewed the checklist when scheduling the procedure to identify patients at high risk for non-compliance. Once a risk factor was identified, appropriate actions were taken. She also made a pre-procedure phone call as a reminder and to address any of these risks for non-compliance if present. A patient satisfaction survey was used to identify potential areas for improvement. The no-show rate decreased from an average of 7% in the pre-intervention phase to 2% in the post-intervention phase (p = 0.009. 91% of the patients/family recorded an overall satisfaction of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1–5 5 being best. Quality improvement strategies decreased the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. A patient satisfaction survey helped in identifying areas for improvement.

  9. Pre-clinical endodontics: a survey amongst German dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, D; Bärwald, R; Hülsmann, M; Stachniss, V

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the state and level of pre-clinical endodontic education in German dental schools and to evaluate differences with regard to intensity and extent of teaching, time devoted to teaching pre-clinical endodontics, personnel resources in teaching and technical equipment. Twenty-eight questionnaires were e-mailed to those in charge of pre-clinical endodontic education in German dental schools. The extent of education, the student-teacher ratio, the teaching content as well as the application of teaching materials and technologies were asked. If, after 4 weeks, no response had been received, the questionnaire was sent out by e-mail again. In the absence of a reply, a phone call was made to the corresponding university to conduct the survey by phone. With feedback from 27 of 28 dental schools, the response rate was 96%. Pre-clinical endodontic education at German universities varied considerably. Theory classes ranged from 5 to 30 h (13.3 h mean), practical classes from 12.5 to 60 h (45.4 h mean). The student to staff ratio varied between 9 : 1 and 30 : 1 (16 : 1 mean). Forty-eight per cent of the universities had a specialist in endodontics or a teacher with a special interest. A dental microscope was available for pre-clinical teaching purposes in 38% of the universities. The majority (63%) of universities taught root canal preparation with rotary nickel titanium instruments. Pre-clinical endodontic education varied considerably between German universities because of differences in programme design, staff and course content.

  10. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  11. Quebec Parents’Representationsof Social and Educational Intervention in Pre-school Education

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    Johanne Bédard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings of a larger SHHRC-funded study (1998-2002 on competencies expected of and exhibited by educational and social professionals working with young children from socioeconomically disadvantaged environments. After describing the context of socioeducational interventions in early childhood education in Quebec, the authors present the duality and the potential complementarity of the values underlying this intervention by comparing the kindergarten classroom with day-care environments for children aged 4 and 5. Then, the authors present the findings of a survey based on a random sample of parents of young Quebecois children enrolled in or having attended day-care centers or kindergarten classrooms. The article highlights the differences in parents’ expectations according to the types of pre school environment and according to socioeconomic levels. These expectations are compared to the purposes of each environment as defined by their respective curriculum articulated in official policy. Finally, the issues resulting from the debate on the educational or non-educational nature of pre-school education are examined in light of the needs of society as reflected by Quebecois parents.

  12. Healthcare professionals and managers' participation in developing an intervention: A pre-intervention study in the elderly care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the

  13. Impact of an Educational Intervention to Improve Physician Adherence to Bronchiolitis Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Pre-Post Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genies, Marquita C; Kim, Julia M; Pyclik, Kristina; Rossi, Suzanne; Spicyn, Natalie; Serwint, Janet R

    2017-04-01

    Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States. Despite clinical practice guidelines discouraging the utilization of non-evidence-based therapies, there continues to be wide variation in care and resource utilization. A pre-post physician focused educational intervention was conducted with the aims to reduce the use of non-evidence-based medical therapies, including bronchodilators, among patients admitted for bronchiolitis. Among patients meeting inclusion criteria (pre: n = 45; post: n = 47), bronchodilator use decreased by 50% ( P educational intervention highlighting American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines resulted in reduced utilization of bronchodilators.

  14. Changes in Teacher Stress through Participation in Pre-Referral Intervention Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhospital, Ann Shargo; Gregory, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Teachers today face high stress that can compromise their well-being, longevity in the profession, and the quality of their interactions with students. Pre-referral interventions, which address individual student difficulties before consideration for special education, may help buffer teacher stress through student interventions and team support.…

  15. Intradialytic Laughter Yoga therapy for haemodialysis patients: a pre-post intervention feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Neal, Merv; Weinberg, Melissa K; Gilbert, Karen; Ockerby, Cherene; Rawson, Helen; Herbu, Corinne; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2015-06-09

    Laughter Yoga consists of physical exercise, relaxation techniques and simulated vigorous laughter. It has been associated with physical and psychological benefits for people in diverse clinical and non-clinical settings, but has not yet been tested in a haemodialysis setting. The study had three aims: 1) to examine the feasibility of conducting Laughter Yoga for patients with end stage kidney disease in a dialysis setting; 2) to explore the psychological and physiological impact of Laughter Yoga for these patients; and 3) to estimate the sample size required for future research. Pre/post intervention feasibility study. Eighteen participants were recruited into the study and Laughter Yoga therapists provided a four week intradialytic program (30-min intervention three times per week). Primary outcomes were psychological items measured at the first and last Laughter Yoga session, including: quality of life; subjective wellbeing; mood; optimism; control; self-esteem; depression, anxiety and stress. Secondary outcomes were: blood pressure, intradialytic hypotensive episodes and lung function (forced expiratory volume). Dialysis nurses exposed to the intervention completed a Laughter Yoga attitudes and perceptions survey (n = 11). Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics v22, including descriptive and inferential statistics, and sample size estimates were calculated using G*Power. One participant withdrew from the study for medical reasons that were unrelated to the study during the first week (94 % retention rate). There were non-significant increases in happiness, mood, and optimism and a decrease in stress. Episodes of intradialytic hypotension decreased from 19 pre and 19 during Laughter Yoga to 4 post Laughter Yoga. There was no change in lung function or blood pressure. All nurses agreed or strongly agreed that Laughter Yoga had a positive impact on patients' mood, it was a feasible intervention and they would recommend Laughter Yoga to their patients. Sample

  16. CTD data - Pre-recruit surveys to aid stock assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual surveys of juvenile fish and ecosystem status have been conducted since 2011 surveying the entire coast of Oregon and southern Washington. Trawl surveys are...

  17. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gonzalez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.

  18. A study of a pre-operative intervention in patients with diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G A; Wyatt, S; Topliss, D; Walker, K Z; Stoney, R

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is common in Type 2 diabetes and often requires cardiac surgery. However poorer outcomes have been reported including increased rates of post-operative infection and prolonged hospital stay. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a specialist consultation model (pre-operative medical and educational intervention) for type 2 diabetes in the cardiac surgery setting. Twenty four patients were assigned usual care or to the intervention group. The intervention group were assessed by a diabetes clinical nurse consultant, dietitian, and endocrinologist during a pre-operative visit. Specific diabetes questionnaires were administered, education was delivered, and protocol-driven changes to the medical regimen were instituted. Length of stay, incidence of post-operative complications, and number of post-operative inpatient review endocrinology visits required were recorded. Twenty four patients with a pre-operative HbA(1c) greater than 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were studied (17 males and 7 females). In the usual care group (n = 15), HbA(1c) pre-operatively was 7.2% (55.2 mmol/mol) compared to 10.1% (86.9 mmol/mol) in the intervention group (n = 9). Six weeks post-operatively HbA(1c) fell significantly in the intervention group by 1.9% (to 8.2% [66.1 mmol/mol]) compared to a reduction of 1.2% (to 7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) in the usual care group (p cardiac surgery.

  19. The Prediabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery (PRE-PAID) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Chip P; Riddell, Michael C; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by increases in the prevalence and incidence of prediabetes, the Pre-diabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery Project (PRE-PAID) is a multiphasic program that identifies persons at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, provides an opportunity for culturally appropriate, community-based physical activity and facilitates training of qualified exercise professionals on diabetes screening as well as prediabetes-specific training recommendations. This article provides an overview of the PRE-PAID project and includes some preliminary screening data, as well as lessons learned from the implementation of community-based physical activity programs that target specific, high-risk ethnicities. Recommendations and special considerations involving physical activity that targets persons with prediabetes also are discussed. A total of 691 individuals have undergone the PRE-PAID risk-identification process, which involves a brief questionnaire and point-of-care finger-prick hemoglobin A1C testing. The mean hemoglobin A1C level was 6.0±0.90% (mean ± standard deviation). Questionnaire scores showed that, on average, the individuals screened had 3 to 5 typical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as high body mass index, waist circumference, physical inactivity or family history of diabetes. Community-specific breakdowns of these results also are presented in this article. Sharing experiences from the PRE-PAID project can help formulate a framework for future prediabetes screening and physical activity interventions that are community based, target persons with prediabetes and are culturally appropriate.

  20. Integrated speech and phonological awareness intervention for pre-school children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bysterveldt, Anne Katherine; Gillon, Gail; Foster-Cohen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome experience difficulty with both spoken and written language acquisition, however controlled intervention studies to improve these difficulties are rare and have typically focused on improving one language domain. To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated intervention approach on the speech, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness development of ten pre-school children with Down syndrome aged between 4;4 and 5;5. A multiple single-subject design was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Baseline and intervention measures for speech and pre- and post-intervention measures for letter knowledge and phonological awareness were compared. The intervention comprised three components: a parent-implemented home programme; centre-based speech-language therapy sessions, and 'Learning through Computer' sessions with a total intervention time of 20 hours over 18 weeks. Letter knowledge and phonological awareness activities were linked to each child's speech targets. Results indicated significant treatment effects on speech measures for all ten participants. Six of the ten participants showed increases on letter knowledge and nine showed increased awareness of initial phonemes in words but responses were not above binomial chance level (that is, 70% correct) for phonological awareness tasks. Individual results are presented and implications for parents and therapists are discussed. The findings of this study suggest an intervention approach that integrates speech, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness targets is effective in remediating speech error patterns at the single-word level in young children with Down syndrome. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge appeared to be stimulated through the intervention, but significant improvement above chance levels on untrained phonological awareness tasks was not evident. Follow-up investigation is necessary to determine longer-term outcomes.

  1. Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity survey pre-modeling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Robinson, Judith L.; Slater, Lee D; Halford, Keith J.; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John; Werkema, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold and/or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations. In this approach, proposed field surveys are first numerically simulated given the expected electrical properties of the site, and the resulting hypothetical data are then analyzed using inverse models. Performing ERI forward/inverse modeling, however, requires substantial expertise and can take many hours to implement. We present a new spreadsheet-based tool, the Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity (SEER), which features a graphical user interface that allows users to manipulate a resistivity model and instantly view how that model would likely be interpreted by an ERI survey. The SEER tool is intended for use by those who wish to determine the value of including ERI to achieve project goals, and is designed to have broad utility in industry, teaching, and research.

  2. Does a pre-intervention functional assessment increase intervention effectiveness? A meta-analysis of within-subject interrupted time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurl, Kylee; Wightman, Jade; Haynes, Stephen N; Virues-Ortega, Javier

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of interventions based on a pre-intervention functional behavioral assessment (FBA), compared to interventions not based on a pre-intervention FBA. We examined 19 studies that included a direct comparison between the effects of FBA- and non-FBA-based interventions with the same participants. A random effects meta-analysis of effect sizes indicated that FBA-based interventions were associated with large reductions in problem behaviors when using non-FBA-based interventions as a reference intervention (Effect size=0.85, 95% CI [0.42, 1.27], p<0.001). In addition, non-FBA based interventions had no effect on problem behavior when compared to no intervention (0.06, 95% CI [-0.21, 0.33], p=0.664). Interestingly, both FBA-based and non-FBA-based interventions had significant effects on appropriate behavior relative to no intervention, albeit the overall effect size was much larger for FBA-based interventions (FBA-based: 1.27, 95% CI [0.89, 1.66], p<0.001 vs. non-FBA-based: 0.35, 95% CI [0.14, 0.56], p=0.001). In spite of the evidence in favor of FBA-based interventions, the limited number of comparative studies with high methodological standards underlines the need for further comparisons of FBA-based versus non-FBA-based interventions.

  3. Revising acute care systems and processes to improve breastfeeding and maternal postnatal health: a pre and post intervention study in one English maternity unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Debra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women in the UK give birth in a hospital labour ward, following which they are transferred to a postnatal ward and discharged home within 24 to 48 hours of the birth. Despite policy and guideline recommendations to support planned, effective postnatal care, national surveys of women’s views of maternity care have consistently found in-patient postnatal care, including support for breastfeeding, is poorly rated. Methods Using a Continuous Quality Improvement approach, routine antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care systems and processes were revised to support implementation of evidence based postnatal practice. To identify if implementation of a multi-faceted QI intervention impacted on outcomes, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration, maternal health and women’s views of care, were collected in a pre and post intervention longitudinal survey. Primary outcomes included initiation, overall duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Secondary outcomes included maternal morbidity, experiences and satisfaction with care. As most outcomes of interest were measured on a nominal scale, these were compared pre and post intervention using logistic regression. Results Data were obtained on 741/1160 (64% women at 10 days post-birth and 616 (54% at 3 months post-birth pre-intervention, and 725/1153 (63% and 575 (50% respectively post-intervention. Post intervention there were statistically significant differences in the initiation (p = 0.050, duration of any breastfeeding (p = 0.020 and duration of exclusive breastfeeding to 10 days (p = 0.038 and duration of any breastfeeding to three months (p = 0.016. Post intervention, women were less likely to report physical morbidity within the first 10 days of birth, and were more positive about their in-patient care. Conclusions It is possible to improve outcomes of routine in-patient care within current resources through continuous quality

  4. Pre-intervention predictors for acquisition of adaptive behavior among children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; John, Jacob Kochukaleekal; Lakshmanan, Jeyaseelan; Russell, Sushila; Nair, M K C; Ganesh, Bagyawathi

    2014-12-01

    To determine the predictive factors associated with the adaptive behavior acquisition among children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in two different training packages. Parents of 52 consecutive children completed a demographic data form. Pre-intervention quantification of ID, parental attitude and adaptive behavior assessments were done using the Binet-Kamat Test of Intelligence or Gessells Developmental Schedule, Parental Attitude Scale towards Management of Intellectual Disability and Vineland Social Maturity Scale respectively, by independent raters. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the predictive models for the training outcomes and further validated using re-sampling technique. Predictive factors associated with the good outcome in the multimodal adaptive behavior training plus interactive group psycho-education group were: younger age of the parent trained, and more than two siblings. Among the multimodal adaptive behavior training plus didactic lectures group, education of parent trained predicted better adaptive behavior interventional outcome. There was no association between the place of residence, socio-economic status, profession of parent, level of disability or the parental attitude. Different predictive factors are associated with potential short-term outcome of different adaptive behavior training for children with ID. Based on these pre-intervention predicators children and their parents can be given specific intervention packages.

  5. Assimilation approach to measuring organizational change from pre- to post-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott C; Osatuke, Katerine; Howe, Steven R

    2014-03-22

    To present a conceptual and measurement strategy that allows to objectively, sensitively evaluate intervention progress based on data of participants' perceptions of presenting problems. We used as an example an organization development intervention at a United States Veterans Affairs medical center. Within a year, the intervention addressed the hospital's initially serious problems and multiple stakeholders (employees, management, union representatives) reported satisfaction with progress made. Traditional quantitative outcome measures, however, failed to capture the strong positive impact consistently reported by several types of stakeholders in qualitative interviews. To address the paradox, full interview data describing the medical center pre- and post- intervention were examined applying a validated theoretical framework from another discipline: Psychotherapy research. The Assimilation model is a clinical-developmental theory that describes empirically grounded change levels in problematic experiences, e.g., problems reported by participants. The model, measure Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES), and rating procedure have been previously applied across various populations and problem types, mainly in clinical but also in non-clinical settings. We applied the APES to the transcribed qualitative data of intervention participants' interviews, using the method closely replicating prior assimilation research (the process whereby trained clinicians familiar with the Assimilation model work with full, transcribed interview data to assign the APES ratings). The APES ratings summarized levels of progress which was defined as participants' assimilation level of problematic experiences, and compared from pre- to post-intervention. The results were consistent with participants' own reported perceptions of the intervention impact. Increase in APES levels from pre- to post-intervention suggested improvement, missed in the previous quantitative measures

  6. Enhancing self-directed learning among Italian nursing students: A pre- and post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, L; Rei, A; Dante, A; Bulfone, T; Viera, G; Palese, A

    2015-06-01

    In accordance with Knowles's theory, self-directed learning (SDL) may be improved with tutorial strategies focused on guided reflection and critical analysis of the learning process. No evidence on effects on SDL abilities of different tutorial strategies offered to nursing students during the 1st clinical experience is available. To evaluate the effect of different tutorial strategies offered to nursing students on their SDL abilities. A pre-post intervention non-equivalent control group design was adopted in 2013. For the treatment group, structured and intensive tutorial interventions including different strategies such as briefing, debriefing, peer support, Socratic questioning, performed by university tutors were offered during the 1st clinical experience; for the control group, unstructured and non-intensive tutorial strategies were instead offered. Two Bachelor of Nursing Degree. Students awaiting their clinical experience (n=238) were the target sample. Those students who have completed the pre- and the post-intervention evaluation (201; 84.4%) were included in the analysis. SDL abilities were measured with the SRSSDL_ITA (Self Rating Scale of Self Directed Learning-Italian Version). A multiple linear regression analysis was developed to explore the predictive effect of individual, contextual and intervention variables. Three main factors explained the 36.8% of the adjusted variance in SDL scores have emerged: a) having received a lower clinical nurse-to-student supervision (B 9.086, β 2.874), b) having received higher level and structured tutorial intervention by university tutors (B 8.011, β 2.741), and c) having reported higher SDL scores at the baseline (B .550, β .556). A lower clinical nurse-to-student ratio (1:4), accompanied by unstructured and non-intensive tutorial intervention adopted by university tutors, seemed to be equivalent to an intensive clinical supervision (1:1) accompanied by higher level and structured tutorial strategies activated

  7. PreCam: A Precursor Observational Campaign for Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J. T.; Bailey, T.; Balbinot, E.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Burke, D. L.; Butner, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Costa, L. A. N.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fausti, A.; Gerke, B.; Guarino, V.; Head, H. H.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Lorenzon, W.; Maia, M. A. G.; Maki, L.; Marshall, J.; Nord, B.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Park, D.; Peoples, J.; Rastawicki, D.; Rheault, J. -P.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Seitzer, P.; Smith, J. A.; Spinka, H.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2013-04-01

    PreCam, a precursor observational campaign supporting the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is designed to produce a photometric and astrometric catalog of nearly a hundred thousand standard stars within the DES footprint, while the PreCam instrument also serves as a prototype testbed for the Dark Energy Camera's hardware and software. This catalog represents a potential 100-fold increase in Southern Hemisphere photometric standard stars, and therefore will be an important component in the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey. We provide details on the PreCam instrument's design, construction, and testing, as well as results from a subset of the 51 nights of PreCam survey observations on the University of Michigan Department of Astronomy's Curtis-Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We briefly describe the preliminary data processing pipeline that has been developed for PreCam data and the preliminary results of the instrument performance, as well as astrometry and photometry of a sample of stars previously included in other southern sky surveys.

  8. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sally M; Middleton, Philippa; Cossich, Mary C; Crowther, Caroline A; Bain, Emily

    2013-05-31

    Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included four RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 362 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid (normal thyroid function) women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). Two trials of 30 and 48 hypothyroid women respectively compared levothyroxine doses, but both trials reported only biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the four trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and a decreased

  9. A Survey Study of Pre-Professionals' Understanding of the Canadian Music Therapy Internship Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortes, Amy

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research to date on the clinical music therapy internship experience from the perspective of the pre-professional. Further study is required to advance this significant stage in clinician development, as it is an intense period when pre-professionals apply and integrate theoretical knowledge about music therapy into their clinical practice. This study aimed to: (1) assess the skills, competence, comfort, concerns, issues, challenges, and anxieties of Canadian undergraduate students at two stages in the internship process (pre- and post-internship); and (2) examine whether these perceptions are consistent with published research on internship. Thirty-five pre-professionals, from a pool of 50 eligible respondents (70% response rate), completed a 57-question survey using a five-point Likert scale ranking pre- and post-internship experience and participated in an interview post-study. Survey results indicate a statistically significant increase in pre-professionals' perceived clinical, music, and personal skill development from pre- to post-internship. Areas of desired skill development included counseling, functional guitar, and clinical improvisation. Recommendations for educators and supervisors are provided with respect to areas of focus in undergraduate education and during clinical internship. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A pre- and post-intervention study of infection control in equine hospitals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Karin; Grönlund, Ulrika

    2014-08-22

    Detection of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in horses in Sweden has increased attention on infection control (IC) in equine hospitals. This study established baseline data on IC programmes within such settings, evaluated compliance with some IC procedures before and after an education intervention, and examined barriers to compliance.The study was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in four Swedish equine hospitals. Data on current IC of each hospital, purchase data on hand sanitisers and disposable gloves per patient, and direct observations of compliance with procedures were monitored pre- and post-intervention. The intervention comprised a lecture on common IC and a review of each hospital's current procedures. For comparison, retrospective purchase data were reviewed. A questionnaire on individual compliance, experiences and opinions of IC was issued to employees. Three hospitals completed the study, while the fourth reported its IC procedures and completed the questionnaire. Actual numbers of procedures, content and level of documentation differed among the hospitals. Similarities were poor or absent IC implementation strategy, lack of active surveillance of compliance with procedures and no monitoring of such as nosocomial infections. Among the hospitals which completed the study, two reported pre-intervention observation of compliance, while all three reported post-intervention observations. The purchase data showed trends for changes over time, although not uniformly related to the intervention. One hospital demonstrated a significant post-intervention increase in compliance with glove procedures, accompanied by a non-significant post-intervention increase in purchases figures. Compliance with dress code and personal appearance was high in all three hospitals (92-100%), while compliance with hand hygiene procedures was generally poorer. Barriers to compliance cited in the questionnaire (data from four hospitals) included

  11. Relating Use of Digital Technology by Pre-Service Teachers to Confidence: A Singapore Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Lim, Kam Ming; Tay, Eng Guan; Lam-Chiang, Audrey Cheausim; Hui, Chenri

    2012-01-01

    Teachers today are expected to be able to apply a wide range of digital technologies in the classroom. Initial teacher education programs should prepare teachers to apply them with confidence. Pre-service teachers in Singapore responded to a survey on use of technologies in their personal lives and in their teaching, and how confident they were in…

  12. Differential effects of pre and post-payment on neurologists' response rates to a postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessely Simon C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monetary incentives are an effective way of increasing response rates to surveys, though they are generally less effective in physicians, and are more effective when the incentive is paid up-front rather than when made conditional on completion. Methods In this study we examine the effectiveness of pre- and post-completion incentives on the response rates of all the neurologists in the UK to a survey about conversion disorder, using a cluster randomised controlled design. A postal survey was sent to all practicing consultant neurologists, in two rounds, including either a book token, the promise of a book token, or nothing at all. Results Three hundred and fifty-one of 591 eligible neurologists completed the survey, for a response rate of 59%. While the post-completion incentive exerted no discernible influence on response rates, a pre-completion incentive did, with an odds-ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5 - 3.0. Conclusions We conclude that neurologists, in the UK at least, may be influenced to respond to a postal survey by a pre-payment incentive but are unaffected by a promised reward.

  13. Completeness of reporting in abstracts from clinical trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Canning, Paisley; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Abstracts are the most commonly read part of a journal article, and play an important role as summaries of the articles, and search and screening tools. However, research on abstracts in human biomedicine has shown that abstracts often do not report key methodological features and results. Little research has been done to examine reporting of such features in abstracts from papers detailing pre-harvest food safety trials. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting of key factors in abstracts detailing trials of pre-harvest food safety interventions. A systematic search algorithm was used to identify all in vivo trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens in PubMed and CAB Direct published from 1999 to October 2009. References were screened for relevance, and 150 were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A checklist based on the CONSORT abstract extension and the REFLECT Statement was used to assess the reporting of methodological features and results. All screening and assessment was performed by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved by consensus. The systematic search returned 3554 unique citations; 356 were found to be relevant and 150 were randomly selected for inclusion. The abstracts were from 51 different journals, and 13 out of 150 were structured. Of the 124 abstracts that reported whether the trial design was deliberate disease challenge or natural exposure, 113 were deliberate challenge and 11 natural exposure. 103 abstracts detailed studies involving poultry, 20 cattle and 15 swine. Most abstracts reported the production stage of the animals (135/150), a hypothesis or objective (123/150), and results for all treatment groups (136/150). However, few abstracts reported on how animals were grouped in housing (25/150), the location of the study (5/150), the primary outcome (2/126), level of treatment allocation (15/150), sample size (63/150) or whether study units were lost to follow up

  14. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P hydroponic system.

  15. The CFEPS Kuiper Belt Survey: Strategy and Pre-survey Results

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, R L; Petit, J M; Rousselot, P; Moussis, O; Kavelaars, J J; Bagatin, A C; Bernabeu, G; Benavenidez, P; Parker, J; Nicholson, P; Holman, M; Doressoundiram, A; Veillet, C; Scholl, H; Mars, G

    2005-01-01

    We present the data acquisition strategy and characterization procedures for the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS), a sub-component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The survey began in early 2003 and as of summer 2005 has covered 430 square degrees of sky within a few degrees of the ecliptic. Moving objects beyond the orbit of Uranus are detected to a magnitude limit of $m_R$=23 -- 24 (depending on the image quality). To track as large a sample as possible and avoid introducing followup bias, we have developed a multi-epoch observing strategy that is spread over several years. We present the evolution of the uncertainties in ephemeris position and orbital elements as the objects progress through the epochs. We then present a small 10-object sample that was tracked in this manner as part of a preliminary survey starting a year before the main CFEPS project. We describe the CFEPS survey simulator, to be released in 2006, which allows theoretical models of the Kuiper Belt to be comp...

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Eisele

    Full Text Available Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.

  17. Rejuvenating Pre-GPS era geophysical surveys using The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Stoddard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Old geophysical surveys [pre–Global Positioning System (GPS)] stand as valuable, largely untapped sources of scientific data. If data from these surveys were in a format that had reasonable accuracy, availability, and ease of access, they could be more widely used. In this paper, a pre-GPS survey is integrated into a modern geographic database, in this case, The National Map (TNM). The ultimate goal is to improve the accuracy, precision, provenance, and ease of access of the geospatial components of archived geophysical data. An unique set of data sources was assembled for this purpose. A comparison of these different data sources indicates that more than 80% of stations were positioned on The National Map within 15 m (horizontal) and 2 m (vertical) of the GPS-derived coordinates for each station within the survey. Although online database coordinate accuracy continues to improve, these results imply that web databases have already matured to a point where it is possible to integrate pre-GPS era survey coordinate data with reasonable positional accuracy.

  18. Pre-arrest diversion of people with mental illness: Literature review and international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, Kathleen; Carey, Robert; Mendonca, James

    2006-01-01

    Mental health diversion is a process where alternatives to criminal sanctions are made available to persons with mental illness (PMI) who have come into contact with the law. One form of mental health diversion is pre-arrest, in which the police use their discretion in laying charges. Concomitant with the growth of pre-arrest diversion programs is a growing body of research devoted to the phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature of pre-arrest diversion, and to report the results of an international survey of pre-arrest diversion programs we conducted to identify evidence-based practices. On the basis of our review and survey, we note that successful pre-trial programs appear to integrate relevant mental health, substance abuse and criminal justice agencies by having regular meetings between key personnel from the various agencies. Often, a liaison person with a mandate to effect strong leadership plays a key role in the coordination of various agencies. Streamlining services through the creation of an emergency drop-off center with a no-refusal policy for police cases is seen as crucial. While there is some indication that mentally ill offenders benefit from their participation in this form of diversion, the evaluative literature has not yet achieved the "critical mass" necessary to create generalizable, evidence-based knowledge. The absence of generally agreed-upon outcomes could lead to the inequitable application of basic principles of diversion. We suggest that indicators, benchmarks, and outcomes must be agreed upon if a comprehensive understanding of pre-arrest programs is to emerge.

  19. Equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia: a survey of Norwegian pre-hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders M; Thomassen, Oyvind; Vikenes, Bjarne H; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2013-08-12

    Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and poses a challenge in pre-hospital treatment. The aim of this study was to identify equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services. In the period of April-August 2011, we conducted a survey of 42 respondents representing a total of 543 pre-hospital units, which included all the national ground ambulance services, the fixed wing and helicopter air ambulance service, and the national search and rescue service. The survey explored available insulation materials, active warming devices, and the presence of protocols describing wrapping methods, temperature monitoring, and the use of warm i.v. fluids. Throughout the services, hospital duvets, cotton blankets and plastic "bubble-wrap" were the most common insulation materials. Active warming devices were to a small degree available in vehicle ambulances (14%) and the fixed wing ambulance service (44%) but were more common in the helicopter services (58-70%). Suitable thermometers for diagnosing hypothermia were lacking in the vehicle ambulance services (12%). Protocols describing how to insulate patients were present for 73% of vehicle ambulances and 70% of Search and Rescue helicopters. The minority of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (42%) and Fixed Wing (22%) units was reported to have such protocols. The most common equipment types to treat and prevent hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services are duvets, plastic "bubble wrap", and cotton blankets. Active external heating devices and suitable thermometers are not available in most vehicle ambulance units.

  20. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  1. Developing awareness of sustainability in nursing and midwifery using a scenario-based approach: Evidence from a pre and post educational intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Bradbury, Martyn; Kelsey, Janet

    2017-07-01

    The delivery of healthcare has an impact on the environment and contributes to climate change. As a consequence, the way in which nurses and midwives use and dispose of natural resources in clinical practice, and the subsequent impact on the environment, should be integral component of nursing and midwifery education. Opportunities need to be found to embed such issues into nursing curricula; thus bringing sustainability issues 'closer to home' and making them more relevant for clinical practice. The study was designed to measure the impact of a sustainability-focussed, scenario-based learning educational intervention on the attitudes and knowledge of student nurses and midwives. Pre test/Post test intervention study using scenario-based learning as the educational intervention. The Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) was used as the outcome measure. Clinical skills session in a UK University School of Nursing and Midwifery. 676 second year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. The 7-point scale SANS survey was completed before and after the teaching session; standard non-parametric analysis compared pre and post intervention scores. Changes were observed in attitude towards climate change and sustainability and to the inclusion of these topics within the nursing curricula (p=0.000). Participants demonstrated greater knowledge of natural resource use and the cost of waste disposal following the session (p=0.000). Participants also reported that sessions were realistic, and levels of agreement with statements supporting the value of the session and the interactive nature of delivery were higher following the session. Using a scenario-based learning approach with nursing and midwifery students can change attitudes and knowledge towards sustainability and climate change. Embedding this approach in the context of clinical skills provides a novel and engaging approach that is both educationally sound and clinically relevant. Copyright © 2017

  2. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lo

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy

  3. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  4. The Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Training Intervention on Pre-Reading Skills of Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate the individual speech sounds that make up connected speech. Little information is reported on the acquisition of phonological awareness in special populations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training intervention on pre-reading skills of…

  5. Evaluation of sodium chlorate as a pre-harvest intervention for controlling Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate sodium chlorate as a potential pre-harvest intervention for reducing or eliminating Salmonella from the peripheral lymph nodes of experimentally-infected cattle. The peripheral lymph nodes of Holstein steers (approx. BW = 160 kg; 4 and 6 head in co...

  6. Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of pre-main sequence stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzafame, A C; Damiani, F; Franciosini, E; Cottaar, M; Sousa, S G; Tabernero, H M; Klutsch, A; Spina, L; Biazzo, K; Prisinzano, L; Sacco, G G; Randich, S; Brugaletta, E; Mena, E Delgado; Adibekyan, V; Montes, D; Bonito, R; Gameiro, J F; Alcalá, J M; Hernández, J I González; Jeffries, R; Messina, S; Meyer, M; Gilmore, G; Asplund, M; Binney, J; Bonifacio, P; Drew, J E; Feltzing, S; Ferguson, A M N; Micela, G; Negueruela, I; Prusti, T; Rix, H-W; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Prieto, C Allende; Babusiaux, C; Bensby, T; Blomme, R; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Francois, P; Hambly, N; Irwin, M; Koposov, S E; Korn, A J; Smiljanic, R; Van Eck, S; Walton, N; Bayo, A; Bergemann, M; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Edvardsson, B; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jackson, R J; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Marconi, G; Martayan, C; Masseron, T; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired by the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey in the fields of young clusters whose population includes pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Both methods that have been extensively used in the past and new ones developed in the contest of the Gaia-ESO survey enterprise are available and used. The internal precision of these quantities is estimated by inter-comparing the results obtained by such different methods, while the accuracy is estimated by comparison with independent external data, like effective temperature and surface gravity derived from angular diameter measurements, on a sample of benchmarks stars. Specific strategies are implemented to deal with fast rotation, accretion signatures, chromospheric activity, and veiling. The analysis carried out on spectra acquired in young clusters' fields during the first 18 months of observations, up to June 2013, is presented in preparation of the first release of advanced data products. Stellar par...

  7. The current status of interventional radiology in Canada: results of a survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millward, S.F.; Holley, M.L. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Radiology, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the current status of interventional radiology in Canada. A questionnaire was sent to 28 Canadian interventional radiologists (defined as a physician who performs any type of interventional procedure, including biopsies, but excluding interventional neuroradiology) practising in both tertiary and community hospitals in the major centres in all provinces except Prince Edward Island. Twenty-two (79%) of 28 surveys were completed and returned, providing data about 86 interventional radiologists (IRs). IRs were performing almost all of the following procedures at their institutions: inferior vena cava filter placement, venous angioplasty, dialysis fistula angioplasty, diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary and bronchial artery procedures, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the lower extremity and renal arteries, percutaneous abscess and biliary drainage procedures, percutaneous nephrostomy, and fibroid embolization. A second group of procedures, performed by both IRs and non-radiologists in most institutions, included: all types of central venous catheter placements, pleural drainage, and gastrostomy tube placement. Procedures not being performed by anyone in a number of institutions included: dialysis graft thrombolysis, varicocele embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, palliative stenting of the gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube recannalization, and liver and prostate tumour treatments. The factors most often limiting the respondents' ability to provide a comprehensive interventional service were the interventional radiology inventory budget and the availability of interventional radiology rooms; 50% of respondents indicated the number of available nurses, technologists and IRs was also an important limiting factor. IRs in Canada still play a major role in many of the most commonly performed procedures. However, limited availability of resources and personnel in many institutions may be hampering the ability of IRs to

  8. Evaluation of a pre-existing, 3-year household water treatment and handwashing intervention in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin; Arana, Byron; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Hubbard, Alan; Colford, John M

    2009-12-01

    The promotion of household water treatment and handwashing with soap has led to large reductions in child diarrhoea in randomized efficacy trials. Currently, we know little about the health effectiveness of behaviour-based water and hygiene interventions after the conclusion of intervention activities. We present an extension of previously published design (propensity score matching) and analysis (targeted maximum likelihood estimation) methods to evaluate the behavioural and health impacts of a pre-existing but non-randomized intervention (a 3-year, combined household water treatment and handwashing campaign in rural Guatemala). Six months after the intervention, we conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 30 villages (15 intervention and 15 control) that included 600 households, and 929 children <5 years of age. The study design created a sample of intervention and control villages that were comparable across more than 30 potentially confounding characteristics. The intervention led to modest gains in confirmed water treatment behaviour [risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.09]. We found, however, no difference between the intervention and control villages in self-reported handwashing behaviour, spot-check hygiene conditions, or the prevalence of child diarrhoea, clinical acute lower respiratory infections or child growth. To our knowledge this is the first post-intervention follow-up study of a combined household water treatment and handwashing behaviour change intervention, and the first post-intervention follow-up of either intervention type to include child health measurement. The lack of child health impacts is consistent with unsustained behaviour adoption. Our findings highlight the difficulty of implementing behaviour-based household water treatment and handwashing outside of intensive efficacy trials.

  9. An educational intervention study on adolescent reproductive health among pre-university girls in Davangere district, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangappa Manjula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex education should be an integral part of the learning process, beginning in childhood and continuing into the adult life. The 1994 international conference on population and 1995 fourth world conference on women held in Beijing recommended educational services for adolescents in a friendly environment. Objectives: 1. To know about the reproductive health awareness, like adolescent reproductive health by a pre-test, among pre-university girls (XI and XII standard. 2. To study the change in knowledge after the educational intervention by post-test. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in pre-university colleges present in Davangere city. A pre-structured proforma was used to assess the existing knowledge, which consists of both open-ended and close-ended questions on growth and development during adolescence, pregnancy, and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI including HIV/AIDS. Educational intervention was done on the second day with the help of posters, printed materials, flip charts, Overhead Projectors (OHPs, and black board. One week after the educational intervention, post-test was conducted to know the change in the knowledge. Results: For a majority of them, the source of information about the above-mentioned aspects was television, followed by magazines. About 98% of them preferred doctors for getting sex education. There was overall significant change in knowledge (P<0.001, HS after educational intervention. Conclusion: There were substantial lacunae in the knowledge about reproductive health among the study group. After educational intervention, there was significant change in the knowledge. Students felt that sex education is necessary in school and should be introduced in the school syllabus.

  10. Interventional three-year longitudinal study of melanocytic naevus development in pre-school children in Dresden, Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Helm, Catherine; Bennewitz, Annett; Koch, Rainer; Schaff, Kathrin; Burroni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Acquired melanocytic naevi (MN) are considered a risk factor for melanoma. Exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) is the major environmental factor for MN. UV protection is most critical in pre-school children. This 3-year interventional longitudinal study examined 395 3-year-old children attending daycare centres (DCC) in Dresden, Germany. Photo-skin type, eye and hair colour were recorded. DCC were randomly assigned to a control group and a behavioural intervention group. All children had a regular naevus check-up, including digital objective analysis with Dell'Eva-Burroni Dermoscopy Melanoma Image Processing Software (DB-MIPS) technology. Parents of children in the intervention group received additional guidance for sun-protection. The mean total MN counts of both groups at the start of the study period were 7.19 ± 4.55 (intervention) and 6.84 ± 4.63 (control), respectively. There was a significant increase in MN counts for both groups (mean 12.5 and 13.8). Subgroup analysis for skin type, eye colour, and hair colour did not demonstrate a significant influence on MN counts. The DB-MIPS integrated classifier revealed no risky lesions while analysing their patterns. Intervention did not reduce the number of newly acquired MN. MN counts in pre-school children were approximately 5 times higher than expected from previous large studies in Germany. This is the first study in pre-school children using objective digital image analysis of pigmented lesions. No atypical lesions were observed. New approaches to UV protection in pre-school children are now required.

  11. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  12. Interventions to reduce and prevent obesity in pre-conceptual and pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Agha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and increased costs to healthcare, the economy and broader society. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of behavioural interventions for managing gestational weight gain (GWG in the pre-conceptual and pregnancy period in overweight, obese and morbidly obese women. SEARCH METHODS: A search was performed for published studies in the English language, from date? 2000-31 December 2012 in five electronic databases; PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were included if they compared the efficacy or effectiveness of a particular behavioural intervention in pregnant or pre-conceptual women with standard maternity care. Studies that included women with co-morbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovarian syndrome were excluded to help isolate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Fifteen studies involving 3,426 participants were included. One study (n = 692 focused on the pre-conceptual period and the remaining 14 (n = 2,734 in the pregnancy period. Pooled mean difference for GWG indicated a lower GWG in the intervention groups when compared to standard maternity care groups (n = 1771, mean difference (MD -1.66 kg, 95% CI -3.12 to -0.21 kg. With respect to the types of participants, considerable heterogeneity between studies was shown in the obese subgroup [Tau(2 = 15.61; Chi(2 = 40.80, df = 3 (P<0.00001; I(2 = 93%]. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural interventions in pregnancy may be effective in reducing GWG in obese women without comorbid conditions, but not overweight or morbidly obese women. Behavioural interventions had no effect on postpartum weight loss or retention, gestation week of delivery and infant birth weight in overweight, obese and morbidly obese women.

  13. Oral Language Skills Intervention in Pre-School--A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Background: While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children…

  14. Oral Language Skills Intervention in Pre-School--A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Background: While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children…

  15. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  16. Trauma-informed care for children in the ambulance: international survey among pre-hospital providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Tyler, Mark P; Giummarra, Melita J; Kassam-Adams, Rahim; Gouweloos, Juul; Landolt, Markus A; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pre-hospital providers, such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians, are in a position to provide key emotional support to injured children and their families. Objective: Our goal was to examine (a) pre-hospital providers' knowledge of traumatic stress in children, attitudes towards psychosocial aspects of care, and confidence in providing psychosocial care, (b) variations in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence according to demographic and professional characteristics, and (c) training preferences of pre-hospital providers regarding psychosocial care to support paediatric patients and their families. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, online survey among an international sample of 812 pre-hospital providers from high-income countries. The questionnaire was adapted from a measure for a similar study among Emergency Department staff, and involved 62 items in 7 main categories (e.g. personal and work characteristics, knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress, and confidence regarding 18 elements of psychosocial care). The main analyses comprised descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, respondents answered 2.7 (SD = 1.59) out of seven knowledge questions correctly. Respondents with higher knowledge scores were more often female, parent of a child under 17, and reported that at least 10% of their patients were children. A majority of participants (83.5%) saw all 18 aspects of psychosocial care as part of their job. Providers felt moderately confident (M = 3.2, SD = 0.45) regarding their skills in psychosocial care, which was predicted by gender (female), having more experience, having a larger proportion of child patients, and having received training in psychosocial care in the past five years. Most respondents (89.7%) wanted to gain more knowledge and skills regarding psychosocial care for injured children. In terms of training format, they preferred an interactive website or a one-off group

  17. Trauma-informed care for children in the ambulance: international survey among pre-hospital providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Tyler, Mark P.; Giummarra, Melita J.; Kassam-Adams, Rahim; Gouweloos, Juul; Landolt, Markus A.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Pre-hospital providers, such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians, are in a position to provide key emotional support to injured children and their families. Objective: Our goal was to examine (a) pre-hospital providers’ knowledge of traumatic stress in children, attitudes towards psychosocial aspects of care, and confidence in providing psychosocial care, (b) variations in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence according to demographic and professional characteristics, and (c) training preferences of pre-hospital providers regarding psychosocial care to support paediatric patients and their families. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, online survey among an international sample of 812 pre-hospital providers from high-income countries. The questionnaire was adapted from a measure for a similar study among Emergency Department staff, and involved 62 items in 7 main categories (e.g. personal and work characteristics, knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress, and confidence regarding 18 elements of psychosocial care). The main analyses comprised descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, respondents answered 2.7 (SD = 1.59) out of seven knowledge questions correctly. Respondents with higher knowledge scores were more often female, parent of a child under 17, and reported that at least 10% of their patients were children. A majority of participants (83.5%) saw all 18 aspects of psychosocial care as part of their job. Providers felt moderately confident (M = 3.2, SD = 0.45) regarding their skills in psychosocial care, which was predicted by gender (female), having more experience, having a larger proportion of child patients, and having received training in psychosocial care in the past five years. Most respondents (89.7%) wanted to gain more knowledge and skills regarding psychosocial care for injured children. In terms of training format, they preferred an interactive website or a one

  18. Alcohol education and training in pre-registration nursing: a national survey to determine curriculum content in the United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Aisha S; Webster, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol-related harm impacts significantly on the health of the population. Nurses are often among the first health professionals that many patients with alcohol-related problems come into contact with and have been identified as playing a key role but may be ill-prepared to respond. Future nurses need to have the skills, knowledge and clinical confidence to respond to patients suffering from alcohol-related harm. A pre-registration curriculum that ensures a nursing workforce fit for practice in responding to alcohol-related harm is necessary. To determine the level of alcohol education and training content in the pre-registration curriculum for nursing in the United Kingdom (UK). To establish whether there are variations in the pre-registration curriculum content across the UK. A descriptive study. All 68 UK Higher Education Institutions offering a total of 111 pre-registration courses for nurses were invited to participate in the study. Twenty nine completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 26%. The largest number of identified responders were from England (n=15), with 3 from Scotland and 1 each from Wales and Northern Ireland. Nine Universities chose not to identify themselves. An online semi-structured questionnaire survey was used to collect the study data. Teaching of alcohol and alcohol related harm was mainly delivered during the second year of a pre-registration nursing programme provided mainly to adult and mental health students. Overall, the majority of alcohol related content that is provided within the responding pre-registration nursing courses relates to biophysiology, aetiology, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. This study highlights the need for a greater and more relevant focus of alcohol education to pre-registration nursing students of all fields of practice incorporating an integrated approach across all years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do postage stamps versus pre-paid envelopes increase responses to patient mail surveys? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Malcolm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies largely from the market research field suggest that the inclusion of a stamped addressed envelope, rather than a pre-paid business reply, increases the response rate to mail surveys. The evidence that this is also the case regarding patient mail surveys is limited. Methods The aim of this study is to investigate whether stamped addressed envelopes increase response rates to patient mail surveys compared to pre-paid business reply envelopes and compare the relative costs. A sample of 477 initial non-responders to a mail survey of patients attending breast clinics in Greater Manchester between 1/10/2002 – 31/7/2003 were entered into the trial: 239 were randomly allocated to receive a stamped envelope and 238 to receive a pre-paid envelope in with their reminder surveys. Overall cost and per item returned were calculated. Results The response to the stamped envelope group was 31.8% (95% CI: 25.9% – 37.7% compared to 26.9% (21.3% – 32.5% for the pre-paid group. The difference (4.9% 95% CI: -3.3% – 13.1% is not significant at α = 0.05 (χ2 = 1.39; 2 tailed test, d.f. = 1; P = 0.239. The stamped envelopes were cheaper in terms of cost per returned item (£1.20 than the pre-paid envelopes (£1.67. However if the set up cost for the licence to use the pre-paid service is excluded, the cost of the stamped envelopes is more expensive than pre-paid returns (£1.20 versus £0.73. Conclusion Compared with pre-paid business replies, stamped envelopes did not produce a statistically significant increase in response rate to this patient survey. However, the response gain of the stamped strategy (4.9% is similar to that demonstrated in a Cochrane review (5.3% of strategies to increase response to general mail surveys. Further studies and meta analyses of patient responses to mail surveys via stamped versus pre-paid envelopes are needed with sufficient power to detect response gains of this magnitude in a patient population.

