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Sample records for prawns exopalaemon carinicauda

  1. Antioxidant response of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda to harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum exposure and its histological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuimin; Ren, Xianyun; Ge, Qianqian; Wang, Jiajia; Li, Jian

    2017-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, one of the most widespread red tide causing species, affects marine aquaculture and ecosystems worldwide. In this study, ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda were exposed to P. minimum cells (5 × 104 cells mL-1) to investigate its harmful effects on the shrimp. Antioxidant activities and histological changes were used as indicators of health status of the shrimp. In 72 hours, the mortality of E. carinicauda was not affected, but its antioxidant response and histology were statistically different from those of control. Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and depressed catalase (CAT) activity were observed in gill; while increased SOD, glutathione S-transferase (GST), CAT activities and modulated GPX activity were observed in hepatopancreas. Thus, antioxidant activities in gill and hepatopancreas seem to respond differentially to harmful alga exposure. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in early a few hours indicates the damage of the antioxidant defense system. Although MDA content recovered to a low level thereafter, a series of histological abnormalities including accumulation or infiltration of hemocytes, tissue lesions and necrosis were discovered in gill and hepatopancreas. Exposure to P. minimum induced sublethal effects on E. carinicauda, including temporary oxidative damage and histological injury.

  2. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  3. Accumulation and elimination of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda following medicated feed and bath administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J P; Li, J; Li, J T; Liu, P; Chang, Z Q; Nie, G X

    2014-10-01

    Accumulation and elimination of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were evaluated in Exopalaemon carinicauda following medicated feed at dose of 10 mg/kg weight body per day for five consecutive days and 10 mg/L bath for five consecutive days at 18 °C. At different times, nine ridgetail white prawns were randomly selected from the tank and sampled after the last medicated feed or bath administration. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, and ovary) was detected by HPLC. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of enrofloxacin were 3.408 ± 0.245, 0.554 ± 0.088, 0.789 ± 0.074, and 0.714 ± 0.123 μg/g for hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, and ovary, respectively, at 1 day after the last medicated feed treatment. The enrofloxacin concentrations were 2.389 ± 0.484, 0.656 ± 0.012, 0.951 ± 0.144, and 3.107 ± 0.721 μg/g in hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, and ovary, respectively, at 1 day after the last bath administration. Ciprofloxacin could be detected in hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, and ovary. However, the concentrations of ciprofloxacin were much lower in comparison with that of enrofloxacin in various tissues. The concentrations of enrofloxacin plus ciprofloxacin in hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, and ovary followed an eliminating pattern during the sampling time after the two routes of administration. Based on data derived from this study, to avoid the enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residue in E. carinicauda, it should take at least 20 and 25 days to wash out the drug from the tissues after the last medicated feed and bath administration with enrofloxacin, respectively. These results helped the Chinese fishery department to lay down the current guidelines on enrofloxacin plus ciprofloxacin withdrawal periods for farmed shrimp. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P 0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  5. The Roles of Heat Shock Proteins 70 and 90 in Exopalaemon carinicauda After WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Chen, Ping; Liu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70 and HSP90, are a suite of highly conserved proteins produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stresses. In aquatic animals, they have been proved to play important roles in response to environmental pollutants and particularly in the non-specific immune responses to pathogen infections. In the present study, the expression profiles of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda infected with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After WSSV challenge, the expression level of HSP 70 gene transcripts in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased to peak level at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. HSP90 gene transcripts in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated significantly at 12 h and 6 h, respectively. During V. anguillarum challenge, the mRNA content of HSP70 gene in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased significantly at 12 h and 6 h post-infection, respectively. The expression level of HSP90 gene both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated in the first 3 h. The expression patterns of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas showed temporal and spatial differences after challenged with WSSV and V. anguillarum. The results suggested that HSPs might be involved in immune responses to pathogens challenge in E. carinicauda.

  6. Genome Sequences of Marine Shrimp Exopalaemon carinicauda Holthuis Provide Insights into Genome Size Evolution of Caridea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianbo; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jiankai; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-07-05

    Crustacea, particularly Decapoda, contains many economically important species, such as shrimps and crabs. Crustaceans exhibit enormous (nearly 500-fold) variability in genome size. However, limited genome resources are available for investigating these species. Exopalaemon carinicauda Holthuis, an economical caridean shrimp, is a potential ideal experimental animal for research on crustaceans. In this study, we performed low-coverage sequencing and de novo assembly of the E. carinicauda genome. The assembly covers more than 95% of coding regions. E. carinicauda possesses a large complex genome (5.73 Gb), with size twice higher than those of many decapod shrimps. As such, comparative genomic analyses were implied to investigate factors affecting genome size evolution of decapods. However, clues associated with genome duplication were not identified, and few horizontally transferred sequences were detected. Ultimately, the burst of transposable elements, especially retrotransposons, was determined as the major factor influencing genome expansion. A total of 2 Gb repeats were identified, and RTE-BovB, Jockey, Gypsy, and DIRS were the four major retrotransposons that significantly expanded. Both recent (Jockey and Gypsy) and ancestral (DIRS) originated retrotransposons responsible for the genome evolution. The E. carinicauda genome also exhibited potential for the genomic and experimental research of shrimps.