  20. The role of genetics in pre-eclampsia and potential pharmacogenomic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paula Juliet Williams, Linda MorganHuman Genetics Research Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UKAbstract: The pregnancy-specific condition pre-eclampsia not only affects the health of mother and baby during pregnancy but also has long-term consequences, increasing the chances of cardiovascular disease in later life. It is accepted that pre-eclampsia has a placental origin, but the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the systemic endothelial dysfunction characteristic of the disorder remain to be determined. In this review we discuss some key factors regarded as important in the development of pre-eclampsia, including immune maladaptation, inadequate placentation, oxidative stress, and thrombosis. Genetic factors influence all of these proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. The inherited nature of pre-eclampsia has been known for many years, and extensive genetic studies have been undertaken in this area. Genetic research offers an attractive strategy for studying the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia as it avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of conducting basic science research during the preclinical phase of pre-eclampsia when the underlying pathological changes occur. Although pharmacogenomic studies have not yet been conducted in pre-eclampsia, a number of studies investigating treatment for essential hypertension are of relevance to therapies used in pre-eclampsia. The pharmacogenomics of antiplatelet agents, alpha and beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and magnesium sulfate are discussed in relation to the treatment and prevention of pre-eclampsia. Pharmacogenomics offers the prospect of individualized patient treatment, ensuring swift introduction of optimal treatment whilst minimizing the use of inappropriate or ineffective drugs, thereby reducing the risk of harmful effects to both mother and baby.Keywords: pre-eclampsia, pharmacogenetics, placenta, trophoblast, genetics

  1. An Evaluation of a Clinical Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Education Intervention among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Montgomery, Madeline C; Almonte, Alexi; Agwu, Allison L; Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Chan, Philip A

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the impact of an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) education intervention on PrEP awareness and use among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Men who have sex with men STD clinic patients. We estimated a difference-in-differences linear regression model, comparing MSM whose first visit to the clinic was before ("control") or after ("treatment") intervention implementation and controlling for patient. We used self-reported data on PrEP awareness and use from STD clinic intake forms. Pre-exposure prophylaxis awareness between first and second clinic visits increased 27.2 percentage points (pp) in the treatment group, relative to 13.7 pp in the control group. Similarly, PrEP use increased 7.1 pp in the treatment group versus 2.4 pp in the control group. Based on adjusted estimates, the PrEP intervention increased PrEP awareness by 24 pp (p < .01) and PrEP use by 5 pp (p = .01), increases of 63 percent and 159 percent relative to the 6 months prior to the intervention. A brief, scalable STD clinic PrEP education intervention led to significantly increased PrEP awareness and use among MSM. Health care providers should consider implementing brief PrEP education interventions in sexual health care settings. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Provision of relapse prevention interventions in UK NHS Stop Smoking Services: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Andy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.

  3. The role of genetics in pre-eclampsia and potential pharmacogenomic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Williams PJ; Morgan L

    2012-01-01

    Paula Juliet Williams, Linda MorganHuman Genetics Research Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UKAbstract: The pregnancy-specific condition pre-eclampsia not only affects the health of mother and baby during pregnancy but also has long-term consequences, increasing the chances of cardiovascular disease in later life. It is accepted that pre-eclampsia has a placental origin, but the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the systemic endothelial dysfunction characteristic of the disorder re...

  4. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: tobacco intervention practices in outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Thomas J; Chen, Chieh-I; Baker, Christine L; Shah, Sonali N; Pashos, Chris L; Boulanger, Luke

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death. The outpatient medical clinic represents an important venue for delivering evidence-based interventions to large numbers of tobacco users. Extensive evidence supports the effectiveness of brief interventions. In a retrospective database analysis of 11,827 adult patients captured in the 2005 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (of which 2,420 were tobacco users), we examined the degree to which a variety of patient demographic, clinical and physician-related variables predict the delivery of tobacco counseling during a routine outpatient visit in primary care settings. In 2005, 21.7% of identified tobacco users received a tobacco intervention during their visit. The probability of receiving an intervention differed by gender, geographic region and source of payment. Individuals presenting with tobacco-related health conditions were more likely to receive an intervention. Most physicians classified as specialists were less likely to intervene. The provision of tobacco intervention services appears to be increasing at a modest rate, but remains well below desirable levels. It is a priority that brief interventions be routinely implemented to reduce the societal burden of tobacco use.

  5. An Australian survey of parent involvement in intervention for childhood speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Eleanor; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie; Williams, A Lynn; Trivette, Carol M

    2017-08-17

    To investigate how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) report involving parents in intervention for phonology-based speech sound disorders (SSDs), and to describe the home practice that they recommend. Further aims were to describe the training SLPs report providing to parents, to explore SLPs' beliefs and motivations for involving parents in intervention, and to determine whether SLPs' characteristics are associated with their self-reported practice. An online survey of 288 SLPs working with SSD in Australia was conducted. The majority of SLPs (96.4%) reported involving parents in intervention, most commonly in providing home practice. On average, these tasks were recommended to be completed five times per week for 10 min. SLPs reported training parents using a range of training methods, most commonly providing opportunities for parents to observe the SLP conduct the intervention. SLPs' place of work and years of experience were associated with how they involved and trained parents in intervention. Most (95.8%) SLPs agreed or strongly agreed that family involvement is essential for intervention to be effective. Parent involvement and home practice appear to be intricately linked within intervention for phonology-based SSDs in Australia. More high-quality research is needed to understand how to best involve parents within clinical practice.

  6. Development and evaluation of an educational intervention program for pre-professional adolescent ballet dancers: nutrition for optimal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Davy, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theoretically based nutritional education intervention through a DVD lecture series (three 30-minute classes) in summer intensive programs for pre-professional, adolescent ballet dancers. Objectives of this intervention program were to increase knowledge of basic sports nutrition principles and the Female Athlete Triad and promote self-efficacy for adopting healthier dietary habits. Dancers ranging from 13 to 18 years old who were attending summer intensive programs affiliated with professional ballet companies were recruited. Group One (n = 231) participated in the nutrition education program, while Group Two the control participants (n = 90) did not. Assessments of the participants' dietary status consisted of a demographic questionnaire, a Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior Questionnaire, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The intervention group was assessed at baseline, immediately post-program, and at six weeks post-program. The control group was assessed at baseline and at six weeks post-baseline. The intervention program was effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, perceived susceptibility to the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy constructs. Improvements in dietary intake were also observed among intervention group participants. To improve overall health and performance nutrition education should be incorporated into the training regimens of adolescent dancers. This potentially replicable DVD-based program may be an effective, low-cost mechanism for doing that.

  7. Oral language skills intervention in pre-school-a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children identified as having poor oral language skills in preschool classes. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 13 UK nursery schools. In each nursery, eight children (N = 104, mean age = 3 years 11 months) with the poorest performance on standardized language measures were selected to take part. All but one child were randomly allocated to either an intervention (N = 52) or a waiting control group (N = 51). The intervention group received a 15-week oral language programme in addition to their standard nursery curriculum. The programme was delivered by trained teaching assistants and aimed to foster vocabulary knowledge, narrative and listening skills. Initial results revealed significant differences between the intervention and control group on measures of taught vocabulary. No group differences were found on any standardized language measure; however, there were gains of moderate effect size in listening comprehension. The study suggests that an intervention, of moderate duration and intensity, for small groups of preschool children successfully builds vocabulary knowledge, but does not generalize to non-taught areas of language. The findings strike a note of caution about implementing language interventions of moderate duration in preschool settings. The findings also highlight the importance of including a control group in intervention studies. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. Improving Science and Literacy Learning for English Language Learners: Evidence from a Pre-service Teacher Preparation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jerome M.; Lyon, Edward G.; Stoddart, Trish; Mosqueda, Eduardo; Menon, Preetha

    2014-08-01

    This paper present findings from a pre-service teacher development project that prepared novice teachers to promote English language and literacy development with inquiry-based science through a modified elementary science methods course and professional development for cooperating teachers. To study the project's impact on student learning, we administered a pre and post assessment to students (N = 191) of nine first year elementary teachers (grades 3 through 6) who experienced the intervention and who taught a common science unit. Preliminary results indicate that (1) student learning improved across all categories (science concepts, writing, and vocabulary)—although the effect varied by category, and (2) English Language Learner (ELL) learning gains were on par with non-ELLs, with differences across proficiency levels for vocabulary gain scores. These results warrant further analyses to understand the extent to which the intervention improved teacher practice and student learning. This study confirms the findings of previous research that the integration of science language and literacy practices can improve ELL achievement in science concepts, writing and vocabulary. In addition, the study indicates that it is possible to begin to link the practices taught in pre-service teacher preparation to novice teacher practice and student learning outcomes.

  9. Pre-treatment with clopidogrel and postprocedure troponin elevation after elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, MB; Ottervanger, JP; Miedema, K; Suryapranata, H; de Boer, MJ; Hoorntje, JCA; van 't Hof, AWJ; Gosselink, M; Zijlstra, F; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    2006-01-01

    Elevated troponin after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCl) has been associated with a worse prognosis. Pretreatment with clopidogrel may be beneficial in patients undergoing PCl. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted to address the potential role of clopidogrel in

  10. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  11. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  12. A survey of interventional radiology awareness among final-year medical students in a European country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2009-07-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a rapidly expanding specialty that is facing the challenges of turf wars and personnel shortages. Appropriate exposure of medical students to this field can be vital to recruitment of potential future trainees or referring physicians. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of final-year medical students in a single EU country regarding various aspects of IR. An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all final-year medical students in a European country. The students were given a month to respond to the questionnaire. A total of 234 students of 675 (34.5%) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 35% had previously completed an attachment to the radiology department. The majority of students (63%) thought their knowledge in radiology in general was poor. The percentage of students who correctly identified procedures performed by interventional radiologists was 69% for Hickman line insertion, 79% for fibroid embolization, and 67.5% for lower limb angioplasty. Sixty percent, 30%, and 47% thought that interventional radiologists perform cardiac angioplasties, perform arterial bypasses, and create AV fistulas, respectively. Forty-nine percent felt that interventional radiologists are surgically trained. Eighty-three percent of students were first made aware of angioplasty by a cardiologist. Thirty-one percent thought that interventional radiologists do ward rounds, 24% thought that interventional radiologists have admitting rights, and 26% felt that interventional radiologists run an outpatient practice. A significant number of students (76%) thought that the job prospects in IR are good or excellent but only 40.5% were willing to consider a career in IR. In conclusion, this study indicates that IR remains a nascent but attractive specialty to the majority of medical students. Further development of the existing informal undergraduate curriculum to address shortcomings will ensure that IR continues to attract

  13. Data Cleaning In Data Warehouse: A Survey of Data Pre-processing Techniques and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosh Fatima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Data Warehouse is a computer system designed for storing and analyzing an organization's historical data from day-to-day operations in Online Transaction Processing System (OLTP. Usually, an organization summarizes and copies information from its operational systems to the data warehouse on a regular schedule and management performs complex queries and analysis on the information without slowing down the operational systems. Data need to be pre-processed to improve quality of data, before storing into data warehouse. This survey paper presents data cleaning problems and the approaches in use currently for preprocessing. To determine which technique of preprocessing is best in what scenario to improve the performance of Data Warehouse is main goal of this paper. Many techniques have been analyzed for data cleansing, using certain evaluation attributes and tested on different kind of data sets. Data quality tools such as YALE, ALTERYX, and WEKA have been used for conclusive results to ready the data in data warehouse and ensure that only cleaned data populates the warehouse, thus enhancing usability of the warehouse. Results of paper can be useful in many future activities like cleansing, standardizing, correction, matching and transformation. This research can help in data auditing and pattern detection in the data.

  14. Deep near-IR variability survey of pre-main-sequence stars in Rho Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Catarina Alves

    2008-01-01

    Variability is a common characteristic of pre-main-sequence stars (PMS). Near-IR variability surveys of young stellar objects (YSOs) can probe stellar and circumstellar environments and provide information about the dynamics of the on going magnetic and accretion processes. Furthermore, variability can be used as a tool to uncover new cluster members in star formation regions. We hope to achieve the deepest near-IR variability study of YSOs targeting the Rho Ophiuchi cluster. Fourteen epochs of observations were obtained with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) at the UKIRT telescope scheduled in a manner that allowed the study of variability on timescales of days, months, and years. Statistical tools, such as the multi-band cross correlation index and the reduced chi-square, were used to disentangle signals of variability from noise. Variability characteristics are compared to existing models of YSOs in order to relate them to physical processes, and then used to select new candidate members of this star-forming r...

  15. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  16. Enhancement of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Interventions with the Aid of Historical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou-Papantoniou, Vasiliki; Agelopoulos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the attempt to include a historical perspective in a pre-service teacher education course. It is based on the design research approach and the main aim is the development of a product, a module for student-teachers' actual involvement in the historic teaching design process. Student-teachers were presented and familiarized…

  17. Target motion predictions for pre-operative planning during needle-based interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, op den Jorn; Abayazid, Momen; Korte, de Chris L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    During biopsies, breast tissue is subjected to displacement upon needle indentation, puncture, and penetration. Thus, accurate needle placement requires pre-operative predictions of the target motions. In this paper, we used ultrasound elastography measurements to non-invasively predict elastic prop

  18. A review and survey of policies utilized for interventional pain procedures: a need for consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Lynn; Salajegheh, Reza; Hamill-Ruth, Robin J; Yerra, Sandeep; Butz, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Other than the newly published anticoagulation guidelines, there are currently few recommendations to assist pain medicine physicians in determining the safety parameters to follow when performing interventional pain procedures. Little information exists regarding policies for oral intake, cumulative steroid dose limits, driving restrictions with and without sedation, and routine medication use for interventional procedures. Methods A 16-question survey was developed on common policies currently in use for interventional pain procedures. The questionnaire was distributed through the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and American Academy of Pain Medicine. We sought to statistically analyze the range of policies being used by pain medicine physicians and to determine if there are any commonly accepted standards. Results A total of 337 physicians out of 4037 members responded to our survey with a response rate of 8.4%. A total of 82% of these respondents used a sedative agent while performing an interventional pain procedure. The majority of respondents required drivers after procedures, except after trigger points. A total of 47% indicated that they have an nil per os (NPO) policy for procedures without sedation. A total of 98% reported that they had an anticoagulation policy before an interventional procedure. A total of 17% indicated that the interval between steroid doses was <2 weeks, while 53% indicated that they waited 2–4 weeks between steroid doses. Conclusion Our study has clearly demonstrated a wide variation in the current practice among physicians regarding sedation, NPO status, steroid administration, and the need for designated drivers. There was much higher endorsement of policies regarding anticoagulation. There is an obvious need for evidence-based guidelines for these aspects of interventional pain care to improve patient safety and minimize the risk of adverse events. PMID:28360531

  19. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality.

  20. The Olympia Proceedings. Section III: Pre-Olympia Survey Results. Current Issues in School Psychology: Opinion x Impact Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. Jerry; Coulter, W. Alan

    1982-01-01

    Crucial issues in the future of school psychology, regardless of the opinion rating in a questionnaire were found to be the role definition of school psychologist, influences of PL 94-142, assessment practices, intervention techniques, political and economic forces and legal-ethical conflicts. The survey of psychologists was an information base…

  1. Effects of a Classroom-Based Pre-Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Alyssa R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…

  2. The Validity and Reliability Studies of the Internet Use of Pre-Service English Teachers Survey: A Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Külekçi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the availability of computers and the Internet in schools and classrooms has grown, so has interest in the extent to which these technologies are being used and for what purposes. Recently there has been many studies on teachers’ use of education technology in their classrooms and schools, the availability of this technology in their classrooms and schools, their training and preparation for their use and the barriers to technology use they encounter. Using the Internet effectively and the success of the Internet utilization is very much related to the users’ attitudes toward the Internet. This study aims at investigating the reliability and the validity of the Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey modified from the Master Thesis of Sudsuang Yutdhana. The survey contains two subscales as Internet Attitude Scale and Self-perception of Computing Skills. The survey was administered to randomly selected third and fourth year 96 pre – service English Teachers at Dokuz Eylül University Buca, Faculty of Education, Department of English Language Teaching. The results indicated that Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey (IUPETS is reliable and valid.

  3. The Validity and Reliability Studies of the Internet Use of Pre-Service English Teachers Survey: A Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Külekçi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As the availability of computers and the Internet in schools and classrooms has grown, so has interest in the extent to which these technologies are being used and for what purposes. Recently there has been many studies on teachers’ use of education technology in their classrooms and schools, the availability of this technology in their classrooms and schools, their training and preparation for their use and the barriers to technology use they encounter. Using the Internet effectively and the success of the Internet utilization is very much related to the users’ attitudes toward the Internet. This study aims at investigating the reliability and the validity of the Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey modified from the Master Thesis of Sudsuang Yutdhana. The survey contains two subscales as Internet Attitude Scale and Self-perception of Computing Skills. The survey was administered to randomly selected third and fourth year 96 pre – service English Teachers at Dokuz Eylül University Buca, Faculty of Education, Department of English Language Teaching. The results indicated that Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey (IUPETS is reliable and valid.

  4. Sitting Time and Body Mass Index in Diabetics and Pre-Diabetics Willing to Participate in a Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanne K. de Vries

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, total sitting time and total physical activity time in a generally overweight or obese population of type 2 diabetics or pre-diabetics willing to participate in a lifestyle intervention [n = 221, 55.1% male, mean age (SD 62.0 (9.9, mean BMI (SD 31.4 (5.0]. In addition, we aimed to identify demographic and psychosocial associates of the motivation to become more physically active. The measurement instrument was a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that total sitting time was more closely related to BMI than total physical activity time. Subjects with a higher weight status were more sedentary, but they were also more motivated to be physically active. On the other hand, their self-efficacy to be physically active was lower than subjects with a lower weight status. Lifestyle interventions to decrease the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes should aim not only at increasing total physical activity time, but also at reducing the total sitting time. Despite generally high levels of motivation among these obese participants, intervention designers and intermediaries should be aware of their low level of self-efficacy towards being physically active.

  5. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Gille, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. Design: A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 d...... weighed food record. Intakes of foods and drinks were estimated, and nutrient intakes were calculated. Means and medians of intake were compared, and crossclassification of individuals according to intake was performed. To assess agreement between the two methods, Pearson and Spearman’s correlation...... coefficients and weighted kappa coefficients were calculated. Setting: Validation study of the pre-coded food diary against a 4 d weighed food record. Subjects: Seventy-two volunteer, healthy free-living adults (thirty-five males, thirty-seven females). Results: Intakes of cereals and vegetables were higher...

  6. The effects of a physical activity and nutrition intervention on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and weight concerns in pre-adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Christine A; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sallis, James F; Keating, Kristen

    2006-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the effects of a physical activity and nutrition intervention on Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Weight Concerns in pre-adolescents. Eighty-four 10-12 years old were studied as part of a larger trial of a family-based physical activity and nutrition intervention. Forty-nine children participated in the 8-week intervention (35 in control group) and completed Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Weight Concerns measures at baseline and post-test. Participants in both groups showed positive but non-significant changes in body image and Drive for Thinness following the trial, but there were no significant between group differences. This was the first study to examine the effects of a physical activity and nutrition intervention on body image and related variables in pre-adolescents. Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Weight Concerns were not positively or negatively influenced by the intervention.

  7. Do the pre-service education programmes for midwives in India prepare confident 'registered midwives'? : A survey from India

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati Sharma; Ingegerd Hildingsson; Eva Johansson; Malvarappu Prakasamma; K V Ramani; Kyllike Christensson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs). This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's) in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM). Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students fr...

  8. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.

  9. Female Under-Representation in Computing Education and Industry - A Survey of Issues and Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Osunde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper examines the issue of female under-representation in computing education and industry, which has been shown from empirical studies to be a problem for over two decades. While various measures and intervention strategies have been implemented to increase the interest of girls in computing education and industry, the level of success has been discouraging. The primary contribution of this paper is to provide an analysis of the extensive research work in this area. It outlines the progressive decline in female representation in computing education. It also presents the key arguments that attempt to explain the decline and intervention strategies. We conclude that there is a need to further explore strategies that will encourage young female learners to interact more with computer educational games.

  10. Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R D; Corley, M J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents findings from an outcome survey of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism in a community setting. Results from both individual case reviews and parent questionnaires are presented, with the data failing to support any instances of'recovery' while still yielding a high degree of parental satisfaction with the treatment. Moreover, a follow-up inquiry into the type of services each child was receiving in his or her post-EIBI setting documents continued dependence on extensive educational and related developmental services, suggesting that the promise of future treatment sparing did not materialize. Limitations of the survey in evaluating community-based EIBI services are discussed along with the need for further research designed to document the effectiveness of services provided to young children with ASD in the community.

  11. A family outreach intervention for engaging young out-of-treatment drug users: pre- versus post-treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santis, Rodrigo; Hidalgo, Carmen Gloria; Jaramillo, Andrea; Hayden, Viviana; Armijo, Ivan; Lasagna, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Only a small fraction of drug users worldwide enter treatment each year. We evaluated the efficacy of a systemic family outreach intervention (SFOI) for young, untreated drug users, using a quasi-experimental design in which the experimental group (EG) received SFOI and the control group (CG) received traditional outreach work (OW). Both pre- and post-treatment, we administered the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6), the Family Environment Scale (FES), and tests of parental practices and risky behavior. Post-treatment, there was a fivefold improvement on the ASI-6 and a significant worsening on the conflict sub-scale of the FES in the EG as compared with the CG. SFOI was more efficacious than OW in reducing drug use in the drug user's home environment. The increased conflict in the EG might be explained by parents' increased awareness of abnormal behaviors and implementation of strategies to protect their children.

  12. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kolawole Oyedeji PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH, universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among

  13. A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlborg Henrik G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a one-year school-based exercise intervention program influences the accrual of bone mineral in pre-pubertal girls. This report aims to evaluate if also hip structure is affected, as geometry independent of bone mineral influences fracture risk. Methods Fifty-three girls aged 7 – 9 years were included in a curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes/week. Fifty healthy age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (60 minutes/week served as controls. The hip was scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and the hip structural analysis (HSA software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC, areal bone mineral density (aBMD, periosteal and endosteal diameter, cortical thickness, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, section modulus (Z and cross-sectional area (CSA of the femoral neck (FN. Annual changes were compared. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate associations between activity level and annual changes in FN. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study. Results No between-group differences were found during the 12 months study period for changes in the FN variables. The total duration of exercise during the year was not correlated with the changes in the FN traits. Conclusion Evaluated by the DXA technique and the HSA software, a general one-year school-based exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls seems not to influence the structure of the hip.

  14. Diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis: an international expert survey and case vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, J. (Janneke); S. van Brunschot (Sandra); P. Fockens (Paul); J. van Grinsven (Janneke); O.J. Bakker (Olaf ); van Santvoort, H.C. (Hjalmar C.); T.L. Bollen (Thomas); M.A. Boermeester (Marja); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); M.G. Besselink (Marc); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H. Dejong (Cees); K.D. Horvath (Karen); van Eijck, C.H. (Casper H.); H. van Goor (Harry); H.G. Gooszen (Hein); Horvath, K.D. (Karen D.); K.P. van Lienden (Krijn); Abdelhafez, M.; Andersson, R.; Andren-Sandberg, A.; Ashley, S.; M.C. van Baal (Mark); Baron, T.; C. Bassi (Claudio); Bradley, E.; M.W. Buchler (M.); V.C. Cappendijk; Carter, R.; Charnley, R.; Coelho, D.; Connor, S.; Dellinger, P.; C. Dervenis (Christos); J. Devière (J.); Doctor, N.; Dudeja, V.; En-qiang, M.; Escourrou, J.; Fagenholz, P.; Farkas, G.; Forsmark, C.; Freeman, M.; P.C. Freeny (Patrick); French, J.; H. Friess; Gardner, T.; Goetzinger, P.; J.W. Haveman; S. Hofker (Sijbrand); Imrie, C.; Isaji, S.; Isenmann, R.; E. Klar (Ernst); J.S. Laméris (Johan ); M. Lerch (M.); P. Lévy (Philippe); Lillemoe, K.; Löhr, M.; J. Mayerle (Julia); Mayumi, T.; Mittal, A.; Moessner, J.; Morgan, D.; K.J. Mortele (Koenraad); Nealon, W.; J.P. Neoptolemos (John); V.B. Nieuwenhuijs (Vincent); Nordback, I.; Olah, A.; K. Oppong (K.); Padbury, R.; Papachristou, G.; Parks, R.; J.-W. Poley (Jan-Werner); Radenkovic, D.; Raraty, M.; Rau, B.; V. Rebours (Vinciane); Rische, S.; Runzi, M.; Sainani, N.; Sarr, M.; Schaapherder, S.; S. Seewald (Stefan); Seifert, H.; Shimosegawa, T.; Silverman, S.; Singh, V.; Siriwardena, A.; Steinberg, W.; Sutton, R.; Takeda, K.; R. Timmer (Robin); Vege, S.; R.P. Voermans (Rogier); J.J. De Waele (Jan J.); Wang, C. (Ch.); Warshaw, A.; J. Werner (Jens Martin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); Whitcomb, D.; Wig, J.; Windsor, J.; Zyromski, N.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis is subject to debate. We performed a survey on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists. Methods An online survey including case vignettes was sent to

  15. [The model of Human Caring: results of a pre- and post-intervention study with a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Piercarlo; Pellegrini, Walter; Masera, Giuliana; Berchialla, Paola; Dal Molin, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The "Human Caring" model is a philosophy of care based on individual centrality and which, although developed within nursing discipline, could be used by all professionals who take care of individuals. Nurses who work within the field of Mental Health, is subjected to a considerable emotional burden and it is believed that the introduction of this model can have a positive impact. To evaluate the effects of the introduction of the model Human Caring in the Department of Mental Health Asl Cuneo 1, in order to improve health care professionals' well-being and patients' perception with respect to care and assistance. A pre and post intervention design approach with control group where variables were measured before (T0) and after (T1) the implementation of the model of care Human Caring. 80 health care professionals and 125 clients were observed. Results show a non statistically significant difference between the pre and post test both for health care professionals and clients. Human Caring model does not seem to have a positive impact in the short term. However, it is arguably a protective action for health care professionals that further studies should deeply explore with longer period of follow-up.

  16. The Healthy Start Renal Clinic: Benefits of Tracking and Early Intervention in Pre-End Stage Renal Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Ida; Lindberg, Jill; Filangeri, Judith; Anderson, Shannon; Szerlip, Marjorie; Best, Julie; Sadler, Rebecca; Savoie, Judy; Jackson, Dina; James, Carla; Husserl, Fred; Copely, J. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between the benefits of pre-end stage renal disease (ESRD) education and decreased length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospital charges, delay of renal replacement therapy (RRT), and a smooth transition to RRT. The Ochsner Healthy Start Renal Clinic (HSRC) is a multidisciplinary early education and tracking program for pre-ESRD patients and their families. We identified and educated pre-ESRD patients about kidney disease, allowing them to discuss and make informed decisions about their treatment and be better prepared to cope with the transition to RRT and the changes in their lives resulting from kidney failure. HSRC patients demonstrated a significant decrease in length of hospital stay (p = 0.05), a trend towards decreased hospital episodes and charges, decreased use of temporary venous access, and a smooth transition to RRT. The control group was made up of patients who had either refused the structured education or had been referred to HSRC late and received only conventional instruction by a social worker at the point where dialysis was imminent. We compared the number of episodes of hospitalization, LOS, and overall hospital charges for the period immediately surrounding initiation of chronic dialysis (2 months before and 1 month following onset) of all 36 patients who began chronic hemodialysis in our facility between November 1997 and November 1998. HSRC patients had LOS half as long (p=0.05), fewer hospital episodes, and hospital charges of $5,000 less per patient than the non-HSRC group. Initial data strongly suggest that early education and intervention through the coordination of a multidisciplinary team maximize the continuity of patient care. PMID:21845139

  17. Rhetoric, Aboriginal Australians and the Northern Territory Intervention: A Socio-legal Investigation into Pre-legislative Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Roffee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented within this article is a systematic discourse analysis of the arguments used by the then Australian Prime Minister and also the Minister for Indigenous Affairs in explaining and justifying the extensive and contentious intervention by the federal government into remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities. The methods used within this article extend the socio-legal toolbox, providing a contextually appropriate, interdisciplinary methodology that analyses the speech act’s rhetorical properties. Although many academics use sound-bites of pre-legislative speech in order to support their claims, this analysis is concerned with investigating the contents of the speech acts in order to understand how the Prime Minister’s and Minister for Indigenous Affairs’ argumentations sought to achieve consensus to facilitate the enactment of legislation. Those seeking to understand legislative endeavours, policy makers and speech actors will find that paying structured attention to the rhetorical properties of speech acts yields opportunities to strengthen their insight. The analysis here indicates three features in the argumentation: the duality in the Prime Minister’s and Minister’s use of the Northern Territory Government’s Little Children are Sacred report; the failure to sufficiently detail the linkages between the Intervention and the measures combatting child sexual abuse; and the omission of recognition of Aboriginal agency and consultation.

  18. Quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in medical records: evaluation of combined interventions in a teaching hospital by repeated point prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercheval, C; Gillet, M; Maes, N; Albert, A; Frippiat, F; Damas, P; Van Hees, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the computerized medical records of inpatients. A prospective, uncontrolled, interrupted time series (ITS) study was conducted by repeated point prevalence survey (PPS) to audit the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the medical records before and after a combined intervention strategy (implementation of guidelines, distribution of educational materials, educational outreach visits, group educational interactive sessions) from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) in the academic teaching hospital (CHU) of Liège, Belgium. The primary outcome measure was the documentation rate on three quality indicators in the computerized medical records: (1) indication for treatment, (2) antibiotics prescribed, and (3) duration or review date. Segmented regression analysis was used to analyze the ITS. The medical records of 2306 patients receiving antibiotics for an infection (1177 in the pre-intervention period and 1129 in the post-intervention period) were analyzed. A significant increase in mean percentages in the post-intervention period was observed as compared with the pre-intervention period for the three quality indicators (indication documented 83.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 90.3 ± 6.6 %, p = 0.0013; antibiotics documented 87.9 ± 9.0 % vs. 95.6 ± 5.1 %, p documented 31.9 ± 15.4 % vs. 67.7 ± 15.2 %, p documentation rate in the computerized medical records for the three quality indicators.

  19. Feasibility of community level interventions for pre-eclampsia: perspectives, knowledge and task-sharing from Nigeria, Mozambique, Pakistan and India

    OpenAIRE

    Mary V Kinney; Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Doherty, Tanya; Hermida, Jorge; Daniels, Karen; Belizán, José M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, remain one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and are contributory in many foetal/newborn deaths. This editorial discusses a supplement of seven papers which provide the results of the first round of the CLIP (Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia) Feasibility Studies. These studies report a number of enablers and barriers in each setting, which have informed the implementation of a cluster...

  20. Pre-procedural combined coronary angiography and stress myocardial perfusion imaging using 320-detector CT in unprotected left main and ostial left anterior descending artery intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Brian S; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K

    2015-07-01

    Pre-procedural anatomic and functional coronary assessment plays a crucial role in selection of patients suitable for unprotected left main percutaneous coronary intervention. Combined coronary computed tomography angiography and adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging is a non-invasive technique which may provide this information. This is the first report describing its use to assist patient selection and procedural planning prior to elective left main and ostial left anterior descending artery coronary intervention.

  1. Extragalactic radio surveys in the pre-Square Kilometre Array era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Chris

    2017-07-01

    The era of the Square Kilometre Array is almost upon us, and pathfinder telescopes are already in operation. This brief review summarizes our current knowledge of extragalactic radio sources, accumulated through six decades of continuum surveys at the low-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and the extensive complementary observations at other wavelengths necessary to gain this understanding. The relationships between radio survey data and surveys at other wavelengths are discussed. Some of the outstanding questions are identified and prospects over the next few years are outlined.

  2. THE 2012 EARTHQUAKE: AN ABACUS OF SURVEYS AND INTERVENTIONS IN MANTUA CHURCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fregonese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After the earthquake of 2012, the ecclesiastical heritage of Mantua was so damaged to render unusable many buildings. Especially churches show a higher vulnerability in relation to their architectural features. From a recognition after the seismic event, more that 40% of the churches of Mantua were damaged with different intensity. After the first phase of expeditious damage detection, a methodical analysis has allowed to know the real state of conservation of many architectures. The Diocese of Mantua commissioned to the Mantua Campus of Politecnico di Milano the survey and digital documentation of 25 churches differently affected by the seismic event. The goal of the survey was double: a realize the documentation necessary for the shoring and protection of damaged structures; b prepare the drawing for the following interventions on the buildings such as restoration, reconstruction and retrofitting. Five years after the earthquake, many interventions of those identified were completed and concluded. Numerically, 129 churches were damaged and, nowadays, 115 have been restored and now they are fully open. The paper aims to illustrate the operational criteria used in the survey activity and repair operations carried out in order to identify guidelines that can direct operators in cases of new consolidation measures. All these directions were based on this premise: for historic structures, it is appropriate to accept a level of awareness with seismic risk higher than for ordinary structure, rather than act in the manner contrary to criteria of preservation of cultural heritage. In these years, we tried to identify the forms of dependence between observed damages, construction types and the conservative state before the earthquake. The goal in fact is to understand the cause of the wide loss of ecclesiastic heritage. The reason can be searched in the unfamiliarity of construction practices, techniques and materials with earthquakes or the inability

  3. The 2012 Earthquake: AN Abacus of Surveys and Interventions in Mantua Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, L.; Campera, A.; Scala, B.; Adami, A.

    2017-05-01

    After the earthquake of 2012, the ecclesiastical heritage of Mantua was so damaged to render unusable many buildings. Especially churches show a higher vulnerability in relation to their architectural features. From a recognition after the seismic event, more that 40% of the churches of Mantua were damaged with different intensity. After the first phase of expeditious damage detection, a methodical analysis has allowed to know the real state of conservation of many architectures. The Diocese of Mantua commissioned to the Mantua Campus of Politecnico di Milano the survey and digital documentation of 25 churches differently affected by the seismic event. The goal of the survey was double: a) realize the documentation necessary for the shoring and protection of damaged structures; b) prepare the drawing for the following interventions on the buildings such as restoration, reconstruction and retrofitting. Five years after the earthquake, many interventions of those identified were completed and concluded. Numerically, 129 churches were damaged and, nowadays, 115 have been restored and now they are fully open. The paper aims to illustrate the operational criteria used in the survey activity and repair operations carried out in order to identify guidelines that can direct operators in cases of new consolidation measures. All these directions were based on this premise: for historic structures, it is appropriate to accept a level of awareness with seismic risk higher than for ordinary structure, rather than act in the manner contrary to criteria of preservation of cultural heritage. In these years, we tried to identify the forms of dependence between observed damages, construction types and the conservative state before the earthquake. The goal in fact is to understand the cause of the wide loss of ecclesiastic heritage. The reason can be searched in the unfamiliarity of construction practices, techniques and materials with earthquakes or the inability of existing

  4. Innovative and Creative K-12 Engineering Strategies: Implications of Pre-Service Teacher Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativo, John M.; Park, Jae H.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find student perceptions of how the engineering design process is learned and applied by pre-service teachers at the University of Georgia. The course description read "demonstration and hands-on learning, including problem solving, designing, construction and testing of prototypes, and activities that increase aesthetic,…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Information and Communication Technology Usage: A Ghanaian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2017-01-01

    This study employed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to empirically investigate factors that influence Ghanaian pre-service teachers' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage. To achieve this aim, the study extended the TAM framework by adding leadership support and job relevance as exogenous variables. Data were…

  6. Effect of a weight loss intervention on anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors in pre- versus postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahradnik Hans-Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study examines changes in body weight, fat mass, metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight and obese pre- and postmenopausal women who participated in a weight loss intervention. Methods Seventy-two subjects were included in the analysis of this single arm study (premenopausal: 22 women, age 43.7 ± 6.4 years, BMI 31.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; postmenopausal: 50 women, age 58.2 ± 5.1 years, BMI 32.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2. Weight reduction was achieved by the use of a meal replacement and fat-reduced diet. In addition, from week 6 to 24 participants attended a guided exercise program. Body composition was analyzed with the Bod Pod®. Blood pressures were taken at every visit and blood was collected at baseline and closeout of the study to evaluate lipids, insulin, cortisol and leptin levels. Results BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose, leptin and cortisol were higher in the postmenopausal women at baseline. Both groups achieved a substantial and comparable weight loss (pre- vs. postmenopausal: 6.7 ± 4.9 vs 6.7 ± 4.4 kg; n.s.. However, in contrast to premenopausal women, weight loss in postmenopausal women was exclusively due to a reduction of fat mass (-5.3 ± 5.1 vs -6.6 ± 4.1 kg; p Blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose improved significantly only in postmenopausal women whereas total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lowered significantly in both groups. Conclusion Both groups showed comparable weight loss and in postmenopausal women weight loss was associated with a pronounced improvement in metabolic risk factors thereby reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Effect of pre-procedural statin therapy on myocardial no-reflow following percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-dong; YANG Yue-jin; HAO Yong-chen; YANG Ying; ZHAO Jing-lin; DOU Ke-fei; GU Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful revascularization of coronary artery disease,especially ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI),does not always mean optimal myocardial reperfusion in a portion of patients because of no-reflow phenomenon.We hypothesized that statins might attenuate the incidence of myocardial no-refiow when used before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence of pre-procedural statin therapy to reduce myocardial no-reflow after PCI.Methods We searched the MEDLINE,Cochrane,and clinicaltrials.gov databases from inception to October 2012 for clinical trials that examined statin therapy before PCI.We required that studies initiated statins before PCI and reported myocardial no-reflow.A DerSimonian-Laird model was used to construct random-effects summary risk ratios.Results In all,7 studies with 3086 patients met our selection criteria.The use of pre-procedural statins significantly reduced post-procedural no-reflow by 4.2% in all PCI patients (risk ratio (RR) 0.56,95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 0.90,P=0.016),and attenuated by 5.0% in non-STEMI patients (RR 0.41,95% CI 0.18 to 0.94,P=-0.035).This benefit was mainly observed in the early or acute intensive statin therapy populations (RR 0.43,95% CI 0.26 to 0.71,P=-0.001).Conclusions Acute intensive statin therapy before PCI significantly reduces the hazard of post-procedural no-reflow phenomenon.The routine use of statins before PCI should be considered.

  8. First results from the Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice pre-site survey in the Dome Fuji region, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Tobias; Karlsson, Nanna; Eisen, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    The Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice (BE-OI) consortium and its international partners unite a globally unique concentration of scientific expertise and infrastructure for ice-core investigations. It delivers the technical, scientific and financial basis for a comprehensive plan to retrieve an ice core up to 1.5 million years old. The consortium takes care of the pre-site surveys for site selection around Dome C and Dome Fuji, both potentially appropriate regions in East Antarctica. Other science consortia will investigate other regions under the umbrella of the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS). In this contribution we present first results from the extensive airborne radar survey at the Dome Fuji region, recently obtained in the 2016/17 Antarctic field season. This enables us to confirm and reject earlier estimates on the presence of old ice, potentially more than 1 Ma old, in this region.

  9. Effect of Pre-Hospital Ticagrelor During the First 24 h After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalescot, Gilles; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this landmark exploratory analysis, ATLANTIC-H(24), was to evaluate the effects of pre-hospital ticagrelor during the first 24 h after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the ATLANTIC (Administration of Ticagrelor in the cath Lab or in the Ambulance for New ...

  10. A Brief Pre-Intervention Analysis and Demonstration of the Effects of a Behavioral Safety Package on Postural Behaviors of Pharmacy Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Rhiannon; Gravina, Nicole; Austin, John

    2007-01-01

    This study employed a pre-intervention analysis to determine factors that contributed to safe ergonomic postures in a small pharmacy. The pharmacy was located on a university campus and employed both pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Three of the eight pharmacy employees had experienced various repetitive motion injuries that resulted in a…

  11. The Impact of a Combined Cognitive-Affective Intervention on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Anticipated Professional Behaviors regarding Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…

  12. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students : Effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots – de Vries, C.M.; Feron, F.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational

  13. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  14. Survey on Pre-pregnancy Health Knowledge and Service Demands among Un-pregnant Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hua LI; Wei-jue CAO; Guo-liang ZHOU; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Hong LIANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Ren-li WANB; Er-sheng GAO; Wen-ping SHEN; Yue DONG; Zhi-hui GU; Rui-zhu CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand the pre-pregnancy health knowledge and service needs among un-pregnant married women in Shanghai.Methods A total of 968 newly-married un-pregnant women in Changqiao, Lingyun sub-districts and Huajing town of Xuhui district, Shanghai, were recruited and interviewed by structured questionnaire to collect the information on pre-pregnancy health knowledge and service demands.Results 1) Newly-married women thought the contraceptive methods suitable for them was male condom(84.4%), followed by oral contraceptives(54%), emergent contraceptive(52.5%) and contraceptive suppository (48. 3%). 2) The score of pre-pregnancy health knowledge was 54. 7±14.5 among the subjects. The participants with junior college or a bachelor had more knowledge than those with junior or senior high school, and those who were engaged in medicine/education/science field had higher score. 3) They had higher knowing rate on the common knowledge, and the rate was above 80%. But the knowing rate on the knowledge of birth defect was low,and all below 50%. 4)A proportion of 52. 7% of the respondents knew that there was a station for reproductive health service in their communities, but only 45.5% received the service from the station, 87. 0% thought they had insufficient or scarce knowledge,73.6% planned to consult before pregnancy and 63.6% were willing to attend the training courses on preparing pregnancy.Conclusion The participants had certain pre-pregnancy health knowledge, but still need being improved; in addition, they had higher needs on knowledge and service of birth defect prevention, at the same time they can't make full use of the existing reproductive health institution.

  15. Effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based interventions to impact weight-related behaviours in African American children and youth: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S

    2014-10-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.

  16. 幼儿家庭意外伤害干预%Intervention on Pre- school Children's Family Unintentional Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小虎; 王琳; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 邱孟; 田红梅; 张晓燕; 刘兆炜

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价成都市幼儿家长在接受家庭意外伤害干预后不同时期的效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层和整群抽样方法,选取成都市12所幼儿园的幼儿家长1769名参加干预活动,在干预后1周及干预后3个月分别采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 采取的干预措施在不同时期不同程度的提高了儿童家长对家庭意外伤害预防相关知识的知晓率,帮助儿童养成了相关安全行为,干预后1周效果比3个月后明显.如干预前安全检查五方面知晓率仅占0.96%,干预1周后上升到10.42%,但是干预3个月后,知晓率又下降至2.41%,不同时期的干预效果在知识及行为多方面均呈现相同趋势.结论建议幼托机构定期加强及更新相关知识的培训,不断加强幼儿家长及幼儿知识的积累,培养正确的态度,提高对儿童意外伤害预防能力.%Objective To evaluate the effect of family unintentional injury intervention among pie - school children's parents, provide suggestions for reducing the incidence of family unintentional injury. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted, totally 1 769 pre - school children's parents in 12 kindergartens were collected for intervention. One week and 3 months after the invervention, questionaire suvey was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness. Results The taken intervention measures improved the awareness of family unintentional injury knowledge in varying degrees at different time, helped children develop safe behaviors. The effect of a week after intervention was more obvious than 3 months later. The awareness rate of safety - check has risen from 0.96% to 10.42% one week after the intervention, but 3 month later, the rate dropped to 2. 41%. The same trend has shown in knowledge and behavior. Conclusion The kindergartens should strengthen trainings about family unintentional injury knowledge at regular intervals. Through accumulation

  17. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  18. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-07-16

    We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probing University Students' Pre-Knowledge in Quantum Physics with QPCS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the use of Quantum Physics Conceptual Survey (QPCS) in probing student understanding of quantum physics. Altogether 103 Finnish university students responded to QPCS. The mean scores of the student responses were calculated and the test was evaluated using common five indices: Item difficulty index, Item discrimination…

  20. The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ♂ and 27 ♀) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ♂ and 25 ♀) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills.