  7. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  8. Preliminary Study on One Pathogenic Bacterium---Vibrio harveyi Associated with Red Body Disease in Cultured Exopalaemon carinicauda%一种引起脊尾白虾红体病病原菌的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文文; 王庚申; 施慧; 谢建军; 许文军

    2014-01-01

    In July 2012, a serious pathogentic disease outbroke and quickly spread in Exopalaemon carinicauda which were temporary bred in indoor farm in Zhoushan of Zhejiang province. Incidence rates were around 30% in a wee k (the highest mortality rate of 0.5%). Diseased shrimp showed typical red body disease characteristics: systemic red bodies, unresponsive, feeding reduced or even stopt, swollen liver, pancreas and empty sotmach, etc. A bacterial strain named XS1207005 was isolated from the diseased E. carinicauda. In ar-tificial infection test, XS1207005 was proved to be the pathogen. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and HSP60 gene followed by phylogenetic analysis confirmed its identity. According to the traditional biochemical identification and 16S rRNA and HSP60 homology analysis, the pathogenic bacterium was V. har-veyi. Phylogenetic tree of Vibrios based on HSP60 gene sequences revealed that strain XS1207005 showed the highest level of similarity to V. harveyi (EU036994, AF230934, AY332569). HSP60 gene sequences showed that strain XS1207005 had sequence identity of more than 99.6% to V. harveyi. The results of sensitivity to 22 kinds of antibacterial agents showed that strain XS1207005 was sensitive to cefotaxime, sulfamethoxazolum, ri-fampicine, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, ceftazidime, ofloxacin. V. harveyi is a kind of pathogenic bacterium commonly found in marine-fishes culture, but this is the first time that V. harveyi is reported as the pathogenic bacteria of cultured E. carinicauda in China.%2012年7月,浙江舟山某试验场暂养的脊尾白虾暴发一种较为严重的传染性疾病,病虾身体发红,额剑发黑,反应迟钝,摄食减少,一周内发病死亡率达到30%左右,并有迅速蔓延趋势。从病虾的血淋巴液和肝胰腺中分离到一株优势细菌XS1207005。人工感染试验结果表明,该菌株对健康脊尾白虾有较强的致病性,且感染发病的脊尾白虾与自然发

  9. Koeberg prawns, sir..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Aquaculture as a profitable off-shoot of nuclear and conventional power production is being investigated scientifically by the Fisheries Development Corporation at its prawns research centre, sited on South Africa's east coast

  10. Penaeid prawns and their culture in mangrove areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Culture of penaeid prawns in mangrove areas has been described. Mangrove ecosystem is rich in particulate organic matter or detritus. Detritus is nutritionally very rich and is the major source of food for the juvenile prawns. The mangrove...

  11. Detection of irradiated prawns by photostimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Susu; Saito, Kimie; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how photostimulated luminescence (PSL) can be applied to verify whether prawns have been irradiated by analyzing their intestinal tracts. Prawns from five different locations which were irradiated at doses of 1 kGy of γ-radiations were analyzed using the Japanese model PSL system. The results showed that the integrated photon counts of all the irradiated samples exceeded the upper threshold value (T 2 =4000 counts/90 s), whereas those of the non-irradiated samples were blew than the lower threshold value (T 1 =1000 counts/90 s). Moreover, using the other parameters which were decrease of intensity after optically stimulation and increase of intensity by optically stimulation, a clear difference was observed between non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples. Therefore, the Japanese model PSL system can be used as a screening method for detecting irradiated prawns by analyzing their intestinal tracts. (author)

  12. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    A pilot scale penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery was established at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India in 1996 with an installed production capacity of 2 million postlarvae (PL 20) as part of the Technology Project in Mission Mode Semi...

  13. Formulation of cheap prawn diets and their biological evaluation on some penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    While using the cheap locally available wastes and raw materials, two compound diets have been formulated and prepared. Three species of penaeid prawns viz. Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis and Penaeus indicus were fed on these diets...

  14. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  15. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  16. In vitro fertilization of banana prawn Penaeus merguiensis de Man

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.

    Successful in Vitro fertilization of the commercially important prawn, Penaeus merguiensis has been achieved. Suspensions of sperms and ova were mixed and agitated for five minutes. Healthy nauplii were observed on following day and developed...

  17. Growth, production and consumption of the thalassinid prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-03-31

    Mar 31, 1992 ... The growth of these prawns, determined by cohort analyses, was described by von. Bertalantty equations: Lt ... 35·E. SWARTKOPS ESTUARY. 1 km. •. VILLAGES !Ii MAJOR BAIT AREAS. Figure 1 (A) ...... Commerce,. National ...