  1. Pre-sarcopenia is associated with renal hyperfiltration independent of obesity or insulin resistance: Nationwide Surveys (KNHANES 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eugene; Lee, Yong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2017-06-01

    Renal hyperfiltration is closely linked to cardiometabolic disorders, and it may increase the mortality risk of the general population. Despite the well-established association between cardiometabolic diseases and sarcopenia, the relationship between renal hyperfiltration and sarcopenia has not yet been assessed.This population-based, cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of 13,800 adults from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as the age- and sex-specific glomerular filtration rate above the 90th percentile in subjects with normal kidney function (>60 mL/min/1.73 m). Appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM), measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was used to assess pre-sarcopenia, which the international consensus defines as both ASM per se and ASM that was adjusted for the body mass index and the height.A total of 1402 (10.2%) participants were classified as having renal hyperfiltration. The prevalence of pre-sarcopenia ranged from 11.6% to 33.0%, by definition. Individuals with pre-sarcopenia had higher risks of renal hyperfiltration compared to those without pre-sarcopenia (10.9% vs 17.4%, P sarcopenia and renal hyperfiltration, following adjustment for confounding factors such as insulin resistance and obesity (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.57-2.15, P sarcopenia might be associated with renal hyperfiltration independent of obesity or insulin resistance.

  2. Survey the Effect of Pre-marriage Counseling on Knowledge and Attitudes Couple in Yazd

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    ss Mazloomi mahmodabad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Holding true premarital counseling courses helps to couples to acquire the necessary knowledge in the field of reproductive health issues. The aim of this study was determination of effect of pre-marriage counseling on knowledge and attitudes couple in Yazd. Methods: This was an semi experimental and pre and post study In which 200 couples participating in premarital counseling courses were selected randomly. Finally, the data were analysed by SPSS18 software and t-test and ANOVA statistical tests. Results: The data showen that  couples before attending in counseling courses have acquired respectively 37.6%  and 48.1%  and after training respectively 65.1% and 57.6% from knowledge and attitude scores. Also mean score of knowledge and attitude according to sex, education level and occupation were statistically significant (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Considering to small change of attitude couples, it is suggested after counseling classes are given the opportunity into couple that express your questions privately. Also to achieve a relatively stable behavior in young couples and promoting their health levels, must besides holding training courses before marriage, pay more attention to the quality of these courses. 

  3. Women's Longitudinal Patterns of Smoking during the Pre-Conception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Period: Evidence from the UK Infant Feeding Survey.

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    Kate E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available An understanding of women's longitudinal patterns of smoking during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period and the factors associated with these patterns could help better inform smoking cessation services and interventions.Latent class analysis (LCA was used to empirically identify women's smoking patterns in a sample of 10,768 mothers from the 2010 UK Infant Feeding Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with these patterns.LCA identified five distinct smoking patterns during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period: "non-smokers" (74.1% of women; "pregnancy-inspired quitters" (10.2%; "persistent smokers" (10.1%; "temporary quitters" (4.4%; and postnatal quitters (1.1%. Smoking patterns varied markedly according to socio-demographic variables and parity. After adjusting for these variables, mothers who lived during pregnancy with a partner who smoked were more likely to be temporary quitters (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.74-3.99 or persistent smokers (aOR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.72 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers who lived during pregnancy with someone else other than a partner who smoked were more likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38-3.97 or postnatal quitters (aOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.07-8.24 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers given information on how their partner could stop smoking if they lived during pregnancy with a smoking partner were less likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65 than pregnancy-inspired quitters.Health professionals should ask about smoking at every opportunity, and refer women who self-report as current smokers to an evidence based smoking cessation service.

  4. Parent Concern and Enrollment in Intervention Services for Young Children with Developmental Delays: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer; Kirby, Russell S.; Gorski, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to address underenrollment and late entry to early intervention by identifying factors associated with parental concern and services for developmental delays. The authors analyzed responses from 27,566 parents of children from birth to age 5 from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to quantify and to identify factors…

  5. Pre- AND post- bronchodilator pulmonary function test in Indian females: a survey in and around Jaipur

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    Seema Rawat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonsmoker COPD in people is a continued point of concern. Recent standards prescribe that spirometry should be population specific, recent origin and methodically derived (prescribed by GOLD with influencing factors specified – which this study aims to do. Methods: From a random sample of 4,500 adults, subjects were invited into study through a 16 point questionnaire. After inclusion/ exclusion criteria applied to 3,733 total responders, 244 rural and 240 urban healthy non-smoker females were enrolled. Spirometry with reproducibility testing before and after bronchodilator (salbutamol was done as per GOLD prescription. As normality of distribution was disproved, non-parametric methods were used in statistics. Results: Mean FEV1 and FVC were 2.25 and 2.69 liters respectively in rural females, while it was 2.06 and 2.44 liters in urban females. Post-bronchodilator (after 0.3 mg salbutamol values in rural females were 2.32 and 2.70 liters respectively while the same were 2.13 and 2.45 liters in urban cases. Conclusion: PFT of rural females resulted better on FEV1 and FVC, pre as well as post-bronchodilator. Possibly biomass fuel exposure in the rural females might not be causing a generalized decrease in PFT parameters or urban chemical pollution which might have more than counterbalanced in urban side. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 583-589

  6. Importance of Pre-pregnancy Counseling in Iran: Results from the High Risk Pregnancy Survey 2012

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    Mohammad Eslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background To identify the prevalence of behavioural (Pre-pregnancy, obstetrical and medical risks of pregnancy in Iranian women. Methods A total of 2993 postpartum women who delivered in 23 randomly selected hospitals of six provinces were enrolled in this nationwide cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was completed based on interviewees’ self-reports and medical record data, consisting of socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural, obstetrical and medical risks, before and during pregnancy. Results Less than 6.0% had no health insurance and 5.0% had no prenatal visit before labour. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.5% of women. Waterpipe and/or cigarette smoking was reported by 7.1% of them and 0.9% abused opiates during pregnancy. Physical abuse by husband in the year before pregnancy occurred in 7.5% of participants. The rate of cesarean section was 50.4%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth were seen in 6.8, 7.7, and 1.2% of deliveries respectively. The most frequent medical risk factors were urinary tract infection (32.5%, anemia (21.6%, and thyroid disease (4.1%. Conclusion More effort should be devoted by health policymakers to the establishment of a preconception counselling (health education and risk assessment and surveillance system; although obstetrical and medical risks should not be neglected too.

  7. Primary care physicians' reported use of pre-screening discussions for prostate cancer screening: a cross-sectional survey

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    Cooper Crystale P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional medical organizations recommend individualized patient decision making about prostate cancer screening. Little is known about primary care physicians' use of pre-screening discussions to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study is to explore physicians' use of pre-screening discussions and reasons why physicians would or would not try to persuade patients to be screened if they initially refuse testing. Methods Primary care physicians completed a self-administered survey about prostate cancer screening practices for informed decision making. Results Sixty-six physicians (75.9% completed the survey, and 63 were used in the analysis. Thirteen physicians (20.6% reported not using prescreening discussions, 45 (71.4% reported the use of prescreening discussions, and 3 (4.8% reported neither ordering the PSA test nor discussing it with patients. Sixty-nine percent of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they were more likely to screen African American patients for prostate cancer, compared to 50% of physicians who reported the use of discussions (Chi-square(1 = 1.62, p = .20. Similarly, 91% of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they are more likely to screen patients with a family history of prostate cancer, compared to 46% of those who reported the use of discussion (Chi-square(1 = 13.27, p Conclusion Although guidelines recommend discussing the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, physicians report varying practice styles. Future research needs to consider the nature of discussions and the degree to which informed decision making is being achieved in clinical practice.

  8. Pre-interventional prognostic value of renal endocrine, hemodynamic and arteriographic parameters in hypertensive patients with uni- and bilateral renal artery stenosis

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    Arlart, I.P.; Bargon, G.

    1982-02-01

    In order to improve pre-interventional prognosis of blood pressure normalization, in patients with angiographically proven uni- (n=75) and bilateral (n=38) renal artery stenosis, (RAS) evaluation of renal venous and peripheral renin activity including stimulative procedures and Saralasin-infusion-test was carried out. In addition selective renal arteriographic, hemodynamic and pharmacodynamic (133 xe-washout) investigations were performed. The data were correlated with operative results concerning response of blood pressure to surgical treatment in 54 patients with uni- and 30 patients with bilateral RAS. Our results suggest that a postoperative normalization of blood-pressure can only be expected if pre-interventional selective arteriograms reveal a normal vascular tree accompanied with normal cortical flow rates of both kidneys in uni- and bilateral RAS. Selective renin determinations, stimulative procedures of the renin-angiotensin system and application of angiotensin antagonists are only of value for selection of patients.

  9. Critical elements of the crisis intervention team model of jail diversion: an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Alan B; Bond, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of jail diversion is a promising approach to addressing the over-involvement of people with mental illness with the criminal justice system. Despite its popularity and promising empirical support, the literature has yet to clarify CIT's critical elements. The aim of this study was to assess the degree to which experts agreement on the importance and perceived implementation of the critical elements of CIT. Study 1 used a literature review to cull potential elements. Three experts familiar with the CIT model reviewed these elements. Study 2 utilized an online survey of 55 CIT co-ordinators/officers and published experts to assess agreement regarding importance and degree the element is implemented. A preliminary list of 36 elements was identified with a high level of expert agreement on their importance regarding importance and implementation. This study developed a preliminary list of elements of the CIT's program. Further research should develop consensus, explore elements' association with outcomes, and differentiate elements from those common to all jail diversion programs.

  10. A Wide-Field Survey for Transiting Hot Jupiters and Eclipsing Pre-Main-Sequence Binaries in Young Stellar Associations

    CERN Document Server

    Oelkers, Ryan J; Marshall, Jennifer L; DePoy, Darren L; Lambas, Diego G; Colazo, Carlos; Stringer, Katelyn

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binaries. This is due, in large part, to the increase in use of small-aperture telescopes (< 20 cm) to survey large areas of the sky to milli-mag precision with rapid cadence. The vast majority of the planetary and binary systems studied to date consist of main-sequence or evolved objects, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (< 50 Myr). Only a dozen binaries and one candidate transiting Hot Jupiter are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar formation and planetary migration models. The deficiency in the number of well-characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main-sequence objects, which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Hence, a dramatic increase in the number of young systems with high-quality observations is highly desirable to gui...

  11. Patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening pre- and post-guidelines: Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Tan, Andy S L; Salloum, Ramzi G; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-11-01

    In 2013, the USPSTF issued a Grade B recommendation that long-term current and former smokers receive lung cancer screening. Shared decision-making is important for individuals considering screening, and patient-provider discussions an essential component of the process. We examined prevalence and predictors of lung cancer screening discussions pre- and post-USPSTF guidelines. Data were obtained from two cycles of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012; 2014). The analyzed sample comprised screening-eligible current and former smokers with no personal history of lung cancer (n=746 in 2012; n=795 in 2014). Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted; patient-reported discussion about lung cancer screening with provider was the outcome of interest. Contrary to expectations, patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening were more prevalent pre-guideline, but overall patient-provider discussions were low in both years (17% in 2012; 10% in 2014). Current smokers were more likely to have had a discussion than former smokers. Significant predictors of patient-provider discussions included family history of cancer and having healthcare coverage. The prevalence of patient-provider discussions about lung cancer screening is suboptimal. There is a critical need for patient and provider education about shared decision-making and its importance in cancer screening decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 诉前社会调查制度探微%The Exploration of Pre-pleading Social Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚淑记

    2014-01-01

    Transforming from retributivis to education doctrine is a significant symbol of modernization of penalty idea. To adapt to this change trend, community correction, which belongs to Measure of Security, was born at the right moment. It has been more than ten years from trial implementation to nationwide practice; however, it is rarely known that there is social survey before the application of community correction. At present, partial areas have attempted to carry out the pre-pleading social survey system. This system can be dated from the Survey System for Qualifications of Probation in the USA, and its theoretical supports are Three Factor Theory of Crime and Individual Penalty Theory. This system conforms to the trend that the penalty has become mitigation, humtheirity and education. However, at the same time,it also has many problems in the judicial practice. For instance, investigation in different areas is difficult, the degree of specialization for the survey estimator is low, people are unwilling to cooperate, investigation methods are too simple, investigation has become a mere formality, and survey assessment may not be adopted because it may involve character evidence. Such problems hinder the realization of the value of pre-pleading social survey system. Therefore, it is necessary to explore a reasonable path to realize the optimization of this system. It can be done from the following ways: establish cross-regional social survey coordination mechanism, specialize the investigation and evaluation team, strengthen the publicity of system, and bring in avoidance rules.%从报应主义转向教育主义是刑罚理念现代化的重要标志之一。为顺应此种发展趋势,社区矫正这一保安处分应运而生。在我国,社区矫正从部分地区试点到全国推行已十载有余,而适用社区矫正之前的社会调查工作仍鲜为人知。目前,部分地区已尝试推行了诉前社会调查制度,该制度肇始于美国的

  13. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  14. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation of school-based interventions.

  15. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. An interdisciplinary intervention to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly persons: protocol of a cluster-randomized trial [PreFalls

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    Schuster Tibor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of falls in the elderly is a public health target in many countries around the world. While a large number of trials have investigated the effectiveness of fall prevention programs, few focussed on interventions embedded in the general practice setting and its related network. In the Prevent Falls (PreFalls trial we aim to investigate the effectiveness of a pre-tested multi-modal intervention compared to usual care in this setting. Methods/Design PreFalls is a controlled multicenter prospective study with cluster-randomized allocation of about 40 general practices to an experimental or a control group. We aim to include 382 community dwelling persons aged 65 and older with an increased risk of falling. All participating general practitioners are trained to systematically assess the risk of falls using a set of validated tests. Patients from intervention practices are invited to participate in a 16-weeks exercise program with focus on fall prevention delivered by specifically trained local physiotherapists. Patients from practices allocated to the control group receive usual care. Main outcome measure is the number of falls per individual in the first 12 months (analysis by negative binomial regression. Secondary outcomes include falls in the second year, the proportion of participants falling in the first and the second year, falls associated with injury, risk of falls, fear of falling, physical activity and quality of life. Discussion Reducing falls in the elderly remains a major challenge. We believe that with its strong focus on a both systematic and realistic fall prevention strategy adapted to primary care setting PreFalls will be a valuable addition to the scientific literature in the field. Trial registration NCT01032252

  17. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

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    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  18. Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison

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    Dukers-Muijrers Nicole HTM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs testing and treatment (sexual health care to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254, and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals. Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers.

  19. [Epidemiological survey on pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among adolescents aged 11 to 17 years in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Jin, Xue-juan; Su, Yan-ling; Xiao, Lei; Cai, Qian-fang; Zou, Hui-fei; Ge, Jun-bo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension as well as the association with overweight/obesity in Shanghai adolescents. School children aged 11 - 17 years in four schools in Shanghai were included in this survey. All students were visited in May 2010 at school by trained nurses or physicians who administered a questionnaire and carried out anthropometric measurements. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure. Repeat measurements were performed in school children with elevated blood pressure within one month. The pre-hypertension and hypertension was defined on the basis of the 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group definitions. The overweight and obesity was defined using cutoff points recommended by Working Group of Obesity, China (WGOC). There were 4175 school children aged 11 - 17 years [mean (15.0 ± 1.9) years, 52.3% (n = 2183) girls and 47.7% (n = 1992) boys]. There were 72.5% (n = 3025) participants with normal blood pressure [ girls (n = 1666) 76.3% and boys (n = 1361) 68.3%], 18.0% (n = 750)participants with pre-hypertension [14.2% (n = 310) for girls and 22.1% (n = 440) for boys], 8.3% (n = 346) participants with stage 1 hypertension [8.2% (n = 179) for girls and 8.3% (n = 165) for boys] and 1.3% (n = 54) participants with stage 2 hypertension [1.3% (n = 28) for girls and 1.3% (n = 26) for boys]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% (n = 147) and 3.0% (n = 66) for girls and 13.7% (n = 273) and 6.3% (n = 125) for boys. After adjusting for gender, age, parental history of hypertension and physical activities, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the overweight [adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.42 (1.16 - 1.75)] and obesity [adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 2.35 (1.78 - 3.11)] were independent predictors of elevated blood pressure in this cohort. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure is common in

  20. Standardization of total cholesterol measurement in population surveys--pre-analytic sources of variation and their effect on the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ferrario, Marco; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2005-06-01

    The estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol, as well as other blood lipids requires population surveys. Comparability of the estimates over time or between populations requires a predefined, standardized measurement protocol. This paper will assess the effect of variation in the pre-analytic procedures, on the estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia. Implications of variation to real survey results are demonstrated on data collected during the WHO MONICA Project. The extent (%) of pre-analytic variations were determined by literature review. Simulations were then used to estimate the effect of these variations on the distribution of total cholesterol values. Three populations were selected as examples for different population distributions of total cholesterol levels and variations resulting from seasonal and postural changes, use of tourniquet, and serum versus plasma collection were simulated both individually and in combinations. Depending on the population distribution of total cholesterol, differences in pre-analytic procedures can explain a difference of up to 1.12 mmol/l in the mean total cholesterol between populations, and a difference up to 41% in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (> or =6.5 mmol/l). Variation in results on measured total cholesterol levels due to differences in procedures during the pre-analytic stage can diminish substantially the reliability and comparability of measurements among surveys over time and between populations. The effect of pre-analytic variation in the population estimates of total cholesterol can be extensively reduced by standardization and training.

  1. Improvement of knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers about ADR, a pre- and post-clinical pharmacists' interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Niayesh; Hendoiee, Narjes; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Healthcare workers have a main role in detection, assessment and spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and improvement of their related knowledge, attitude and perception is essential. The goal of this study was evaluation of clinical pharmacists' interventions in improvement of knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers about ADRs in a teaching referral hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Changes in knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers of Imam teaching hospital about ADRs were evaluated before and after clinical pharmacists' interventions including workshops, meetings and presentations. Results From the 100 participated subjects, 82 of them completed the study. 51% of the health workers have been aware of the Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center at the ministry of health before intervention and after that all the participants knew this centre. About awareness and detection of ADRs in patients, 69 (84.1%) healthcare workers recognised at least one, and following interventions, it was improved to 73 (89%). Only seven (8.5%) subjects have reported ADRs in before intervention phase that were increased significantly to 18 (22%) after intervention. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists' interventions were successful in improvement of healthcare workers' knowledge, attitude and perception about ADRs and spontaneous reporting in our hospital. PMID:22246555

  2. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone.

  3. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  4. Pre-consultation educational group intervention to improve shared decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pre-Consultation Educational Group Intervention pilot study seeks to assess the feasibility and inform the optimal design for a definitive randomized controlled trial that aims to improve the quality of decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction patients. Methods/design This is a mixed-methods pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial that will follow a single-center, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group superiority design. Setting: The University Health Network, a tertiary care cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants: Adult women referred to one of three plastic and reconstructive surgeons for delayed breast reconstruction or prophylactic mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction. Intervention: We designed a multi-disciplinary educational group workshop that incorporates the key components of shared decision-making, decision-support, and psychosocial support for cancer survivors prior to the initial surgical consult. The intervention consists of didactic lectures by a plastic surgeon and nurse specialist on breast reconstruction choices, pre- and postoperative care; a value-clarification exercise led by a social worker; and discussions with a breast reconstruction patient. Control: Usual care includes access to an informational booklet, website, and patient volunteer if desired. Outcomes: Expected pilot outcomes include feasibility, recruitment, and retention targets. Acceptability of intervention and full trial outcomes will be established through qualitative interviews. Trial outcomes will include decision-quality measures, patient-reported outcomes, and service outcomes, and the treatment effect estimate and variability will be used to inform the sample size calculation for a full trial. Discussion Our pilot study seeks to identify the (1) feasibility, acceptability, and design of a definitive RCT and (2) the optimal content and delivery of our proposed educational group intervention. Thirty patients have been

  5. A descriptive survey investigating pre-registration student nurses' perceptions of clinical skill development in clinical placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayt, Louise C; Merriman, Clair

    2013-04-01

    Clinical skill development is essential to nurse education. Clinical skills are frequently taught in higher education institutions using clinical simulation. It is unclear if clinical skills are subsequently consolidated and developed in clinical placements. The aim of this survey was to evaluate pre-registration student nurses perceptions of the frequency of opportunities to practise, the level of supervision and assessment of, clinical skills in their clinical placements. This was a cross-sectional survey design using an online, self-report questionnaire including a Likert-type scale and open ended comments. Four hundred and twenty one students, from all year groups, from a university in the south of England on a wide variety of clinical placements participated. Participants evaluated the frequency of opportunity to practise, level of supervision and assessment of and feedback on performance of specific clinical skills. Clinical skills evaluated were measurement of vital signs, aseptic non-touch technique, assisting with eating and drinking, and assisting with comfort and hygiene. Data were analysed utilising Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 19. The frequency of opportunities to practise skills in clinical placement was variable with some participants reporting that they never had opportunity to practise essential skills. Similarly the level of supervision and assessment was also inconsistent suggesting that participants frequently practised clinical skills unsupervised without being assessed as competent. Inconsistencies in clinical skill development may lead to graduates who are not work ready and as a result, insufficient clinical competence potentially leads to unsafe practice and poor patient care. This calls for stronger partnerships between educators and clinical areas and the prioritisation of mentor preparation and education as well as organisational support in terms of mentor workload planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. [Evaluation of a nutrition education intervention in teachers and students in pre-school and primary schools in los Andes, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Edith; Salinas, Judith; Parra, María; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education program for teachers to improve food knowledge, food consumption and the nutritional status of their pre basic and basic students. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, with a pre-post evaluation of food knowledge, food consumption and nutritional status. The sample was 25 teachers and 465 students in Los Andes, with 352 students as control group in San Felipe. The nutrition intervention consisted in 9 interactive workshops for teachers during 5 months, transferring the information to the students. In the experimental group there was a significant improvement in food knowledge and a decrease in non-healthy food consumption in students, compared with the control group, without changes in nutritional status. In conclusion, the intervention in teachers improved food knowledge and healthy food consumption in students. As a consequence of the short period of intervention, the nutritional status did not change. If these strategies are maintained over time and incorporated to the school curricula could achieve more significant results, in particular if parents are incorporated in school nutrition education programs.

  7. A primary health-care intervention on pre- and postnatal risk factor behavior to prevent childhood allergy. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. Methods The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT study invited all pregnant women and parents to children up to 2 years of age in the community to participate in a non-randomized, controlled, multiple life-style intervention study. Interventional topics was increased dietary intake of cod liver oil and oily fish for women during pregnancy and for infants during the first 2 years of life, reduced parental smoking and reduced indoor dampness. A control cohort was established prior to the intervention cohort with "follow up as usual". Questionnaires were completed in pregnancy, 6 weeks after birth and at 1 and 2 years of age. Trends in exposure and behavior are described. Results Intake of oily fish and cod liver oil increased statistically significantly among women and infants in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. There was a low postnatal smoking prevalence in both cohorts, with a trend towards a decreasing smoking prevalence in the control cohort. There was no change in indoor dampness or in behavior related to non- intervened life-style factors. Conclusions The dietary intervention seemed to be successful. The observed reduced smoking behavior could not be attributed to the intervention program, and the latter had no effect on indoor dampness. Trial registrations (Current Controlled Trials registration number: ISRCTN28090297

  8. Guided online self-management interventions in primary care: a survey on use, facilitators, and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, R. van der; Atema, V.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guided online psychological self-management interventions offer broad prospects for the treatment of people with mild to moderate mental health problems, but implementation is challenging. The aims of this study are (1) to gain insight into use of and intention to use these interventions

  9. Pre-irradiation and surgical intervention in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx: Results of a study conducted from 1973 to 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, D.; Sack, H.; Stuetzer, H.; Rose, K.G.

    1987-11-01

    In collaboration with the Radiotherapeutic Hospital, 87 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated by combined pre-irradiation and surgical intervention at the University ORL Hospital of Cologne. The study was supposed to improve the five-year survival of patients suffering from advanced carcinomas of the head and neck area. The male and female patient's ratio was 4,5 to 1. Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, 21 patients had tumors of the floor of the mouth, and another 21 had tumors of the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The tumor and lymph node status was classified according to the UICC regulations (1979). In the pre-irradiation, 40 to 50 Gy were applied to the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes. Surgery was executed generally four weeks after pre-irradiation. The tumor remission following to pre-irradiation was very good. 27% of the patients showed little or moderate post-operative disturbances in wound healing. An osteoradionecrosis was found in 4,6%. Almost 25% of the patients developed local recurrences. The cumulated five-year survival of all patients is 32%. In dependence on TNM stages, the three-year survival rates are as follows: stage I and II 80%, stage III 44%, and stage IV 40%.

  10. 糖尿病前期护理干预的研究进展%Research progress of nursing intervention in pre diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛亚男; 王东梅

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of pre diabetes and reviews advances in the study of nursing in-tervention on pre diabetes in recent years.It provides research directions,including no control group,use of community nurses advantage,the theory of traditional Chinese medicine,and the combination of internet appli-cations.%阐述糖尿病前期的概念,综述近年来糖尿病前期的护理干预研究进展,提供研究展望,包括不设空白对照组、发挥社区护士的优势、中医理论的应用、与互联网的结合。

  11. Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Denise C; Kruger, Daniel J; Turner, Tonya M; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E Hill; Lewis, E Yvonne

    2011-02-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and Saginaw Counties in Michigan to assess how a sustained community intervention to reduce racism and infant mortality influenced knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of racism and to explore how perceived racism is associated with self-rated health and birth outcomes. We used ANOVA and regression models to compare the responses of intervention participants and non-participants as well as African Americans and European Americans (N = 629). We found that intervention participants reported greater acknowledgment of the enduring and differential impact of racism in comparison to the non-intervention participants. Moreover, survey analyses revealed that racism was associated with health in the following ways: (1) experiences of racial discrimination predicted self-rated physical health, mental health, and smoking status; (2) perceived racism against one's racial group predicted lower self-rated physical health; and (3) emotional responses to racism-related experiences were marginally associated with lower birth-weight births in the study sample. Our study bolsters the published findings on perceived racism and health outcomes and highlights the usefulness of CBPR and community surveys to empirically investigate racism as a social determinant of health.

  12. Comparison of outcomes and other variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed papers involving pre-harvest or abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Campbell, Mollie; Totton, Sarah C; Guthrie, Alessia; Sargeant, Jan M

    2010-11-01

    Accuracy in the reporting of studies in conference abstracts is important because the majority of studies in such abstracts are never further detailed in peer-reviewed publications, and data from such abstracts may be used in systematic reviews. Previous research on interventional studies in human biomedicine indicates that there is no guarantee of consistency between a conference abstract and paper in the reporting of results and other key variables. However, no research has been done to determine if this lack of reporting consistency in abstracts and papers extends to interventional studies in pre-harvest/harvest-level food safety. The goal of this study was to compare outcome results and other key variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed publications describing studies of pre-harvest and abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens, and to determine whether the agreement in the results or key variables was associated with the time to full publication. A systematic search identified 59 conference abstracts with matching peer-reviewed papers (matches), and data on variables including outcome measures and results, pathogens, species, interventions, overall efficacy of intervention, sample size and housing were extracted from both the conference abstracts and the papers. The matching of variables between abstracts and papers was described, and logistic regression used to test for associations between variable matching and time to publication. Sample size was only provided for both abstract and paper in 24 matches; the same sample size was reported in 20 of these matches. Most other variables were reported in the majority of abstracts/papers, and with the exception of outcomes and intervention effect, the reporting of variables was relatively consistent. There was no significant difference in the numbers of authors, with the first author the same in 78.3% of matches. Of 231 outcome measures reported in both abstracts and papers

  13. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van de Goor, Ien A M; Rots-de Vries, Carin M C; Feron, Frans J M

    2016-10-21

    Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student's medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months). In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than "medical absenteeism policy as usual". The effectiveness of the intervention is shown primarily by a decrease in the number of periods reported sick.

  14. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Skeletal muscle uncoupling protein-3 restores upon intervention in the pre-diabetic and diabetic state: implications for diabetes pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart; Blaak; Schrauwen; M.K.C. Hesselink; H.A. Keizer; M. Mensink; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; E. Moonen-Kornips

    2007-01-01

    Both exercise training and a lifestyle-intervention program increase UCP3 protein content inskeletal muscle of subjects with reduced glycaemic control, indicating a restoration towards normal UCP3 levels. These data support the idea that UCP3 has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  16. Pre-diabetes and the risk of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, L.; Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Cassetti, E.; Giovine, G. Di; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a complication of coronary angiography/percutaneous intervention (PCI). It is known that diabetes is an independent risk factor for CIN, but we have no data regarding the association between CIN and glycemic levels in patients without diabetes. Aim

  17. Skeletal muscle uncoupling protein-3 restores upon intervention in the pre-diabetic and diabetic state: implications for diabetes pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, M.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Borghouts, L.B.; Keizer, H.A.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart,; Blaak,; Schrauwen,

    2007-01-01

    Both exercise training and a lifestyle-intervention program increase UCP3 protein content inskeletal muscle of subjects with reduced glycaemic control, indicating a restoration towards normal UCP3 levels. These data support the idea that UCP3 has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  18. Experiences of parents regarding a school-readiness intervention for pre-school children facilitated by Community Health Nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Prinsloo

    2015-01-01

    When CHN students engage with communities through service learning, a school-readiness intervention may serve as a powerful tool to provide parents with the support that is needed to empower them with the skills to contribute towards their children’s early childhood development. It may improve the parent–child relationship which is critical in the development of children.

  19. Looking to the Future to Understand the Past: A Survey of Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences with Digital Technologies in Relation to Teaching History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Corrigan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have the potential to enable history teachers to engage student learning, meet diverse learning styles, present a diversity of perspectives, and foster historical inquiry. Pre-service teachers entering today’s Canadian faculties of education are surrounded by more technology than their predecessors. But are they equipped with requisite knowledge and strategies to integrate these technologies effectively into their classrooms? This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey to investigate pre-service teachers’ experiences with digital technologies in relation to teaching history. By doing so it provides a context for further research into the pedagogical impacts of integrating digital technologies into history classrooms.

  20. Remuneration for non-interventional studies--results of a survey in the pharmaceutical industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Thorsten; Hahn, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa) published recommendations to improve the quality and transparency of non-interventional studies. These recommendations include quality assurance measures, in particular with respect to transparency as well as for the verification of the data collected in these studies. This publication presents the results of a survey on fees in non-interventional studies which was conducted within the member companies of the vfa in June 2011. These results demonstrate a consistent adherence to the statutory requirements and the implementation of the recommendations concerning the remuneration of the study centers. Depending on the indication, the number of routine doctor/patient contacts is different and associated with that number the documentation efforts vary. Accordingly, the fee varies based on the fee schedule for physicians (German: Gebührenordnung für Ärzte) by taking into account the actual efforts at the study center.

  1. Engagement and attrition in Internet smoking cessation interventions: Insights from a cross-sectional survey of “one-hit-wonders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie E. Saul

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: One third of participants that had disengaged from an Internet intervention reported abstinence at follow-up, suggesting that low levels of engagement are not synonymous with treatment failure in all cases. Paid incentives above $25 may be needed to elicit survey responses, especially among those with longer intervals of disengagement from an intervention.

  2. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  3. Effects of pre- and postnatal nutrition interventions on child growth and body composition: the MINIMat trial in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Islam Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional insults and conditions during fetal life and infancy influence subsequent growth and body composition of children. Objectives: Effects of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation and exclusive breastfeeding counseling on growth of offspring aged 0–54 months and their body composition at 54 months of age were studied. Methods: In the MINIMat trial (ISRCTN16581394 in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to early (around 9 weeks or usual invitation (around 20 weeks to food supplementation and to one of the three daily micronutrient supplements: 30-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe30F, 60-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe60F, and multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS. The supplements were also randomized to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF counseling or to usual health messages. Results: No differences in background characteristics were observed among the intervention groups. There was also no differential effect of prenatal interventions on birthweight or birthlength. Early food supplementation reduced the level of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months of age among boys (average difference – 6.5% units, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–11.3, p=0.01 but not among girls (average difference – 2.4% units, 95% CI −2.2–7.0, p=0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting compared to standard Fe60F (average difference – 4.8% units, 95% CI 0.8–8.9, p=0.02. Breastfeeding counseling prolonged the duration of EBF (difference – 35 days, 95% CI 30.6–39.5, p<0.001. Neither pregnancy interventions nor breastfeeding counseling influenced the body composition of children at 54 months of age. Conclusion: Early food supplementation during pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting among boys aged 0–54 months, while prenatal MMS increased the proportion of stunting. Food and micronutrient supplementation or EBF intervention did not affect body composition of offspring at 54 months of age. The effects of

  4. Effects of lifestyle intervention on dietary intake, physical activity level, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women with different pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Amy Leung; Back, Lisa; Ludwig, Sora; Gardiner, Phillip; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Dean, Heather J; Sellers, Elisabeth; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Jiang, Depeng; Shen, Garry X

    2014-09-24

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 116 pregnant women (pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p changes were not detected between the intervention (n = 27) and control group (n = 29) in the above normal pre-pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. NCT00486629.

  5. A Survey of School Psychologists' Preparation, Participation, and Perceptions Related to Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Long, Lori; Kucera, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Positive behavior interventions and supports are increasingly utilized in school systems throughout the nation, particularly the school-wide multi-tiered support framework. Given such trends, and the basis of these practices in psychological principles and research, it is important to identify how school psychologists are trained to contribute to…

  6. An IBCLC in the Maternity Ward of a Mother and Child Hospital: A Pre- and Post-Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Chiurco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Published evidence on the impact of the integration of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs for breastfeeding promotion is growing, but still relatively limited. Our study aims at evaluating the effects of adding an IBCLC for breastfeeding support in a mother and child hospital environment. We conducted a prospective study in the maternity ward of our maternal and child health Institute, recruiting 402 mothers of healthy term newborns soon after birth. The 18-month intervention of the IBCLC (Phase II was preceded (Phase I by data collection on breastfeeding rates and factors related to breastfeeding, both at hospital discharge and two weeks later. Data collection was replicated just before the end of the intervention (Phase III. In Phase III, a significantly higher percentage of mothers: (a received help to breastfeed, and also received correct information on breastfeeding and community support, (b started breastfeeding within two hours from delivery, (c reported a good experience with the hospital staff. Moreover, the frequency of sore and/or cracked nipples was significantly lower in Phase III. However, no difference was found in exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge or at two weeks after birth.

  7. Can A Complex Online Intervention Improve Cancer Nurses' Pain Screening and Assessment Practices? Results from a Multicenter, Pre-post Test Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Heneka, Nicole; Hickman, Louise; Lam, Lawrence; Shaw, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Unrelieved cancer pain has an adverse impact on quality of life. While routine screening and assessment forms the basis of effective cancer pain management, it is often poorly done, thus contributing to the burden of unrelieved cancer pain. The aim of this study was to test the impact of an online, complex, evidence-based educational intervention on cancer nurses' pain assessment capabilities and adherence to cancer pain screening and assessment guidelines. Specialist inpatient cancer nurses in five Australian acute care settings participated in an intervention combining an online spaced learning cancer pain assessment module with audit and feedback of pain assessment practices. Participants' self-perceived pain assessment competencies were measured at three time points. Prospective, consecutive chart audits were undertaken to appraise nurses' adherence with pain screening and assessment guidelines. The differences in documented pre-post pain assessment practices were benchmarked and fed back to all sites post intervention. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Participants who completed the intervention (n = 44) increased their pain assessment knowledge, assessment tool knowledge, and confidence undertaking a pain assessment (p nurses' pain assessment capabilities translated into a significant increasing linear trend in the proportion of documented pain assessments in patients' charts at the three time points (χ(2) trend = 18.28, df = 1, p pain assessment audit and feedback data, improves inpatient cancer nurses' self-perceived pain screening and assessment capabilities and strengthens cancer pain guideline adherence. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cash incentives improve participation rate in a face-to-face survey: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Lei, Han; Li, Ge; Huang, Wei; Mu, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    Our study examined the effect of a ChinaYuan (CNY) 10 cash incentive on the participation rate in a face-to-face health survey among the general Chinese population. Subjects older than 15 years of age and had been living in the two selected districts for more than 6 months were selected using multistage random sampling. Participants from only one district received a cash incentive (CNY 10) for completing the survey. The participation rates in the nonincentive and incentive groups were 39.9% and 61.2%, respectively, P rate (54.4%); no significant difference was found between men (39.4%) and women (40.5%), P = 0.59. In the incentive group, the highest participation rate was observed in the ≥75 years (78.1%) age group. The cost for a completed interview was CNY 34.5 in the incentive group and CNY 35.8 in the nonincentive group. Cash incentives might increase participation rates in face-to-face surveys in China. The absolute cost was higher for the incentive group, whereas cost for a completed interview was actually the lowest. Furthermore, participation rate did not differ between men and women, but elders were more likely to participate in health surveys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions via system dynamics and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Davis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of electricity is described in this paper. A literature review of past research is used to build an initial integrated model of household consumption, and this model is used to generate a small number of research hypotheses about how households possessing different characteristics might react to various types of interventions. These hypotheses are tested using data gathered from an efficiency intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more efficient compact fluorescent lamp light bulbs. Our experiences are (a that a system dynamics approach proved useful in advancing a non-traditional point of view for which, for historical and economic reasons, data were not abundantly available; (b that, in areas where traditional models are heavily quantitative, some scepticism to a system dynamics model may be expected; and (c that a statistical comparison of model results by means of empirical data may be an effective tool in reducing such scepticism.

  10. Serial survey shows community intervention may contribute to increase in knowledge of Tuberculosis in 30 districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Badri; Prasad, Banuru Muralidhara; Chadha, Sarabjit S; Tonsing, Jamie

    2016-11-11

    Correct knowledge about Tuberculosis (TB) is essential for appropriate healthcare seeking behaviour and to accessing diagnosis and treatment services timely. There are several factors influencing knowledge about TB. The present study was conducted to assess the change in community knowledge of Tuberculosis (TB) and its association with respondent's socio-demographic characteristics in two serial knowledge-attitude-practice surveys. Community level interventions including community meetings with youth groups, village health committees and self-help groups and through mass media activities were undertaken to create awareness and knowledge about TB and service availability. Increase in knowledge on TB and its association with respondent's socio-demographic characteristics was assessed by two serial KAP surveys in 2010-2011 (baseline) and 2012-2013 (midline) in 30 districts of India. Correct knowledge of TB was assessed by using lead questions and scores were assigned. The composite score was dichotomized into two groups (score 0-6, poor TB knowledge and score 7-13, good TB knowledge). In baseline and midline survey, 4562 and 4808 individuals were interviewed. The correct knowledge about TB; cough ≥2 weeks, transmission through air, 6-8 months treatment duration, and free treatment increased by 7 % (p-value India and age groups- 25-34 years (OR, 1.3; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.6) and 45-44 years (OR, 1.4; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.7)- were independently associated with good TB knowledge. The knowledge about TB has increased over a period of 2 years and this may be attributable to the community intervention in 30 districts of India. The study offers valuable lesson for designing TB related awareness programmes in India and in other high burden countries.

  11. Safety of Prasugrel Loading Doses in Patients Pre-Loaded With Clopidogrel in the Setting of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Klingenberg, Roland; Heg, Dik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety of the concurrent administration of a clopidogrel and prasugrel loading dose in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. BACKGROUND: Prasugrel is one of the preferred P2Y12 platelet receptor antagonists for ST......-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. The use of prasugrel was evaluated clinically in clopidogrel-naive patients. METHODS: Between September 2009 and October 2012, a total of 2,023 STEMI patients were enrolled in the COMFORTABLE (Comparison of Biomatrix Versus Gazelle in ST-Elevation Myocardial...... Infarction [STEMI]) and the SPUM-ACS (Inflammation and Acute Coronary Syndromes) studies. Patients receiving a prasugrel loading dose were divided into 2 groups: 1) clopidogrel and a subsequent prasugrel loading dose; and 2) a prasugrel loading dose. The primary safety endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research...

  12. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  15. Physical therapy intervention (PTI) increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in non-frail and pre-frail elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, F M; Pereira, D S; Lustosa, L P; Silva, J P; Dias, J M D; Dias, R C D; Queiroz, B Z; Teixeira, A L; Teixeira, M M; Pereira, L S M

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are important factors in the identification of the frail elderly (higher risk of developing disease) and in assessing the impact of PTI. On the other hand, BDNF has been related to neuroprotection in a series of central nervous system diseases in older age. The levels of BDNF in groups of elderly women classified according to Fried phenotype (non-frail and pre-frail) were compared. We assessed the impact of a PTI on BDNF levels. A convenience sample of 48 elderly women was randomly selected. The PTI group was composed by 20 elderly women selected from this group. Plasma neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF, glial-derived neutrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Timed-up-and-go (TUG) test, hand-grip and work/body weight were evaluated before and after the intervention. Plasma concentrations of BDNF were significantly higher in non-frail in comparison to pre-frail elderly women. After the PTI, higher levels of BDNF were found in elderly women (before 351±68 pg/ml and after 593±79 pg/ml; pelderly women suggest that this neurotrophic factor may be a key pathophysiological mediator in the syndrome of frailty. The fact that PTI increased BDNF levels in both groups suggests that it may be possible to modify this phenotype.

  16. Impact of Health Awareness Campaign in Improving the Perception of the Community about Palliative Care: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study in Rural Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ankit; Sarkar, Sonali; Adinarayanan, S; Balajee, Karthik Laksham

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The only way to provide palliative care to a huge number of people in need in India is through community participation, which can be achieved by improving the awareness of the people about palliative care. We conducted a study to assess the impact of health awareness campaign in improving the awareness of people about palliative care. Materials and Methods: This was a pre- and post-intervention study conducted in Kadaperikuppam village of Vanur Taluk in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. One respondent each from 145 households in the village was interviewed regarding the knowledge and attitude on palliative care before and after the health awareness campaign using a pretested questionnaire. Health awareness campaign consisted of skit, pamphlet distribution, poster presentation, giving door-to-door information, and general interaction with palliative team in the village. Results: The awareness regarding palliative care during the preintervention was nil. After the intervention, it increased to 62.8%. However, there was a decline in the attitude and the interest of the people toward palliative care. Interpretation and Conclusions: Health awareness campaigns can increase the awareness of people in the rural parts of the country about palliative care. However, to improve the attitude of the community about delivery of palliative care services, more sustained efforts are required to make them believe that palliative care can be provided by community volunteers also and not necessarily only by professionals. PMID:27803570

  17. Assumption Trade-Offs When Choosing Identification Strategies for Pre-Post Treatment Effect Estimation: An Illustration of a Community-Based Intervention in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ann M; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya L

    2015-03-01

    Failure (or success) in finding a statistically significant effect of a large-scale intervention may be due to choices made in the evaluation. To highlight the potential limitations and pitfalls of some common identification strategies used for estimating causal effects of community-level interventions, we apply a roadmap for causal inference to a pre-post evaluation of a national nutrition program in Madagascar. Selection into the program was non-random and strongly associated with the pre-treatment (lagged) outcome. Using structural causal models (SCM), directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and simulated data, we illustrate that an estimand with the outcome defined as the post-treatment outcome controls for confounding by the lagged outcome but not by possible unmeasured confounders. Two separate differencing estimands (of the pre- and post-treatment outcome) have the potential to adjust for a certain type of unmeasured confounding, but introduce bias if the additional identification assumptions they rely on are not met. In order to illustrate the practical impact of choice between three common identification strategies and their corresponding estimands, we used observational data from the community nutrition program in Madagascar to estimate each of these three estimands. Specifically, we estimated the average treatment effect of the program on the community mean nutritional status of children 5 years and under and found that the estimate based on the post-treatment estimand was about a quarter of the magnitude of either of the differencing estimands (0.066 SD vs. 0.26-0.27 SD increase in mean weight-for-age z-score). Choice of estimand clearly has important implications for the interpretation of the success of the program to improve nutritional status of young children. A careful appraisal of the assumptions underlying the causal model is imperative before committing to a statistical model and progressing to estimation. However, knowledge about the data

  18. 糖尿病前期人群的社区干预效果观察%Pre-diabetes Populations of Community Intervention Effect Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓玮

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨对沈阳市铁西区卫工社区糖尿病前期人群实施社区干预的观察与效果,提高社区的糖尿病高危人群自我保健意识和生命质量。方法对2013年6月至2013年10月本社区内45岁以上人群进行糖尿病筛查。结果128例患者中105例空腹血糖和餐后2小时血糖明显降低,占82%;17例餐后2小时血糖明显下降、空腹血糖控制在原有水平,占13.3%;6例血糖未得到很好的控制进入糖尿病期,占4.7%;社区干预效果总有效率达95.3%。结论通过对Ⅱ型糖尿病前期人群实施社区干预,可有效地控制血糖水平,提高患者及高危人群的从医性及生活质量。%Objective To investigate the shenyang I WeiGong community pre-diabetes populations to observe the effect and the implementation of community intervention, improve the community people at high risk of diabetes self-care consciousness and quality of life. Methods From June 2013 to October 2013, 45 years and older were taken population screening for diabetes. Results 105 cases with significantly lower fasting blood glucose, blood sugar 2 hours after meal, accounted for 82%, 17 cases were signiifcantly lower blood sugar 2 hours after meal, fasting blood glucose control at the original level, accounting for 13.3%, 6 cases into diabetes blood sugar without control, accounting for 4.7%. Community intervention effect of total effective rate was 95.3%. Conclusion Through typeⅡ pre-diabetes populations, community intervention can increase awareness of self health care to individuals at risk for diabetes and health behavior, effectively control blood sugar levels, improve patients and high risk groups with medicine and the quality of life.

  19. Survey Research on Pre-hospital Emergency of Drug-induced Disulfiram-like Reaction%药源性双硫仑样反应院前急救情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云霄; 牟丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To survey and analyze the rationality and necessity of pre-hospital emergency of drug-induced disul-firam-like reaction. Methods 24 cases of patients with disulfiram-like reaction in the pre-hospital diagnosis in our hospital from January 2010 to May 2012 were selected as the survey objects, and the related data were retrospectively analyzed, and the physiological parameters, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse saturation of arterial blood oxygen of pa-tients were counted and analyzed before and after the emergency disposal. Results The general state of patients was obvi-ously improved after the pre-hospital emergency, and various physiological indexes were obviously improved, and the differ-ence had statistical significance. Conclusion The pre-hospital emergency rational intervention can obviously improve the patients with disulfiram-like reaction in limited time, and the emergency physicians should pay great attention to the occur-rence of disulfiram-like reaction when handling the emergency events after drinking.%目的:调查分析药源性双硫仑样反应患者院前急救的合理性及必要性。方法选取2010年1月-2012年5月院前接诊的24例双硫仑反应患者的作为调查对象,对相关资料进行回顾性分析。统计分析病人急救处置前后生理参数情况,心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MABP)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)。结果在经过院前救治后,患者的一般状态明显好转,各项生理指标较前有明显改善,差异有统计学意义。结论双硫仑样反应患者经过院前急救合理干预,能够在有限时间内得到显著明显的改善。急救医师在处理饮酒后发生的急救事件时应特别注意双硫仑样反应的发生。

  20. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed...... large differences across departments. The diagnoses given to three case stories showed little correlation to the criteria the departments reported using. CONCLUSION: Even in a small country like Denmark with 34 obstetrical departments, there was little consensus on the diagnostic criteria for pre-eclampsia...

  1. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed......-eclampsia. The findings emphasize the need for standardizing diagnostic criteria and reporting practice and may have implications on how to interpret data regarding pre-eclampsia....

  2. The Polish Interventional Cardiology TAVI Survey (PICTS): adoption and practice of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Radosław; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Ochała, Andrzej; Witkowski, Adam; Dudek, Dariusz; Siudak, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed the development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Poland since its introduction in 2008, and data on current TAVI activity or practice are missing. Aim To assess the dynamics of TAVI adoption in Poland and to detect differences among Polish centres in TAVI practice and decision-making. Material and methods The Polish Interventional Cardiology TAVI Survey (PICTS) was approved by the Polish Association of Cardiovascular Interventions and presented to all 21 national TAVI centres. Between 2008 and 2015 the cumulative number of TAVI performed in Poland was 2189. The annual number of TAVI rose from 8 in 2008 to 670 in 2015 (0.21 to 17.4 implants per million inhabitants, respectively). Results The median TAVI experience per centre was 80 procedures (95% CI: 38.1–154.6). In 2015 the TAVI penetration rate reached 5.12% of the estimated eligible Polish population. Inoperable and high-risk patients are treated with TAVI in all centres, with 52% of Heart Teams also qualifying medium-risk patients. The rate of transfemoral implantations increased to 83.2% of all procedures in 2015, while transapical implantations decreased to 12%. The frequency of subclavian, direct aortic or transcarotid routes in 2015 was below 3% each. Conclusions The PICTS survey observed a positive but slow rate of adoption of TAVI in Poland. When compared to Western European countries, our findings highlight a significant treatment gap in high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Remarkable variations in TAVI practices among Polish TAVI centres warrant publication of joint national guidelines and recommendations. PMID:28344612

  3. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...

  4. Web-based platform for patient dose surveys in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Bulgaria: Functionality testing and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, F; Palov, N; Ivanova, D; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Georgiev, E; Zagorska, A; Madzharova, R; Vassileva, J

    2017-05-04

    In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors. The web-based data collection platform is functional and is currently being used for performing the third national dose survey in Bulgaria, launched in 2016. Data analysis is facilitated due to the standardisation of collected data and their storing. Using the platform, the participating facilities can establish their typical dose levels based on the median value, and compare them to DRLs. A disadvantage of the platform is the need to enter data manually, but it is opened for future upgrades for automatic data harvesting and analysis. Various practical approaches were used to overcome the lack of qualified human resources and insufficient understanding of the DRL and dose tracking concept and to motivate facilities to submit data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baune Bernhard T; Stich Heribert L; Caniato Riccardo N; Krämer Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a p...

  6. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Pond, Nicole; Davies, Lynda; Francis, Jeryl Lynn; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wiggers, John

    2013-11-25

    Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers for such initiatives. The intervention

  7. Abundance analysis of SDSS J134338.67+484426.6; an extremely metal-poor star from the MARVELS pre-survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, A Susmitha; Beers, T C; Fleming, S; Mahadevan, S; Ge, J

    2016-01-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) star, SDSS J134338.67+484426.6, identified during the course of the MARVELS spectroscopic pre-survey of some 20000 stars to identify suitable candidates for exoplanet searches. This star, with an apparent magnitude V = 12.14, is the lowest metallicity star found in the pre-survey, and is one of only ~20 known EMP stars that are this bright or brighter. Our high-resolution spectroscopic analysis shows that this star is a subgiant with [Fe/H] = -3.42, having "normal" carbon and no enhancement of neutron-capture abundances. Strontium is under-abundant, [Sr/Fe] =-0.47, but the derived lower limit on [Sr/Ba] indicates that Sr is likely enhanced relative to Ba. This star belongs to the sparsely populated class of alpha-poor EMP stars that exhibit low ratios of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] compared to typical halo stars at similar metallicity. The observed variations in radial velocity from several epochs of (low- and high...

  8. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  9. Correlates of quality of life of pre-obese and obese patients: a pharmacy-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Alain

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The correlates of quality of life (QOL, as measured by the OSQOL questionnaire were investigated in a convenience sample of overweight patients recruited in pharmacies. Methods A convenience sample of patients with a Body Mass Index ≥ 28 kg/m2 were recruited in community-based pharmacies. Baseline characteristics and QOL dimensions (1-Physical state, 2-Vitality-desire to do things, 3-Relations with others, 4-Psychological state were reported in self-completed questionnaires from which the risk of obtaining a low QOL was assessed for each dimension. Results QOL was inadequate for all dimensions in the 494 patients included in the study (median age = 61, 48% women, 21% professional persons/top executives. Older pre-obese and obese patients were more likely to report impaired physical functioning (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = [1.10-3.70], but were less severely affected socially (OR = 0.32, 95%CI = [0.15-0.69]. Pre-obese and obese professional persons and top executives showed better physical capabilities (OR = 0.35, 95%CI = [0.15-0.81] and increased vitality (OR = 0.47, 95%CI = [0.23-0.95]. Overall, men's psychological state was better than females' (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = [0.25-0.82]. A body-mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 was significantly associated with poorer QOL scores on physical, relational and psychological dimensions. Conclusion Our data highlighted the influence of the severity of excess weight, gender, age and socioeconomic status on QOL. These factors should be taken into account when interpreting QOL in pre-obese and obese persons.

  10. Is there a demand for physical activity interventions provided by the health care sector? Findings from a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care providers in many countries have delivered interventions to improve physical activity levels among their patients. Thus far, less is known about the population's interest to increase their physical activity levels and their opinion about the health care provider's role in physical activity promotion. The aims of this paper were to investigate the self-reported physical activity levels of the population and intention to increase physical activity levels, self-perceived need for support, and opinions about the responsibilities of both individuals and health care providers to promote physical activity. Methods A regional public health survey was mailed to 13 440 adults (aged 18-84 years living in Östergötland County (Sweden in 2006. The survey was part of the regular effort by the regional Health Authorities. Results About 25% of the population was categorised as physically active, 38% as moderately active, 27% as somewhat active, and 11% as low active. More than one-third (37% had no intentions to increase their physical activity levels, 36% had thought about change, while 27% were determined to change. Lower intention to change was mainly associated with increased age and lower education levels. 28% answered that physical activity was the most important health-related behaviour to change "right now" and 15% of those answered that they wanted or needed support to make this change. Of respondents who might be assumed to be in greatest need of increased activity (i.e. respondents reporting poor general health, BMI>30, and inactivity more than one-quarter wanted support to make improvements to their health. About half of the respondents who wanted support to increase their physical activity levels listed health care providers as a primary source for support. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is considerable need for physical activity interventions in this population. Adults feel great responsibility for

  11. Chupicuaro archaeological sites: from magnetic survey to excavation (late pre-classic period, Middle Lerma Valley, Guanajuato, Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Bichet, Vincent; Durlet, Christophe; Petit, Christophe; Darras, Véronique; Faugère, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the project The area of Chupicuaro, located in the middle valley of the Lerma river, is regarded as one of the major archaeological targets of central Mexico for the late pre-classic period (600 BC-AD 300). Archaeological investigations in the area have been limited because of a large reservoir constructed in 1948 and severe plundering. Since 1999 a French-Mexican research program has concentrated on broadening knowledge of the local Chupicuaro culture and its development (Faugère & D...

  12. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  13. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for advanced renal hyperparathyroidism in Japan: 2004 survey by the Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Takatoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Onoda, Noritaka; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Akizawa, Tadao; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-08-01

    Background. Marked hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is a characteristic feature of severe hyperparathyroidism in patients under chronic haemodialysis treatment. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) is now becoming popular in Japan as a treatment option for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and its cost is covered by the National Health Insurance (NHI) System. The Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention surveyed its membership in 2004 to revise the guidelines for the use of PEIT. Methods. The project was approved by the Executive Committee of the Society, and the primary questionnaire was addressed to 3268 centres (departments) affiliated with the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to all the centres that responded. Results. Although the number of centres to which the questionnaire was sent in 2004 was 3268, compared with 2653 in 1998, the number of responses decreased from 1425 (53.7%) in 1998 to 962 (29.4%) in 2004. To the question of whether the centre performed PEIT, 114 (11.9%) answered 'Yes' and 848 (88.1%) answered 'No' in 2004. It was an increase from 1998 when only 83 (5.8%) of 1425 centres answered 'Yes'. In the 1998 survey, 612 patients underwent PEIT at 74 centres, and in 2004, 2098 patients underwent PEIT at 111 centres. Conclusions. PEIT may become the frequently performed treatment for SHPT patients who become resistant to medical therapy. However, the same problems as in 1998 remain unsolved; that is, recurrent nerve paralysis, difficulty of post-PEIT PTx and lack of evidence showing the long-term effectiveness of PEIT.

  14. Interventions to improve or facilitate linkage to or retention in pre-ART (HIV care and initiation of ART in low- and middle-income settings – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Govindasamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several approaches have been taken to reduce pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART losses between HIV testing and ART initiation in low- and middle-income countries, but a systematic assessment of the evidence has not yet been undertaken. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the potential for interventions to improve or facilitate linkage to or retention in pre-ART care and initiation of ART in low- and middle-income settings. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on Medline, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science and conference databases to identify studies describing interventions aimed at improving linkage to or retention in pre-ART care or initiation of ART. Additional searches were conducted to identify on-going trials on this topic, and experts in the field were contacted. An assessment of the risk of bias was conducted. Interventions were categorized according to key domains in the existing literature. Results: A total of 11,129 potentially relevant citations were identified, of which 24 were eligible for inclusion, with the majority (n=21 from sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, 15 on-going trials were identified. The most common interventions described under key domains included: health system interventions (i.e. integration in the setting of antenatal care; patient convenience and accessibility (i.e. point-of-care CD4 count (POC testing with immediate results, home-based ART initiation; behaviour interventions and peer support (i.e. improved communication, patient referral and education and incentives (i.e. food support. Several interventions showed favourable outcomes: integration of care and peer supporters increased enrolment into HIV care, medical incentives increased pre-ART retention, POC CD4 testing and food incentives increased completion of ART eligibility screening and ART initiation. Most studies focused on the general adult patient population or pregnant women. The majority of published studies were

  15. Evaluating effectiveness of small group information literacy instruction for Undergraduate Medical Education students using a pre- and post-survey study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Powelson, Susan; Lang, Eddy; Aghajafari, Fariba; Edworthy, Steven

    2015-06-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education (UME) programme at the University of Calgary is a three-year programme with a strong emphasis on small group learning. The purpose of our study was to determine whether librarian led small group information literacy instruction, closely integrated with course content and faculty participation, but without a hands on component, was an effective means to convey EBM literacy skills. Five 15-minute EBM information literacy sessions were delivered by three librarians to 12 practicing physician led small groups of 15 students. Students were asked to complete an online survey before and after the sessions. Data analysis was performed through simple descriptive statistics. A total of 144 of 160 students responded to the pre-survey, and 112 students answered the post-survey. Instruction in a small group environment without a mandatory hands on component had a positive impact on student's evidence-based information literacy skills. Students were more likely to consult a librarian and had increased confidence in their abilities to search and find relevant information. Our study demonstrates that student engagement and faculty involvement are effective tools for delivering information literacy skills when working with students in a small group setting outside of a computer classroom. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians in Northern Finland -- a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatiniemi, L; Länkimäki, S; Martikainen, M

    2013-05-01

    Airway management is an important skill in pre-hospital emergency medicine. The most optimal method depends on the resources and experience of the emergency medical service (EMS) providers. We wanted to study the frequency of occurrence, equipment used, problems experienced and maintenance of skills in pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians. A structured questionnaire consisting of 30 questions was distributed to 383 EMS providers in three hospital districts (population 597,521 and area 147,467 km(2) ) in Northern Finland. The questionnaire was answered by 226 EMS providers and 58.5% (224/383) were included in the final analyses. In all, 82.6% (185/224) of the EMS providers were allowed to perform endotracheal intubation (ETI) and 44.2% (99/224) could perform ETI using sedative agents. The annual mean frequency of using a supraglottic airway device (SAD) was 1.0 (range 0-20, n = 224), for ETI it was 2.0 (range 0-16, n = 185) and for bag-valve-mask ventilation it was 4.3 (range 0-30, n = 223). The mean frequency of drug-assisted ETI was 1.1 (range 0-13, n = 99). Unsuccessful ETI had been experienced by 65.7% (119/181) of the EMS providers. Airway management had been practised in an operating room by 25.9% (56/216) and with a manikin by 81.3% (182/224) of the EMS providers during the past 12 months. Advanced airway management procedures are uncommon for most EMS providers in Northern Finland. Procedures, training in and maintenance of airway management skills should be re-evaluated. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  18. “Putting the Occupation Back in Occupational Therapy:” A Survey of Occupational Therapy Practitioners’ Use of Gardening as an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wagenfeld

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines how and why occupational therapy practitioners across practice areas use gardening as an intervention. Respondents’ interpretation of the best and least desirable aspects of their facility’s garden and whether they contributed to its design was also examined. Method. A description and link to a 15-question online survey about gardening as an occupational therapy intervention was emailed to Western Michigan University Occupational Therapy alumni and posted on four OT Connections groups and the AOTA LinkedIn site. Results. Gardening as an occupational therapy intervention is meaningful and purposeful (93.66%, n = 56, motivating (80%, n = 48, fun 61.67% (n = 37, and client-centered (31.67%, n =19. Frequency of gardening as a therapeutic intervention and practitioner involvement in designing the garden was significant (p = .007, suggesting that for respondents, environmental context supports engagement and heightens the meaningfulness and purposefulness of gardening. Conclusion. Based on results of this study, a suggested next step is evidence-based translational and intervention research to validate the efficacy of gardening as an occupational therapy intervention and occupational therapy practitioners’ professional value as implementers of such intervention. Assessing the effectiveness of the role of occupational therapy practitioners in facility garden design is also important to consider.

  19. 不稳定型心绞痛院前急救临床观察%Clinical observation of unstable angina pre-hospital emergency intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华林

    2008-01-01

    目的 总结不稳定型心绞痛院前急救治疗的经验.方法 对院前胸痛患者,采集病史,体格检查,描记ECG并对其做出低中高危的评估,应用硝酸甘油、阿司匹林、使用β-受体阻滞剂、钙拮抗剂、转换酶抑制剂及肝素治疗,基础生命支持与监护.结果 留观期间:心绞痛症状缓解,有效98例(81.7%),加重21例(17.5%),收住院,其中因心绞痛发生顽固性心肌缺血4例,发展为严重心绞痛心律失常心房颤动6例,心源性休克4例,急性心力衰竭5例,非ST段抬高心肌梗死2例.院前猝死1例(0.8%).结论 不稳定型心绞痛患者院前急救措施的开展具有积极作用,早期识别、干预控制冠心病的危险因素,使心肌缺血症状改善,可减轻劳力性心绞痛的发作及改善患者的生活质量.%Objective To sum up unstable angina pre-hospital treatment interventions,clinical observation and assessment guide for emergency treatment.MethodsFor chest pain patients,collecting history,doing physical examination,checking ECG and making risk assessment,then,treating them with nitroglycerin,aspirin,beta-blocker,calcium antagonists,converting enzyme inhibitors,heparin therapy,and basic life support and monitor.Results During detention,there are 98 cases(81.7%)effective with angina symptoms subsided and discharged,21 cases (17.5%)aggravating and hospitalization,in which there are four cases get myocardial ischemia because of refractory angina,six cases of serious arrhythmia AF,four cases of cardiogenic shock,five cases of acute heart failure,and two cases of non.ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.Also,there is one case(0.8%)of sudden death before prehospital treatment.Conclusion Pre-hospital treatment of unstable angina played a positive role in early identification,intervention and control of the risks of coronary artery disease,it also helps improving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia,reducing angina attack,and improving the life quality of the

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the first abundance determination of the pre-main-sequence cluster Gamma Velorum

    CERN Document Server

    Spina, L; Palla, F; Sacco, G G; Magrini, L; Franciosini, E; Morbidelli, L; Prisinzano, L; Alfaro, E J; Biazzo, K; Frasca, A; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Sousa, S G; Adibekyan, V; Delgado-Mena, E; Montes, D; Tabernero, H; Klutsch, A; Gilmore, G; Feltzing, S; Jeffries, R D; Micela, G; Vallenari, A; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Koposov, S; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; de Laverny, P; Masseron, T; Worley, C

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the abundance distribution of star forming regions and young clusters is critical to investigate a variety of issues, from triggered star formation and chemical enrichment by nearby supernova explosions to the ability to form planetary systems.In spite of this, detailed abundance studies are currently available for relatively few regions. In this context, we present the analysis of the metallicity of the Gamma Velorum cluster, based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. The Gamma Velorum candidate members have been observed with FLAMES, using both UVES and Giraffe, depending on the target brightness and spectral type. In order to derive a solid metallicity determination for the cluster, membership of the observed stars must be first assessed. To this aim, we use several membership criteria including radial velocities, surface gravity estimates, and the detection of the photospheric lithium line. Out of the 80 targets observed with UVES, we identify 14 h...

  1. A comprehensive survey of miRNA repertoire and 3' addition events in the placentas of patients with pre-eclampsia from high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To gain insight into potential roles of isomiR spectrum and isomiRs with 3' additions in pre-eclampsia, we performed a comprehensive survey of miRNA repertoire and 3' addition events from placental samples with different degrees of pre-eclampsia by applying SOLiD sequencing platform. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over 30% isomiRs were detected with 3' non-template additional nucleotides, especially for additional nucleotide of adenosine. However, these modified isomiRs showed a lower percentage of total miRNA expression (<15%. Generally, 1-3 abundant isomiRs from a given miRNA locus were identified, but none of them was detected with 3' additions. Different miRNAs indicated various isomiR spectrums and expression patterns. The most abundant isomiR spectrum, isomiR profile and expression pattern always were stability, but herein we found several exceptions across samples, especially between normal and diseased samples. At isomiR level, we detected a distinct subset of differentially expressed modified isomiRs between normal and diseased samples or between mild and severe samples. Gene Ontology analysis of their experimentally validated target genes revealed enrichment for specific biological process categories. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of multiple isomiRs, especially for isomiRs with 3' additions, is not a random event during pre-miRNA processing. Varieties of isomiRs and expression patterns reveal potential functional implication and should be taken into account. The study enriches association of miRNAs and human disease, including potential roles of various miRNA variants and 3' addition events.

  2. Do the pre-service education programmes for midwives in India prepare confident ‘registered midwives’? A survey from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs. This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students from 25 educational institutions (private or government, randomly selected, stratified by the type of programme (diploma and bachelor's. Students assessed their confidence on a four-point scale, in four midwifery competency domains – antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. Explorative factor analysis was used to reduce skill statements into separate subscales for each domain. Results: Overall, 25–40% of students scored above the 75th percentile and 38–50% below the 50th percentile of confidence in all subscales for antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. The majority had not attended the required number of births prescribed by the Indian Nursing Council. Conclusions: The pre-service education offered in the diploma and bachelor's programmes in Gujarat does not prepare confident SBAs, as measured on selected midwifery competencies of the ICM. One of the underlying reasons was less clinical experience during their education. The duration, content, and pedagogy of midwifery education within the integrated programmes need to be reviewed.

  3. A modified Delphi survey on the signs and symptoms of low back pain: indicators for an interventional management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, José; De La Calle, José L; López, Esther; Del Pozo, Cristina; Perucho, Alfredo; Acedo, María Soledad; Bedmar, Dolores; Benito, Javier; De Andrés, Javier; Díaz, Susana; García, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Caro, Leticia; Gracia, Adolfo; Hernández, José María; Insausti, Joaquín; Madariaga, María; Moñino, Pedro; Ruiz, Manuel; Uriarte, Estrella; Vidal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) symptoms and signs are nonspecific. If required, diagnostic blocks may find the source of pain, but indicators of suspect diagnosis must be defined to identify anatomical targets. To reach a consensus from an expert panel on the indicators for the most common causes of LBP. A 3-round (2 telematic and 1 face-to-face) modified Delphi survey with a questionnaire on 78 evidence-based indicators of 7 LBP etiologies was completed by 23 experts. 98.7% of the questionnaire was consensuated. The most accepted indicators were for zygapophysial joint pain, painful ipsilateral paravertebral palpation, worsening with trunk extension, paravertebral musculature spasm on the affected articulation, and referred pain above the knee, without radicular pattern. For sacroiliac joint pain, unilateral pain when seating, with at least 3 described provoking tests: Approximation; gapping; Patrick's; Gaenslen's; thigh thrust; Fortin finger; and Gillet's tests. For discogenic pain, midline pain that may be provoked by pressure on the spinal processes at the affected level; for quadratus lumborum muscle, painful palpation on both the L1 level paravertebral region, referred to iliac crest, and the iliac crest, referred to greater trochanter. For iliopsoas muscle, pain elicited by thigh flexion, referred to buttock, inguinal region, and anterior thigh. For pyramidal muscle, pain while sitting on the affected side and positive Freiberg's test. For radicular pain, paresthesias and positive Lassègue's test at 60°. Seventy-seven diagnostic suspect indicators of LBP conditions were consensuated. These may facilitate conservative or interventional pain management decision-making. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N

    2017-09-01

    It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A High-Resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 With the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Mass accretion in the Pre-Main Sequence Population

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Christian, Carol

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the pre-main-sequence (PMS) population of the young star cluster Westerlund~2 (Wd2), the central ionizing cluster of the HII region RCW 49, using data from a high resolution multi-band survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data were acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F555W, F814W, and F658N filters and with the Wide Field Camera 3 in the F125W, F160W, and F128N filters. We find a mean age of the region of 1.04+-0.72 Myr. The combination of dereddened F555W and F814W photometry in combination with F658N photometry allows us to study and identify stars with H_alpha excess emission. With a careful selection of 240 bona-fide PMS H_alpha excess emitters we were able to determine their H_alpha luminosity, which has a mean value L(H_alpha)=1.67 x 10^{-31} erg s^{-1}. Using the PARSEC 1.2S isochrones to obtain the stellar parameters of the PMS stars we determined a mean mass accretion rate \\dot M_acc=4.43 x 10^{-8} M_sun yr^{-1} per star. A careful analysis of...

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: pre-main-sequence stars in the young open cluster NGC 3293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A. J.; Sampedro, L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Costado, M. T.; Yun, J. L.; Frasca, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Drew, J. E.; Eislöffel, J.; Blomme, R.; Morel, T.; Lobel, A.; Semaan, T.; Randich, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Kalari, V.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Carraro, G.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Morbidelli, L.; Lewis, J.; Koposov, S.; Hourihane, A.; Worley, C.; Casey, A.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G.; Magrini, L.

    2016-08-01

    The young open cluster NGC3293 is included in the observing program of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The radial velocity values provided have been used to assign cluster membership probabilities by means of a single-variable parametric analysis. These membership probabilities are compared to the results of the photometric membership assignment of NGC3293, based on UBVRI photometry. The agreement of the photometric and kinematic member samples amounts to 65 per cent, and could increase to 70 per cent as suggested by the analysis of the differences between both samples. A number of photometric PMS candidate members of spectral type F are found, which are confirmed by the results from VPHAS photometry and SED fitting for the stars in common with VPHAS and GES data sets. Excesses at mid- and near-infrared wavelengths, and signs of Hα emission, are investigated for them. Marginal presence of Hα emission or infilling is detected for the candidate members. Several of them exhibit moderate signs of U excess and weak excesses at mid-IR wavelengths. We suggest that these features originate from accretion discs in their last stages of evolution.

  7. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    OpenAIRE

    Dewedar Sahar; Gad Rita R; Mohamed Mostafa K; Schwarzinger Michaël; Fontanet Arnaud; Carrat Fabrice; Luchini Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where he...

  8. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  9. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  10. High HPV-51 prevalence in invasive cervical cancers: results of a pre-immunization survey in North Sardinia, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma virus (HPV is recognized as the etiological agent of benign and malignant ano-genital lesions. The most prevalent genotypes associated with cervical carcinoma are HPV-16 and -18 worldwide. However, recent studies have emphasized the role of other genotypes, such as HPV-51, in the pathogenesis of cervical dysplasia. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of HPV-51 infection in invasive cervical malignant lesions in Northern Sardinia, Italy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational, retrospective, prevalence, mono-center study was carried out to evaluate the presence of HPV genotypes in tissues biopsies of cervical lesions (CIN-1, CIN-2, CIN-3 and invasive carcinoma gathered from 1996 to 2009. Biological samples were collected from women admitted consecutively to a tertiary university hospital situated in Sassari, Italy. Molecular methods were used to identify 28 oncogenic HPV types. A total of 155 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed. Approximately half of the cervical lesions were classified as invasive carcinoma. HPV-DNA was detected in 71% of the samples, with a higher frequency (100% in those categorized as invasive neoplasia. Mono- or co-infections were demonstrated in 45.8% and 25.8% of the cervical samples, respectively. Overall, the most prevalent HPV types were -16 (49% and -51 (19.4%, with an increased frequency of detection associated with the severity of the cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey highlights for the first time the relevant role of HPV-51 infection in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer prior to the introduction of a vaccination program. Although a selection bias could have influenced the results, other recent studies have described the impact of HPV-51. This remarkable epidemiological element should be carefully evaluated, particularly in the view of opting for preventive vaccines, whose cross-protection patterns

  11. The relative effectiveness of practice change interventions in overcoming common barriers to change: a survey of 14 hospitals with experience implementing evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Fiona; Doig, Gordon S

    2007-10-01

    Changing practice to reflect current best evidence can be costly and time-consuming. The purpose of this survey was to determine the optimal combination of practice change interventions needed to overcome barriers to practice change commonly encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). A survey instrument delivered by mail with email follow-up reminders. Fourteen hospitals throughout Australia and New Zealand. Individuals responsible for implementing an evidence-based guideline for nutritional support in the ICU. Practice change interventions were ranked in order of effectiveness and barriers to change were ranked in order of how frequently they were encountered. A response rate of 100% was achieved. Interventions traditionally regarded as strong (academic detailing, active reminders) were ranked higher than those traditionally regarded as moderate (audit and feedback), or weak (posters, mouse mats). The high ranks of the site initiation visit (educational outreach, modest) and in-servicing (didactic lectures, weak) were unexpected, as was the relatively low rank of educationally influential, peer-nominated opinion leaders. Four hospitals reported the same doctor-related barrier as 'most common' and the remaining 10 hospitals reported three different doctor-related barriers, two nursing-related barriers and three organizational barriers as most common. When designing a multifaceted, multi-centre change strategy, the selection of individual practice change interventions should be based on: (1) an assessment of available resources; (2) recognition of the importance of different types of barriers to different sites; (3) the potential for combinations of interventions to have a synergistic effect on practice change, and (4) the potential for combinations of interventions to actually reduce workload.

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  14. Recognition of and interventions for Mibyeong (subhealth in South Korea: a national web-based survey of Korean medicine practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaeChul Lee

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: We were able to provide preliminary results on KM practitioners’ recognition of and interventions for Mibyeong, but further research is needed to develop a detailed definition of Mibyeong and its myriad subtypes and patterns, and evaluations of the efficacy of Mibyeong interventions.

  15. A search for metal-poor stars pre-enriched by pair-instability supernovae I.A pilot study for target selection from Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Norbert Christlieb; Gang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    We report on a pilot study on identifying metal-poor stars pre-enriched by Pair-Instability Supernovae (PISNe).Very massive,first generation (Population Ⅲ) stars (140 M⊙ ≤ M ≤ 260 M⊙) end their lives as PISNe,which have been predicted by theories,but no relics of PISNe have been observed yet.Among the distinct characteristics of the yields of PISNe,as predicted by theoretical calculations,are a strong odd-even effect,and a strong overabundance of Ca with respect to iron and the solar ratio.We use the latter characteristic to identify metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo that have been pre-enriched by PISNe,by comparing metallicites derived from strong,co-added Fe lines detected in low-resolution (i.e.,R = λ/Δλ ~ 2000) spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),with metallicities determined by the SDSS Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP).The latter are based on the strength of the Ca Ⅱ K line and assumptions on the Ca/Fe abundance ratio.Stars are selected as candidates if their metallicity derived from Fe lines is significantly lower than the SSPP metallicities.In a sample of 12 300 stars for which SDSS spectroscopy is available,we have identified 18 candidate stars.Higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio spectra of these candidates are being obtained with the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and the XSHOOTER spectrograph,to determine their abundance patterns,and to verify our selection method.We plan to apply our method to the database of several million stellar spectra to be acquired with the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (LAMOST) in the next five years.

  16. Which Early Care and Education Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten? National Survey of Early Care & Education. Technical Report. OPRE Report 2015-92a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report draws on newly available data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) to describe early care and education (ECE) centers that participate in two prominent publicly-funded ECE initiatives: Head Start and publicly-funded pre-kindergarten. Although a great deal is known about Head Start programs, and there are sources…

  17. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using

  18. Pressure-reducing interventions among persons with pressure ulcers: results from the first three national pressure ulcer prevalence surveys in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Carina; Idvall, Ewa; Gunningberg, Lena; Hommel, Ami

    2014-02-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe preventive interventions among persons with pressure ulcer (PU) in three nationwide PU prevalence surveys in Sweden. A cross-sectional research design was used; more than 70 000 persons from different hospitals and nursing homes participated in the three prevalence surveys conducted in March 2011, October 2011 and March 2012. The methodology used was that recommended by the European Pressure Ulcers Advisory Panel. The overall prevalence of PU categories I-IV in hospitals was 16.6%, 14.4% and 16.1%, respectively. Corresponding figures for nursing homes were 14.5%, 14.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PU category I. Despite the three prevalence studies that have showed high prevalence of PU the use of preventing interventions is still not on an acceptable level. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PUs, and individual-planned repositioning also increased. However, when persons already have a PU they should all have pressure-reducing preventive interventions to prevent the development of more PUs. Preventing PUs presents a challenge even when facilities have prevention programmes. A PU prevention programme requires an enthusiastic leader who will maintain the team's focus and direction for all staff involved in patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  20. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife M Doyle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469. The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention tested this hypothesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional survey (June 2007 through July 2008 of 13,814 young people aged 15-30 y who had attended trial schools during the first phase of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention trial (1999-2002. Prevalences of the primary outcomes HIV and HSV-2 were 1.8% and 25.9% in males and 4.0% and 41.4% in females, respectively. The intervention did not significantly reduce risk of HIV (males adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.91, 95%CI 0.50-1.65; females aPR 1.07, 95%CI 0.68-1.67 or HSV-2 (males aPR 0.94, 95%CI 0.77-1.15; females aPR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.06. The intervention was associated with a reduction in the proportion of males reporting more than four sexual partners in their lifetime (aPR 0.87, 95%CI 0

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-modal intervention in frail and pre-frail older people with type 2 diabetes--the MID-Frail study: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Bayer, Antony J; Kelly, Mark; Zeyfang, Andrej; Izquierdo, Mikel; Laosa, Olga; Hardman, Timothy C; Sinclair, Alan J; Moreira, Severina; Cook, Justin

    2014-01-24

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent, chronic disease, is associated with increasing frailty and functional decline in older people, with concomitant personal, social, and public health implications. We describe the rationale and methods of the multi-modal intervention in diabetes in frailty (MID-Frail) study. The MID-Frail study is an open, randomised, multicentre study, with random allocation by clusters (each trial site) to a usual care group or an intervention group. A total of 1,718 subjects will be randomised with each site enrolling on average 14 or 15 subjects. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate, in comparison with usual clinical practice, the effectiveness of a multi-modal intervention (specific clinical targets, education, diet, and resistance training exercise) in frail and pre-frail subjects aged ≥70 years with type 2 diabetes in terms of the difference in function 2 years post-randomisation. Difference in function will be measured by changes in a summary ordinal score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) of at least one point. Secondary outcomes include daily activities, economic evaluation, and quality of life. The MID-Frail study will provide evidence on the clinical, functional, social, and economic impact of a multi-modal approach in frail and pre-frail older people with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01654341.

  2. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqing Gao; Yuee Huang; Yongjun Zhang; Fengqiong Liu; Cindy Xin Feng; Tingting Liu; Changwei Li; Dongdong Lin; Yongping Mu; Tarver, Siobhan L.; Mao Wang; Wenjie Sun

    2014-01-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and c...

  3. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewedar Sahar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  4. Examining the Changing Landscape of School Psychology Practice: A Survey of School-Based Practitioners regarding Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Long, Lori

    2010-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RtI) approaches become more common in educational systems throughout the country, it is increasingly important to identify how practitioners perceive these changes and how they obtain the skills necessary to face emergent roles and responsibilities. In this exploratory study, a national sample of 557 school…

  5. Interpersonal Communication and Smoking Cessation in the Context of an Incentive-Based Program: Survey Evidence From a Telehealth Intervention in a Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Nelson, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic disproportionately affects low-income populations, and telehealth is an evidence-based strategy for extending tobacco cessation services to underserved populations. A public health priority is to establish incentive-based interventions at the population level in order to promote long-term smoking cessation in low-income populations. Yet randomized clinical trials show that financial incentives tend to encourage only short-term steps of cessation, not continuous smoking abstinence. One potential mechanism for increasing long-term cessation is interpersonal communication (IPC) in response to population-level interventions. However, more research is needed on IPC and its influence on health behavior change, particularly in the context of incentive-based, population-level programs. This study used survey data gathered after a population-level telehealth intervention that offered $20 incentives to low-income smokers for being connected to Minnesota's free quitline in order to examine how perceived incentive importance and IPC about the incentive-based program relate to both short-term and long-term health behavior change. Results showed that IPC was strongly associated with initial quitline utilization and continuous smoking abstinence as measured by 30-day point prevalence rates at 7-month follow-up. Perceived incentive importance had weak associations with both measures of cessation, and all associations were nonsignificant in models adjusting for IPC. These results were found in descriptive analyses, logistic regression models, and Heckman probit models that adjusted for participant recruitment. In sum, a behavioral telehealth intervention targeting low-income smokers that offered a financial incentive inspired IPC, and this social response was strongly related to utilization of intervention services as well as continuous smoking abstinence.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of interventions for increasing the possession of functioning smoke alarms in households with pre-school children: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Pedro; Cooper, Nicola J; Sutton, Alex J; Hayes, Mike; Dunn, Ken; Manca, Andrea; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-05-16

    The UK has one of the highest rates for deaths from fire and flames in children aged 0-14 years compared to other high income countries. Evidence shows that smoke alarms can reduce the risk of fire-related injury but little exists on their cost-effectiveness. We aimed to compare the cost effectiveness of different interventions for the uptake of 'functioning' smoke alarms and consequently for the prevention of fire-related injuries in children in the UK. We carried out a decision model-based probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis. We used a hypothetical population of newborns and evaluated the impact of living in a household with or without a functioning smoke alarm during the first 5 years of their life on overall lifetime costs and quality of life from a public health perspective. We compared seven interventions, ranging from usual care to more complex interventions comprising of education, free/low cost equipment giveaway, equipment fitting and/or home safety inspection. Education and free/low cost equipment was the most cost-effective intervention with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £34,200 per QALY gained compared to usual care. This was reduced to approximately £4,500 per QALY gained when 1.8 children under the age of 5 were assumed per household. Assessing cost-effectiveness, as well as effectiveness, is important in a public sector system operating under a fixed budget restraint. As highlighted in this study, the more effective interventions (in this case the more complex interventions) may not necessarily be the ones considered the most cost-effective.

  7. A Web-Based Data Collection Platform for Multisite Randomized Behavioral Intervention Trials: Development, Key Software Features, and Results of a User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Riddhi A; Mugavero, Michael J; Amico, Rivet K; Keruly, Jeanne; Quinlivan, Evelyn Byrd; Crane, Heidi M; Guzman, Alfredo; Zinski, Anne; Montue, Solange; Roytburd, Katya; Church, Anna; Willig, James H

    2017-06-16

    Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States. To scale our intervention strategy homogenously across sites, we developed software that would function as a behavioral sciences research platform. This manuscript aimed to: (1) describe the design and implementation of a Web-based software application to facilitate deployment of a multisite behavioral science intervention; and (2) report on results of a survey to capture end-user perspectives of the impact of this platform on the conduct of a behavioral intervention trial. In order to support the implementation of the NIAID-funded trial iENGAGE, we developed software to deploy a 4-site behavioral intervention for new clinic patients with HIV/AIDS. We integrated the study coordinator into the informatics team to participate in the software development process. Here, we report the key software features and the results of the 25-item survey to evaluate user perspectives on research and intervention activities specific to the iENGAGE trial (N=13). The key features addressed are study enrollment, participant randomization, real-time data collection, facilitation of longitudinal workflow, reporting, and reusability. We found 100% user

  8. Decline of medical student idealism in the first and second year of medical school: a survey of pre-clinical medical students at one institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Christopher P; Roseamelia, Carrie; Smith, Jordan A; Villarreal, Ana L

    2013-08-21

    Idealism declines in medical students over the course of training, with some studies identifying the beginning of the decline in year 3 of US curricula. This study tested the hypothesis that a decline in medical student idealism is detectable in the first two years of medical school. We sought to identify differences in survey responses between first-year (MS1) and second-year (MS2) medical students at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of academic year 2010 on three proxies for idealism, including items asking about: (a) motivations for pursuing a medical career; (b) specialty choice; and (c) attitudes toward primary care. Principle component analysis was used to extract linear composite variables (LCVs) from responses to each group of questions; linear regression was then used to test the effect of on each LCV, controlling for race, ethnicity, rural or urban origins, gender, and marital status. MS2s placed more emphasis on status/income concerns (β=0.153, pidealism as a motivator (β=-0.081, p=0.054), in pursuing a medical career; more likely to consider lifestyle and family considerations (β=0.098, p=0.023), and less likely to consider idealistic motivations (β=-0.066, p=NS); and were more likely to endorse both negative/antagonistic (β=0.122, p=0.004) and negative/sympathetic (β=0.126, p=0.004) attitudes toward primary care. The results are suggestive that idealism decline begins earlier than noted in other studies, implying a need for curricular interventions in the first two years of medical school.

  9. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Stereotyped and Repetitive Behaviors of Pre-school Children With Autism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Salmanian, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Soudeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We examined those articles that addressed non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high-quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A, and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can be used to treat repetitive behaviors in children with autism

  10. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  11. Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge of Disordered Sleep, Sleep Assessment Tools, and Nonpharmacological Sleep Interventions for Persons Living with Dementia: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary A. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of persons with dementia will also experience disordered sleep. Disordered sleep in dementia is a common reason for institutionalization and affects cognition, fall risk, agitation, self-care ability, and overall health and quality of life. This report presents findings of a survey of healthcare providers’ awareness of sleep issues, assessment practices, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons with dementia. There were 1846 participants, with the majority being from nursing and rehabilitation. One-third worked in long-term care settings and one-third in acute care. Few reported working in the community. Findings revealed that participants understated the incidence of sleep deficiencies in persons with dementia and generally lacked awareness of the relationship between disordered sleep and dementia. Their knowledge of sleep assessment tools was limited to caregiver reports, self-reports, and sleep diaries, with few using standardized tools or other assessment methods. The relationship between disordered sleep and comorbid conditions was not well understood. The three most common nonpharmacological sleep interventions participants identified using were a regular bedtime routine, increased daytime activity, and restricted caffeine. Awareness of other evidence-based interventions was low. These findings will guide evidence-informed research to develop and test more targeted and contextualized sleep and dementia knowledge translation strategies.

  12. Healthcare providers' knowledge of disordered sleep, sleep assessment tools, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons living with dementia: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A; Wielandt, Patricia; Wilson, Donna; Jones, Allyson; Crick, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    A large proportion of persons with dementia will also experience disordered sleep. Disordered sleep in dementia is a common reason for institutionalization and affects cognition, fall risk, agitation, self-care ability, and overall health and quality of life. This report presents findings of a survey of healthcare providers' awareness of sleep issues, assessment practices, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons with dementia. There were 1846 participants, with the majority being from nursing and rehabilitation. One-third worked in long-term care settings and one-third in acute care. Few reported working in the community. Findings revealed that participants understated the incidence of sleep deficiencies in persons with dementia and generally lacked awareness of the relationship between disordered sleep and dementia. Their knowledge of sleep assessment tools was limited to caregiver reports, self-reports, and sleep diaries, with few using standardized tools or other assessment methods. The relationship between disordered sleep and comorbid conditions was not well understood. The three most common nonpharmacological sleep interventions participants identified using were a regular bedtime routine, increased daytime activity, and restricted caffeine. Awareness of other evidence-based interventions was low. These findings will guide evidence-informed research to develop and test more targeted and contextualized sleep and dementia knowledge translation strategies.

  13. GPS data collected for transects as part of the pre-construction survey at Emergent Sandbar Habitat site on the Missouri River near river mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains land surface elevations on dry and wadeable portions of transects for the hydrographic surveys on the Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam...