  18. Reproduction and larval distribution of the penaeid prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die teenwoordigheid van broeiende wyfies in 'n volwasse stadium van ..... spawning peaks and.the number of post-larvae in or near nursery areas has ... by eye-stalk ablation in pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum ... Induced maturation of prawn.

  19. Impacts of different rice-fish-prawn culture systems on yield of rice, fish and prawn and limnological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Ashfaqun

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of fish and prawn culture on some physicochemical parameters of water, weeds, benthos, and rice yield under simultaneous method for a period of 5 months from July to November 2007. The experiment was comprised of five individual treatments having three replicates for each. The treatments were: rice combined with fish and regular urea fertilization (treatment І, T1), rice combined with prawn and regular urea fertilization (treatment ІI, T2), ...

  20. Penaeid prawns in the St Lucia Lake System: Post-larval recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penaeid prawns in the St Lucia Lake System: Post-larval recruitment and the bait fishery. ... Recruitment of post-larval penaeid prawns and the bait prawn fishery in the St Lucia Lake System were monitored for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Prawn landings and their relationship with the extent of mangroves and shallow waters in western peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Ahmad Adnan, N.; Connolly, R. M.; Manson, F. J.

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated changes in landings of all prawns, white prawns (mainly Penaeus merguiensis), mangrove extent, rainfall and the area of shallow water in western peninsular Malaysia. The most important state for both the landings of all prawns and white prawns was Perak where about 50% of all prawns and 35% of white prawns were landed. This is also the state with the largest, and most stable, extent of mangrove forest reserve (40 000 ha) and the largest area of shallow water (Johor, where large losses of mangrove forest reserve have been recorded, appear to have been maintained or increased in the 1990s. The lack of a clear relationship between mangrove loss and prawn landings may be due to the migration of prawns from adjacent areas or that other attributes of mangroves, such as the length of mangrove-water interface, may be more important for the growth and survival of prawn populations than total area of mangroves.

  2. Short Communication: An Update on Initiatives to Reduce Prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While prawn trawling contributes substantially to the economies of some Western Indian Ocean countries, there is usually a considerable bycatch, much of which is wastefully discarded. Conflict between trawlers and other fisheries sectors often occurs, for example when trawlers catch species which are targeted by these ...

  3. Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C

    1978-01-01

    The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

  4. Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the high economic value attached to this resource, the biological information necessary for its sustainable exploitation is scanty and fragmented. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the species composition, population abundance and reproduction of the penaeid prawns in Bagamoyo coastal ...

  5. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  6. Absorption of labelled calcium-45Ca by prawn from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshimaru, Osamu; Kuroki, Katsunobu; Sakamoto, Syuichi; Yone, Yasuo.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the previous study of the mineral requirements of prawn, Penaeus japonicus, the absorption of radioactive calcium- 45 Ca from surrounding sea water by the prawn fed on a diet without supplemental calcium was compared with that of the prawn fed on a calcium-supplemented diet. The surrounding sea water was prepared to contain labelled calcium- 45 Ca-CaCl 2 . The prawn were first fed on each test diet in ordinary sea water, and one hour after the final mealtime were transferred to sea water in which 45 Ca-CaCl 2 was dissolved. One, four, and twentythree hours later, the prawn were analyzed for the radioactivity incorporated into their bodies. The radioactivity of 45 Ca accumulated in the prawn gradually increased with the lapse of time, and the group fed on the diet without supplemental calcium exhibited faster absorption and higher activity of 45 Ca than the group fed on the diet with calcium. (author)

  7. Effects of fish and prawn culture on physico-chemical parameters of water and rice yield in rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, M.A.; Nahar, A.; Mirhaj, M.; Becker, K.; Dewan, S.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with five treatments i.e. rice combined with fish having regular urea fertilization (T1), rice combined with prawn having regular urea fertilization (T2), rice combined with fish with supplementary feeding (T3), rice combined with prawn with supplementary feeding (T4) and without fish and prawn (T5) was kept as control. The dissolved oxygen values obtained in treatments with fish both in morning and afternoon were lower than the values of prawn containing treatment...

  8. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  9. Sustainable Development? Controversies over Prawn Farming on Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Caplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world market for crustaceans has increased exponentially in recent years and so too have the number of production sites. However, the growth of this industry has not been without controversy, particularly regarding its environmental effects. In 2002, a large company based in Kenya applied to locate a prawn farm on Mafia Island, Tanzania, close to the Rufiji Delta. This scheme raised very differing views among various 'stakeholders': villagers living around the proposed site, the Mafia District Councillors (madiwan, government officials at varying levels, local and national activists (some in NGOs, the prawn farming company, and the experts whom they hired to produce environmental impact reports. There were opposing discourses around the rights of locals as citizens to retain control of 'their' resources, on the one hand, versus the needs of 'development' and the creation of jobs, on the other. There were also fierce debates about the importance and meaning of environment and sustainability, and the perceived role of corruption. This paper, based on fieldwork in 2002 and 2004, explores these complex debates and the ways in which the decision was finally made to allow the prawn farm to go ahead. It reveals the means by which the legal rights of citizens at the local level may be trumped by pressures emanating from those coming from above and outside who wield greater power.