  14. The intervention study on the effect of saxagliptin for the population with pre-diabetes%沙格列汀对糖尿病前期人群的干预效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intervention effect of saxagliptin for the pre-diabetes.Method data of 298 cases which are in consistent with the epidemiological screening criteria of pre-diabetes were collected, including 84 cases of impaired fasting glucose, 126 cases of impaired glucose tolerance and 88 cases of abnormal hemoglobin. Each group was randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group received lifestyle intervention while giving saxagliptin treatment; the control group received only lifestyle intervention. The therapeutic effect was compared after 18-month follow-up.Result after 18 months, the indexes of Bmi、WHr、fBg、2hBg、Hba1c、fasting insulin and 2h postprandial insulin of the patients in the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion saxagliptin has better intervention effect for pre-diabetes on blood glucose and weight. it could improve the blood glucose and weight control.%目的:探讨沙格列汀对糖尿病前期人群的干预效果。方法收集符合流行病筛查标准的糖尿病前期患者298例,其中空腹血糖受损组84例,糖耐量异常组126例,糖化血红蛋白异常组88例,将每组患者随机分为治疗组和对照组两个亚组。治疗组在对生活方式进行干预的同时给予沙格列汀治疗,对照组仅给予生活方式的干预。随访18个月后比较治疗效果。结果18个月后,三组患者的治疗组在体重指数、腰臀比、血糖、糖化血红蛋白、空腹胰岛素和餐后2小时胰岛素指标的改善优于相应对照组(P<0.05)。结论沙格列汀对糖尿病前期人群的血糖及体重水平具有较好的干预效果,可改善其血糖及控制体重。

  15. 跆拳道运动员临场与赛中心理失衡及干预研究%Researches on Pre-competition and Running-competition Psychological Unbalance and Its Interventions of Teakwondo Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉强; 张祖强

    2013-01-01

    对跆拳道运动员临场及赛中心理失衡表现及原因进行剖析,阐述心理失衡的表现形式,从教练员干预技法、赛前心理训练及赛中教练员心理辅导及运动员心理自助三个方面提出调节心理失衡的训练目标及方法。旨在通过赛前及赛中有针对性的训练,在最短时间内调节好心理平衡,使运动员在临赛及赛中保持理想的竞技心理状态。%This essay analyzes the behaviors and reasons of pre -competition and running -competition psychological unbalance of teakwondo athletes from the perspectives of coach intervention methods , pre-competition psychological trainings , coach psycho-logical counseling and self -help psychological counselling during running -competition, this essay brings forward the trainning goals and methods for adjusting psychological unbalance .The purpose of these are to make teakwondo athletes maintain better psy-chological state during pre -competition and running -competition.

  16. Pre-discharge exercise test for evaluation of patients with complete or incomplete revascularization following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a DANAMI-2 sub-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, N.; Clemmensen, P.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    with complete revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise capacity was prognostic of reinfarction and/or death in patients with incomplete revascularization, but not in completely revascularized patients. ST segment depression alone did not predict residual coronary stenosis or dismal prognosis Udgivelsesdato......OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the completeness of revascularization impacts on the prognostic value of an exercise test after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The DANAMI-2 trial included patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction randomized to primary PCI...

  17. The impact of pre- and postnatal exposures on allergy related diseases in childhood: a controlled multicentre intervention study in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotterud Christian Kvikne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors such as tobacco exposure, indoor climate and diet are known to be involved in the development of allergy related diseases. The aim was to determine the impact of altered exposure to these factors during pregnancy and infancy on the incidence of allergy related diseases at 2 years of age. Methods Children from a non-selected population of mothers were recruited to a controlled, multicenter intervention study in primary health care. The interventions were an increased maternal and infant intake of n-3 PUFAs and oily fish, reduced parental smoking, and reduced indoor dampness during pregnancy and the children’s first 2 years of life. Questionnaires on baseline data and exposures, and health were collected at 2 years of age. Results The prevalence of smoking amongst the mothers and fathers was approximately halved at 2 years of age in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. The intake of n-3 PUFA supplement and oily fish among the children in the intervention cohort was increased. There was no significant change for indoor dampness. The odds ratio for the incidence of asthma was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93; NNTb 53, and 0.75 for the use of asthma medication (95% CI, 0.58-0.96. The odds ratio for asthma among girls was 0.41 (95% CI 0.24-0.70; NNTb 32, and for boys 0.93 (95% CI 0.68-1.26. There were no significant change for wheeze and atopic dermatitis. Conclusion Reduced tobacco exposure and increased intake of oily fish during pregnancy and early childhood may be effective in reducing the incidence of asthma at 2 years of age. The differential impact in boys and girls indicates that the pathophysiology of asthma may depend on the sex of the children. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28090297.

  18. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Gad, Rita R; Dewedar, Sahar; Fontanet, Arnaud; Carrat, Fabrice; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-12-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study) or two of three interventions (validation study). Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603), improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P < .0001) and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C (66.3%, P < .0001), as confirmed in the validation study (n = 1,019). Higher education, report of HCV-related diseases in the household, and perception of HCV as the most severe risk were significantly associated to setting HCV treatment as the first priority. The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Evaluation of fast food behavior in pre-school children and parents following a one-year intervention with nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Ling, Dong Dong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-06-30

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4-6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into "intervention" and "control" groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as "food", but rather as a "gift" or "interesting". The time of children's consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents' western style fast food behavior (p children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  20. Racism, Health Status, and Birth Outcomes: Results of a Participatory Community-Based Intervention and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Denise C.; Kruger, Daniel J.; Turner, Tonya M.; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E. Hill; Lewis, E. Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and ...

  1. Awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples: a cross-sectional survey in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peierdun Mijiti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among

  2. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, P

  3. Variations in pre-hospital fibrinolysis process of care: insights from the Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic 3 Plus international acute myocardial infarction pre-hospital care survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, R.C.; Goldstein, P.; Adgey, J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Bestilny, S.A.; Wallentin, L.; Werf, F. van de; Armstrong, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic 3 (ASSENT 3 PLUS) Plus trial (n=1639) was an international trial of pre-hospital fibrinolysis with tenecteplase randomly assigned to enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin, involving 106 sites in 12 countries. Given the potential impact o

  4. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: a survey and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, S; Koren-Morag, N; Siman-Tov, M; Livne, I; Altmen, H

    2011-02-01

    The recent rapid increase in childhood obesity rates suggests that a consideration of the role of the schools in addressing this problem is necessary. 'Fits me' program functions to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast among elementary school children. Separate children groups were sampled each year by clusters from seven regions around Israel. They filled a self-administered questionnaire at the beginning of 2003, before the program started, and in 2003-2005, after the program. A separate sample was collected in 2006 in a case-control structure. The answer to the question: 'what do you eat for breakfast?' considered as a healthy breakfast if it included one of the following food items: A sandwich (not including chocolate, jam or butter), cereals, vegetable, fruit, egg and dairy product. As compared with 2003 before the program, more children reported eating daily breakfast over the years (51-65% before and until 2005, respectively, P for trendeating a healthy breakfast, in 2006 in the intervention (n=417) vs controls (n=572), adjusted for sex and age were OR=1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04). However, only a third of 75% of the children who ate a healthy breakfast in the intervention group estimated that they were eating a healthy breakfast. After implementation an educational program to promote daily and healthy breakfast eating, the goal of a healthier breakfast was achieved. However, one should strive to define an exact definition of a healthy breakfast.

  5. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C.; Karam, Elie G.; Stang, Paul E.; Stein, Dan J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Hill, Eric D.; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A.; McLean, Samuel A.; Pennell, Beth E.; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Ruscio, Ayelet M.; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are cos

  6. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Lin, DongDong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L.; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education. PMID:24983391

  7. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01, although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  8. Implementation of a 12-week disease management program improved clinical outcomes and quality of life in adults with asthma in a rural district hospital: pre- and post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnan, Parinya; Boonlert, Kittipa; Pasi, Wanit; Yodsiri, Songkran; Pong-on, Sirinya; Khansa, Bhoonsab; Yongkulwanitchanan, Pichapat

    2010-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective medical treatment and disease management guidelines, asthma remains a poorly controlled disease in developing countries. There is little evidence of the effectiveness of disease management guidelines in rural clinical practice. The effect of disease management guidelines on clinical outcomes and quality of life in asthmatic patients in a rural community hospital was examined. Fifty-seven patients aged > or = 16 years with physician-diagnosed asthma from a hospital outpatient clinic in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand, were recruited. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing clinical records. We implemented a 12-week disease management program, including the use of written asthma treatment plan and asthma action plan tailored to individual patients. Using one-group pre- and post-intervention design, we compared the average number of emergency visits and hospitalizations from acute asthmatic attacks before and after the implementation of interventions using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. We also compared patient's asthma quality of life (AQL) scores, measured using the 7-point scaled Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. It was found that among the 57 patients, 38 (67%) were women, and the mean age (SD) of the patients was 47.6 (17.0) years. Sixteen patients (28%) had a family history of asthma. Emergency visits decreased from 0.48 (SD = 0.83) per patient before implementation of interventions to 0.11 (0.37) per patient after implementation of interventions (p = 0.003). Hospitalizations with acute asthma attacks reduced from 0.14 (0.35) per patient to 0.04 (0.27) per patient (p = 0.034). Overall AQL scores increased significantly from 3.7 to 5.4 (p management program could reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations, and improve patients' quality of life in a rural practice setting.

  9. Effectiveness of resistance training in combination with botulinum toxin-A on hand and arm use in children with cerebral palsy: a pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brændvik, Siri M; Sæther, Rannei; Lamvik, Torarin; Vereijken, Beatrix; Roeleveld, Karin

    2012-07-02

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of additional resistance training after use of Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) on the upper limbs in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children with CP (9-17 years) with unilaterally affected upper limbs according to Manual Ability Classification System II were assigned to two intervention groups. One group received BoNT-A treatment (group B), the other BoNT-A plus eight weeks resistance training (group BT). Hand and arm use were evaluated by means of the Melbourne assessment of unilateral upper limb function (Melbourne) and Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA). Measures of muscle strength, muscle tone, and active range of motion were used to assess neuromuscular body function. Measurements were performed before and two and five months after intervention start. Change scores and differences between the groups in such scores were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, respectively. Both groups had very small improvements in AHA and Melbourne two months after BoNT-A injections, without differences between groups. There were significant, or close to significant, short-term treatment effects in favour of group BT for muscle strength in injected muscles (elbow flexion strength, p = .08) and non-injected muscles (elbow extension and supination strength, both p = .05), without concomitant increases in muscle tone. Active supination range improved in both groups, but more so in group BT (p = .09). There were no differences between the groups five months after intervention start. Resistance training strengthens non-injected muscles temporarily and may reduce short-term strength loss that results from BoNT-A injections without increasing muscle tone. Moreover, additional resistance training may increase active range of motion to a greater extent than BoNT-A alone. None of the improvements in neuromuscular impairments further augmented use of the hand and arm. Larger clinical trials are needed to

  10. Effectiveness of resistance training in combination with botulinum toxin-A on hand and arm use in children with cerebral palsy: a pre-post intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvrum Ann-Kristin G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of additional resistance training after use of Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A on the upper limbs in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Methods Ten children with CP (9–17 years with unilaterally affected upper limbs according to Manual Ability Classification System II were assigned to two intervention groups. One group received BoNT-A treatment (group B, the other BoNT-A plus eight weeks resistance training (group BT. Hand and arm use were evaluated by means of the Melbourne assessment of unilateral upper limb function (Melbourne and Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA. Measures of muscle strength, muscle tone, and active range of motion were used to assess neuromuscular body function. Measurements were performed before and two and five months after intervention start. Change scores and differences between the groups in such scores were subjected to Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, respectively. Results Both groups had very small improvements in AHA and Melbourne two months after BoNT-A injections, without differences between groups. There were significant, or close to significant, short-term treatment effects in favour of group BT for muscle strength in injected muscles (elbow flexion strength, p = .08 and non-injected muscles (elbow extension and supination strength, both p = .05, without concomitant increases in muscle tone. Active supination range improved in both groups, but more so in group BT (p = .09. There were no differences between the groups five months after intervention start. Conclusions Resistance training strengthens non-injected muscles temporarily and may reduce short-term strength loss that results from BoNT-A injections without increasing muscle tone. Moreover, additional resistance training may increase active range of motion to a greater extent than BoNT-A alone. None of the improvements in neuromuscular impairments further

  11. Self-reported changes in the professional singing voice after surgical intervention treatment for breast cancer: a survey pilot study of female professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Margaret M; Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Michael C; Sataloff, Dahlia M; Sataloff, Robert Thayer

    2013-03-01

    The effects of breast cancer surgical treatment on the professional singing voice are unknown. The purpose of this study was to discover whether there are self-perceived changes in the quality and/or process of singing experienced by professional female singers who have undergone surgical intervention for the treatment of diagnosed breast cancer-including any changes perceived from the use of radiation, chemotherapy, and other drug treatments related to those surgeries. A voluntary subject pool comprised female professional singers who have undergone surgery for breast cancer was recruited from professional singing networks. Participants underwent evaluation through an anonymous online survey, psychometrically vetted for content and instrument reliability/validity before administration. Valid participants (N=56) responded to 45 questions regarding surgical procedures, related therapies, and self-perceived vocal effects. Analysis of results produced a preliminary description of types of voice change, duration of changes, and qualitative self-perceptions. This initial report reveals that there are self-perceived singing voice changes experienced by professional singers treated for breast cancer. However, additional research is needed to determine the degree of vocal impact perceived to be attributable to individual surgical interventions and related therapies. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Discussion and Intervention on Safety Hidden Danger of Pre Hospital Emergency Care%院前急救调度安全隐患探讨及干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林舒婷; 庄雅娟

    2016-01-01

    一个院前急救调度工作人员的优秀业务素质和强烈安全意识的水平,与急救人员是否能够准确、快速、高效地进行施救有着极为密切的关系。现将我急救中心调度工作中安全隐患的原因分析及干预措施报告如下。%Amergency personnel is able to accurately, quickly and efficiently carry out the rescue which has a very close relationship with excellent service quality and a strong safety awareness. Cause analysis and intervention study on the safety hazard of my first aid center scheduling work are as follows.

  13. ‘Swim for Health:’ Barriers to participation for pre-school aged children and their families in an aquatic activity intervention in the North of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam B.; Sleap, Mike

    2008-01-01

    health inequalities across the region. Aquatic activity offers great potential for reducing obesity levels in at risk communities (e.g. Hardy 1990). A key group within this intervention was children of pre-school age and their parents in lower socio-economic groups. The study aimed to identify perceived...... indicate only 50% of participants engaged in physical activity without their families. Participants’ male partners engaged more in physical activity alone, suggesting strong gender roles in physical activity choices. Where solitary physical activity was in evidence, perfecting the body through ‘bodywork......’ was central. However, swimming was still popular as a family activity. Participants felt less self-conscious about the perceived deficiencies of their bodies when swimming with their families as they focussed instead on their children’s wellbeing, pool hygiene and risk. Hence, participants emphasised children...

  14. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvine, Dorian [University of Montpellier 1, LASER-CREDEN, UFR d' Economie, Montpellier (France); Wuestenhagen, Rolf [University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). IWOe-HSG

    2011-01-15

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  15. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilert, Timothy; Dillon, Charles; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Hnizdo, Eva; Doney, Brent

    2013-10-09

    During 2007-2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6-79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. This analysis was limited to those aged 40-79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. In 2007-2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40-79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40-79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence

  16. Influence of educational intervention on knowledge and attitude toward emergency management of traumatic dental injuries among nursing students in Davangere, India: Pre- and post-design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Y Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The management of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on knowledge of dentists, doctors, and nurses who render the initial care. Aims: To assess the level of knowledge and attitude toward traumatic dental injuries (TDIs and their emergency management among nursing students in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among the nursing students (240 students in Davangere city. Pretest knowledge and attitude toward TDIs and its emergency management were assessed using a 21 items structured questionnaire followed by posttest knowledge and attitude assessment after delivering health education on the same day. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to check the pre and post difference in the attitude, knowledge of the nursing students. Results: Post health education, a significant difference in knowledge about immediate emergency management of avulsed tooth and tetanus vaccination was observed (P < 0.005 and also in difference in attitude about need of treating avulsed tooth and emergency management of TDIs as one of their educational priorities was noted. Conclusions: Though nursing students have a good attitude toward the management of dental injuries but the lack of knowledge regarding the storage media and time management for avulsed tooth leads to undesirable practice in the management of TDIs.

  17. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Chalee; Leugers, Rebecca; Stephan, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.

  18. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Engelhard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.

  19. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Yé, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of an intervention consisting of a computer-assisted clinical decision support system and performance-based incentives, aiming at improving quality of antenatal and childbirth care. Intervention study in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, six intervention and six non-intervention PHC facilities, located in one intervention and one non-intervention rural districts, were selected. Quality was assessed in each facility by health facility surveys, direct observation of antenatal and childbirth care, exit interviews, and reviews of patient records and maternal and child health registers. Findings of pre- and post-intervention and of intervention and non-intervention health facility quality assessments were analysed and assessed for significant (P < 0.05) quality of care differences. Post-intervention quality scores do not show a clear difference to pre-intervention scores and scores at non-intervention facilities. Only a few variables had a statistically significant better post-intervention quality score and when this is the case this is mostly observed in only one study-arm, being pre-/post-intervention or intervention/non-intervention. Post-intervention care shows similar deficiencies in quality of antenatal and childbirth care and in detection, prevention, and management of obstetric complications as at baseline and non-intervention study facilities. Our intervention study did not show a significant improvement in quality of care during the study period. However, the use of new technology seems acceptable and feasible in rural PHC facilities in resource-constrained settings, creating the opportunity to use this technology to improve quality of care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The potential to improve ascertainment and intervention to reduce smoking in Primary Care: a cross sectional survey

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    Fergus Alexia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well established clinical guidelines recommend that systematic ascertainment of smoking status and intervention to promote cessation in all smokers should be a fundamental component of all health care provision. This study aims to establish the completeness and accuracy of smoking status recording in patients' primary care medical records and the level of interest in receiving smoking cessation support amongst primary care patients in an inner city UK population. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent to all patients aged over 18 from 24 general practices in Nottingham UK who were registered as smokers or had no smoking status recorded in their medical notes. Results The proportion of patients with a smoking status recorded varied between practices from 42.4% to 100% (median 90%. Of the recorded smokers who responded to our questionnaire (35.5% of the total, a median of 20.3% reported that they had not smoked cigarettes or tobacco in the last 12 months. Of respondents with no recorded smoking status, 29.8% reported themselves to be current smokers. Of the 6856 responding individuals thus identified as current smokers, 41.4% indicated that they would like to speak to a specialist smoking adviser to help them stop smoking. This proportion increased with socioeconomic disadvantage (measured by the Townsend Index from 39.1% in the least deprived to 44.6% in the most deprived quintile. Conclusion Whilst in many practices the ascertainment of smoking status is incomplete and/or inaccurate, failure to intervene appropriately on known status still remains the biggest challenge. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71514078.

  1. Pre-interventional assessment and calcification score of the aortic valve and annulus, with multi-detector CT, in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI using the Medtronic CoreValve

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    Antoinette Reinders

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI provides an acceptable alternative for aortic valve replacement in the elderly, but needs accurate pre-procedural imaging to optimise intervention. Objectives: To evaluate an alternative manual aortic valve calcification scoring system with computed tomography, for patients undergoing TAVI. We hypothesise a correlation between the Free State aortic valve calcium computed tomography score (FACTS scoring system, valve plaque density and procedure-related complications. Methods: Twenty patients suitable for TAVI were selected according to standard international guidelines and received multimodality imaging prior to intervention. Images were reviewed by two reviewers who were blinded to each other’s scores. Where large inter-individual score variations existed, retraining was done and scores repeated, using a double-blinded method. Matched scores were included in the final analysis. Rosenhek calcification scores were used as a standard of reference. Results: The study comprised 9 (45% men and 11 (55% women, with a median age of 83.5 years. Median EuroSCORE was 15.5. FACTS scores ≥6 were associated with the presence of a paravalvular leak (p = 0.01. Procedure-related complications (left bundle branch block, repositioning of the valve and anaemia were seen in patients with plaques measuring ≥1000 HU (p = 0.07. Conclusion: The FACTS score and averaged valve plaque HU showed potential for predicting a paravalvular leak and procedure-related complications, and could be valuable in the future for optimising patient selection for TAVI.

  2. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

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    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  3. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study

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    Nagano Yasuharu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Methods Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. Results After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE: 24.4 (2.1 deg was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5 deg (p Conclusions The jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  4. A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England

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    Lang Linda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National Health Service (NHS mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Methods Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. Results In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6% and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%. The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient. There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent, Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38, Occupational therapists (3.76, Nurses (4.01, Medical staff (4.05, Social workers (4.25 and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert. These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert. In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. Conclusions There was a reasonable competence level in the community

  5. The Condition Survey of New Staff Pre-service Training Effect%新职工岗前培训效果的情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晔

    2013-01-01

    新职工岗前培训是医院提升人力资源质量的重要途径,做好新职工岗前培训对于确保医院的可持续发展有着重要的意义。本文就88份新职工岗前培训效果调查表进行分析,为今后继续开展新职工岗前培训工作提供参考。%New staff pre-service training in hospital is the important way to improve the quality of human resources, completing the new employee pre-job training has great significance to ensure the sustainable development of the hospital. This paper analyzed the questionnaire of 88 new staff pre-service training effect, provided the reference for the new staff pre-service training work in the future.

  6. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural parents' vaccination-related attitudes and intention to vaccinate middle and high school children against influenza following educational influenza vaccination intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Painter, Julia E.; PAZOL, Karen; Gargano, Lisa M.; Orenstein, Walter; Hughes, James M.; Ralph J. DiClemente

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined changes in parental influenza vaccination attitudes and intentions after participating in school-based educational influenza vaccination intervention. Methods: Participants were drawn from three counties participating in a school-based influenza vaccination intervention in rural Georgia (baseline N=324; follow-up N=327). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention from phone surveys with parents’ with children attending middle- and high-school. Attitudes, bel...

  8. Pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Ben W J; Roberts, Claire T; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Magee, Laura A; de Groot, Christianne J M; Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2016-03-05

    Pre-eclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies and is traditionally diagnosed by the combined presentation of high blood pressure and proteinuria. New definitions also include maternal organ dysfunction, such as renal insufficiency, liver involvement, neurological or haematological complications, uteroplacental dysfunction, or fetal growth restriction. When left untreated, pre-eclampsia can be lethal, and in low-resource settings, this disorder is one of the main causes of maternal and child mortality. In the absence of curative treatment, the management of pre-eclampsia involves stabilisation of the mother and fetus, followed by delivery at an optimal time. Although algorithms to predict pre-eclampsia are promising, they have yet to become validated. Simple preventive measures, such as low-dose aspirin, calcium, and diet and lifestyle interventions, show potential but small benefit. Because pre-eclampsia predisposes mothers to cardiovascular disease later in life, pregnancy is also a window for future health. A collaborative approach to discovery and assessment of the available treatments will hasten our understanding of pre-eclampsia and is an effort much needed by the women and babies affected by its complications.

  9. Signal functions for emergency obstetric care as an intervention for reducing maternal mortality: a survey of public and private health facilities in Lusaka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, Tannia; Chongwe, Gershom; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Lungowe

    2017-09-06

    Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 398/100,000 live births in 2014. Successful aversion of deaths is dependent on availability and usability of signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Evidence of availability, usability and quality of signal functions in urban settings in Zambia is minimal as previous research has evaluated their distribution in rural settings. This survey evaluated the availability and usability of signal functions in private and public health facilities in Lusaka District of Zambia. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at 35 public and private health facilities. The Service Availability and Readiness Assessment tool was adapted and administered to overall in-charges, hospital administrators or maternity ward supervisors at health facilities providing maternal and newborn health services. The survey quantified infrastructure, human resources, equipment, essential drugs and supplies and used the UN process indicators to determine availability, accessibility and quality of signal functions. Data on deliveries and complications were collected from registers for periods between June 2013 and May 2014. Of the 35 (25.7% private and 74.2% public) health facilities assessed, only 22 (62.8%) were staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week and had provided obstetric care 3 months prior to the survey. Pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia and obstructed labor accounted for most direct complications while postpartum hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths. Overall, 3 (8.6%) and 5 (14.3%) of the health facilities had provided Basic and Comprehensive EmONC services, respectively. All facilities obtained blood products from the only blood bank at a government referral hospital. The UN process indicators can be adequately used to monitor progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Lusaka district had an unmet need for BEmONC as health facilities fell below the minimum UN standard

  10. Evaluation of Intervention Effect of Free Pre Pregnancy Checkups on Ad-verse Pregnancy Outcomes%免费孕前优生健康检查对不良妊娠结局的干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨业军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the free pre pregnancy checkups on adverse pregnancy outcomes (this mainly refers to the birth defects, miscarriage and stillbirth, similarly hereinafter) intervention effect. Methods Select 750 to meet the family planning policy, pre pregnancy underwent free pre pregnancy checkups have been pregnant couples as observation group of this research, and selecting 750 of pregnancy did not receive free pre pregnancy checkups have been pregnant couples as the control group. In the two groups respectively, the research object file establishment, compared two groups of the study object of adverse pregnancy outcome compared to register. Results 3 cases of birth defects, 27 cases of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth occurred in 3 patients in the observation group, the control group 9 cases of 7 cases of birth defects, 44 cases of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth. The obser-vation group of adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The development of free pre pregnancy check, and strictly implement in maternal pre pregnancy namely, to implement various prevention measures, can effectively reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes, has higher application value, should be popularized and applied.%目的:探讨免费孕前优生健康检查对不良妊娠结局(该文主要指出生缺陷、自然流产和死胎死产,下同)的干预效果。方法选取750对符合生育政策、孕前均行免费孕前优生健康检查已孕夫妇作为该研究的观察组,同时选取750对孕前未接受免费孕前优生健康检查已孕夫妇作为对照组。分别对两组研究对象建立档案,比较两组研究对象不良妊娠结局情况进行登记对比。结果观察组中出现3例出生缺陷儿、自然流产27例、死胎死产3例,对照组中共出现9例出生缺陷儿、自然流产44例、死胎死产7例。观察组不良妊娠结局发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)

  11. 某区娱乐场所女性从业人员艾滋病综合干预效果调查分析%Survey and analysis of AIDS comprehensive intervention effect on female practitioners in entertainment venues of a dis-trict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许向东

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解浙江省湖州市南浔区娱乐场所女性从业人员艾滋病,即获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)相关知识、态度、行为状况,评价干预措施的效果。方法采用自行设计调查问卷,以随机抽样的方式选择南浔区5家娱乐场所女性从业人员为调查对象,于2014年4月完成干预前调查,2014年10月完成干预后问卷调查。结果干预前共完成有效调查250人,干预对象的AIDS知识知晓率由干预前的67.2%提高到干预后的84.4%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=172.793,P<0.05);干预后共完成有效调查284人,干预对象对HIV/AIDS人群的态度好于干预前,差异有统计学意义(χ2=326.001,P<0.05);干预后干预对象最近一次商业性行为安全套使用率、HIV抗体检测率、就医行为均较干预前有所提升,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=7.277、60.324、69.432,P<0.05),而干预后梅毒发病率低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.727,P<0.05)。结论开展干预工作能有效提升娱乐场所女性从业人员对AIDS防治的认知、态度,促进相关行为的改变,持续深入的宣传干预能有效地提高女性性工作者人群AIDS知识的知晓率,减少危险行为。%Objective To understand the AIDS related knowledge,attitude and behavior status in female practitioners in Nanxun district entertainment venues and to evaluate the effect of the intervention measures. Methods The self-designed ques-tionnaire was adopted. The female practitioners in 5 entertainment venues were selected as the research subjects by the random sampling way. The pre-intervention survey was completed in April 2014 and post-intervention survey was completed in October 2014. Results 250 persons completed the effective survey before intervention. The AIDS knowledge awareness rate of the inter-vention subjects was increased from 67.2%before intervention to 84.4%after intervention ,the

  12. Measurement properties of a novel survey to assess stages of organizational readiness for evidence-based interventions in community chronic disease prevention settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatakis Katherine A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great deal of variation in the existing capacity of primary prevention programs and policies addressing chronic disease to deliver evidence-based interventions (EBIs. In order to develop and evaluate implementation strategies that are tailored to the appropriate level of capacity, there is a need for an easy-to-administer tool to stage organizational readiness for EBIs. Methods Based on theoretical frameworks, including Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations, we developed a survey instrument to measure four domains representing stages of readiness for EBI: awareness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. A separate scale representing organizational climate as a potential mediator of readiness for EBIs was also included in the survey. Twenty-three questions comprised the four domains, with four to nine items each, using a seven-point response scale. Representatives from obesity, asthma, diabetes, and tobacco prevention programs serving diverse populations in the United States were surveyed (N = 243; test-retest reliability was assessed with 92 respondents. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test and refine readiness scales. Test-retest reliability of the readiness scales, as measured by intraclass correlation, ranged from 0.47–0.71. CFA found good fit for the five-item adoption and implementation scales and resulted in revisions of the awareness and maintenance scales. The awareness scale was split into two two-item scales, representing community and agency awareness. The maintenance scale was split into five- and four-item scales, representing infrastructural maintenance and evaluation maintenance, respectively. Internal reliability of scales (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.66–0.78. The model for the final revised scales approached good fit, with most factor loadings >0.6 and all >0.4. Conclusions The lack of adequate measurement tools hinders progress in dissemination and implementation

  13. Measuring Ocean Literacy in Pre-Service Teachers: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Angelos; Boubonari, Theodora; Mogias, Athanasios; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to respond to the increasing demand for comprehensive tools for the measurement of ocean literacy, by investigating the psychometric characteristics of a Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE), an instrument that assesses conceptual understanding of general ocean sciences content,…

  14. Measuring Ocean Literacy in Pre-Service Teachers: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Angelos; Boubonari, Theodora; Mogias, Athanasios; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to respond to the increasing demand for comprehensive tools for the measurement of ocean literacy, by investigating the psychometric characteristics of a Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE), an instrument that assesses conceptual understanding of general ocean sciences content,…

  15. Technology Integration: Do They or Don't They? A Self-Report Survey from PreK through 5th Grade Professional Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donna

    2006-01-01

    The practice of integrating technology into classroom instruction is mandated by the State of Texas (TEA, 2005, http://www.tea.state.tx.us/teks/index.html). Using a self-report survey, this study investigated technology integration practices on two elementary campuses in a suburban, small-town independent school district, which resides on the…

  16. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  17. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi Pem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK, BMI, Energy Intake (EI, Physical Activity Level (PAL, Dietary Intake (DI and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG and 175 intervention group (IG were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05. NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05. No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05. Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  18. Application of two music intervention modes for patients with pre-senile dementia%两种音乐干预模式在老年痴呆前期病人中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳; 郭明贤; 李烦繁; 高丽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究儿歌习唱式和中医五调式两种音乐治疗模式在养老机构老年痴呆前期病人中的应用效果.[方法]采用简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)和西方失语成套测验法(WAB汉译版)评估并比较干预前后痴呆前期老人的认知功能和语言能力.[结果]儿歌习唱组在干预后MMSE评分和WAB失语商积分均显著高于干预前;且与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).[结论]儿歌习唱式音乐治疗模式更适合应用于养老机构,是一种有效、经济、安全防治痴呆的非药物治疗手段和护理方法.%Objective:To study the applied effect of children's songs training mode and Chinese medical musical composition training mode in patients with pre - senile dementia in pension institutions. Methods: With Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Weatern Aphasia Battery (WAB) ,the cognitive function and language skills of the pre -dementia patients were assessed and compared before and after music therapy. Results: The MMSE score and WAB score in group of children's songs training mode were higher after intervention than that before intervention,and compared with control group there was statistical significant difference in MMSE score and WAB score(P 0. 05). Conclusion:The music therapy of children's songs training mode is more suitable to the pension institutions. It is an effective, economical, and safe treatment and nursing method to prevent and treat the dementia patients which doesn't use drugs.

  19. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) to Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Anaya, Evelin; Wright Nunes, Julie; Mayta Tristán, Percy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction—Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 50 million people globally. Several studies show the importance of implementing interventions that enhance patients' knowledge about their disease. In 2011, the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey (KiKS) was developed, a questionnaire that assesses the specific knowledge about CKD in pre-dialysis patients. Objective—To translate to Spanish, culturally adapt and validate the questionnaire KiKS in a population of patients with pre-dia...

  20. A Brief Educational Intervention Improves Medication Safety Knowledge in Grandparents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Agarwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Increasing grandparent-grandchild interactions have not been targeted as a potential contributing factor to the recent surge in pediatric poisonings. We hypothesized that in grandparents with a young grandchild, a single educational intervention based on the PROTECT “Up & Away” campaign will improve safe medication knowledge and storage at follow-up from baseline. Methods: This prospective cohort study validated the educational intervention and survey via cognitive debriefing followed by evaluation of the educational intervention in increasing safe medication storage. Participants had to read and speak English and have annual contact with one grandchild ≤ 5-years-old. Participants were recruited from a convenience sample of employees in a regional healthcare system. They completed a pre-intervention survey querying baseline demographics, poisoning prevention knowledge, and medication storage, followed by the educational intervention and post-intervention survey. Participants completed a delayed post-intervention survey 50–90 days later assessing medication storage and poisoning prevention knowledge. Storage sites were classified as safe or unsafe a priori|a panel classified handwritten responses. Results: 120 participants were enrolled|95 (79% completed the delayed post-intervention survey. Participants were predominantly female (93% and white (76%|50% had a clinical degree. Participants averaged 1.9 grandchildren. Initially, 23% of participants reported safe medication storage|this improved to 48% after the intervention (OR 6.4|95% CI = 2.5–21.0. 78% of participants made at least one improvement in their medication storage after the intervention even if they did not meet all criteria for safe storage. Participants also demonstrated retention of poisoning prevention knowledge. Conclusions: This brief educational intervention improved safe medication storage and poisoning prevention knowledge in grandparents

  1. Mobilising a disadvantaged community for a cardiovascular intervention: designing PRORIVA in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Öhman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a burden for developing countries, yet few CVD intervention studies have been conducted in developing countries such as Indonesia. This paper outlines the process of designing a community intervention programme to reduce CVD risk factors, and discusses experiences with regard to design issues for a small-scale intervention. Design process: The design process for the present community intervention consisted of six stages: (1 a baseline risk factor survey, (2 design of a small-scale intervention by using both baseline survey and qualitative data, (3 implementation of the small-scale intervention, (4 evaluation of the small-scale intervention and design of a broader CVD intervention in the Yogyakarta municipality, (5 implementation of the broader intervention and 6 evaluation of the broader CVD intervention. According to the baseline survey, 60% of the men were smokers, more than 30% of the population had insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and more than 30% of the population were physically inactive, this is why a small-scale population intervention approach was chosen, guided both by the findings in the quantitative and the qualitative study. Experiences: A quasi-experimental study was designed with a control group and pre- and post-testing. In the small-scale intervention, two sub-districts were selected and randomly assigned as intervention and control areas. Within them, six intervention settings (two sub-villages, two schools and two workplaces and three control settings (a sub-village, a school and a workplace were selected. Health promotion activities targeting the whole community were implemented in the intervention area. During the evaluation, more activities were performed in the low socioeconomic status sub-village and at the civil workplace.

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Pre-project Rare Plant and Wildlife Surveys For the Pit 7 Drainage Diversion and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2007-07-17

    In January 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) released the final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Environmental Remediation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. At the same time, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released the final Negative Declaration and Initial Study covering the Pit 7 remediation. No substantial adverse effect on wildlife species of concern was anticipated from the project. However, it was proposed that wildlife surveys should be conducted prior to construction because species locations and breeding areas could potentially change by the time construction activities began. Although no known populations of rare or endangered/threatened plant species were known to occur within the project impact area at the time these documents were released, rare plants listed by the California Native Plant Society had been observed in the vicinity. As such, both DOE and DTSC proposed that plant surveys would be undertaken at the appropriate time of year to determine if rare plants would be impacted by project construction. This document provides the results of wildlife and rare plant surveys taken prior to the start of construction at the Pit 7 Complex.

  3. An educational intervention to improve pain assessment in preverbal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vael, Aimee; Whitted, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric nurses often use an inappropriate tool to assess pain in children younger than 36 months of age. This intervention intended to improve the nursing practice of assessing pain in preverbal (less than 36 months of age) children. Pain assessment frequency and use of a pain assessment pediatric tool use was evaluated pre- and post-intervention via a retrospective chart review and a survey of pediatric nurses. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to determine significant differences between pre- and post-intervention data for both approaches. The chart review data showed a significant increase in the number of times pain was assessed and documented post-educational intervention. Similarly, the survey data analysis showed a significant post-intervention increase in the use of a pain assessment tool and that most nurses used the FLACC pain assessment tool when assessing pain in preverbal children. Educating staff nurses about the use of an appropriate pain assessment scale altered practice and improved the frequency of pain assessment of preverbal children.

  4. Quality assurance measures in non-interventional studies: Results of a survey among the members of the Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppert, Thorsten

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research into the therapeutic efficacy of a preparation, its safety and tolerability in the human body, as well as its development into a medicinal product is governed by strict legal provisions and regulations such as those stipulated in the German Drug Law (AMG and the German Ordinance for Good Clinical Practice in Trials on Medicinal Products for Human Use (GCP-V. In the post-marketing setting, when drugs are tested under routine conditions and in large numbers of patients, non-interventional studies (NIS, which include Anwendungsbeobachtungen (AWB as the most common form in Germany, have shown to be effective instruments for assessing the safety of a medicinal product and for confirming the results obtained in clinical trials regarding the efficacy of the drug. NIS/AWB studies are not subject to the same strict regulations that govern the development of a medicinal product; in fact they follow recommendations such as those issued by the Federal Higher Authorities and the Expert Committee on Good Epidemiological Practice. Further provisions on NIS/AWB are laid down in the “Codex of the Voluntary Self-regulation for the Pharmaceutical Industry” and the “Common point of view of the Associations of the Pharmaceutical Industry on the assessment of criminality in the collaboration between industry, medical institutions and their staff”. In early 2007, the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA consolidated the essential elements of these recommendations, supplemented them by new provisions and published the resulting document as „VFA Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of Non-interventional Studies“. Among other initiatives, these recommendations stipulate specific measures for quality assurance in NIS, approximating NIS standards to those applicable to clinical trials. At the same time NIS are being subjected to transparency criteria with regard to the planning, conduct and

  5. Efficacy of technology-based interventions to increase the use of hearing protections among adolescent farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid M; Evans, Sydney S; Bielko, Sylvanna L; Rohlman, Diane S

    2017-09-18

    Adolescent farmworkers are exposed to loud noise during farm activities. We present a prospective study that evaluated the efficacy of low-cost, technology-based intervention approaches in high schools to enhance the use of hearing protection among adolescent farmworkers. Six high schools in Iowa that agreed to participate in the study were divided into three equal groups through cluster-randomisation with each group receiving one of the three formats of hearing protection intervention: (a) classroom training, (b) classroom training coupled with smartphone app training and (c) computer training. Participants completed baseline (pre-training) and six-week post-intervention surveys for assessing hearing protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Seventy participants from six schools were initially enrolled but 50 completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys. In most cases, all three groups showed significant improvement in hearing protection knowledge, attitude and frequency of use from pre- to post-intervention. However, changes between groups were statistically non-significant. Although all three formats led to improvements on hearing protection knowledge, attitude and behaviour, the findings of the study, perhaps due to the small sample size, did not allow us to detect whether technology-based hearing protection interventions were more effective than the traditional face-to-face training for adolescent farmworkers.

  6. Towards a Pre-Intervention Analytical Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    example, Piaget (1952; 1954), who contributed fundamental concepts to social psychology, conceives of a f rame as a schema that is a mental representation...E. 2011. “Background on the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework.” Policy Studies Journal 39(1)1:7-27. Piaget , J. 1952. The Origins of

  7. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  8. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  9. Effects of an Education Intervention about HPV Self-Testing for Healthcare Providers and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Brynne E; Katz, Mira L; Shoben, Abigail B; Moore, Deborah; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D; Reiter, Paul L

    2017-01-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing is an emerging cervical cancer screening strategy, yet efforts to educate healthcare providers and staff about HPV self-testing are lacking. We report the findings of a brief education intervention about HPV self-testing for healthcare providers and staff. We conducted education sessions during 2015 with healthcare providers and staff (n = 33) from five federally qualified health centers located in Appalachian Ohio. Participants attended a one-time session and completed pre- and post-intervention surveys. Analyses for paired data assessed changes in knowledge and beliefs about HPV, HPV-related disease, and HPV self-testing. The intervention increased participants' knowledge and affected many of the beliefs examined. Participants answered an average of 4.67 of six knowledge items correctly on pre-intervention surveys and 5.82 items correctly on post-intervention surveys (p HPV self-testing as a potential cervical cancer screening strategy, that their female patients would be willing to use an HPV self-test at home by themselves, and that they have the knowledge to talk with their patients about HPV self-testing (all p HPV self-testing among healthcare providers and staff. Findings will be valuable for planning and developing future HPV self-test interventions that include an education component for healthcare providers and staff.

  10. Training primary care physicians to offer their patients faecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening on an equal basis: a pilot intervention with before-after and parallel group surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Primary care physicians (PCPs) should prescribe faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) or colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening based on their patient's values and preferences. However, there are wide variations between PCPs in the screening method prescribed. The objective was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on PCPs' intent to offer FIT or colonoscopy on an equal basis. DESIGN Survey before and after training seminars, with a parallel comparison ...

  11. The Gaia-ESO Survey: lithium depletion in the Gamma Velorum cluster and inflated radii in low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Jackson, R. J.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Barrado, D.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Gilmore, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Lewis, J.; Jofre, P.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.

    2017-01-01

    We show that non-magnetic models for the evolution of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars cannot simultaneously describe the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the pattern of lithium depletion seen in the cluster of young, low-mass stars surrounding γ2 Velorum. The age of 7.5 ± 1 Myr inferred from the CMD is much younger than that implied by the strong Li depletion seen in the cluster M-dwarfs, and the Li depletion occurs at much redder colours than predicted. The epoch at which a star of a given mass depletes its Li and the surface temperature of that star are both dependent on its radius. We demonstrate that if the low-mass stars have radii ˜10 per cent larger at a given mass and age, then both the CMD and the Li-depletion pattern of the Gamma Velorum cluster are explained at a common age of ≃18-21 Myr. This radius inflation could be produced by some combination of magnetic suppression of convection and extensive cool starspots. Models that incorporate radius inflation suggest that PMS stars, similar to those in the Gamma Velorum cluster, in the range 0.2 30 per cent) than inferred from conventional, non-magnetic models in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Systematic changes of this size may be of great importance in understanding the evolution of young stars, disc lifetimes and the formation of planetary systems.

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Lithium depletion in the Gamma Velorum cluster and inflated radii in low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, R D; Franciosini, E; Randich, S; Barrado, D; Frasca, A; Klutsch, A; Lanzafame, A C; Prisinzano, L; Sacco, G G; Gilmore, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Koposov, S E; Pancino, E; Bayo, A; Casey, A R; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Lewis, J; Jofre, P; Magrini, L; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S; Zwitter, T

    2016-01-01

    We show that non-magnetic models for the evolution of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars *cannot* simultaneously describe the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the pattern of lithium depletion seen in the cluster of young, low-mass stars surrounding $\\gamma^2$ Velorum. The age of 7.5+/-1 Myr inferred from the CMD is much younger than that implied by the strong Li depletion seen in the cluster M-dwarfs and the Li depletion occurs at much redder colours than predicted. The epoch at which a star of a given mass depletes its Li and the surface temperature of that star are both dependent on its radius. We demonstrate that if the low-mass stars have radii ~10 per cent larger at a given mass and age, then both the CMD and Li depletion pattern of the Gamma Vel cluster are explained at a common age of 18-21 Myr. This radius inflation could be produced by some combination of magnetic suppression of convection and extensive cool starspots. Models that incorporate radius inflation suggest that PMS stars similar to those in t...

  13. To change or not to change : a qualititative investigation into employees' experiences of a survey-feedback process in connection to an organizational level health intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Martine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Organizational level interventions have proven habitually difficult to implement with successful outcomes. Recent process evaluations have identified key factors involved in successful outcomes such as participation, communication and manager behaviour. These factors have ultimately to do with fostering employee engagement and commitment to interventions. It is effectively up to the employees whether interventions achieve their goals or not. The objective of the present study was to investiga...

  14. Pre-discovery observations of CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b with the BEST survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, H; Kabath, P; Hedelt, P; Boër, M; Carone, L; Csizmadia, Sz; Eigmueller, P; Paris, P v; Renner, S; Tournois, G; Titz, R; Voss, H

    2009-01-01

    The BEST wide-angle telescope installed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and operated in remote control from Berlin by the Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, has observed the CoRoT target fields prior to the mission. The resulting archive of stellar photometric lightcurves is used to search for deep transit events announced during CoRoT's alarm-mode to aid in fast photometric confirmation of these events. The "initial run" field of CoRoT (IRa01) has been observed with BEST in November and December 2006 for 12 nights. The first "long run" field (LRc01) was observed from June to September 2005 for 35 nights. After standard CCD data reduction, aperture photometry has been performed using the ISIS image subtraction method. About 30,000 lightcurves were obtained in each field. Transits of the first detected planets by the CoRoT mission, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b, were found in archived data of the BEST survey and their lightcurves are presented here. Such detections provide useful information at the early stag...

  15. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mansour MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items

  16. Guiding the design and selection of interventions to influence the implementation of evidence-based practice: an experimental simulation of a complex intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Eccles, Martin; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Baker, Rachel; Walker, Anne; Pitts, Nigel

    2005-05-01

    A consistent finding in health services research is the report of uneven uptake of research findings. Implementation trials have a variable record of success in effectively influencing clinicians' behaviour. A more systematic approach may be to conduct Intervention Modelling Experiments before service-level trials, examining intervention effects on 'interim endpoints' representing clinical behaviour, derived from empirically supported psychological theories. The objectives were to: (1) Design Intervention Modelling Experiments by backward engineering a 'real-world' randomised controlled trial (NEXUS); (2) examine the applicability of psychological theories to clinical decision-making; (3) explore whether psychological theories can illuminate how interventions achieve their effects. A 2 x 2 factorial randomised controlled trial was designed with pre- and post-intervention data collection by postal questionnaire surveys. The first survey was used to generate feedback data and the interventions were delivered in the second survey. General medical practitioners (GPs) in England and Scotland participated. First survey respondents were randomised twice to receive or not audit and feedback and educational reminder messages. The main outcome measures included behavioural intention (general plan to refer for lumbar X-rays) and simulated behaviour (specific, scenario-based, decisions to refer for lumbar X-ray). Predictors were attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (theory of planned behaviour), self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) and decision difficulty. Both interventions significantly influenced simulated behaviour, but neither influenced behavioural intention. There were no interaction effects. All theoretically derived cognitions significantly predicted simulated behaviour. Only subjective norm was not predictive of behavioural intention. The effect of audit and feedback on simulated behaviour was mediated through perceived behavioural control. The

  17. Influenza knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for grade school students: design and novel assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, Tyler H; Huskins, W Charles; Clemens, Christal; Jenkins, Sarah; Pierret, Chris; Ekker, Stephen C; Enders, Felicity T

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact infectious diseases can spread readily in grade schools, few studies have explored prevention in this setting. Additionally, we lack valid tools for students to self-report knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. As part of an ongoing study of a curriculum intervention to promote healthy behaviors, we developed and evaluated age-appropriate surveys to determine students' understanding of influenza prevention. Surveys were adapted from adolescent and adult influenza surveys and administered to students in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) at two Rochester public schools. We assessed student understanding by analyzing percent repeatability of 20 survey questions and compared percent "don't know" (DK) responses across grades, gender, and race. Questions thought to be ambiguous after early survey administration were investigated in student focus groups, modified as appropriate, and reassessed. The response rate across all surveys was >87%. Survey questions were well understood; 16 of 20 questions demonstrated strong pre/post repeatability (>70%). Only 1 question showed an increase in DK response for higher grades (p survey questions and improved measures of understanding in the final survey administration. Grade-school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward influenza prevention can be assessed using surveys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis may be used to assess participant understanding and refine survey development for pediatric survey instruments. These methods may be used to assess the repeatability and validity of surveys to assess the impact of health education interventions in young children.

  18. Can a Community-Based Intervention Improve the Home Food Environment? Parental Perspectives of the Influence of the Delicious and Nutritious Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stephanie; Bauer, Katherine W.; Stang, Jamie; Ireland, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in parental report of the home food environment during the course of a garden-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention for grade school children. Methods: Self-administered pre-post surveys were completed by parents/caregivers (n = 83). Main outcome measures included: child asking behavior, FV…

  19. Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students after a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Duncan, Diana Poovey; Null, Dawn Bloyd; Roth, Sara Long; Gill, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students' perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18-23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys.…

  20. Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students after a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Duncan, Diana Poovey; Null, Dawn Bloyd; Roth, Sara Long; Gill, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students' perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18-23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys.…

  1. Texting Your Way to Healthier Eating? Effects of Participating in a Feedback Intervention Using Text Messaging on Adolescents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both…

  2. Can a Community-Based Intervention Improve the Home Food Environment? Parental Perspectives of the Influence of the Delicious and Nutritious Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stephanie; Bauer, Katherine W.; Stang, Jamie; Ireland, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in parental report of the home food environment during the course of a garden-based fruit and vegetable (FV) intervention for grade school children. Methods: Self-administered pre-post surveys were completed by parents/caregivers (n = 83). Main outcome measures included: child asking behavior, FV…

  3. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  4. Safety and efficacy of at-home robotic locomotion therapy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Rupp

    Full Text Available The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern.Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI.Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD years sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II: Interquartile range 9 to 16 completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks. Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100% for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD. One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe occurred in over 800 training sessions.Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation

  5. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  6. Pubertal assessment: targeted educational intervention for pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Nagarajan, Sairaman; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-08-18

    Background Timely and periodic pubertal assessment in children is vital to identify puberty related disorders. Pediatricians need to have working knowledge of puberty time and tempo. Pediatric residency is an important platform to acquire physical examination skills including pubertal assessment. Objective An educational intervention for teaching pubertal assessment was piloted on pediatric residents at our institution. Methods The intervention comprised of interactive lecture series, ID badge size Tanner stage cards and Tanner posters placed in residents' continuity clinics. Pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention surveys for participating trainees were administered to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Attitudes, practices, knowledge scores, and barriers to Tanner staging conduct were analyzed. Results Forty-three residents participated in the intervention. Knowledge scores of PGY1 (5.95 ± 1.6 vs. 7.47 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) improved right after the intervention, as did self-reported clinical practices of all trainees 3 months post- intervention with regards to conducting external genital examination and performing pubertal assessment. Confidence levels of pediatric trainees in conducting pubertal assessment and comfort levels in assessing the need for endocrine referral based on abnormal Tanner staging improved after the intervention, although the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our intervention is a worthwhile technique for teaching pubertal assessment to residents as it is simple to conduct, easily reproducible, provides baseline knowledge needed for recognition of normal pubertal development and puberty related conditions, and instills confidence in residents.

  7. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  8. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  9. What should be prioritised in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress? An exploratory Delphi Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Pezaro

    2015-09-01

    This study outlines how consensus in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress may be achieved. Study outcomes will steer the design and development of an intervention, and highlight the most salient themes and elements to be included within an online intervention to support midwives. Midwives are entitled to psychological support, yet this is an area in which a paucity of knowledge in relation to their needs resides. This early research is the first of its kind to highlight the needs of midwives. Its’ vision is to develop an evidence based solution to improve the health and well-being of midwives, as they, in turn, care for our mothers and babies.

  10. Availability and quality of anti-malarials among private sector outlets in Myanmar in 2012: results from a large, community-based, cross-sectional survey before a large-scale intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Hnin Su Su; Chen, Ingrid; White, Chris; Sudhinaraset, May; McFarland, Willi; Littrell, Megan; Montagu, Dominic; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-14

    Global malaria control efforts are threatened by the spread and emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 2012, the widespread sale of partial courses of artemisinin-based monotherapy was suspected to take place in the highly accessed, weakly regulated private sector in Myanmar, posing potentially major threats to drug resistance. This study investigated the presence of artemisinin-based monotherapies in the Myanmar private sector, particularly as partial courses of therapy, to inform the targeting of future interventions to stop artemisinin resistance. A large cross-sectional survey comprised of a screening questionnaire was conducted across 26 townships in Myanmar between March and May, 2012. For outlets that stocked anti-malarials at the time of survey, a stock audit was conducted, and for outlets that stocked anti-malarials within 3 months of the survey, a provider survey was conducted. A total of 3,658 outlets were screened, 83% were retailers (pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers) and 17% were healthcare providers (private facilities and health workers). Of the 3,658 outlets screened, 1,359 outlets (32%) stocked at least one anti-malarial at the time of study. Oral artemisinin-based monotherapy comprised of 33% of self-reported anti-malarials dispensing volumes found. The vast majority of artemisinin-based monotherapy was sold by retailers, where 63% confirmed that they sold partial courses of therapy by cutting blister packets. Very few retailers (5%) had malaria rapid diagnostic tests available, and quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy was virtually nonexistent among retailers. Informal private pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers should be targeted for interventions to improve malaria treatment practices in Myanmar, particularly those that threaten the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance.

  11. Status Survey on Knowledge of Medical Staff's Carrying Out Psychological Intervention for the Wounded after Disasters%灾后医护人员对伤员实施心理干预知识的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕芳; 李红玉; 员庆博

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解灾后医护人员对伤员实施心理干预知识的掌握情况.方法 采用整群抽样法,抽取辽宁省锦州市三甲医院、成都市三甲医院在岗医护人员392名,自行设计问卷调查医护人员对伤员进行心理干预知识的掌握情况.结果不同地区医院、是否主动为伤员提供过心理帮助、是否参加过心理干预培训的医护人员问卷得分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);参加过心理干预培训的医护人员与没有参加过心理干预培训的医护人员问卷各纬度(急性应激障碍、慢性创伤性应激障碍、自杀)得分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论医护人员心理干预意识较差,灾害救援经验不足,应加强对医护人员的灾后伤员心理干预知识的教育.%Objective To survey the knowledge of medical staff on carrying out psychological intervention for the wounded after disaster. Methods The cluster sampling taken for recruiting 392 on - the -job medical staff from 3A - graded hospital in Jinzhou city of Liaoning province and Chengdu city. A self - designed questionnaire survey was conducted about their knowledge on carrying out psychological intervention for the wounded after disaster. Results The scores of the medical staff from hospitals of different regions about whether they had initially offered the psychological help to the wounded, and whether they participated in the training on knowledge of psychological intervention showed statistically significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ); and the scores of various dimensions ( acute stress disorder, chronic stress disorder, and suicide ) of the medical staff who had participated the training on knowledge of psychological intervention showed statistically significant differences as compared with those of the medical staff who had not ( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The medical personnel have poorer psychological intervention consciousness and lack experience in disaster relief, so they

  12. Intervención psicomotriz en el área personal/social de un grupo de educación preescolar/ Psychomotor intervention on social/personal area of a group of children of pre-school education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocío Rubio Ponce; David Arnoldo García Fernández; Natanael Cervantes Hernández

    2011-01-01

      In the present study there are realized the analysis of a group of children of the third degree of pre-school education, as for the possible improvement in their personal / social area that includes...

  13. Interventional treatment in diabetics in the era of drugeluting stents and compliance to the ESC guidelines: Lessons learned from the Euro Heart Survey Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); N. Kukreja (Neville); S. Ramcharitar (Steve); M. Hochadel (Matthias); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: The objective of the study is to determine the demographics and the in-hospital outcome of diabetic and non-diabetic patients treated with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in Europe, to report the type of equipment and technology used for PCI procedures in diabetics and to

  14. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.

  15. Effects of a 2-year healthy eating and physical activity intervention for 3-6-year-olds in communities of high and low socio-economic status: the POP (Prevention of Overweight among Pre-school and school children) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, Valerie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine; Verbestel, Vera; Haerens, Leen; Huybrechts, Inge; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based, 2-year, multi-component intervention on BMI, eating and physical activity behaviour in Flanders, Belgium, targeting children aged 3-6 years in communities of high and low socio-economic status (SES). Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one pre-primary and primary schools in three different intervention communities and three paired-matched (on SES profile) control communities in Flanders, Belgium. BMI Z-scores at baseline and follow-up were calculated for 1102 children. Questionnaires with sociodemographic data and FFQ were available from 694 of these 1102 children. No significant effects were found on BMI Z-scores for the total sample. However, there was a significant decrease in BMI Z-score of 0·11 in the low-SES intervention community compared with the low-SES control community, where the BMI Z-score increased by 0·04 (F = 6·26, P = 0·01). No significant intervention effects could be found for eating behaviour, physical activity or screen-time. There were no significant interaction effects of age and gender of the children on the outcome variables. Although no significant effects were found for BMI Z-scores in the total sample, this intervention had a promising effect in the low-SES community of reducing excess weight gain among young children.

  16. Encuesta de opinión: En pre-grado, 2003-2004 de Patología Oral y Estomatología. La Plata, Argentina Survey of Opinion: In Pre-grade 2003-2004 of Oral Pathology and Stomatology, La Plata, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bruno

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un trabajo de investigación sobre el proceso "enseñanza/aprendizaje" realizado a través de Encuestas de opinión por los alumnos del cuarto y quinto curso de Pregrado, de Patología y Clínica Estomatológica. El objetivo fue el evaluar los resultados del "proceso enseñanza /aprendizaje", y su aprovechamiento por los alumnos. Material y métodos: Las comisiones de alumnos que entraron en la encuesta fueron tomadas al azar en los cursos lectivos de los años 2003 y 2004. Las preguntas del cuestionario fueron diez, siendo las mismas en cada año. Las respuestas fueron anónimas y se clasificaron por las categorías SI, SIEMPRE, EN GRAN MEDIDA (favorables y NO, NADA, A VECES, NUNCA Y NO SE RESPONDER (como desfavorables. En este último curso lectivo se agregó una variante pedagógica (multimedia sobre imágenes de patología y estomatología. Se realizó análisis estadístico. Se presentó la información en forma de tablas y gráficos. Se aplicó la prueba del ji2 para comparar cada una de las preguntas realizadas en ambos grupos y en ambos años y se calcularon los odds ratios y sus intervalos de confianza, para indicar el mayor posibilidad favorable para uno u otro grupo, según año de la encuesta. Resultados: Se observaron diferencias significativas (p This work consist about an investigation of the "teaching and learning process" made trough two surveys of opinion, performed by Pre-grade students of 4th and 5th levels of Oral Pathology and Clinic Stomatology. The objetive was to evaluate Instruments used on "teaching and learning process" and its avail. Material and methods: The groups of students that took place in answering the questionary were aleatory selected. There were performed same surveys in each year: 2003 and 2004. Answers were anonymous and they were classificated through some categories as: YES, ALWAYS, IN LARGE QUANTITY (favorable, and SOME TIMES, NEVER and I DON’’T KNOW TO ANSWER. (as no favorable. Over

  17. What Are the Parenting Experiences of Fathers? The Use of Household Survey Data to Inform Decisions about the Delivery of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Dittman, Cassandra K.; Keown, Louise J.; Farruggia, Sue; Rose, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Participants were 933 fathers participating in a large-scale household survey of parenting practices in Queensland Australia. Although the majority of fathers reported having few problems with their children, a significant minority reported behavioral and emotional problems and 5% reported that their child showed a potentially problematic level of…

  18. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.

  19. Identification of intervention categories for aquatic physical therapy in pediatrics using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth: a global expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; García-Muro, Francisco; Cano-Díez, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Lambeck, Johan; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    To identify intervention categories encountered by physical therapists working in aquatic therapy with disabled children, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Aquatic physical therapists were asked to describe concepts related to the functioning of disabled children and their contextual factors. Data were collected in three rounds using the Delphi technique. All answers were translated ('linked') to the ICF-CY and analyzed to determine the degree of consensus. Answers were linked and organized into four diagnostic groups. Overall, in the four groups, 41 Body Functions, 8 Body Structures, 36 Activities and Participation, and 6 Environmental Factors categories were identified as intervention targets. In addition, 8 Environmental Factors that influence aquatic physical therapy were identified. This study highlights the variety of intervention categories available to aquatic physical therapists when treating children in the water. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. An intervention to improve nurse-physician communication in depression care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellen L; Raue, Patrick J; Klimstra, Sibel; Mlodzianowski, Amy E; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Bruce, Martha L

    2010-06-01

    Depression in older adult home care recipients is frequently undetected and inadequately treated. Failed communication between home healthcare personnel and the patient's physician has been identified as a barrier for depression care. The purpose of this pilot intervention study was to improve nurse competency for communicating depression-related information to the physician. A single group pre-post experimental design. Two Medicare-certified home healthcare agencies serving an urban and suburban area in New York. Twenty-eight home care nurses, all female Registered Nurses. Two-hour skills training workshop. To evaluate the intervention, pre-post changes in effective nurse communication using Objective Structured Clinical Examinations and nurse survey reports. The intervention significantly improved the ability of the home care nurse to perform a case presentation in a complete and standard organized format pre versus postintervention. The intervention also increased nurse-reported certainty to communicate depression-related information to the physician. Our findings provide support for the ability of a brief, depression-focused communication skills training intervention to improve home care nurse competency for effectively communicating depression-related information to the physician.

  1. Survey of cognition and intervention on compliance about medical personnel hand hygiene%医务人员手卫生认知和依从性干预效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会川

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过调查了解医务人员手卫生认知情况和依从性,分析手卫生依从性的影响因素.方法 在全院范围内发放手卫生知识调查问卷,感染专职人员和科室感控护士采用现场观察法调查手卫生依从性和洗手正确率.结果 干预前后医务人员手卫生认知度和依从性均有明显提高,干预前总体手卫生依从性为33.04%,洗手正确率为66.33%;干预后依从性为70.02%,正确率为82.90%.结论 采取干预措施,可有效提高医务人员手卫生认知度和依从性.%Objective To investigate cognition and compliance of medical personnel hand hygiene,analyze affecting factors of hand hygiene compliance.Methods This article provided hand hygiene knowledge questionnaire within the hospital-wide,and surveyed hand hygiene compliance and proper hand-washing rate by on-site observation of full-time infection staff and infection control department nurses.Results After intervention,cognition and compliance of medical personnel hand hygiene significantly improved,overall hand hygiene compliance before intervention was 33.04%,proper hand-washing rate was 66.33%,compliance after intervention was 70.02%,proper hand-washing rate was 82.90%.Conclusion The intervention can effectively improve cognition and compliance of medical personnel hand hygiene.

  2. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  3. Effectiveness of a primary health care program on urban and rural community disaster preparedness, Islamic Republic of Iran: a community intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Abolhasanai, Farid; Zanganeh, Ali-Mohammad; Safizadeh, Hossein; Salari, Sirous; Zonoobi, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a capacity-building intervention administered through a primary health care (PHC) system on community disaster preparedness in Iran. A controlled community intervention trial with pre- and postassessments was conducted in 2011 in 3 provinces of Iran. In each province, 2 areas were chosen and randomly selected as an intervention or control group. A total of 9200 households were in the intervention area and 10 010 were in the control area. In each study group in each province 250 households were sampled for pre- and postassessment surveys. Community health volunteers led by PHC staff administered an educational intervention covering elements of hazard awareness and preparedness, with a focus on earthquakes and floods. Relative changes for awareness and readiness scores were assessed to demonstrate changes in outcome variables from pre- to postassessments in intervention and control groups. An effectiveness test of significance was based on interaction between time and area. Households in intervention communities exhibited improved disaster awareness and readiness with respect to all outcome measures. Relative changes in awareness in intervention and control areas were 2.94 and -0.08, respectively (P sustainability, community disaster reduction programs must be integrated into routine public health service delivery.

  4. Beyond bone mineral density, FRAX-based tailor-made intervention thresholds for therapeutic decision in subjects on glucocorticoid: A nationwide osteoporosis survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-Fu; Chen, Jia-Feng; Chen, Yin-Chou; Lai, Han-Ming; Ko, Chi-Hua; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Su, Fu-Mei; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Su, Ben Yu-Jih; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Cheng, Tien-Tsai

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and confers a substantial risk for future fractures. Several recent guidelines for GIOP management have recommended the use of intervention thresholds to direct pharmacological therapy in those at high risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of subjects on a glucocorticoid (GC) and to implement the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)-based intervention threshold for therapeutic decision-making.This was a cohort substudy of a nationwide osteoporosis screening program conducted in Taiwan from 2008 to 2011. All participants were requested to complete a questionnaire including FRAX elements, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) history was assessed before bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. GC users were recruited as the study group. Controls comprised randomly selected age- and sex-matched non-GC users. Individual intervention threshold (IIT) was set at individual-specific FRAX probability of a major osteoporotic fracture, relative to subjects with prior fractures. The characteristics and calculated IIT of all participants were analyzed.A total of 8704 participants were enrolled, including GC users (n = 807) and controls (n = 7897). There was no significant difference in BMD between GC users and controls. Clinical fracture risks, including previous fracture, parental hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis were higher in GC users than in controls. GC users had a higher 10-year probability of either major or hip fracture than controls. The proportion of GC users with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture above IIT was higher than in controls (75.0% vs 10.6%; P controls whose fracture risk was above IIT reported taking AOM.These findings suggest that more GC users should receive active intervention based on IIT, regardless of BMD. However, less than one-fourth of GC users whose fracture

  5. Does an educational intervention improve parents' knowledge about immunization? Experience from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-Lela, Omer Qutaiba; Bux, Siti Halimah; Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Hadi, Hazrina

    2014-10-06

    Parents' knowledge about immunization is an important predictor factor for their children's immunization status. The aims of this study were to assess parents' knowledge and to evaluate the effect of a short educational intervention on improving parents' knowledge of childhood immunization. A cross-sectional study using a pre- and post-test intervention survey of a single group was conducted among Malaysian parents. Changes in total knowledge score before and after the intervention were measured using a validated questionnaire. The intervention consisted of an animated movie and lecture using simple understandable language. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the McNemar x2 test were applied to compare the differences in knowledge before and after the intervention. Seventy-three parents were enrolled in this study; the majority were mothers (n = 64, 87.7%). Parents' knowledge about childhood immunization increased significantly after the intervention compared to the baseline results (p educational level and monthly income (p educational intervention designed for parents had a positive effect on their knowledge about immunization. Educational interventions targeting parents with low levels of education and income are needed. Further studies investigating the actual effectiveness of such interventions on immunization rates and statuses are required.

  6. The effects of multimodal intervention for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases on depression, anxiety, and Type-D pattern. Initial results of the randomized controlled PreFord trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albus, C.; Bjarnson-Wehrens, B.; Gysan, D. B.; Herold, G.; Schneider, C. A.; Eulenburg, C. Zu; Predel, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and Type-D pattern are associated with the earlier development and faster progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the randomized controlled PreFord trial was to improve multiple biological and psychosocial risk factors in the primary prevention of CVD. A total of

  7. The Study on the Intervention Effect of High Dietary Fiber and Low GI Coarse Grain Food for Pre- diabetic Patients' Gut Microbiota%高膳食纤维低血糖生成指数粗杂粮食品对糖尿病前期人群肠道菌群的干预作用研究〔1〕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安阳; 张文青; 郭丽娜; 刘娟; 郝丹丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the intervention effect of high dietary fiber and low GI coarse grain food for pre - diabet-ic patients' gut microbiota. Methods:100 pre - diabetic patients were selected from the community,and randomly divided into intervention group and control group. There were 50 people in each group. The intervention group was intervened for two months with nutrition formulation food(soluble dietary fiber and low - GI coarse grain),combined with nutrition education,exercise in-tervention,diet intervention,psychological interventions and other medical nutrition intervention measures. The control group had no measures. Comparing the difference in the two groups,gut microbiota(lactobacillus,bifidobacteria,E. coli)using fluoro-genic quantitative PCR before and after the intervention. Results:After the intervention,the intervention group's lactobacillus and bifidobacteria increased obviously(P ﹤ 0. 05),and E. coli declined obviously(P ﹤ 0. 05). The control group's indicators had no change(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion:The high dietary fiber and low GI coarse grain food can adjust the structure of gut mi-crobiota of pre - diabetic patients,support beneficial intestinal bacteria,suppress conditioned pathogen,restore intestinal micro-flora,and prevent or delay the occurrence and development of chronic metabolic disease.%目的:分析高膳食纤维低血糖生成指数(GI)粗杂粮食品对糖尿病前期人群肠道菌群的干预效果。方法:从社区筛选出糖尿病前期者100例,随机分为干预组(50例)和对照组(50例)。对干预组采用可溶性膳食纤维和低GI 粗杂粮营养配方食品,辅以营养教育、运动、饮食和心理等医学营养干预措施干预2个月;对照组不采取任何措施。应用荧光定量 PCR 法比较两组人群干预前后肠道菌群中乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌、大肠杆菌数量的变化。结果:干预后,干预组人群肠道中的双歧杆菌、乳

  8. Predicting health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes by applying Bandura social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hung, Shu-Ling

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Bandura social learning theory in a model for identifying personal and environmental factors that predict health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes. The theoretical basis of health-promoting self-care behaviors must be examined to obtain evidence-based knowledge that can help improve the effectiveness of pre-diabetes care. However, such behaviors are rarely studied in people with pre-diabetes. This quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was performed in a convenience sample of two hospitals in southern Taiwan. Two hundred people diagnosed with pre-diabetes at a single health examination center were recruited. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect data regarding personal factors (i.e., participant characteristics, pre-diabetes knowledge, and self-efficacy) and data regarding environmental factors (i.e., social support and perceptions of empowerment process) that may have associations with health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes. Multiple linear regression showed that the factors that had the largest influence on the practice of health-promoting self-care behaviors were self-efficacy, diabetes history, perceptions of empowerment process, and pre-diabetes knowledge. These factors explained 59.3% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behaviors. To prevent the development of diabetes in people with pre-diabetes, healthcare professionals should consider both the personal and the environmental factors identified in this study when assessing health promoting self-care behaviors in patients with pre-diabetes and when selecting the appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of a multifaceted educational intervention including serious games to improve the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, R; Zaragoza, R; Llinares, P; Maseda, E; Rodríguez, A; Quindós, G

    Infections caused by Candida species are common in critically ill patients and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. The EPICO Project (Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 studies) recently used a Delphi approach to elaborate guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in critically ill adult patients. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 recommendations. Specialists anonymously responded to two online surveys before and after a multifaceted educational intervention consisting of 60-min educational sessions, the distribution of slide kits and pocket guides with the recommendations, and an interactive virtual case presented at a teleconference and available for online consultation. A total of 74 Spanish hospitals. Specialists of the Intensive Care Units in the participating hospitals. Specialist knowledge and reported practices evaluated using a survey. The McNemar test was used to compare the responses in the pre- and post-intervention surveys. A total of 255 and 248 specialists completed both surveys, in both periods, respectively. The pre-intervention surveys showed many specialists to be unaware of the best approach for managing invasive candidiasis. After both educational interventions, specialist knowledge and reported practices were found to be more in line with nearly all the recommendations of the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 guidelines, except as regards de-escalation from echinocandins to fluconazole in Candida glabrata infections (p=0.055), and the duration of antifungal treatment in both candidemia and peritoneal candidiasis. This multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico Project recommendations improved specialist knowledge of the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. A pilot study of an emotional intelligence training intervention for a paediatric team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Ellen; Genizi, Jacob; Kerem, Nogah; Reuven-Lalung, Ayalla; Dolev, Niva; Srugo, Isaac; Rofe, Amnon

    2017-02-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the individual's ability to perceive, understand and manage emotion and to understand and relate effectively to others. We examined the degree to which EI training may be associated with a change in EI among different medical personnel and patient satisfaction. The EI of 17 physicians and 10 nurses in paediatric ward was prospectively evaluated with Bar-On's EI at baseline and after 18 months. 11 physicians who did not undergo the intervention served as controls. The intervention consisted of a training programme comprising group discussions, simulations and case studies. Pre-emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and post-EQ-i scores and patient satisfaction surveys of nurse and physicians pre-intervention and post-intervention were analysed. The mean overall EI score of the study sample rose from 99.0±9.6 (both plus and minus mathematical operations standing for SD) at baseline to 105.4±10 (p<0.000) after 18 months, with the most robust increase (nearly 6%; p<0.003) manifested among physicians. In contrast, the control group's EI scores did not change over this period. Within the intervention group, physicians displayed a statistically significant increase in three of the five EI dimensions, compared with only one of the five EI dimensions for nurses. Patient satisfaction scores relating to physician care rose from 4.4 pre-intervention to 4.7 post-intervention (p=0.03). An EI intervention led to an overall increase in EI scores, with a significant improvement in patient satisfaction. These findings suggest important potential benefits for both staff and their patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Karsantik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' opinions on teaching thinking skills. 134 senior pre-service pre-school, English and mathematics teachers studying at a state university in Istanbul participated in the study which is designed based on survey model. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was…

  12. 育龄妇女HBV携带者的焦虑抑郁心理调查与心理干预%Psychological Survey And Psychological Intervention On Anxiety And Depression Of Women HBV Carriers Of Childbearing Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锡芳; 张胜华; 郑萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨育龄妇女慢性乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)携带者的焦虑、抑郁心理状况及心理干预效果。方法:应用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDA)对76例育龄妇女HBV携带者进行焦虑和抑郁情绪问卷调查,并实施心理干预。结果:有93%的育龄妇女HBV有焦虑情绪,有72%的有抑郁情绪。结论:对育龄妇女HBV携带者的焦虑、抑郁心理问题进行相应的心理干预和健康教育是一个行之有效的办法。%Objective:To explore the anxiety and depression status of women HBV carriers of childbearing age and the effect of psychological intervention.Methods:Used the Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) and the Self-rating Depression Scale(SDA) to do questionnaire survey among 76 cases of women HBV carriers of childbearing age with anxiety and depressive mood;and implemented psychological intervention.Result:93% HBV women carriers of childbearing age were with anxiety,72% were with depression.Conclusion:Giving psychological intervention and mental health education to women HBV carriers of childbearing age with anxiety and depression is an effective way.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 3: The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, the interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of a professional aerospace research society, the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Scientists and engineers are difficult to survey for two reasons. First, there are significant problems with the definition of scientists and engineers. Second, typically there are low response rates in surveys of this group. These two problems were found in the NASA surveys. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described here. The postcards assisted in identifying non-eligible persons, particularly when the postcards accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  14. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan; Shivanand Gamanagatti; Deep Narayan Srivastava; Arun Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be pal iative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.

  15. Exploring Cultural Predictors of Military Intervention Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/Wade, E/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY EXPLORING CULTURAL PREDICTORS OF MILITARY INTERVENTION SUCCESS by Dr...post facto exploration of predictors of military intervention success . As such, the research examined pre- and post-intervention political conditions as...qualitative analysis to identify cultural factors that might predict intervention success . The study concluded that Central American former Spanish

  16. mHealth information for migrants: an e-health intervention for internal migrants in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Tran, Hanh Thi Duc; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-05-14

    Socio-economic development in Vietnam has resulted in increased internal migration particularly among young women seeking employment opportunities in cities. Vietnamese female migrants who enter new environments often encounter the loss or neglect of their right to access sexual and reproductive health services. To address this, a mobile health (mHealth) intervention model was implemented over 12 months (2013-2014) in a factory in the Long Bien industrial zone of Hanoi, Vietnam. The intervention provided sexual and reproductive health services for female migrants through text messaging, information booklets accompanied maps, and free counseling via a hotline. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, pre- and post-intervention data were collected to measure changes in women's knowledge and practices related to sexual and reproductive health. Qualitative data in the form of personal interviews were also collected. The sample size for the baseline survey was 411 women, and for the post-intervention survey it was 482 women (the intervention involved an open cohort). The majority of women were unmarried and under the age of 25. Results indicate that there was high uptake of the intervention services and that most women found the services important and useful. In addition, there was evidence that the intervention (1) increased women's knowledge of sexual and reproductive health (e.g., proper use of condoms, identification of high-risk behaviors such as having unprotected sex), and (2) fostered improved practices related to sexual and reproductive health (e.g., increased gynecological check-ups and use of condoms). The study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a multi-faceted intervention for migrant women working in an industrial zone in Hanoi, Vietnam as well as its successful uptake and some early positive effects. This can be used to inform future design and implementation of mHealth/eHealth intervention models for migrant and other vulnerable/hard to

  17. 上海市11至17岁青少年高血压的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among adolescents aged 11 to 17 years in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪斌; 金雪娟; 苏艳玲; 肖蕾; 蔡前芳; 邹汇菲; 葛均波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension as well as the association with overweight/obesity in Shanghai adolescents.Methods School children aged 11 - 17 years in four schools in Shanghai were included in this survey.All students were visited in May 2010 at school by trained nurses or physicians who administered a questionnaire and carried out anthropometric measurements.Anthropometric measurements included height,weight,heart rate and blood pressure.Repeat measurements were performed in school children with elevated blood pressure within one month.The pre-hypertension and hypertension was defined on the basis of the 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group definitions.The overweight and obesity was defined using cutoff points recommended by Working Group of Obesity,China (WGOC).Results There were 4175 school children aged 11 - 17 years [ mean (15.0±l.9)years,52.3% (n=2183)girls and 47.7% (n=1992) boys].There were 72.5 % (n=3025 ) participants with normal blood pressure [girls ( n =1666 ) 76.3% and boys ( n =1361 ) 68.3% ],18.0% ( n =750) participants with pre-hypertension [ 14.2% ( n =310 ) for girls and 22.1% ( n =440 )for boys ],8.3% (n =346) participants with stage 1 hypertension [ 8.2% (n =179 ) for girls and 8.3% ( n =165 ) for boys ] and 1.3 % ( n =54 ) participants with stage 2 hypertension [ 1.3% ( n =28 ) for girls and 1.3% (n =26) for boys].The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% (n =147 ) and 3.0% (n=66) for girls and 13.7% (n=273) and 6.3% (n=125) for boys.After adjusting for gender,age,parental history of hypertension and physical activities,multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the overweight [adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval:1.42(1.16 - 1.75)] and obesity [ adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval:2.35 ( 1.78 - 3.11 ) ] were independent predictors of elevated blood pressure in this cohort.Conclusions The

  18. CS-AUV: an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) for survey construction support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    For several years, AUV development have been successfully focused on general inspection or pre-engineering survey activities. Development of the market will allow new generation to be validate: inspection and intervention AUV, this particularly for field construction support application. Survey construction support is a major market for AUV developments. Advanced subsea and its partners, promotes the development of construction support AUV covering 95% of current tasks performed by ROV during field development. CS AUV, deployed from construction vessels or drilling rigs, is able to perform pre-lay, as-laid survey, TDP monitoring, free-span inspection, LBL arrays deployment work, allowing to dramatically reduce the use of DP 2 ROV support vessel during field installation work. In addition, CS-AUV is supported by an ambitious innovation and development program. (author)

  19. Pre-Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  20. A Survey and Intervention Study of the Military Medics and Physicians' Knowledge about Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Disaster%军医和卫生员“三防”知识认知调查与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京生; 袁跃彬; 胡波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey and promote the military medics and doctors' knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster. Method 243 medics and 110 military physicians were surveyed firstly. And then they learned some knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster through multimedia and demonstrating. Six months later, they were surveyed again. Result Before intervention, related knowledge of the medics and doctors was deficiency( the score was 55. 3 and 50. 3 respectively). The scores of the navy were higher than the land army and the air force. All their scores were promoted significantly after intervention (P <0. 01) , education level had effects on the scores (P <0. 01). Conclusion This study demonstrates the knowledge of the medics and doctors doesn' t meet the needs of military missions, so it is necessary and urgent to improve their related knowledge to make better preparedness for the potential high - tech warfare.%目的 了解并提高部队军医和卫生员“三防”防护知识.方法 共抽样175名军医和243名卫生员,现场填写调查表和考核,一系列干预措施后重复调查和考核.结果 干预前军医和卫生员核化生防护知识均缺乏,分别得分为总成绩的55.3%和50.3%,干预后军医和卫生员成绩均显著提高(P<0.01),文化程度对军医或卫生员干预前后成绩均有显著性影响(P<0.01).结论 部队军医和卫生员“三防”知识与实际要求尚存有差距,努力提高其“三防”知识,为潜在的高技术条件下的局部战争做好军事斗争准备有重要的现实意义.

  1. Teen Intervention Project--Cherokee (TIP-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John

    2006-01-01

    To test the feasibility of providing a cultural school-based substance abuse intervention for Cherokee adolescents and to examine the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance, substance abuse, and stress. A 10-week group intervention was implemented over a 3-year period for Cherokee adolescent substance abusers. Pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 90-day post-intervention measures of Cherokee self-reliance, substance abuse, and stress were administered to 108 Cherokee adolescent high school students who participated in the intervention. Immediate and 90-day post-intervention substance abuse rates were significantly lower than pre-intervention rates. Cherokee self-reliance scores were significantly increased. Perceived stress scores were significantly lower immediately post-intervention but increased 90-day post-intervention. The Teen Intervention Project--Cherokee is an effective and culturally appropriate school-based intervention for Cherokee adolescent substance abusers.

  2. Effects of music intervention on anxiety and pain reduction in ambulatory maxillofacial and otorhinolaryngology surgery: a descriptive survey of 27 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilani, Chafik; Simondet, Nicolas; Maalouf, Ramzi; Yigitoglu, Ahmet; Bougrine, Alexandre; Simon, Didier; Fligny, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine patients' opinion regarding listening to music before an ambulatory maxillofacial surgery and effects on anxiety and pain reduction. This study was conducted on outpatients having a maxillofacial surgery between December 2015 and April 2016 at Poissy/Saint-Germain-en-Laye hospital (France). Patients listened with headphones to an easy-listening music in the operation theater before the first ambulation. A questionnaire including a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and anxiety was given to participants. The primary endpoint was to determine patients' opinion regarding listening to music before surgery. Secondary endpoints were to determine VAS pain mean, VAS anxiety mean before surgery, VAS anxiety mean after surgery, and if patients wanted to listen to their own playlist. We decided to compare VAS anxiety and pain mean between patients who accepted to listen to music (ALM) and who refused to listen to music (RLM). Nineteen patients ALM and 8 patients RLM to music. 78.9% of patients considered that listening to music before surgery decreased their anxiety. In patients who ALM, the mean (standard deviation, SD) of VAS pain after surgery was 3.42 (1.95), the mean (SD) of VAS anxiety before surgery was 3.1 (2.3), and the mean (SD) of VAS anxiety was 1.21 (0.85). There was a statistically significantly difference of the VAS anxiety mean (SD) before surgery between patients who ALM 3.10 (2.30) and who RLM 6.12 (1.88) (p = 0.005). There was a statistically significantly difference of the VAS anxiety mean (SD) after surgery between patients who ALM 1.21 (0.85) and who RLM 2.62 (1.30) (p = 0.009). Fifty percent of the patients wanted to choose their own music. Music seems to reduce anxiety before maxillofacial surgery. An interventional randomized study is needed to demonstrate the positive impact of music on anxiety before maxillofacial surgery.

  3. Microbial survey of ready-to-eat salad ingredients sold at retail reveals the occurrence and the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 2 and 87 in pre-packed smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Man Ling; Aung, Kyaw Thu; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Lee, Pei Sze Valarie; Lim, Pei Ying; Kang, Joanne Su Lin; Ng, Youming; Yap, Hooi Ming; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Ng, Lee Ching

    2017-02-28

    As the preparation of salads involves extensive handling and the use of uncooked ingredients, they are particularly vulnerable to microbial contamination. This study aimed to determine the microbial safety and quality of pre-packed salads and salad bar ingredients sold in Singapore, so as to identify public health risks that could arise from consuming salads and to determine areas for improvement in the management of food safety. The most frequently encountered organism in pre-packed salad samples was B. cereus, particularly in pasta salads (33.3%, 10/30). The most commonly detected organism in salad bar ingredients was L. monocytogenes, in particular seafood ingredients (44.1%, 15/34), largely due to contaminated smoked salmon. Further investigation showed that 21.6% (37/171) of the pre-packed smoked salmon sold in supermarkets contained L. monocytogenes. Significantly higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes and higher Standard Plate Count were detected in smoked salmon at salad bars compared to pre-packed smoked salmon in supermarkets, which suggested multiplication of the organism as the products move down the supply chain. Further molecular analysis revealed that L. monocytogenes Sequence Type (ST) 2 and ST87 were present in a particular brand of pre-packed salmon products over a 4-year period, implying a potential persistent contamination problem at the manufacturing level. Our findings highlighted a need to improve manufacturing and retail hygiene processes as well as to educate vulnerable populations to avoid consuming food prone to L. monocytogenes contamination.

  4. IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE AMONG MEDICAL GRADUATES OF RURAL TERTIARY CARE, TEACHING HOSPITAL OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Designed, Pre-tested Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered and analyzed using statistical software ‘EPI INFO 3.5.3’.Results: In our study a total of 65 medical graduates were responded and involved in the pre KAP and post KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rate between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant and that shows effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of Pharmacovigilance among medical graduates.Conclusion: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates by mean of continuous educational intervention would bring update of knowledge for drug safety into their everyday clinical practice and also bring the adverse drug reactions(ADRs reporting culture among them.

  5. Pre-K Program Helps Low-Income Kids Succeed in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161281.html Pre-K Program Helps Low-Income Kids Succeed in School ... findings suggest that family-centered intervention during pre-K has the potential to mitigate the effect of ...

  6. Pre-counseling education for low literacy women at risk of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC): patient experiences using the Cancer Risk Education Intervention Tool (CREdIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Galen; Beattie, Mary S; Lee, Robin; Braithwaite, Dejana; Wilcox, Carolina; Metrikin, Maya; Lamvik, Kate; Luce, Judith

    2010-10-01

    The Cancer Risk Education Intervention Tool (CREdIT) is a computer-based (non-interactive) slide presentation designed to educate low-literacy, and ethnically and racially diverse public hospital patients at risk of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) about genetics. To qualitatively evaluate participants' experience with and perceptions of a genetic education program as an adjunct to genetic counseling, we conducted direct observations of the intervention, semi-structured in person interviews with 11 women who viewed CREdIT, and post-counseling questionnaires with the two participating genetic counselors. Five themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: (1) genetic counseling and testing for breast/ovarian cancer was a new concept; (2) CREdIT's story format was particularly appealing; (3) changes in participants' perceived risk for breast cancer varied; (4) some misunderstandings about individual risk and heredity persisted after CREdIT and counseling; (5) the context for viewing CREdIT shaped responses to the presentation. Observations demonstrated ways to make the information provided in CREdIT and by genetic counselors more consistent. In a post-session counselor questionnaire, counselors' rating of the patient's preparedness before the session was significantly higher for patients who viewed CREdIT prior to their appointments than for other patients. This novel educational tool fills a gap in HBOC education by tailoring information to women of lower literacy and diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds. The tool was well received by interview participants and counselors alike. Further study is needed to examine the varied effects of CREdIT on risk perception. In addition, the implementation of CREdIT in diverse clinical settings and the cultural adaptation of CREdIT to specific populations reflect important areas for future work.

  7. Can teaching agenda-setting skills to physicians improve clinical interaction quality? A controlled intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers William H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians and medical educators have repeatedly acknowledged the inadequacy of communication skills training in the medical school curriculum and opportunities to improve these skills in practice. This study of a controlled intervention evaluates the effect of teaching practicing physicians the skill of "agenda-setting" on patients' experiences with care. The agenda-setting intervention aimed to engage clinicians in the practice of initiating patient encounters by eliciting the full set of concerns from the patient's perspective and using that information to prioritize and negotiate which clinical issues should most appropriately be dealt with and which (if any should be deferred to a subsequent visit. Methods Ten physicians from a large physician organization in California with baseline patient survey scores below the statewide 25th percentile participated in the agenda-setting intervention. Eleven physicians matched on baseline scores, geography, specialty, and practice size were selected as controls. Changes in survey summary scores from pre- and post-intervention surveys were compared between the two groups. Multilevel regression models that accounted for the clustering of patients within physicians and controlled for respondent characteristics were used to examine the effect of the intervention on survey scale scores. Results There was statistically significant improvement in intervention physicians' ability to "explain things in a way that was easy to understand" (p = 0.02 and marginally significant improvement in the overall quality of physician-patient interactions (p = 0.08 compared to control group physicians. Changes in patients' experiences with organizational access, care coordination, and office staff interactions did not differ by experimental group. Conclusion A simple and modest behavioral training for practicing physicians has potential to positively affect physician-patient relationship interaction quality

  8. Bathymetry data for the pre-construction survey of the Emergent Sandbar Habitat project at river mile 761.4 downstream from Gavins Point dam on the Missouri River.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set contains the points collected by the echosounder on transects in the downstream project reach surrounding the construction area at River...

  9. Bathymetry data for the pre-construction survey of the Emergent Sandbar Habitat project at river mile 769.8 downstream from Gavins Point Dam on the Missouri River.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set contains the points collected by the echosounder on transects in the upstream project reach surrounding the construction area at River Mile...

  10. Effective Interventions on Service Quality Improvement in a Physiotherapy Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Gharibi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and improves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reliable researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. Results: In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Service quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  11. Effective interventions on service quality improvement in a physiotherapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Farid; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh; Eteraf Oskouei, MirAli; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associ-ated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and im-proves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reli-able researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (PService quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  12. The impact of two organizational interventions on the health of service sector workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jørgensen, Carla; Saksvik, Per Oystein

    2005-01-01

    Studies focusing on interactive service work that involves face-to-face interactions between employees and customers/clients have shown that employees tend to show symptoms of job dissatisfaction, stress, and emotional exhaustion because they are expected to display or suppress certain emotions in the performance of their jobs. To meet the health challenges and reduce sickness absenteeism among employees in this sector, two organizational interventions were implemented among service workers employed by the municipality and in a shopping mall in a medium-sized Norwegian city. In a field experiment, the authors evaluated the effect of this type of intervention on employee health. The experiment combined survey measures (pre- and post-intervention) with observations and unstructured interviews. The survey data showed positive changes on only two of the measured variables among the shopping mall employees, and no effect on the municipal employees. This article focuses on the qualitative data, which show how constraints related to time and to interactional and organizational practices impeded full involvement of the employees during implementation of the interventions. The authors discuss the results from the perspective of the general challenges of implementing interventions in the service sector.