  10. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the astaxanthin pigment, pH, moisture, protein, salt content, Aw and color. The content of astaxanthin pigments in fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  11. Osmotic behaviour of shrimps and prawns in relation to their biology and culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    The prawns which are useful for cultural purposes belong mostly to the decapod families Penaeidae and Palaemonidae. Most penaeids are marine prawns which migrate to estuaries and brackish water in their young stages but go back to the sea to breed...

  12. Environmental conditions of some paddy cum prawn culture fields of Cochin backwaters, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    ecological distortions because of its proximity to the sea. The results indicate that the fields in areas 1 and 3 have environmental conditions highly suited for prawn culture whereas in area 2 the salinity conditions are not very conducive for prawn growth...

  13. Effect of sustainability information on consumers' liking of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Julia Siqueira; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; Doro, Laís Higino; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2015-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether consumer acceptance is affected by information on sustainable practices on the product label. Hedonic evaluations of freshwater prawns were performed by 80 consumers under three aspects: the blind condition - consumers taste samples without information; expected - without tasting samples, consumers evaluated the message 'Freshwater prawns were grown using sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts caused by traditional breeding'; informed - in which prawns were tasted and the card evaluated. For the entire consumer group, it was observed that the message about sustainability on packaging increased freshwater prawn acceptability (8.25, expected condition (E) versus 6.75, blind condition (B)). High scores were observed under all three test conditions, ranging from 6 (like slightly) to 9 (like extremely), on a 9-point scale. It can be concluded that the use of sustainable information can influence consumers' perception and increase their preference toward freshwater prawns, and even increase the sensory attributes of the product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinivasagam, H.N.; Bremner, Allan; Wood, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from king (Penaeus plebejus), banana (P. merguiensis), tiger (P. esculentus/semisulcatus) and greasy (Metapenaeus bennettae) prawns stored in ice or ice slurry, which is effectively an environment of low oxygen tension...... inoculated with a total of 15 cultures of Ps. fragi and S. putrefaciens and incubated for two weeks at 5°C, showed the presence of 17 major compounds in the headspace volatiles analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These were mainly amines, sulphides, ketones and esters. Principal...

  15. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.

  16. UJI COBA PERANGKAP UDANG DENGAN BENTUK YANG BERBEDA (EXPERIMENTAL FISHING WITH TRAP PRAWN DIFFERENT FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhamsyah Irhamsyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengetahui perbedaan hasil tangkapan udang dari tamba dan ayunan modifikasi dan hasil tangkapan selain udang.  Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh perlakuan A (tamba diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 52 ekor, dengan berat total 2.210 gram.  Perlakuan B (ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu, diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 29 ekor, dengan berat total  180 gram.  Total hasil tangkapan udang dengan menggunakan tamba dan ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu selama 16 hari pengamatan adalah 81 ekor dengan berat total 2.390 gram.  Jenis hasil tangkapan utama yaitu Udang Galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man dengan hasil tangkapan sampingan adalah ikan Lundu (Mystus gulio dan  ikan Sapu-Sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus. This study aims to (1 know the difference between the catch of prawns from tamba and ayunan, and (2 to determine the catch other than prawn. The results, treatment A (tamba gained as much as 52 prawns, with a total weight of 2,210 grams. Treatment B (ayunan modifications bamboo flooring, gained as much as 29 prawns, with a total weight of 180 grams. Total catch of prawns using swing modifications and addi bamboo flooring for 16 days of observation was 81 prawns with a total weight of 2,390 grams. Main types of catches fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man with a side of the catch is Lundu (Mystus Gulio and Sapu-sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus.

  17. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg -1 ; WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of irradiated prawns using 2-alkyl-cyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, B.T.; Hamilton, J.T.G.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food has been under investigation for many years but yet has to receive worldwide acceptance. Although irradiation can be carefully controlled, it is generally accepted that the development of tests for detection of irradiated food would enhance consumer confidence and might help to enforce labelling regulations. The alkylcyclobutanones are reported to be the only cyclic compounds formed as the products of the radiolysis of saturated triglycerides. The synthesis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (TCB) has been carried out. Using irradiated chicken meat as the model for a fat-containing food, both cyclobutanones have been extracted with solvent and then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DCB and TCB have been detected in chicken meat irradiated at doses well below 10 kGy and were not detectable in unirradiated chicken. Systematic studies have been undertaken to confirm the specificity of these compounds as markers for irradiation treatment. The presence of both DCB and TCB in other irradiated meats and irradiated liquid whole egg has been confirmed. The feasibility of applying the method to low- fat-containing foods, such as prawns, is now underway. Preliminary studies have shown that both DCB and TCB have been detected in prawns irradiated at doses likely to be used commercially. 3 refs. (author)

  19. Cytosolic adenylate changes during exercise in prawn muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, M.T.; Raffin, J.P.; Pichon, R.

    1994-01-01

    31 P NMR and biochemical analysis were used to assess the effect of heavy exercise on cytosolic adenylate levels in Palaemon serratus abdominal muscle. At rest, the MgATP level corresponded to 85.5% of the total ATP content. The cytosolic adenylate concentrations of the prawn muscle are considerably different from that of vertebrates. The percentage of ADP bound to myofilaments was lower in the prawn muscle. Consequently, the level of free cytosolic AMP was greatly higher (thirty fold higher) than in vertebrate muscle. During vigorous work, the concentration of MgATP dropped and the cytosolic AMP accumulated, while the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool decreased significantly. The phosphorylation potential value and the ATP/ADP ratio, calculated from the cytosolic adenylate, dropped acutely during the whole period of muscular contractions. On the contrary, the adenylate energy charge calculated from the cytosolic adenylate decreased slightly. Therefore, even in muscle displaying no AMP deamination, the adenylate charge is stabilized during exercise by the dynamic changes between cytosolic and bound adenylate species. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    A parabolic relationship was obtained while studying the length-weight relationship of the postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. The b value (multiplying constant) showed that in the laboratory reared penaeid prawns, length-weight relationship strictly...

  1. Benthos and substratum characteristics of prawn culture fields in and around the Cochin backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.; Balasubramanian; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Jayalakshmy; Kutty, M.K.

    Benthic ecology of certain selected seasonal and perennial prawn fields in the Cochin Backwaters, Kerala, India was studied for understanding the environmental factors controlling the abundance of the major groups of macrobenthos which form...

  2. Further obsrvations on a newly located prawn fishery off Saurashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The abundance of prawns in a newly located ground off Saurashtra has been described Catch omposition showed that Metapenaeus affinis formed the bulk of the catches Previously this species was thought to be of not much commercial importance...

  3. Maturation of the penaeid prawn Metapenaeus moyebi in Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T; Parulekar, A

    Metapenaeus moyebi contributed a good share of penaeid prawn population in the Mandovi Estuary of Goa, India throughout the year. Both males and females of this species with fully mature gonads were observed in the estuary, suggesting further...

  4. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    Infection of the two species of fungi (Phycomycetes) in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and three species in amphipods (Gammarus sp.) and tanaeidaceans (Apseudes sp.) was observed. Of the two pathogens in the shrimp, Leptolegnia marina produced...

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani Muliani; Ince Ayu Khairana Kadriah; Andi Parenrengi; Sulaeman Sulaeman

    2006-01-01

    ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water) and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish).  The taxonomic identif...

  6. Meat quality of Kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the peneids, Marsupenaeus japonicus, a cold-temperate species, carnivorous, is the mostly cultured prawn in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea basin, thanks to the good adaptability to the temperature and salinity variations, to the good resistance to the manipulations (better resistance out of water, to its appreciate nourishing qualities and to the good growth rate (Lumare, 1998.Whereas the literature on cultured fish fillet is rich (Gjedrem, 1997; Lanari et al., 1999; Parisi et al., 2003, few are the information about the shrimp meat quality traits.Therefore, the present work aimed at typifying the variations of the meat quality characteristics in shrimps from semi-intensive (supplemented with an artificial diet or extensive rearing systems.

  7. Effects of C/N ratio and substrate addition on natural food communities in freshwater prawn monoculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Azim, M.E.; Islam, M.A.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn

  8. Braving Crocodiles with Kali: Being a prawn-seed collector and a modern woman in the 21st century Sundarbans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalais, A.

    2010-01-01

    Globalisation has undoubtedly shaped popular conceptions of gender and society in innumerable ways. This article studies one such instance - the plight of tiger-prawn collectors in Sundarbans. The discovery of tiger-prawns - the 'living dollars of Sundarbans' - has certainly transformed the lives of

  9. Effect of eyestalk ablation on the metabolic activities of two penaeid prawns: Metapenaeous monoceros and M. dobsoni (De Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitraman, P.P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    types of food has been worked out (Royan et al. 1977). The effect of the unilateral ablation of the eyestalk on the energy budget of juveniles of the Malayan prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was attempted (Perez Cruz & Luna Figueroa 1995). Prawn fishery...

  10. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  11. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  12. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  13. An overview of freshwater prawn fishery in Bangladesh: present status and future prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn fishery plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. The fishery is mainly based on the culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The culture fishery has been growing rapidly, thus, masking the dwindling capture fishery which is faced with serious environmental issues augmented by deleterious fishing methods. Despite the high prospects of the freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh, a lot of research is needed to ensure the sustainable development of the capture fishery which forms a key source of prawn aquaculture seed as well as provide a baseline for future appraisals. Freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh is based on traditional methods with continuous adaptations by the rural fishers. However, numerous constraints to its full development are evident at all stages of its production. Lack of quality brood stock, seed, feeds and poor technical knowledge at farmers level are but some of the impediments challenging the sustainability of this industry. This paper reviews the freshwater prawn fishery of Bangladesh over the last few decades and outlines approaches for the development of an ecosystem-based management of both the culture and capture sectors of this important fishery.

  14. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  15. Farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Bagerhat, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Akter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to know the present status of Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Education levels of farmers were found as illiterate (12.3%, primary (36.19%, secondary (20%, SSC (13.33%, HSC (12.38% and graduate (5.71%. M. rosenbergii culture was the primary and secondary occupation of 80% and 20% farmers respectively. Average stocking density and production in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture were 9609, 11502 and 22847 per ha and 193, 284 and 488 kg/ha/year respectively; rearing period ranges from 6-10 months and survival rate varied from 55 to 60%. In improved extensive and semi-intensive culture 82.86% and 71.43% farmers applied farm-made feed instead of company feeds respectively and 11.43% and 37.14% farmers used both feeds. 91.43%, 80% and 68.57% respondents responded on normal to high mortality in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture respectively. Lack of finance and appropriate technology, scarcity of quality PL, diseases and inadequate extension work were major problems of prawn culture.

  16. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  17. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions.

  18. A assessment of the fishery resources for non-penaeid prawns in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.J.

    prawn fishery of the different zones of the Indian coast the non-penaeids average to 47.9% Nearly 90% of these catches come from the Maharashtra and Gujarat coast The species which are most abundant are Acetes indicus, Palaemon tenuipes, Palaemon...

  19. Effects of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth of penaeid prawn Metapenaeus dobsoni (de Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitraman, P.R; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.; Nair, M.; Nair, K.K.C.

    group, 35-40 mm, but consumed about 57.8% more food than the control prawns in the larger size group, 48-53 mm. Growth was estimated as length and weight changes and significant variation was observed. The moult rate and dry moult weight showed marked...

  20. Ecological evaluation of two prawn culture fields in the Cochin Backwater based on premonsoon diurnal observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balasubramanian, T.; Viswakumar, M.; Venugopal, P.

    29 degrees and 35 degrees C during the main prawn culture season from December to April and provide ecological conditions distinct in many respects from that of the main backwater. They are given a high rating in terms of their suitability for culture...

  1. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  2. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  3. BRAVING CROCODILES WITH KALI: BEING A PRAWN SEED COLLECTOR AND A MODERN WOMAN IN THE 21ST CENTURY SUNDARBANS

    OpenAIRE

    Annu Jalais

    2010-01-01

    Globalisation has undoubtedly shaped popular conceptions of gender and society in innumerable ways. This article studies one such instance - the plight of tiger-prawn collectors in Sundarbans. The discovery of tiger-prawns - the 'living dollars of Sundarbans' - has certainl...

  4. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Suroso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most of the life cycle of tiger prawns were estuarine (Delta Mahakam. In the juvenile stage life in estuarine and the adult stage in marine. The research objective is to assess the potential of the tiger prawn fry catches in the Mahakam Delta, as a source of tiger prawn fry in the Mahakam Delta area farms. Research using interviews and descriptive analysis through monitoring with fishermen. The results showed that the fry tiger prawn from the Delta Mahakam there on the beaches or the edge of the sea where the water is shallow and slightly brackish, as in the Delta Mahakam. Fry can be captured by using rumpon. Tiger prawns fry from Delta Mahakam durability is relatively higher than fry from the hatchery. However, the number and continuity of fry very limited because it depends on the season. Abundance of fry is determined by the number of larvae produced in the wild and their survival is greatly influenced by the availability of food. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46 [How to cite this article: Suroso, B., Hutabarat, J., and Afiati, N. (2013. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia, International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,43-46. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46

  5. Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

    1982-08-01

    The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

  6. Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J A; Gwilliam, H G; Lindsay, M; Lichanska, A; Belcher, C; Vickers, J E; Hugenholtz, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain Bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. A selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. Planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. The predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection status was nonpigmented. Other, less commonly observed types were pink or orange pigmented. A planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA-directed probe was designed and used to screen the isolates for their identity as planctomycetes prior to molecular phylogenetic characterization. 16S rRNA genes from nine prawn isolates together with two planctomycete reference strains (Planctomyces brasiliensis and Gemmata obscuriglobus) were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from the planctomycetes and other members of the domain Bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence signatures of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the prawn isolates were members of the planctomycete group. Five representatives of the predominant nonpigmented colony type were members of the Pirellula group within the planctomycetes, as were three pink-pigmented colony type representatives. Homology values and tree topology indicated that representatives of the nonpigmented and pink-pigmented colony types formed two discrete clusters within the Pirellula group, not identical to any known Pirellula species. A sole representative of the orange colony type was a member of the Planctomyces group, virtually identical in 16S rDNA sequence to P. brasiliensis, and exhibited distinctive morphology. PMID:8979353

  7. Study of Use Ozone Oxydan at Liquid Waste Processing of Prawn Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto; Agus-Purwadi

    2006-01-01

    Study of use ozone oxidant at liquid waste processing prawn industry was done. This research target is to study the influence of utilization of ozone oxidant to degrade the BOD, COD and TSS in liquid waste processing of prawn industrial. Waste volume for every treatment is 500 ml, ozonization time 10 minute, with the variation of pH: 7; 8; 9; 10 and 11 by gift calcify. With pH optimal then used for the treatment variation of time of ozone gift: 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; and 25 minute. From the experiment it was obtained that the optimal condition is reached at pH = 9 and time of ozonization 20 minute. At this condition is obtained the three following parameters: BOD = 41 mg/l, COD = 54 mg/l, and TSS = 25 mg/l. The parameter have pursuant to permanent standard quality of industrial liquid waste processing of prawn according to Decree of The State's Minister of Environment No. Piece. 51/MENLH/10/1995 and Decision of Gubernur DIY No. 281/KPTS/1998, as conditions of waste of faction III. (author)

  8. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  9. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae to physical and chemical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Tizkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquacultureand its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX to the shock and stress of differentphysicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36org/m² per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C, ammonia (0.75mg/L, and reduced oxygen (0.5mg/L. The time to lethargyand the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  10. Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C/N controlled periphyton based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Mondal, M.N.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density of freshwater prawn and addition of different levels of tilapia on production in carbon/nitrogen (C/N) controlled periphyton based system. The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial design, in which two levels of prawn stocking

  11. Effects of C/N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezoanul Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors were investigated. The experiment had two treatments: T1 and T2 each with three replications. Stocking density was maintained at 20,000 juveniles ha-1. In T1, only commercially available prawn feed was applied and in T2, a locally formulated and prepared feed containing 24% crude protein with C:N ratio close to 20 was used, and maize flour and bamboo side shoots were provided for maintaining C:N ratio 20.Mean values of water quality parameters did not vary significantly (P>0.05 between treatments. Periphytic biomass in terms of dry matter, ash free dry matter (AFDM and chlorophyll a showed significant difference (P<0.05 among different sampling months. Individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rates, gross and net yields of prawn were significantly higher (P<0.05 in T2 than T1. Therefore, it was concluded that freshwater prawn might consume periphyton biomass in C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming practices resulted a significantly (P<0.05 higher production of freshwater prawn than traditional farming.

  12. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  13. Bio-assembled, piezoelectric prawn shell made self-powered wearable sensor for non-invasive physiological signal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-03-01

    A human interactive self-powered wearable sensor is designed using waste by-product prawn shells. The structural origin of intrinsic piezoelectric characteristics of bio-assembled chitin nanofibers has been investigated. It allows the prawn shell to make a tactile sensor that performs also as a highly durable mechanical energy harvester/nanogenerator. The feasibility and fundamental physics of self-powered consumer electronics even from human perception is highlighted by prawn shells made nanogenerator (PSNG). High fidelity and non-invasive monitoring of vital signs, such as radial artery pulse wave and coughing actions, may lead to the potential use of PSNG for early intervention. It is presumed that PSNG has enormous future aspects in real-time as well as remote health care assessment.

  14. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nunez-Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs and Energy Reserves (ERs in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  16. Tudor Creek, Mombasa: The Early Life History Stages of Fish and Prawns 1985. Overseas Development Administration, Research Project R3888.

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, S.J.; Little, M.C.; Reay, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The project was based at KMFRI headquarters in Mombasa, with Tudor Creek (a fully saline area of mangroves, mud and open water) as the study area. Sampling mainly involved the use of plankton nets and fine-meshed beach seines, in all months from February to November 1985. Sampling frequencies of hours, days and weeks were also employed in order to cover the diel, circatidal, semilunar and lunar cycles. From the samples, prawn post-larvae, fish eggs and larvae, and juvenile fish and prawns wer...

  17. Limnology of Kharland (saline) ponds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra in relation to prawn culture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, D N; Gaidhane, D M; Singh, H

    2006-01-01

    The coastal saline soils, Kharlands, have great potential for their use in aquaculture. This study has been taken up to understand the limnology of the ponds in Kharland area for assessing their prawn culture potential. This study was carried out during September, 1999 to August, 2001. Each Kharland pond has an area of 0.045 hectare. During the study, depth of pond water was 47.7 to 120.0 cm, temperature varied from 25.7 to 34.5 degrees C; transparency from nil to 65.0 cm; specific conductivity from 1.78 to 94.5 microS.cm(-1); total dissolved solids from 0.89 to 27.55 ppt; pH 5.42 to 8.25; dissolved oxygen 1.6 to 8 mg.l(-1); free carbon dioxide 10.00 to 44.00 mg.l(-1); total alkalinity 5.00 to 142.00 mg.l(-1); salinity 0.45 to 39.55 ppt; total hardness 245.00 to 5945.00; calcium 56.05 to 1827.6; magnesium 110.74 to 4507.75 mg.l(-1); dissolved organic matter 1.45 to 9.68 mg.l(-1); ammonia 1.00-8.00 microg.l(-1); nitrite nil to 20.00 micro l(-1) and nitrate 7.5 to 17.5 microg.l(-1). These Kharland ponds are unique in physio-chemical characteristics during their seasonal cycle. From July to October, these ponds have nearly freshwater while from November to May pond water becomes saline. Thus, there is a great possibility of taking up monoculture of both the freshwater and brackish water prawns as well as polyculture of prawns and fishes in the Kharland ponds.

  18. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All F ST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  19. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF DISQUALIFIED TIGER PRAWN (PENAEUS MONODON FAB. BROODSTOCK USING DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETTY RIANI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disqualified tiger prawn broodstock has undergone ablation after two breeding periods, which causes high production cost, pollution of environment and difficulties in providing the broodstock continuously with enough quantity at an exact time. The purpose of this study was to find the proper dosage of dopamine to improve the quality for breeding of the disqualified tiger prawn, because dopamine inhibits maturation, so there will be enough time for maturation and improvement of the eggs quality.This experiment used 15 pairs of the twice breeding tiger prawn, which was collected from -9Perigi (Central Java. The samples were treated with different dosages of dopamine (dosage 10 , -8 -7 -6 10 , 10 , 10 moll and control/injected with aquabidest. The parameters identified in this experiment were duration (days for eggs maturation, fecundity, fertilizing rate, hatching rate, egg diameter and phototaxis response of the nauplii.The research concluded that the average duration for eggs maturation on the broodstock -9 -8 -7 -6that were injected with dopamine, dosage 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 moll and control, were 14, 12, 4, 2, 5 days, respectively. Fecundities were 561.489, 503.000, 384.205, 230.850 and 150.034. Fertilizing rates were 89.8%, 82.1%, 56.0%, 46.3%, and 23.2%. Hatching rates were 79.53%, 72.53%, 47.75%, 12.27%, and 36.6%. Diameters were 0.29; 0.29; 0.29; 0.27; and 0.27 mm. The nauplii -9 -8 -7produced by injecting broodstock with dopamine dosages of 10 , 10 , 10 , have positive -6phototaxis response, while for dosage 10 and control the responses were weak.

  20. Trophic dynamics of few selected nearshore coastal finfishes with emphasis on prawns as prey item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velip, Dinesh T.; Rivonker, Chandrashekher U.

    2018-06-01

    A trophic dynamic study of marine finfishes was undertaken based on stomach content analysis of twenty four species (N = 1742) collected from the nearshore coastal waters off Goa, west coast of India (15°29‧07.6″ N to 15°34‧44.3″ N, and 73°38‧10.5″ E to 73°46‧03.1″ E) during November 2010 to May 2013. This study aimed to thoroughly understand the feeding attributes of finfishes, and comprehend the possible effects of bycatch-related loss of biomass on trophic ecology. The study assessed diet preferences of the finfishes, their feeding guilds, significance of prawns as prey items, and the influence of mouth parts in prey selection. Altogether 84 prey taxa were identified from the stomach contents. Percentage Index of Relative Importance (IRI) values revealed that zooplankton (34.74), prawns (21.71), phytoplankton (19.80), and teleosts (18.62) were the major prey categories, and, among prawns, Metapenaeus dobsoni (%IRI = 19.34) was the single-most important prey item. Cluster analysis revealed three major trophic guilds namely 'teleost feeders' (mean Trophic Level (TrL) = 4.06 ± 0.42; mean B = 0.46 ± 0.24), 'zooplankton feeders' (mean TrL = 3.43 ± 0.29; mean B = 0.23 ± 0.13), and 'prawn feeders' (mean TrL = 3.86 ± 0.25; mean B = 0.48 ± 0.32), with low diet overlap among them. Principal Component Analysis of prey categories and mouth parts of finfishes suggested that zooplanktivory is associated with gill raker density as well as number of gill arches bearing rakers, whereas gape height determined the size of large-sized prey (fish and invertebrates). The study identified M. dobsoni, mysis and teleosts as highly influential prey for predatory finfishes. The present results could