  13. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  14. Interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrich, W. (ed.) (Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Medizinische Radiologie); Gross-Fengels, W. (ed.) (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie)

    1993-01-01

    In interventional radiology adjunctive medical therapy can increase patient's comfort, and should further reduce the risks of the procedures. In order to fulfill the responsibility of the interventionist to the patients and to increase the success rate of the interventions, a profound knowledge of certain drugs is indispensable. This includes, for example, sedatives, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs and agents to prevent infections, thromboembolic complications or restenoses. Moreover, a good monitoring system during complex procedures will increase the safety of radiological interventions. These topics and several more are presented in this book. (orig.). 32 figs.

  15. Survey of MSM HIV high-risk behavior and evaluation of comprehensive intervention%男男性行为人群 HIV 高危行为调查及综合干预评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李细苟; 林培森; 唐军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of comprehensive intervention on related awareness rate of knowledge and high-risk behavior of MSM AIDS.Methods Use the self-designed questionnaire and conduct a survey of 94 cases of MSM who seek counseling and testing services in 2014 from Zhongshan affluent rural communities HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinic, comparing the change of related awareness rate of knowledge and high-risk behavior of AIDS before and after intervention.Results After taking comprehensive intervening measures, a general increase (P <0.01) in the awareness rate of basic knowledge of AIDS after intervention compared with before, a general decrease in the incidence rate of high-risk behavior (anal sex and same-sex behavior, with two or more same-sex anal sex, etc.) after intervention compared with before (P <0.01 or P <0.05), the use of condoms was obviously improved (P <0.01 or P <0.05).Conclusions Selecting the appropriate comprehensive intervening measures can effectively improve the awareness rate of basic knowledge of AIDS among MSM, reduce high-risk behavior and help to reduce and control the spread of HIV in the crowd.%目的:观察综合干预对男男性接触者(MSM)艾滋病相关知识知晓率、高危行为的影响。方法采用自行设计的调查表,对94例2014年来自中山市富裕农村社区艾滋病自愿咨询检测门诊寻求咨询检测服务的 MSM 进行调查,比较干预前、后艾滋病相关知识知晓率、高危行为的变化。结果采取综合干预措施后,94名调查对象的艾滋病基本知识知晓率较干预前普遍上升(P <0.01),高危行为(与同性发生肛交行为、与2个或以上同性发生肛交行为等)发生率较干预前普遍下降(P <0.01或 P <0.05),安全套使用情况得到明显改善(P <0.01或 P <0.05)。结论选择合适的综合干预措施,可有效提高 MSM 人群艾滋病基本知识知晓率,减少高危行

  16. Survey on Needs of Training for Parents of Pre-school Children with Autism in Beijing, China%北京市学前孤独症儿童家长培训需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷长芬; 刘洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the needs and related factors of training for parents of pre-school children with autism in Beijing. Methods From March to June, 2013, 154 parents of pre-school children with autism in Beijing were investigated with questionnaire. Re-sults The parents of pre-school children with autism needed a wide range of training, especially the professional guidance and cooperation. The degree of education of parents and the gender of children associated with the content of the training. Conclusion The parents of pre-school children with autism need a wide range of training, especially the professional guidance and cooperation.%目的 了解北京市0~6岁孤独症儿童家长培训需求的现状及其影响因素.方法 2013年3~6月,采用问卷调查法对154名学龄前孤独症儿童家长进行问卷调查.结果 北京市0~6岁孤独症儿童家长在各维度都呈现出高培训需求,其中对专业指导与专业合作需求显著高于其他教育培训需求.家长的文化程度和儿童性别对家长培训的内容有显著影响.结论 学前孤独症儿童家长培训需求迫切,尤其是在专业指导与专业合作方面的需求强烈.

  17. Hospital information system survey in qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Rashid; Reti, Shane; Feldman, Henry; Safran, Charles; Niaz, Rashid; Erskine, Alistair; Elmagarmid, Ahmed; Al-Musleh, Abdulwahab

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare can be enhanced by the effective use of information technology to improve the quality and safety of care and many healthcare providers are adopting advanced health information technology to improve their healthcare delivery process. Qatar is a relatively young Middle Eastern country with an ambitious and progressive national strategy to develop its healthcare system, including an advanced e-health infrastructure delivering the right medical information at the right time to clinicians and patients. To assess the effectiveness of such programs, it is important to have a pre-intervention baseline from which comparisons, performance against target measures and forward thinking strategic planning can be grounded. This study presents the first published campus wide survey of Hospital Information Systems in large public and private hospitals in Qatar. To qualitatively assess and describe the current state of Hospital Information Systems in large hospitals in Qatar, and to establish a baseline or reference point for Qatar's readiness for, and adoption of Hospital Information Systems.

  18. Work–Life Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lu Calvin Ong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite disparities in the conceptualization of work–life balance (WLB and work–life harmony (WLH in the literature, there remains no evidence till date to validate these differences. Furthermore, there are currently no insights that shed light on the relationship between work–life initiatives and key business strategies of contemporary organizations. Hence, the current study investigated the differences between the constructs of WLB and WLH using a cognitive dissonance approach and assessed the impact of work–life interventions, based on these approaches, on individual creativity at work. Hundred participants, age ranging from 18 to 32 years (M = 23.94, SD = 3.87, with at least 6 months of working experience were recruited. Using an online questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned into WLB (n = 55 or WLH (n = 45 conditions. Participants were tasked to complete pre- and post-intervention measures of individual creativity, as well as a manipulation check using a cognitive dissonance scale. Results showed that participants in the WLB condition elicit higher levels of cognitive dissonance compared with participants in the WLH condition. This indicates an implicit difference in the constructs of WLB and harmony. Second, findings also suggest that work–life interventions adopting a WLH approach will have a more positive impact on individuals’ creativity at work compared with interventions targeted at achieving balance. Research, practical, and cultural implications of the findings are discussed in the article.

  19. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  20. 流动儿童免疫规划现状调查及干预措施探讨%Survey of floating children immunization programs and interventions measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐平; 郭倩敏; 叶丽莹; 梁润娣

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解流动儿童免疫规划现况及其影响因素,探索促进相关工作的干预措施,为流动儿童免疫规划工作提供科学依据.方法 采用现场拦截法对前来接种疫苗的流动儿童家长进行包括干预需求、疫苗使用、传染病知识等基线调查,随后通过发放宣传资料、播放宣传短片、举办知识讲座等方式实施健康干预.干预后使用相同的问卷再次进行相关知识知晓率的调查;并在项目实施前及实施1年半后对辖区流动儿童国家免疫规划疫苗和二类疫苗的接种率进行统计分析.结果 在接受问卷调查的530名对象中,91.7%的人群表示有了解预防接种知识的需要;67.5%的人希望是在孩子刚出生时获得相关知识;干预前后对免疫规划相关知识知晓率由24.2%提高至74.9%,差异有统计学意义(X2=273.08,P<0.05).辖区流动儿童国家免疫规划疫苗(一类疫苗)的全程接种率从71.46%提高至91.18%,差异有统计学意义(X2=248.87,P<0.05).二类疫苗的接种率也显著提高.结论 流动儿童家长普遍对免疫规划健康教育有需求,开展免疫预防知识宣传,提高流动儿童家长参与免疫预防的自觉性、主动性,是提高流动儿童接种率的重要措施.%Objective In order to understand children's immunization status and influencing factors,to explore related interventions, to improve floating children's immunization programs,and provide scientific basis for management. Methods By field intercept method to perform the base line survey of the knowledge of intervention needs, vaccine and infectious diseases of the parents of the floating children who were coming for vaccination.lt was followed by distributing promotional materials, playing promotion flims.and holding lectures of health education.After the promotion of health education,the same questionnaire for the survey of knowledge of awareness, and status of immunization programs for

  1. BE-SAFE: Bedside sonography for assessment of the fetus in emergencies: educational intervention for late-pregnancy obstetric ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachita; Adedipe, Adeyinka; Ruffatto, Benjamin; Backlund, Brandon H; Sajed, Dana; Rood, Kari; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2014-09-01

    Late obstetric emergencies are time critical presentations in the emergency department. Evaluation to ensure the safety of mother and child includes rapid assessment of fetal viability, fetal heart rate (FHR), fetal lie, and estimated gestational age (EGA). Point-of-care (POC) obstetric ultrasound (OBUS) offers the advantage of being able to provide all these measurements. We studied the impact of POC OBUS training on emergency physician (EP) confidence, knowledge, and OBUS skill performance on a live model. This is a prospective observational study evaluating an educational intervention we designed, called the BE-SAFE curriculum (BEdside Sonography for the Assessment of the Fetus in Emergencies). Subjects were a convenience sample of EP attendings (N=17) and residents (N=14). Prior to the educational intervention, participants completed a self-assessment survey on their confidence regarding OBUS, and took a pre-test to assess their baseline knowledge of OBUS. They then completed a 3-hour training session consisting of didactic and hands-on education in OBUS. After training, each subject's time and accuracy of performance of FHR, EGA, and fetal lie was recorded. Post-intervention knowledge tests and confidence surveys were administered. Results were compared with non-parametric t-tests. Pre- and post-test knowledge assessment scores for previously untrained EPs improved from 65.7% [SD=20.8] to 90% [SD=8.2] (peducational intervention, EPs can accurately and rapidly use ultrasound to determine FHR, fetal lie, and estimate gestational age in mid-late pregnancy.

  2. 小儿外科重大疾病术前贫血与干预多中心调查%Multi-center epidemiological survey of preoperative anemia and intervention status of some major pediatric surgical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茹; 刘晋萍; 周荣华; 李鹏; 王斌; 郑珊; 舒强

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解国内部分地区小儿外科某些重大疾病术前贫血与干预状况,为进一步开展小儿围术期血液管理提供依据.方法 研究单位分别选择2012年5月至2014年3月期间住院的非紫绀先天性心脏病、先天性巨结肠和胆总管囊肿患儿做回顾性问卷调查.纳入标准:最接近手术日的术前血常规报告血红蛋白(Hb)值低于120 g/L即诊断贫血.干预措施指对术前贫血是否采用输血或补充促红细胞生成素(rHuEPO)、铁剂、维生素等等.结果 共调查北京、上海、杭州、西安、深圳和成都地区6家医院874例患儿.其中先天性心脏病组458例,男282例,女176例;年龄2个月至13.5岁,平均(28.58±29.79)个月.Hb低于120 g/L有276例,总发生率为60.3%,其中轻度贫血(Hb<120 g/L,≥90 g/L)为58.1%(266/458),中度以上贫血(Hb<90 g/L)为2.2%(10/458).福利院、小于1岁或/和肺动脉高压的患儿贫血发生率分别明显高于总发生率(P=0.008、P<0.001、P<0.001);普外组416例中,男204例,女212例,年龄2个月至16.25岁,平均(28.60±32.30)个月.Hb低于120 g/L有331例,总发生率为79.6%,其中轻度贫血为71.4%(297/416),中度以上贫血为8.2%(34/416).术前贫血发生率各个地区存在明显差异,从50%到100%不等;对术前贫血不处理直接手术的比例达到89.1%以上;除个别医院术前采用rHuEPO,较少有其他干预措施.结论 国内部分地区小儿外科某些重大疾病术前贫血发生率较高,不干预直接手术的状况十分普遍,应引起重视.%Objective To explore the incidence of preoperative anemia and intervention status of some major pediatric surgical diseases in some domestic areas so as to provide scientific rationales for perioperative blood management in children.Methods The hospitalized patients with non-cyanotic congenital heart disease,Hirschsprug's diseaseor choledochal cyst from May 2012 to March 2014 at all study units were surveyed

  3. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Pre-survey in Europe; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey in Europe surveyed the current status of the coal industry, supporting directions and policies of governments on the coal industry, and summarized the information thereof. The survey included movements in policies and activities in transfer of technologies to overseas countries by governments and corporations of different countries, and the current status of the coal technology training project. The survey covered Britain and Germany. The British coal industry is facing a serious difficulty because the electric power industry being the major coal purchaser has changes its sourcing to natural gas. In addition, the open-cut mining which has been considered high in productivity has no further hope of big progress due to regulations in the environmental aspects. However, as a result of having performed positively research and development on production cost reduction, the production efficiency has grown excellently. Using this situation as the base, positive advancement into overseas countries is being carried out. The German coal industry has, in spite of having reduced the production size and the number of coal mines, shifted coal purchasers to electric power generation and steel making areas, and its quality and supply capability stand equivalent to those of imported coals. (NEDO)

  4. Logo-od: The applicability of Logotherapy as an organisation development intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel. H. Burger; Freddie Crous; Gert Roodt

    2008-01-01

    the study investigated the relationship between “resistance to or readiness for change” (ror-change) and “meaning seeking”, and whether a logotherapy-based intervention – Logo-OD – would impact on resistance to change. A quasi-experimental design and various statistical procedures were applied to test formulated hypotheses. of a survey population of 1 637 individuals, 193 and 76 respondents formed part of the pre- and post-test samples respectively. Whereas a signifcant relationship was estab...

  5. Logo-od: The applicability of Logotherapy as an organisation development intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel H. Burger; Freddie Crous; Gert Roodt

    2008-01-01

    the study investigated the relationship between “resistance to or readiness for change” (ror-change) and “meaning seeking”, and whether a logotherapy-based intervention – Logo-OD – would impact on resistance to change. A quasi-experimental design and various statistical procedures were applied to test formulated hypotheses. of a survey population of 1 637 individuals, 193 and 76 respondents formed part of the pre- and post-test samples respectively. Whereas a signifcant relationship was estab...

  6. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home.

  7. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-11

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those

  8. Pre-Hausdorff Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stine, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces three separation conditions for topological spaces, called T_{0,1}, T_{0,2} ("pre-Hausdorff"), and T_{1,2}. These conditions generalize the classical T_(1) and T_(2) separation axioms, and they have advantages over them topologically which we discuss. We establish several different characterizations of pre-Hausdorff spaces, and a characterization of Hausdorff spaces in terms of pre-Hausdorff. We also discuss some classical Theorems of general topology which can or cannot be generalized by replacing the Hausdorff condition by pre-Hausdorff.

  9. JinQi-Jiangtang tablet, a Chinese patent medicine, for pre-diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-diabetes is a growing health concern where a large percentage of these patients develop full type 2 diabetes. Effective interventions on pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the occurrence or development of diabetes. Pharmaco-dynamics and pre-clinical of JinQi-Jiangtang tablets (JQJT suggest that it could be benefit for pre-diabetes. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT is implemented in this study. The study term is 24 months (12 months for intervention and 12 months for follow up. Participants are recruited from four cities of China: Beijing, Tianjin, Xi'an and Nanning. Four hundred participants are randomized to treatment group (JQJT tablets and control group (Placebo; two hundred participants each. People being included in this study must have been diagnosed as pre-diabetes via western medicine criteria and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM criteria. The end-point indexes include: incidence of diabetes mellitus and reversion rate. Primary outcome indexes include: oral glucose tolerance test; insulin releasing test; glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1c. Secondary outcome indexes include: score of the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36; score of TCM symptoms; blood lipid test. Indexes of safety include: general medical examination; blood and urine regular test; electrocardiogram (ECG, liver function (ALT and renal function (BUN, Creatinine test; record of adverse event, such as headache, faint, etc. Qualitative control will be implemented and a number of standard operating processes (SOPs will be formed throughout the study: laboratory quality control measures; compliance control for researchers and participants; researcher training before study; supervision; investigational drug management and others. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of JinQi JiangTang (JQJT tablets for the treatment of patients with pre-diabetes. Trial registration Chinese clinical trials

  10. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Sumar, Nureen; Barberio, Amanda M; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman Rc

    2016-09-16

    and uncontrolled pre-post. We contacted study authors at different points in the review to ask for missing information. Two review authors extracted data, and two review authors assessed risk of bias for each included initiative.We analysed the impact of initiatives by using estimates of sodium consumption from dietary surveys or urine samples. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day. We analysed impact by computing the mean change in salt intake (grams per day) from pre-intervention to post-intervention. We reviewed a total of 881 full-text documents. From these, we identified 15 national initiatives, including more than 260,000 people, that met the inclusion criteria. None of the initiatives were provided in lower-middle-income or low-income countries. All initiatives except one used an uncontrolled pre-post study design.Because of high levels of study heterogeneity (I(2) > 90%), we focused on individual initiatives rather than on pooled results.Ten initiatives provided sufficient data for quantitative analysis of impact (64,798 participants). As required by the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method, we graded the evidence as very low due to the risk of bias of the included studies, as well as variation in the direction and size of effect across the studies. Five of these showed mean decreases in average daily salt intake per person from pre-intervention to post-intervention, ranging from 1.15 grams/day less (Finland) to 0.35 grams/day less (Ireland). Two initiatives showed mean increase in salt intake from pre-intervention to post-intervention: Canada (1.66) and Switzerland (0.80 grams/day more per person. The remaining initiatives did not show a statistically significant mean change.Seven of the 10 initiatives were multi-component and incorporated intervention activities of a structural nature (e.g. food product reformulation, food procurement policy in specific settings). Of those

  11. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Katherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo, grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies and compliance with guidelines (one study. Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in

  12. Impact of a modified nursing handover model for improving nursing care and documentation in the emergency department: A pre- and post-implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Debra; Klim, Sharon; Kelly, Anne-Maree; McCann, Terence

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of a new nursing handover model led to improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation. A pre- and post-implementation study, using a survey and document audit, was conducted in a hospital ED in Melbourne. A convenience sample of nurses completed the survey at baseline (n = 67) and post-intervention (n = 59), and the audit was completed at both time points. Results showed significant improvements in several processes: handover in front of the patient (P post-intervention). Statistically significant improvements in the completion of two nursing care tasks and three documentation items were identified. The findings suggest that implementation of a new handover model improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation, and transfer of important information to nurses on oncoming shifts.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers and Climate Change: A Stalemate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from the second phase of a study of pre-service teachers' attitudes to environmental education and knowledge of climate change are reported in this paper. A sample of 87 pre-service teachers participated in a survey study in the last year of their Bachelor of Education degree to examine developments to their attitudes to environmental…

  14. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  16. Australian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey of Australian primary pre-service teachers' experiences, conceptions and perceptions of geography. Research was conducted with two cohorts of undergraduate primary pre-service teachers; one group in second year and another in the final year of a four-year teacher education course. The findings show…

  17. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of Turkish language pre-service teachers' communication skills. Descriptive survey model was used in this study. 218 pre-service Turkish language teachers, who are studying at Department of Turkish Language Teaching at a university in the west of Turkey, participated in the study. Criterion…

  18. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  19. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  20. The Effect of Intervention by Conscious Sedation on the Finger Photoplethysmogram in Pre-operation%清醒镇静对非应激状态下指光电容积脉搏波的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娟; 阚明秀; 徐磊

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察清醒镇静效应对非应激状态下指光电容积脉搏波( FPPG )的影响,探讨光电容积脉搏波与患者镇静状态之间的关系。方法选择拟在全麻下行甲状腺或乳腺择期手术的患者80例,ASAⅠ或Ⅱ级,依据盐酸右美托咪定的使用剂量随机分为4组(D1,D2,D3,C组),记录患者入室后10min(T0)、给药后10min (T1),15min(T2),20min(T3),25min(T4),30min(T5)各时点的Ramsay镇静评分,并采集患者FPPG信号,各时点描记脉搏波形30s,数据进行离线分析。结果①与T0比较,D1组、D2组和D3组3组患者T1~T5 Ramsay评分均明显升高(P<0.05);与T3比较,T4和T5时D3组无统计学差异;与T4比较,T5时D1组、D2组Ramsay评分无差异。同一时点比较D3组Ramsay镇静评分最高,D2组次之,D1组最低;D1组、D2组和D3组Ramsay评分明显高于C组(P<0.05)。②与T0比较,D1组、D2组和D3组T1~T5 PPGA明显升高(P<0.05),C组PPGA无差异;与T4比较,T5时D1组、D2组、D3组和C组4组PPGA无差异(P>0.05)。与C组比较,T1~T5时D1组、D2组和D3组PPGA均明显升高。③Pearson相关性分析:D1,D2,D3组PPGA分别与Ramsay镇静评分呈正相关( r=0.493,r=0.724,r=0.379,P<0.01)。结论清醒镇静下,光电容积脉搏波波幅呈现规律性变化。随着Ramsay镇静评分逐级增高,光电容积脉搏波波幅逐渐增大,两者呈正相关;当镇静强度无显著差异时,光电容积脉搏波波幅无显著变化。%[ ABSTRACT] Objective To investigate the sedative effect of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the finger photoplethysmogram in pre-operation,and to discuss the relationship between the status of sedation and finger photoplethysmogram( FPPG) .Methods Eighty pa-tients,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ,undergoing thyroid or breast operation under general anesthesia were randomly divided into four groups

  1. Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King'ola Nzioki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. Thereafter, peer educators provided STI/HIV education, condoms, and facilitated HIV testing, treatment and care services. In 2005, data were collected using identical survey methods, allowing comparison with historical controls, and between FSW who had or had not received peer interventions. Results Over five years, sex work became predominately a full-time activity, with increased mean sexual partners (2.8 versus 4.9/week; P P P = 0.36. Conclusion Peer-mediated interventions were associated with an increase in protected sex. Though peer-mediated interventions remain important, higher coverage is needed and more efficacious interventions to reduce overall vulnerability and risk.

  2. A teaching intervention for reading laboratory experiments in college-level introductory chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maria Kristine

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that a pre-laboratory guide, conceptualized as a "scientific story grammar," has on college chemistry students' learning when they read an introductory chemistry laboratory manual and perform the experiments in the chemistry laboratory. The participants (N = 56) were students enrolled in four existing general chemistry laboratory sections taught by two instructors at a women's liberal arts college. The pre-laboratory guide consisted of eight questions about the experiment, including the purpose, chemical species, variables, chemical method, procedure, and hypothesis. The effects of the intervention were compared with those of the traditional pre-laboratory assignment for the eight chemistry experiments. Measures included quizzes, tests, chemistry achievement test, science process skills test, laboratory reports, laboratory average, and semester grade. The covariates were mathematical aptitude and prior knowledge of chemistry and science processes, on which the groups differed significantly. The study captured students' perceptions of their experience in general chemistry through a survey and interviews with eight students. The only significant differences in the treatment group's performance were in some subscores on lecture items and laboratory items on the quizzes. An apparent induction period was noted, in that significant measures occurred in mid-semester. Voluntary study with the pre-laboratory guide by control students precluded significant differences on measures given later in the semester. The groups' responses to the survey were similar. Significant instructor effects on three survey items were corroborated by the interviews. The researcher's students were more positive about their pre-laboratory tasks, enjoyed the laboratory sessions more, and were more confident about doing chemistry experiments than the laboratory instructor's groups due to differences in scaffolding by the instructors.

  3. O gênero artigo de opinião: diagnóstico e intervenção na formação inicial de professores de português The opinion article genre: diagnosis and intervention in pre-service portuguese teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Valéria Doná Hilá

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, vinculado ao grupo de pesquisa "Interação e escrita no ensino e aprendizagem" (UEM/CNPq, à luz da Lingüística Aplicada, na perspectiva sócio-histórica da linguagem, tem dois objetivos principais: apresentar um diagnóstico sobre o gênero artigo de opinião realizado com estagiários de língua portuguesa do curso de Letras de Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM, evidenciando as dificuldades de transposição didática do gênero em questão, e refletir sobre a proposta de intervenção realizada por duas professoras formadoras. Como corpus da investigação utilizamos o plano de aula de uma dupla de estagiários elaborado para a segunda série do Ensino Médio. A experiência evidenciou a ausência da internalização, por parte dos alunos, de conceitos e saberes referentes a teorias enunciativas, o que dificulta o processo de transposição didática. Nesse sentido, a seqüência didática (SD elaborada pelas professoras formadoras foi uma ferramenta de trabalho essencial para a alteração do diagnóstico inicial.Situated in the field of Applied Linguistics, the study, linked to the research group "Interaction and writing in the teaching and learning process" (UEM/CNPq, is grounded on the socio-historical perspective of language and has two main objectives: i to present a diagnosis of the opinion article genre done with pre-service teachers of the Portuguese from the teaching education program at the State University of Maringá, demonstrating their difficulties in doing the didactic transposition of the genre; ii to reflect about an intervention plan offered by two of the pre-service teachers. One of their lesson plans designed for high school students constituted the research corpus. Data revealed that there was no internalization of the enunciative theories, concepts and knowledge by the pre-service teachers, making the didactic transposition process difficult. The didactic sequence (DS was an important tool for

  4. Kentucky Teen Institute: Results of a 1-Year, Health Advocacy Training Intervention for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M; Rice, Jason A; Steinbock, Stacie; Reno-Weber, Ben; Okpokho, Ime; Pile, Amanda; Carrico, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    The Kentucky Teen Institute trains youth throughout the state to advocate for policies that promote health in their communities. By evaluating two program summits held at universities, regularly scheduled community meetings, ongoing technical support, and an advocacy day at the state Capitol, the aims of this study were to assess the impact of the intervention on correlates of youths' advocacy intentions and behaviors and to assess youth participants' and other key stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. An ecological model approach and the theory of planned behavior served as theoretical frameworks from which pre-post, one-group survey and qualitative data were collected (June 2013-June 2014). An equal number of low-income and non-low-income youth representing five counties participated in the Summer Summit pretest (n = 24) and Children's Advocacy Day at the Capitol posttest (n = 14). Survey data revealed that youths' attitude toward advocacy, intentions to advocate, and advocacy behaviors all improved over the intervention. Observations, interviews, a focus group, and other written evaluations identified that the youths', as well as their mentors' and advocacy coaches', confidence, communities' capacity, and mutually beneficial mentorship strengthened. Stronger public speaking skills, communication among the teams, and other recommendations for future advocacy interventions are described.

  5. ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY AT PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sulimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of modern antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy at percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with coronary artery disease are surveyed. Data of multicenter randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses are discussed. Possibilities of various drugs at percutaneous coronary interventions are reported from position of the international clinical guidelines.

  6. Do pre-drinkers consume more alcohol than non-pre-drinkers on an event-specific night out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Skov, Peter Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Young people drinking heavily before going out to bars and clubs is associated with alcohol-related harm and therefore of great public concern. This study examines whether pre-drinkers consume more alcohol than non-pre-drinkers on an event-specific night out in England...... demographics, socioeconomic status, frequency of intoxication and alcohol unit intake before and during the young people's night out. Results A mixed linear model performed on the panel mobile survey shows that pre-drinkers in England and Denmark consume 9.185 (P ..., respectively, more than the non-pre-drinkers. However, in both countries pre-drinkers consume 3.430 (P alcohol on-premises than the non-pre-drinkers. Discussion and Conclusion Pre-drinking is a widespread phenomenon in England and Denmark, with more than half of young...

  7. 浙江省卫生机构控烟实施及烟草暴露的现况调查%A Survey on Tobacco Control Interventions and Secondhand Tobacco Exposure in Health Institutions of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏霞; 王红妹; 徐越; 徐水洋; 吴青青

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省卫生机构的控烟措施实施情况及烟草暴露流行程度,为烟草控制及卫生决策提供依据.方法 采用分阶段、按地理位置的随机抽样,对62家卫生机构开展知情人调查和现场观察法,对机构内1275名成年人开展拦截式问卷调查,收集机构的控烟措施及烟草暴露信息.结果 医院和其他卫生机构的职工吸烟率分别为11.59%和23.26%.在62家卫生机构中,69.35%开展过无烟单位创建活动,70.97%有禁烟规定,32.26%为职工提供戒烟帮助.拦截调查发现,发现25.18%卫生机构内存在吸烟现象,发现11.06%机构内有工作人员制止吸烟行为.医院和其他卫生机构内的吸烟者是本单位工作人员的分别为41.86%和70.67%.结论 浙江省卫生机构存在相当比例的烟草暴露现象,需进一步落实卫生机构控烟措施.%Objective To assess the tobacco control interventions and secondhand smoke exposure in health institutions of Zhejiang Province, and to provide the basis for tobacco control and health decision - making. Methods A survey was conducted involving 62 settings and 1275 adults in Zhejiang province who were selected by randomized multi - stage sampling based on geographic location. They were investigated with on - site observation and questionnaires, and data of local tobacco control activities and secondhand smoke exposure were also collected. Results Smoking rates of hospitals and the other health agencies were 11. 59% and 23.26% , respectively. About 69. 35% of settings had proposed to create " Non - smoking Agency" ; 70. 97% of settings had completely indoor smoking ban; only 32. 26% of settings provided employees with smoking cessation assistance; 25. 18% of settings had found secondhand smoke exposure; and in 11. 06% of settings, the staff had stopped customers from smoking. Among smokers in the hospital, 41. 86% were the stuff; while 70. 67% of those in other health institutions

  8. 河南省某县HIV感染者和AIDS患者的营养状况调查及饮食干预%Nutritional Status Survey and Dietary Intervention for HIV Infected Individuals and AIDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷伟; 田学森; 贾勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河南省农村地区HIV感染者和AIDS患者的营养状况,为调整膳食结构、实施饮食干预提供基础资料.方法 选择某艾滋病高发县年龄为30~65岁的健康人30名作为对照组,HIV感染者40人和AIDS患者42人作为病例观察组,分别进行体格测量、膳食调查和血液生化检测,所获数据采用统计软件SPSS 13.0进行分析处理.结果 各组调查对象谷类、蔬菜类和蛋类每日人均摄入量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),膳食结构以谷类为主,蔬菜水果摄入较低,豆类、奶类及其制品和畜禽肉类、水产品类摄入严重不足,多种维生素、矿物质摄入量不足,能量营养素供能比不合理,血中锌含量和白蛋白水平较低,血钙含量偏低更为普遍.结论 由于该县多数HIV感染者和AIDS患者处在艾滋病的潜伏期和患病前期,调查对象整体营养状况尚可;膳食结构不合理,多种维生素、矿物质需要补充,能量和蛋白质(尤其优质蛋白质)需要增加;该类人群营养素摄取不能满足自身需要,实施饮食干预亟待进行.%[ Objective] To understand the nutritional status of HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients in rural areas of Henan Province, and provide basic evidence for adjusting diet structure and implementing dietary intervention. [ Methods ] A total of 30 healthy people aged 30 ~ 65 years old were selected as the control group, 40 individuals with HIV infection and 42 AIDS patients as the observation group. Physical examination, dietary survey and blood biochemical examination were conducted on the 2 groups. The data processed by statistical software SPSS 13.0. [ Results] The differences of per-capita daily intakes of cereals, vegetables and eggs were significant between 2 groups ( P < 0.05 ). Diet structure was cereal-based, with lower intake of fruits and vegetables, seriously inadequate intake of beans, milk, poultry meat and aquatic products, unreasonable ratio of energy

  9. Intervention effect comparison of lecture, parent-child education and network on family unintentional injury among pre-school children' s parents%成都市三种形式健康教育对儿童家庭意外伤害干预效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 刘熹; 夏劲节; 田红梅; 邱孟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare intervention effect of lecture, parent-child education and network on family un-intentional injury among pre-school children' s parents, and provide suggestions for reducing family unintentional injury inci-dence. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1747 pre-school children' s parents in 9 kindergar-tens to join the intervention. Effectiveness evaluation was carried out after 1 week. Results Lecture, parent-child educa-tion and network interventions showed different effect on knowledge and behavior changes. The awareness rates of furniture supplies safety and macrobiotic knowledge in network intervention group were 15. 37% and 34. 63% , higher than that of oth-er two groups. The rate of correct drug select in lecture group (12. 63% ) was highest. The prevalence of eating behavior in parent-child education group (33. 28% ) and network group (32. 43% ) were higher than that in lecture group (30. 62% ). The rates of correct behaviors of using scissors and eating habit in network were 34. 29% and 86. 66% , respectively. The rate of no playing in kitchen in lecture group (29. 07% ) was highest in three groups (P <0. 05). Conclusion Internet in-tervention in health education plays an important role in reducing family unintentional injury. Various methods should be car-ried out among pre-school children to help them establish safety habit,and then reduce the rate of unintentional injury in fu-ture.%目的 比较授课、亲子教育及网络干预方式对儿童家庭意外伤害的干预效果,为降低儿童家庭意外伤害发生率提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取成都市9所幼儿园的幼儿家长1747名参加干预活动,在干预后1周采用问卷进行效果评价.结果 在安全知识中,家居用品安全检查最重要的五方面和抗生素治疗的病原类型,网络干预组知晓率最高,分别为15.37%和34.63%;药物的正确选择上,教师讲解组知晓率最高(12.63

  10. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  11. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  12. 225名育龄妇女孕前、孕中及产后微量元素调查%Survey on Microelements of Pre - pregnancy, Pregnancy and Postpartum Periods Among 225 Childbearing Age Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels and influencing factors of the microelements in pre- pregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum periods among the childbearing age women, and to offer the scientific evidence for the health care of childbearing age women. Methods We collected the blood samples of 225 childbearing age women who received the examination during the pre- pregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum periods in the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hunan Province from January 2009 to May 2011. Atomic absorption spectrometer was used to detect the contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu in serum. Results The levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu showed a skewed distribution in different periods. The deficiency of Fe was common in the pregnancy and postpartum periods (P<0.05); and moreover, the levels of Zn and Ca were generally lower in the pregnancy and postpartum periods (P<0.05). Conclusions The levels of the microelements in the pregnancy and postpartum periods are lower, which suggest that it has significance to the growth of fetus and the recovery of puerpera through scientific intake of the nutrition and necessary microelements according to the eating habits and strengthening the physical exercises.%目的 了解育龄妇女在孕前、孕中及产后微量元素水平变化及影响因素,为育龄妇女营养保健提供科学依据.方法 连续收集2009年1月- 2011年5月在本院孕前、孕中检查及产后体检的225例育龄妇女血样,用原子吸收光谱分析仪检测Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu的含量.结果 不同时期妇女全血中Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu含量呈偏态分布,孕期及产后铁缺乏常见(P<0.05).另外,孕期和产后妇女锌、钙也总体偏低(P<0.05).结论 孕期及产后妇女微量元素营养状况处在一个较低的水平,提示应注意合理营养摄人,根据饮食习惯科学补充必需的微量元素,适当加强锻炼,对体内胎儿发育及自身恢复都有一定的意义.

  13. Impact of health education based intervention on community's awareness of dengue and its prevention in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Burman, Deepa; Kumari, Rita; Lamkang, Anjana S; Babu, Bontha V

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is endemic in India. The capital, Delhi, continues to witness a higher number of cases due to urbanization-related factors. This study is intended to implement health education towards prevention of dengue, and to assess its impact on people's knowledge and practices related to causes and prevention of dengue among urban poor in Delhi. Pre- ( n = 484) and post- ( n = 496) intervention surveys from 15 sub-clusters from five slums/slum-like settlements in Delhi were carried out. Health education based intervention was carried out through partnership with the municipal bodies and non-governmental organizations. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants were similar in both surveys. Intervention resulted in significant increase in knowledge on cause, symptom perception and mosquito behaviour in terms of breeding and biting habits. Practice of personal protection measures increased significantly. The participation of people increased during intervention compared to the routine programme. Health education based interventions are instrumental in improving people's knowledge and behaviour. Hence, routine health educational activities as a supportive strategy in the health system need to be strengthened. New integrated approaches such as eco-bio-social approaches with community participation are to be developed and tested in endemic settings like Delhi.

  14. Organizational Variation in Implementation of an Evidence-Based Human Papillomavirus Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Angela L; McGladrey, Margaret L; Goodman Hoover, Anna; Crosby, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    "1-2-3 Pap" is a video-based intervention designed to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine adherence rates among young women in rural Eastern Kentucky. The efficacy trial for the original intervention linked video exposure with increased likelihood of vaccine series completion among the target audience. Given their historic focus on prevention, local health departments were selected as pilot sites to study implementation of 1-2-3 Pap in a public health setting and identify site-specific variations in its implementation. A mixed-method, pre- and post-comparison pilot study conducted between October 2013 and April 2014 addressed three primary research questions: (1) how specific implementation planning activities using existing organizational resources and processes affect the selection and optimization of dissemination channels for evidence-based public health interventions; (2) what organizational resources, processes, or other attributes facilitate or impede implementation of evidence-based public health interventions; and (3) how variation in dissemination channels corresponds with intervention outcomes. Although analysis conducted in October 2014 found that the pilot study did not generate significant changes in HPV vaccine rates, data yielded from the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment survey instrument and process evaluation interviews revealed variation in pre-study planning and in the use and coordination of staff, the adaptation of materials provided for implementation, and sites' ability to access HPV vaccine rate data throughout the study. The mixed-method pilot study advances dissemination and implementation science through identification of variation in planning activities and use of organizational resources and processes for implementation of prevention interventions in public health settings. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 大连市区学龄前儿童特应性皮炎流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey of atopic dermatitis among pre-school children in Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫风蕾; 时雪梅; 黄燕; 李婀娜; 闫铭军; 任杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大连市区学龄前儿童特应性皮炎(AD)的流行情况和相关因素.方法:对大连市内4区学龄前儿童进行问卷调查.结果:共收回8492份调查问卷,有效调查问卷为7872份,其中特应性皮炎患儿212例,男104例,女108例.总标化患病率为2.69%,其中男性标化患病率为2.769%,女性标化患病率为2.613%,两者之间无显著性差异.室内装修、经常玩毛绒玩具、家中有宠物、地毯、布艺沙发,家庭收入高、房屋居住位置接近主干道、4个月内添加辅食者AD发病率明显高于对照组.结论:大连市区3~6岁儿童特应性皮炎男女患病率无显著差别.%Objective: To determine the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and related factors among preschool children in Dalian. Methods: The children aged 3-6 were surveyed with a questionnaire in Dalian. Results : In the survey, 8,492 questionnaires were collected, of which 7,872 were valid. There were 212 AD patients (104 males and 108 females) in the total sample of 7,872 persons surveyed. The total standardized prevalence was 2.69 % , with no difference between boys and girls. House decoration, playing polyester fiber toys, pets, and carpets and cotton sofa at home, income, the location of house, increasing the supplementary foods in 4 mouths were positively correlated with the onset of the disease. Conclusion: There is no difference in the prevalence of children with AD between males and females in Dalian.

  16. Spinal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing Mobile Phone Access and Perceptions for Texting-Based mHealth Interventions Among Expectant Mothers and Child Caregivers in Remote Regions of Northern Kenya: A Survey-Based Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jason-Louis; Hapanna, Galgallo Waqo; Wangoo, Patrick Gikaria; Karanja, Sarah; Wanyama, Denis; Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Loolpapit, Mores; Wangalwa, Gilbert Bwire; Kinagwi, Koki; Lester, Richard Todd

    2017-01-01

    Background With a dramatic increase in mobile phone use in low- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) has great potential to connect health care services directly to participants enrolled and improve engagement of care. Rural and remote global settings may pose both significant challenges and opportunities. Objective The objective of our study was to understand the demographics, phone usage and ownership characteristics, and feasibility among patients in rural and remote areas of Kenya of having text messaging (short messaging service, SMS)-based mHealth intervention for improvements in antenatal care attendance and routine immunization among children in Northern Kenya. Methods A survey-based descriptive study was conducted between October 2014 and February 2015 at 8 health facilities in Northern Kenya as part of a program to scale up an mHealth service in rural and remote regions. The study was conducted at 6 government health facilities in Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties in remote and northern arid lands (NAL). Two less remote health facilities in Laikipia and Meru counties in more populated central highlands were included as comparison sites. Results A total of 284 participants were surveyed; 63.4% (180/284) were from NAL clinics, whereas 36.6% (104/284) were from adjacent central highland clinics. In the NAL, almost half (48.8%, 88/180) reported no formal education and 24.4% (44/180) self-identified as nomads. The majority of participants from both regions had access to mobile phone: 99.0% (103/104) of participants from central highlands and 82.1% (147/180) of participants from NAL. Among those who had access to a phone, there were significant differences in network challenges and technology literacy between the 2 regions. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants from NAL and central highlands who indicated that they would like to receive a weekly SMS text message from their health care provider (90

  18. Assessing Mobile Phone Access and Perceptions for Texting-Based mHealth Interventions Among Expectant Mothers and Child Caregivers in Remote Regions of Northern Kenya: A Survey-Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Carmichael, Jason-Louis; Hapanna, Galgallo Waqo; Wangoo, Patrick Gikaria; Karanja, Sarah; Wanyama, Denis; Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Loolpapit, Mores; Wangalwa, Gilbert Bwire; Kinagwi, Koki; Lester, Richard Todd

    2017-01-30

    With a dramatic increase in mobile phone use in low- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) has great potential to connect health care services directly to participants enrolled and improve engagement of care. Rural and remote global settings may pose both significant challenges and opportunities. The objective of our study was to understand the demographics, phone usage and ownership characteristics, and feasibility among patients in rural and remote areas of Kenya of having text messaging (short messaging service, SMS)-based mHealth intervention for improvements in antenatal care attendance and routine immunization among children in Northern Kenya. A survey-based descriptive study was conducted between October 2014 and February 2015 at 8 health facilities in Northern Kenya as part of a program to scale up an mHealth service in rural and remote regions. The study was conducted at 6 government health facilities in Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties in remote and northern arid lands (NAL). Two less remote health facilities in Laikipia and Meru counties in more populated central highlands were included as comparison sites. A total of 284 participants were surveyed; 63.4% (180/284) were from NAL clinics, whereas 36.6% (104/284) were from adjacent central highland clinics. In the NAL, almost half (48.8%, 88/180) reported no formal education and 24.4% (44/180) self-identified as nomads. The majority of participants from both regions had access to mobile phone: 99.0% (103/104) of participants from central highlands and 82.1% (147/180) of participants from NAL. Among those who had access to a phone, there were significant differences in network challenges and technology literacy between the 2 regions. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants from NAL and central highlands who indicated that they would like to receive a weekly SMS text message from their health care provider (90.0% vs 95.0%; P=.52). Overall, 92

  19. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  20. Pre-Emption: Federal Statutory Intervention in State Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    David E.Wildasin

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of federal statutory restrictions on state government taxing powers. Such pre–emption can prevent states from pursuing policies that are best adapted to their economic circumstances and objectives, inefficiently constraining decentralized state tax policymaking. States policy choices may, however, harm the efficient operation of the US federation as a whole; in such cases, the "visible hand" of federal pre–emption may lead to improved policy outcomes. Exis...

  1. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  2. Patient anxiety in magnetic resonance imaging centres: Is further intervention needed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tischler, Victoria [University of Nottingham, Division of Psychiatry, A Floor, South Block, QMC, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: victoria.tischler@nottingham.ac.uk; Calton, Tim; Williams, Michael [University of Nottingham, Division of Psychiatry, A Floor, South Block, QMC, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Cheetham, Anna [Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Background: Anxiety is commonly reported by patients attending for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning. This cross sectional postal survey sought the views of radiographers regarding: levels of patient anxiety, methods used to manage this before and during scanning, and the need for additional interventions to reduce anxiety. Results: Participants reported that they used procedures such as information leaflets, pre-scan visits and music to inform patients about the scan procedure and to reduce anxiety. Despite this, high levels of patient anxiety were reported, leading to scan disruption in some centres. The causes of anxiety concurred with previous research findings, for example, the scan environment, noise levels and fear of what the scan may reveal. Most participants were opposed to the idea of a multi-media intervention to reduce anxiety but this was often related to resource restrictions. Conclusions: Despite most centres using anxiety reducing techniques, many still report scan disruption suggesting there is a need to improve support for patients.

  3. Sustained effects of a nurse coaching intervention via telehealth to improve health behavior change in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather; Miyamoto, Sheridan; Ward, Deborah; Dharmar, Madan; Tang-Feldman, Yajarayma; Berglund, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes educators and self-management programs are scarce in rural communities, where diabetes is the third highest-ranking health concern. The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefits of nurse telehealth coaching for persons with diabetes living in rural communities through a person-centered approach using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. A randomized experimental study design was used to assign participants to receive either nurse telehealth coaching for five sessions (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Outcomes were measured in both groups using the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), SF-12, and satisfaction surveys. Mean scores for each outcome were compared at baseline and at the 9-month follow-up for both groups using a Student's t test. We also evaluated the change from baseline by estimating the difference in differences (pre- and postintervention) using regression methods. Among the 101 participants included in the analysis, 51 received nurse telehealth coaching, and 50 received usual care. We found significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the intervention group compared with the control group based on the DES at 9 months (4.03 versus 3.64, respectively; pcoaching model used in this study shows promise as an effective intervention for diabetes self-management in rural communities. The sustained effect on outcomes observed in the intervention group suggests that this model could be a feasible intervention for long-term behavioral change among persons living with chronic disease in rural communities.

  4. 某医学院大学生预包装食品营养标签认知度调查%An pre-packaged food nutrition labeling Awareness Survey of the College students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双波; 吴媛妮; 夏彦昌; 刘慧

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解某医学院大学生对预包装食品营养标签的认知情况,为指导大学生合理膳食提供科学理论依据,并通过调查为营养标签的完善及营养知识的普及教育积累资料。方法:分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取某医学院800名在校生,采用《某医学院大学生预包装食品营养标签认知度调查问卷》调查大学生对预包装食品营养标签的认知度。结果:该医学院大学生营养标签知识得分为(55.72±15.6),对营养标签知识总的认知度和意识度不够。不同性别、专业、年级及户籍等情况下高校学生对食品营养标签的认知存在统计学上的显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:应采取多种形式对大学生加强营养健康教育,引导其合理膳食行为的形成,做到科学合理的安排膳食,促进身体健康。%Objective Understanding of college students' awareness of nutrition labeling on pre-packaged foods,and providing scientific theory by investigating the guidance of college students a reasonable diet,and accu-mulating the information to improve the nutrition labeling and nutrition labeling knowledge of universal educa-tion. Methods using stratified cluster random sampling method.Stratified in accordance with the faculties in the college(medical professionals and non-medical professionals from each of two),and then two classes were random-ly selected of each grade. Results College students on pre-packaged food nutrition awareness is not enough,and the nutrition labeling knowledge score is (55.72±15.6). Conclusion Should be taken to various forms of college students to strengthen nutrition and health education, and guide the formation of a reasonable diet behavior, to en-able them to improve their eating behavior, so that scientific and reasonable arrangements for meals, to promote good health.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of users of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2014 in a cross-sectional survey: implications for disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Chen, Yea-Hung; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained a central role in prevention of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in San Francisco, California, USA. Programmes to enrol men in PrEP are being undertaken by a range of public and private organisations. PrEP will have the largest population impact if it reaches men who are most at risk for HIV infection, and is used in a manner that enables maximal efficacy. Access to PrEP also needs to be equitable. We report on the characteristics of men eligible for and using PrEP. Data were from the 2014 implementation of National HIV Behavioural Surveillance (NHBS) among MSM in San Francisco. NHBS uses venue-based sampling as the national standard for sampling MSM. We compare proportions of demographic characteristics of MSM using versus not using PrEP who are HIV-negative and meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to recommend PrEP. Overall, 64.1% of HIV-negative MSM in San Francisco would meet guidelines for PrEP use, while 9.2% of MSM overall and 14.5% of MSM eligible were using PrEP as of 2014. Men using PrEP are more likely to be white and of older age. There were no differences between men using and not using PrEP in terms of education, income and health insurance. PrEP roll-out efforts should attempt to increase reach for young, black and Hispanic MSM. Failure to equitably provide access to PrEP could exacerbate the US disparity in new HIV infections for men of colour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Contributing Factors to Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' e-Readiness for ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeanti, Wilson Osafo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' e-readiness to use ICTs for instruction. The primary data source for the study is a set of survey instrument responded by 126 pre-service mathematics teachers at the University of Education Winneba, Ghana. The survey instrument has a reliability scales (Cronbach's Alpha values) of 0.726. Multiple…

  7. [Interventional angioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Carlier, C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987, routine angioscopic examination has been performed in 191 patients undergoing angioplasty, with interventions (196) after a 2 year surveillance period (55). Angioscopy allowed follow up "de visu" of the performance of angioplasty, details of its mechanism to be precise and under dilatation to be carried out. For femoral artery occlusions it allowed treatment "à la carte": conventional dilatation of vegetating atheroma, specific treatment of established thrombi (5) and abstention from therapy of atheroma covered by endothelium (3). It also enabled fresh thrombi complicating a stenosis or at the origin of a thrombus to be detected. The extraction technique employed (15) is described. It facilitated catheterization by directing the probe, enabled avoidance of bypassing of stenosis and flaps and of dissection or false introduction into collaterals (10). Directed biopsy could be carried out in inflammatory arteritis (7). Vegetating atheromatous lesions could be opened and extracted, facilitating subsequent dilatation and allowing an approach to removal of iliac artery obstructions without major risks of complications (13). Finally, after an ineffective dilatation or the presence of a dissection, it assisted making the decision to introduce a stent (9), the tolerance and outcome of these stents are described. Or the 196 patients considered suitable for angioplasty, our therapeutic conduct was modified by angioscopy in 58 cases (29%). Not simply a new diagnostic tool, it plays a role in interventional vascular techniques.

  8. Developing Attitude Scale, Reliability and Validity for Pre-Service Teachers towards Drama Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Özkan; Bozdemir, Hafife; Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an attitude scale for pre-service teachers towards drama lesson. Survey model was used in study. The sample of study consisted of 258 pre-service teachers. "Attitude scale towards drama lesson for pre-service teachers" was developed and used as data collection tool. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  9. 职前数学教师函数知识掌握情况的调查研究--以陇东学院为例%A Survey on Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Function Knowledge:Taking Longdong University as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶

    2016-01-01

    以陇东学院数学与应用数学(师范)专业83名三年级(下)学生为研究对像,借助测试问卷对职前数学教师函数知识的掌握情况进行调查。结果显示:职前数学教师对函数知识的理解不够深刻,尤其不能很好地把握知识的本质,而且影响到职前数学教师有效地联系函数及相关知识;职前数学教师的函数知识处于零散的不完整的状态,缺乏对知识基本结构的良好认知。为此,职前数学教师教育需要更新课程内容的设置,改变教学方式,以促进职前数学教师对中学数学基础知识的深刻理解。%Taking 83 Mathematics and Applied Mathematics ( normal) juniors from Longdong University as its subjects,this study,adopting questionnaire method,surveys the Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ understanding of function knowledge .The results show that the Pre-service Mathematics Teachers ’ under-standing of function knowledge is relatively superficial .They fail to grasp the essence of knowledge ,which makes it impossible to link function to other related knowledge .Their function knowledge is in a state of scattered and incomplete , lacking the cognition of the basic structure of knowledge .So the Pre-service Mathematics Teachers ’ education needs to update the setting of the course content and change teaching methods,so as to improve Pre-service Mathematics Teachers ’ understanding of middle school mathematics knowledge .

  10. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabia Henry-Akintobi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355 group, an immediate post-test (n = 228 group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110 group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001. Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008, and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001. Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011, marijuana (p = 0.011, illegal drugs (p = 0.002, and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003. Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women.

  11. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Laster, Nastassia; Trotter, Jennie; Jacobs, DeBran; Johnson, Tarita; King Gordon, Tandeca; Miller, Assia

    2016-01-01

    African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355) group, an immediate post-test (n = 228) group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110) group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001). Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001). Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011), marijuana (p = 0.011), illegal drugs (p = 0.002), and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003). Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women. PMID:27669284

  12. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  13. 血铅水平对儿童健康危害的调查及其干预措施%Blood Lead Level on Children's Health Hazard Survey and its Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彩娥; 龚妍宁; 刘知华; 杨华

    2012-01-01

      Objective To the attractors among the children aged 0 to 6 blood lead level screening, children high blood lead analysis of relevant factors. Methods 0~6 years, 2983 cases of children in the cluster sampling blood lead level detection and calcium, iron, and zinc determination of trace elements, and relative factor questionnaire survey. Results 2983 cases of children blood lead in 17-183 assessmentμg/L, and between the average (76.51+/-53.37μg/L, testing out high blood lead children in 856 cases, the detection rate is 28.7%, and the blood lead quartile 100μg/L group of child's serum calcium, zinc, hot metal significantly below the average blood lead<100μg/L groups of children are statistically significant differences, (P<0.01);High blood lead children see more repeated respiratory infection, sweat, hyperactivity inattention, to junk food such as anorexia;Cause children high blood lead the related risk factors are:living conditions, and father/mother engaged in relevant work, housing recent lead a decoration, family members have smoking habits, parents, children in eating habits, etc. Conclusion High blood lead children in more, lead poisoning in children growth great harm to children's blood lead level for regular screening for the high blood lead children to take active corresponding intervention measures, improve the level of children's health, promote children's healthy development.%  目的对我区0~6岁儿童血铅水平进行筛查,分析儿童高血铅的相关因素.方法对0~6岁2983例儿童进行整群抽样血铅水平检测及钙、铁、锌微量元素测定,并进行相关因素问卷调查.结果2983例儿童血铅检测值在17~183μg/L之间,平均(76.51±53.37)μg/L,检测出高血铅儿童856例,检出率为28.7%,血铅≥100μg/L组儿童的血清钙、锌、铁水平均显著低于血铅<100μg/L组儿童,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);高血铅儿童多见反复呼吸道感染、多汗、多动注意力不集中、偏

  14. 阶梯疗法干预下中、小学生脊柱侧凸患病率调查情况%A survey on adolescent scoliosis under the step intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 袁元杏; 梁道臣; 张爱明; 梅治; 赵成毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of the scoliosis and the development of deformity among adolescent population under the step intervention.Methods 44 058 students were examined for scoliosis by physical examination, moire topography and X-ray examination from Oct,1997 to Oct, 2009.The Cobb's angle was measured for the suspected suhjects.The children whose Cobb's angle ≥5° were separated into four groups : A: 5° ≤ Cobb's angle <10°.B: 10° ≤ Cobb's angle < 20°.C: 20° ≤ Cobb's angle < 40°, D: Cobb's angle ≥40°, and then were treated with missionary, gymnastics, traction, braces or surgery respectively.This management strategy was named to step intervention.Results All cases were followed up from 1 to 12 years.According to the diagnositic standand of Cobb's angle≥10° ,134 students were definitely diagnosed to scoliosis, with a prevalence of 3‰.There were 4 patients in group A, 5 in group B and 2 in group C whose Cobb's angle had gotten worse and went into next group continued the corresponding treatment respectively.Therefore, the rates of the worse of disease were 2.90% , 6.02% and 4.65% in group A, B and C respectively.Group D were undergone surgical correction.All operations were done without accidents.The appearance recovery was satisfactory.Conclusions The survey on adolescent scoliosis among adolescent population is of great importance for early diagnosis.And the management of adolescent scoliosis with step treatments according to Cobb's angle could be an effective method to prevent the progressing of deformity.%目的 总结阶梯疗法干预下持续1~12年观察中、小学生脊柱侧凸发病率的情况.方法 1997年10月~2009年10月应用脊柱侧凸三检法(体检、波纹照相、X线摄片)对中山市44 058名中、小学生进行普查后,建立了由医院、学校、家庭组成的脊柱侧凸防治网络体系.对发生脊柱侧凸的学生按照Cobb角大小进行分组,采用阶梯式疗法分别

  15. Survey on the demands of psychological crisis intervention in public emergencies among Chinese people%我国公众突发公共事件心理危机干预需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国永; 张继彬; 孟艳; 张巍; 陶茂萱; 李正懋; 钱玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the demands of psychological crisis intervention in public emergencies among Chinese people.Methods Multi-staged stratified clustered sampling method was carried out in six provinces.A questionnaire survey was conducted among 9227 residents.Results The public' s demands on different forms of psychological assistance separately were:publicity through the media (42.55%),receiving related publicity materials (23.32%),individual psychological counseling (17.35%) and collective psychological counseling (13.32%).Most of them were willing to choose professionals (40.87%) and family relatives (39.42%) as psychological assistance providers,the succor preferred professionals (62.35%) to provide psychological assistance,the direct victims or the families of the direct victims were more like to choose the family relatives (48.32%) to provide psychological assistance.The public were willing to access to psychological knowledge and skills through television programs (n =5322),chat (n =3503) and the Internet (n =3011).Direct victims or the families of the victims required on the TV (60.40%) and chat (40.69%).The main form of publicity materials that the public wanted were books (42.94%),posters (40.58%).The public' s demand on books,pamphlets,brochures increased with the increaser of the education level.Conclusion Inemergencies psychological crisis intervention,it is necessary to provide psychological assistance and psychological health education according to the characteristics of the public.%目的 了解我国公众对突发公共事件心理危机干预服务的需求.方法 采用分层整群抽样的方法对6个省(自冶区、直辖市)的9227名公众进行问卷调查.结果 公众对不同形式心理援助的需求依次是:通过媒体宣传(42.55%)、获得相关宣传材料(23.32%)、个体心理咨询(17.35%)、集体心理辅导(13.32%);大多数人愿意选择专业人员(40.87%)和家人亲戚(39.42

  16. Promoting antenatal care services for early detection of pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tin Tin; Myint, Theingi; Lwin, Saw; Oo, Win Myint; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Thant, Kyaw Zin

    2012-01-01

    A prospective, quasi-experimental study was carried out in 2009 at urban health centres (UHCs) of five townships of Mandalay, Myanmar, to improve the skill of midwives (MWs) in diagnosis and referral of pre-eclampsia (PE) from UHC to the Central Women's Hospital (CWH) and to enhance the supervision of midwives by lady health visitors (LHVs). The intervention was training on quality antenatal care focusing on PE using an updated training manual. Altogether, 75 health care providers (MWs & LHVs) participated. In this study, data were extracted from patient registers and monthly reports of UHCs and CWH. Interviewers were trained regarding the conduct of semi-structured questionnaires to elicit knowledge and to use checklists in observation of skills in screening of PE, measuring blood pressure and urine protein (dipstick test). A guide for LHVs was also used to obtain data, and data was collected six months prior to and after the intervention. Significant improvements from baseline to endline survey occurred in the knowledge (p<0.001) and skill levels (p<0.001) including skills for screening, measuring blood pressure and urine protein. At CWH, there was an increase in referred cases of PE after the intervention, from 1.25% to 2.56% (p<0.001). In conclusion, this study highlights the early detection of pre-eclampsia by widespread use of quality antenatal care, education and training of health-care providers to improve their performance and increase human resources for health care, in order to enable women in our society to have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies.

  17. Nurses' competency in drawing blood cultures and educational intervention to reduce the contamination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, Arif; Al-Ibrahim, Maha; Alhajhouj, Eman; Al-Alshaikh Jaffer, Waseelah; Altowaileb, Jaffar; Alfaraj, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with truly negative cultures, false positive blood cultures (BCs) not only increase laboratory work but also prolong the lengths of patient stays, which are likely to increase patient morbidity and costs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital-wide educational intervention on BC contamination rates. Nurses performed all phlebotomies; therefore, educational workshops were offered to all nurses twice a week over a 3-month period. The workshops consisted of a questionnaire, PowerPoint presentation, video show, demonstration of the different materials used to collect BCs, and question session. Data from the questionnaires and laboratory culture results were compared between the 6-month pre- and post-intervention periods. Of the 503 eligible nurses, 216 (42.9%) attended the workshops. The survey identified areas for improvement, which included time of disinfectant application, volume of blood to be cultured, and disinfection of BC bottle tops. Of the 9903 BC sets that were drawn from 3649 patients during the study period, 676 (6.8%) were contaminated. The monthly BC contamination rates for the 6-month pre- and post-intervention periods were 8.1% and 5.2%, respectively, representing a 36% reduction (P=0.008). Only three wards had an acceptable contamination rate of ≤3% before the intervention, compared with eight wards after the intervention. While contamination of BCs can never be completely eliminated, there is evidence that adherence to best practice BC collection techniques can minimize BC contamination, which might be best achieved with a dedicated phlebotomy team.

  18. Preschool teachers as agents of oral health promotion: an intervention study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, S; Kanthi, R D F C; Johnson, N W

    2013-09-01

    According to National Oral Health Survey reports and research, Early Childhood Caries has been identified as a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka. More than 65% of preschool-aged children have dental decay and only 2% of them have had treatment. With proper interventions and commitment from public health personnel and responsible community leaders this should be a largely preventable disease. An intervention study was conducted among preschool teachers in the District of Colombo, Sri Lanka, to assess their influence on oral health promotion in the school environment. All the available 52 preschools and all 72 teachers registered under a local government authority were involved in the study. Preschools were divided into intervention group and control group based on geographically defined areas. The intervention included training preschool teachers using a manual covering health education, health promotion, incorporation of oral-health-friendly activities into the preschool curriculum, and hands-on experience of oral examination. Pre- and post- assessments were conducted with a 6 month interval. After 6 months, the median oral health knowledge score of the intervention group improved from 55 to 72 (p = 0.005) and the mean score for oral health related practices from 32 to 35 (p = 0.032). The variables: oral-health-friendly preschool environment (p = 0.02), availability of brushing facilities (p = 0.005) and availability of information, education and communication materials related to oral health (p = 0.004) were significantly different between the two groups after 6 months. Oral health promotion activities can be effectively instilled in a pre-school environment by the education of teachers.

  19. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  20. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  1. Pre-Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittberg, Mats; Eriksson, Karl; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Lindahl, Anders; Marlovits, Stefan; Möller, Per; Richardson, James B.; Steinwachs, Matthias; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Objective An attempt to define pre-osteoarthritis (OA) versus early OA and definitive osteoarthritis. Methods A group of specialists in the field of cartilage science and treatment was formed to consider the nature of OA onset and its possible diagnosis. Results Late-stage OA, necessitating total joint replacement, is the end stage of a biological process, with many previous earlier stages. Early-stage OA has been defined and involves structural changes identified by arthroscopy or radiography. The group argued that before the “early-stage OA” there must exist a stage where cellular processes, due to the presence of risk factors, have kicked into action but have not yet resulted in structural changes. The group suggested that this stage could be called “pre-osteoarthritis” (pre-OA). Conclusions The group suggests that defining points of initiation for OA in the knee could be defined, for example, by traumatic episodes or surgical meniscectomy. Such events may set in motion metabolic processes that could be diagnosed by modern MRI protocols or arthroscopy including probing techniques before structural changes of early OA have developed. Preventive measures should preferably be applied at this pre-OA stage in order to stop the projected OA “epidemic.” PMID:26175861

  2. Analysis of crisis intervention processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nina

    2002-01-01

    The remediation processes in psychosocial crisis intervention were modeled focusing on cognitive orientation. Frequent observations and subsequent process modeling constitute a novel approach to process research and reveal process-outcome associations. A sample of 40 inpatients who were assigned to treatment in a crisis intervention unit was monitored in order to study the process of crisis intervention. The process data consisted of patients' self-ratings of the variables mood, tension, and cognitive orientation, which were assessed three times a day throughout hospitalization (M = 22.6 days). Linear time series models (vector autoregression) of the process data were computed to describe the prototypical dynamic patterns of the sample. Additionally, the outcome of crisis intervention was evaluated by pre-post questionnaires. Linear trends were found pointing to an improvement of mood, a reduction of tension, and an increase of outward cognitive orientation. Time series modeling showed that, on average, outward cognitive orientation preceded improved mood. The time series models partially predicted the treatment effect, notably the outcome domain "reduction of social anxiety," yet did not predict the domain of symptom reduction. In conclusion, crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources.

  3. An Evaluation of Organization Effectiveness: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Effects of Survey Feedback as an Action Research Intervention on Unit Efficiency, Employee Affective Response, Intergroup Relations and Supervisory Consideration in the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    pre- test group indicated that there were no extreme polar scores among the comparison conditions, that is, there were no units whose scores were...of re- peated measures) MS AD MSAD (Interaction of treat- " AD ment and repeatedSBD measures) F MBD (Interaction of unit BDD w/in treatment and CD

  4. The discovery of student experiences using the Frayer model map as a Tier 2 intervention in secondary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory D.

    The purpose of this study was to discover the student experiences of using the Frayer model map as a Tier 2 intervention in science. As a response to the criticized discrepancy model and the mandates contained in NCLB and the IDEA, response to intervention (RtI) has been implemented in education to increase achievement for all students and to discover what students need further interventions. Based on Cronbach's (1957) aptitude X treatment interaction theory, RtI assumes that progress over time can be measured when interventions are applied. While RtI has been actively implemented in reading and math, it has not been implemented in science. Therefore, it was not known what the experiences of students are using the Frayer model map as a Tier 2 intervention to impact science achievement. The multiple case study used a qualitative methodology that included pre-intervention and post-intervention web-based surveys, field notes during observations, and student work that were collected during the course of the study. The population that was studied was seventh- and eighth-grade students considered at-risk and attend a Title I school in Florida. The sample of the studied population was purposively selected according to a set of criteria similar to Tier 2 selection in RtI. The research question was, "What are the experiences of middle grades students using the Frayer model map as an instructional intervention in science?" The answer to the research question was that the experiences of students using the Frayer model map as a Tier 2 intervention in secondary science can be described as participants perceived the Frayer model map as use as a tool to organize tasks and create meaning while they completed the work independently and with accuracy. Even though there were limitations to quantity of data, the research question was adequately answered. Overall, the study fills a gap in the literature related to RtI and science education.

  5. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences.

  6. Placebo Use in Pain Management: A Mechanism-Based Educational Intervention Enhances Placebo Treatment Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaalita, Nkaku R; Hurley, Robert W; Staud, Roland; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-02-01

    Health care providers use treatments whose effectiveness derives partially or completely from 'nonspecific' factors, frequently referred to as placebo effects. Although the ethics of interventional placebo use continues to be debated, evidence suggests that placebos can produce clinically meaningful analgesic effects. Burgeoning evidence suggest that patients with chronic pain might be open to placebo treatments in certain contexts despite limited knowledge of their well-established psychoneurobiological underpinnings. In this investigation we sought to examine the effects of a brief, mechanism-based placebo analgesia educational intervention on aspects placebo knowledge and acceptability. Participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed a web-based survey in which they rated their knowledge of placebo analgesia, assessed placebo acceptability across different medical contexts, and evaluated 6 unique patient-provider treatment scenarios to assess the role of treatment effectiveness and deception on patient-provider attributions. Using a pre-post design, participants were randomized to receive either a placebo educational intervention or an active control education. Results showed that the educational intervention greatly improved perceptions of placebo knowledge, effectiveness, and acceptability, even in deceptive treatment contexts. This was the first study of its kind to show the value of an educational intervention in increasing openness to and knowledge of placebo analgesic interventions among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this we article highlight how patients with chronic pain might be open to placebo interventions, particularly adjunct and/or complementary treatments, when provided education on the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie placebo effects. Study findings highlight ethically acceptable ways to potentially use placebo factors to enhance existing pain treatments and improve patient health outcomes

  7. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article.

  8. Assessing and Enhancing Pre-Service Science Teachers' Self-Efficacy to Teach Science through Argumentation: Challenges and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Ozdilek, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of an intervention on pre-service science teachers' self-efficacy to teach science through argumentation and explore the challenges they experienced while implementing argumentation. Forty pre-service science teachers in their final semester of schooling participated in an intervention that…

  9. Survey on mental state of hymen repair patients and its psychological intervention%处女膜修补术患者心理状况调查与心理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 刘远新; 胡永超; 吴清香

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mental state of hymen repair patients and the intervention effect, so as to provide theorieal basis for developing the psycholngical intervention in clinic. Methods 40 hymen repair patients were randomly divided into the intervention group and the control group, each with 20 patients. The control group received the routine psychological care. The intervention group was treated with measures established by the psychological intervention mode. Every patient was given a score with self-rating scale (SCL-90) before and after operation. The mental states of the two groups were compared. Results After the psychological intervention, the scores of anxiety, depression, phobic anxiety, compulsivity, hostility and interpersonal relationship showed significant reduction in the intervention group compared with the control group (P <0. 05). Condusions To practice psychological intervention can reduce the negative emotion of hymen repair patients and help them maintain suitable psychosematie states.%目的 探讨处女膜修补患者的心理状况及干预效果,为临床开展心理干预提供理论依据.方法 选取处女膜修补术患者40例,随机分为干预组和对照组,每组各20例.对照组采取常规心理护理,干预组在此基础上给予针对性心理干预,分别于手术前后采用SCL-90自评量表评估并比较两组患者的心理状态.结果 干预后,干预组患者焦虑、抑郁、恐怖、强迫、敌对和人际关系分值明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 实施心理干预可缓解处女膜修补患者的负性情绪,帮助其保持良好的身心状态.

  10. Structural intervention distance for evaluating causal graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Jonas; Bühlmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Causal inference relies on the structure of a graph, often a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Different graphs may result in different causal inference statements and different intervention distributions. To quantify such differences, we propose a (pre-)metric between DAGs, the structural interventi...... implementation with software code available on the first author's home page....

  11. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  12. Evaluation on myocardial perfusion of coronary heart disease percutaneous coronary intervention pre and post by the transvenous myocardial contrast echocardiography%实时心肌声学造影评价冠心病介入治疗前后心肌灌注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate myocardial perfusion of coronary heart disease percutaneous coronary intervention ( PCI ) pre and post. Methods 42 cases were selected by doctors in department of cardiology who are confirmed coronary artery normal subjects and have coronary artery stenosis subjects by the coronary angiography, transvenous myocardial contrast echocardiography were conducted pre and post PCI in patients with coronary artery stenosis and coronary artery normal, quantitative diagnosis of coronary microcir-culation perfusion through the extent of myocardial development and record images, will be comparative analysis pre and post treatment and coronary artery normal subjects, evaluate surgical efficacy, estimate prognosis of patients. Results After PCI treatment to 23 cases, the correlation-myocardial segments to the partial cross sectional area of all the capillaries( A ), blood flow velocity( β ), myocardial blood flow volume correlation-myocardial segments group compared to the coronary artery normal subjects of the correlationmyocardial segments group, the partial cross sectional area of all the capillaries( A ), blood flow velocity ( β ), myocatrlial blood flow volume( A·β )still all decreased, correlation analysis showed, follow-up period EF values and wall motion score index incwased significantly compared with those of preoperative and after treatment with PCI in A, β, A · β good correlation. Conclusion Transvenous myocardial contrast echocardiography examination for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease areas provide an accurate, noninvasive evaluation of myocardial microcirculation and clinical test; further evaluate the treatment of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with myocardial infarction to improve myocardial perfusion effectively. Those patients without reperfusion therapy and angina pectofis or myocardial infarction should be treated with delayed PCI as early as possible, to save the ischemic myocardial

  13. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited. Objectives: To assess 1 levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2 the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes. Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-one of the 58 critical care fellows who were in the first year of training at the time of this initial survey participated in a pre-test and 1-year post-test to determine the effects of a brief, 90-min stress management intervention. Results: Based on responses (n=58 to the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, reported burnout was significantly lower in Asian fellows (p=0.04 and substantially higher among graduating fellows (versus new and transitioning fellows (p=0.02. Among the intervention cohort, burnout did not significantly improve – though two-thirds of fellows reported using the interventional techniques to deal with stressful situations. Fellows who participated in the intervention rated the effectiveness of the course as 4 (IQR=3.75–5 using the 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions: In comparison with the new and transitioning trainees, burnout was highest among graduating critical care fellows. Although no significant improvements were found in first-year fellows’ burnout scores following the single, 90-min training intervention, participants felt the training did provide them with tools to apply during stressful situations.

  14. Pre-emptive perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    How can an action to a target be selected without yet knowing what it is? Pre-emptive perception (PEP) is a framework which orders neuronal mechanisms in association with voluntary actions before an action is started and until it is completed. It is assumed that PEP serves the purpose of perception, but a conscious, perceptual identification of the goal is not obligatorily completed during the time period of PEP itself. The concept of PEP is that the brain pre-emptively optimizes an action plan to maximize eventual perception, even before being sure what the goal is. Experimental studies of voluntary saccadic eye movements are considered as prototypic activity within the framework of PEP. The core concept of pre-emption is that a particular saccade is selected while a large number of other possible actions are deselected. Pre-emptive computations include mechanisms associated with internal context and reward. Neurophysiological studies which show anatomically and functionally separate cortical and some subcortical neuronal groups in computing saccades are summarized. There is a potential relationship of PEP as a neurobiological framework and some philosophical concepts. Terms for processes between planning and action, such as intention, anticipation, and attention, are often incongruent in everyday language and in epistemology. It is proposed here that a scrutiny of these terms can be rigorously approached by temporal subdivision of PEP and conversely, clear definitions of these terms can lead to organized experimental designs of cognitive neurobiology. The temporal subdivision of PEP allows a critique of The Will in the definition of Schopenhauer and distinguishes it from the 'free will'.

  15. Pre-calculus essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents

  16. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  17. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  18. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  19. A Structured Career Intervention Program for Academically Challenged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Abdullah, Syed Mohamad; Mahmud, Zuria; Ghavifekr, Simin; Ishak, Noriah

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to test the effects of a 2-week structured intervention program on academically challenged students' career development. A quasi-experimental study was designed using pre-tests, post-tests, and a control group approach to examine the effects of the intervention program. Data were collected from both the experimental and…

  20. The Capacity Survey on Psychological Crisis Intervention During Public Emergencies in China%我国突发公共事件心理危机干预能力资源状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国永; 张继彬; 孟艳; 张巍; 陶茂萱; 李正懋; 钱玲

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the capacity and resources of the public emergencies psychological crisis inter-vention and provide the basis for capacity and resource building of emergencies psychological crisis intervention in the future. Methods Using a combination of questionnaires and interviews to investigate the 31 provincial-level health administrative departments, project prefecture-level city municipal health administrative departments and Professional institution. Results 15 of 27 provinces and 6 of 11 prefecture-level city cleared the administrative de-partment that in charge of public emergencies psychological crisis intervention. There were only 14, 16 and 12 pro-vincial expert groups, talent bank and technical personnel on coping with public emergency include the psychological crisis intervention staffs. 28. 0% of professionals in the survived professional institution had the ability to deal with post-traumatic psychological problems. 13 public emergency response plans form 6 provinces included psychological crisis intervention. There was only 1 provincial departments of public health obtaining special funds in psychological crisis intervention. Only 6 provinces had plans of public emergency response involving psychological crisis interven-tion. Conclusions Emergency psychological crisis intervention work hasn't included the public emergencies response system. There was a lack of funds and capacity to carry out emergencies psychological crisis intervention.%目的 评估我国目前开展突发公共事件心理危机干预的能力资源现状,为今后进行突发公共事件心理危机干预能力资源建设提供依据.方法 采用问卷调查和访谈结合的方法,对全国31个省级卫生行政部门、项目市市级卫生行政部门及专业机构进行调查.结果 有效问卷的27个省中,有15个省明确了突发公共事件心理危机干预工作行政主管部门;27个省中,分别有14个、16个及12个省的突发事件应对专家

  1. What should a fellow-in-training expect at national cardiovascular conferences? The interventional cardiology fellows' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Didier, Romain; Koifman, Edward; Negi, Smita I

    It has become challenging for cardiovascular fellows-in-training (FIT) to determine which national cardiovascular conference (NCC) to attend given the broad range of meetings and the breadth of information offered. The aim of this study was to report our own experiences of the utility and individual strengths of the NCCs and to further understand the interventional cardiology (IC) FITs' viewpoint regarding the benefits of the individual NCCs. A survey was formulated with questions and scenarios regarding topics deemed to be of highest importance for an IC-FIT. The survey emphasized experiences regarding the utility and benefits of the NCCs, time management, optimization of acquired education, and specific interests in clinical and research topics. The completely anonymous survey was sent via an email format to a total of 234, majority of IC (fourth and fifth years) and a minority of general (third year), FITs. A completed survey response was received from 131 of the fellows (56%). The results demonstrated that the IC-FITs endorsed that the small, focused sub-specialty interventional meetings vs. the large society general meetings were more beneficial in regard to the didactic education offered. In addition, the IC-FITs indicated that pre-planning for the meetings is the most beneficial approach in optimizing one's education and that the caliber of expert faculty, case-based and live-case presentations are among the most important aspects of the meetings. Interventional cardiology FITs prefer the small sub-specialty interventional meetings over the large society general NCCs in regard to the benefits of didactic learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. We Need More Evidence in Order to Create Effective Pre-K Programs. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    The proposition that expanding pre-K will improve later achievement for children from low-income families is premature. Premature as well is the presumption that solid research exists to guide the content and structure of pre-K programs. Despite more than 50 years of preliminary work on pre-K as an early intervention for young children from poor…

  3. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of assistive technology services in post-secondary education for students with disabilities: Intervention outcomes, use-profiles, and user-experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Matthew P; Roll, Marla C

    2016-09-22

    The outcomes of assistive technology (AT) support services for post-secondary education students with disabilities are under-reported, and little is known about use-profiles and user experiences when AT interventions are applied to this rapidly growing population. We examined AT service outcomes related to performance and satisfaction of common academic tasks (using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure [COPM]), as well as how students with disabilities use and experience AT and AT services (employing an AT-use survey). Three-hundred fifty-three students with disabilities completed the AT-use survey, with a subset of these (n = 216) also participating with pre-post AT intervention COPM assessment. COPM performance and satisfaction ratings significantly increased from pre- to post-AT intervention in all academic task categories (reading, writing, note-taking, test-taking, and studying; p impacted their academic success, and believed they would continue using AT post-graduation. The study findings contribute to evidence-base for AT services with a hope we may improve AT services to best meet the changing needs of the growing number of college students with disabilities.

  5. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  6. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2016-11-25

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered.

  7. Pre-operative anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated.

  8. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight, 18.5–24.9 (normal, 25.0–29.9 (overweight, and 30 kg/m2 (obese were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM was 50.7 (±0.9. Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5 compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4. The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively. Serum folate concentration (ng/mL was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05. Serum iron concentration (ng/dL was significantly higher in

  9. 股骨头坏死介入治疗前后孤立性小腿肌间静脉丛血栓超声检测的临床价值%The clinical value of ultrasonography in diagnosis of isolated calf muscular venous thrombosis in femo-ral head osteonecrosis patients during pre and post interventional therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 陈静; 郝建华; 王洋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨彩色多普勒超声在股骨头坏死介入治疗前后孤立性小腿肌间静脉丛血栓中的临床应用价值。方法以股骨头坏死介入治疗前后下肢静脉超声检出深静脉血栓137例患者为研究对象,着重分析其中孤立性小腿肌间静脉丛血栓的特点。结果孤立性小腿肌间静脉丛血栓69例(50.4%),单肢病变56例(81.2%),其中左侧29例(51.8%),右侧27例(48.2%),双肢病变13例(18.8%);共156处肌间静脉丛血栓,其中比目鱼肌间静脉丛血栓111处(71.2%),血栓直径为(8.5±2.8) mm,累及长度为(4.2±1.1)cm;腓肠肌间静脉丛血栓45处(28.8%),血栓直径为(7.1±1.9)mm,累及长度为(2.1±0.7)cm,比目鱼肌血栓直径及累及长度均大于腓肠肌(P<0.05);急性期和慢性期血栓声像图特点不同,69例患者中47例符合急性期血栓声像图特点,治疗后超声复查21例完全再通,26例部分再通;22例符合慢性期血栓声像图特点,复查后无明显变化。结论彩色多普勒超声可准确判断血栓发生的部位、数量、时期、累及范围,超声复查亦简便易行,为临床治疗及疗效评估提供可靠依据,是诊断股骨头坏死介入治疗前后并发孤立性小腿肌间静脉血栓的首选方法。%ObjectiveTo explore the clinical value of color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of isolated calf muscular venous thrombosis in femoral head osteonecrosis patients during pre- and post- interventional therapy.Method137 femoral head osteonecrosis patients with deep venous thrombosis diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasonography during pre- and post- interventional therapy were chose as research objects. Features of isolated calf muscular venous thrombosis were mainly analyzed.ResultAmong 137 cases, 69 cases (50.4%) were diagnosed as isolated calf muscular venous thrombosis, 56 cases (81.2%) were unilateral limb lesions, including 29

  10. Pre-Acquisition Survey Report for Reelfoot and Lake Isom

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the preliminary investigation of potential contaminant problems that may be associated with lands proposed for inclusion within Reelfoot and Lake...

  11. Juvenile Fish Data - Coastwide Cooperative Pre-Recruit Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project currently supports two main efforts: 1. An annual sampling regime of the hydrology, plankton and small fish along transects over the Continental Shelf...

  12. Zooplankton and Krill Data - Coastwide Cooperative Pre-Recruit Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project currently supports two main efforts: 1. An annual sampling regime of the hydrology, plankton and small fish along transects over the Continental Shelf...

  13. Ichthyoplankton Data - Coastwide Cooperative Pre-Recruit Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project currently supports two main efforts: 1. An annual sampling regime of the hydrology, plankton and small fish along transects over the Continental Shelf...

  14. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... preliminary examination. If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to... ROV operating company who is qualified to discuss the ROV's capabilities and limitations related to...

  15. A Qualitative Survey of Pre-payment Scheme for Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Full Length Research Paper ... the organized private sectors as well as the armed forces, police and allied ... many occasions sell assets, borrow money, deplete their .... and sharing and the rationale behind it, as well as the ..... Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 13(4). ... empirical model of access to health care, health care.

  16. Survey of Pre- and Postprocessing Structural Anlaysis Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-05

    13 C.1E 0 1 sCR ET E, 0ISCRET Ll T0 F’igure 1.Psi~.aisL. Model. Geeration ?age - Turning to mesi :3enaratiori lgorithms, a method for subdividing a...polyhedron (4 4 z di: actl> a::l i:ae to the dispay of th.ee dimensional models. oroduces an input, file for the " well d is t riu-d hidden line...Nat’l. Conf., ACM, Publication, Z . 69, 1969. 28. R.K.L. Gay, K.K. Chin, S.S. Chua, C.H. Chan and S.Y. So, Node Reordering Algorithms for Water

  17. Survey of psychological intervention on 35 patients before and after cervical cancer%宫颈癌手术患者心理干预35例临床对比性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 何秀湘; 林晓红; 董莉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨心理干预对宫颈癌手术患者的调适作用.方法 随机取手术治疗的宫颈癌患者35例作为心理干预组,同期未行心理干预36例为对照组,评价干预和未干预患者入院时和术后的焦虑(SAS)、抑郁(SDS)情况和术后下床活动时间、术后性生活满意度.结果 两组人院时SAS、SDS无显著性差异,心理干预组术后SAS、SDS显著低于对照组、术后下床活动时间显著短于对照组、术后性生活满意度显著高于对照组.结论 对宫颈癌患者术前、术后积极的心理干预对恢复患者健康的生理、心理,重建良好的生活质量具有重要意义.%Objective To discuss the effect of psychological intervention on the patients of cervical cancer. Methods Take 35 patients of cervical cancer in psychological intervention group at random, at the same time, take the other 36 cases as control group. Evaluate condition of anxiety (SAS) and depression (ADS) before and after operation. Evaluate the time of getting out of bed and satisfaction of sex lives after operation. Results There were no significance in SAS, SDS before operation. The scores of SAS、SDS in psychological intervention group were significant lower than thcee in control group after operation. The time of getting out of bed in psychologi-cal intervention group was significant less than that in control group, and the satisfaction of sex lives after opera-tion was significant higher. Conclusions Psychological intervention on patients before and after cervical cancer plays an important role in physical and mental recovering of patient and rebuilding beautiful life.

  18. A community-based intervention in middle schools to improve HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Takenoshita, Remi; Narumoto, Keiichiro; Plegue, Melissa; Sen, Ananda; Crabtree, Benjamin Franklin; Fetters, Michael Derwin

    2014-01-01

    Japan has low rates of cervical cancer screening and Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. This research examines the effectiveness of a family medicine resident-led, intervention in increasing knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer in middle school-girls and increasing knowledge and intention to have cervical cancer screening in their mothers. We utilized a pre-test/post-test intervention design in three rural middle schools with 7(th) grade middle school-girls and their mothers. A school-based activity educated girls about HPV and cervical cancer. A home-based activity utilized a homework assignment for girls and their mothers. Pre/post intervention surveys were completed by the girls and their mothers. Major outcomes included changes in knowledge among girls and mothers and barriers to be screened for cervical cancer among mothers. Sixty-five students and sixty-three mothers completed the study. Two out five mothers were not in compliance with current screening recommendations. Identified barriers included: embarrassment (79%), poor access (56%), fear of having cancer (52%), and cervical cancer screening being an unknown procedure (46%). Forty-four percent of mothers deemed their daughters to be at risk for cervical cancer. Trusted sources of information included: doctors (97%), newspapers/television (89%), government (79%), the Internet (78%), and friends (62%). Student knowledge scores (7-point scale) improved significantly from pre- to post-intervention (4.8 vs. 5.9, p schools, can improve school-girls' knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, and can reach their mothers. Additional research could examine whether those intending to be screened receive screening and how to reach women who still resist screening.

  19. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaeffli Leila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR exercise intervention. Methods An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. Results 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41 of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85% stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60% showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to

  20. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaeffli, Leila; Maddison, Ralph; Whittaker, Robyn; Stewart, Ralph; Kerr, Andrew; Jiang, Yannan; Kira, Geoff; Carter, Karen; Dalleck, Lance

    2012-05-30

    Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based) cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise intervention. An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41) of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85%) stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60%) showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to instruct participants to receive texts and view the

  1. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    East Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with

  2. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.

    2010-01-01

    on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health...... and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range...

  3. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  4. 老年护理院患者抑郁症状的现场调查与干预研究%Onsite survey and intervention research on depressive symptoms of patients in geriatric nursing home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婉红; 黄鸣峰; 王华; 沈玉玲; 马芹琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the occurrence rate of depressive symptoms of patients in geriatric nursing home. To observe the curative effect of comprehensive psychological intervention on depression of geriatric. Methods Select 163 patients in geriatric nursing home of guangming community health service center.Adopt psychological needs scale,geriatric depression scale(GDS)and quality of life(QOL)scale to onsite inspect psychological needs and life quality.60 patients with depressive symptoms in earlier stage are screened out as the research objectives,and divided into intervention group with 30 people and control group with 30 people.The intervention group:besides normal nursing and basic disease therapies,the medical staff,who received professional psychological persuasion training,are responsible for their comprehensive psychological intervention;the control group:receive normal nursing and basic disease therapies.The observation time of both groups are 9 months. Statistical analysis is made based on the related materials. Results 36.8%of the patients in the geriatric nursing home are suffered with depression symptoms in different degrees.The curative effect of the intervention group has significant difference compared with the curative effect of the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion It is the common phenomena for the patients to be suffered with depression symptoms in geriatric nursing homes,which should arise high attention of medical staff.Implementation of comprehensive psychological intervention can alleviate or eliminate the symptoms effectively,which has double significance to prevent the depression symptoms for geriatric and improve their life quality.%目的:了解老年护理院患者抑郁症状的发生率,观察综合性心理干预对老年抑郁症的疗效。方法选择光明社区卫生服务中心老年护理病房的163例患者,采用心理需求表、老年抑郁量表(GDS)和生活质量评定表,进行心理需求和生活质量

  5. Enhancing pre-service elementary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDENİZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of a reflective teaching method on pre-service elementary teachers’ conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons, and simple electric circuits. Data were collected from 40 pre-service elementary teachers about their conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons and day and night, and simple electric circuits pre and post instruction. Findings show that the instructional approach adopted by a science teacher educator had a significant impact on pre-serviceelementary school teachers’ conceptual understanding of lunar phases, seasonal changes and simple electric circuits. The discussion focuses on pre-service elementary school teachers’ misconceptions about the lunar phases, seasonal changes and simple electric circuits as revealed through their answers to the pre-test questions. Further discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for pre-service elementary school science teacher education.

  6. Survey and analysis on the mental health of patients with maxillofacial trauma after comprehensive intervention%颌面创伤患者干预治疗后心理健康调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭为; 王强; 黄红星

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对51例颌面部外伤患者干预治疗后的心理健康调查,对减轻颌面部外伤患者心理障碍作出初步探讨.方法 根据实际情况采用症状自评量表(symptom check list-90,SCL-90)对51例经干预治疗后的颌面外伤患者进行独立测试,并与全国常模进行比较.结果 颌面部外伤患者经临床治疗和心理干预治疗后心理障碍有不同程度的好转,因子分值与全国常模间差别有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论 颌面外伤患者在采取相应干预治疗后效果显著.%Objective To discuss how to relieve the psychologic disorder of facial trauma patients by investigating the mental health of the 51 facial trauma patients. Methods A total of 51 patients with facial trauma after comprehensive intervention were independently assessed with SCL-90 ( symptom check list-90) , and the data were compared with the national norm. Results The psychological status of the facial traunm patients was improved by comprehensive intervention. There was significant difference between its value and the national norm( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion it is significantly effective for facial traunm patients to perform comprehensive intervention.

  7. Effect evaluation of a multifactor community intervention to reduce falls among older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Bois, P. du; Dommelen, P. van; Hopman-Rock, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactor and multimethod community intervention programme to reduce falls among older persons by at least 20%. In a pre-test-post test design, self-reported falls were registered for 10 months in the intervention community and two control communities. After the pre-test registration, participants followed the intervention programme (Information and education, Training and exercise and Environmental modifications) for 14 mont...

  8. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan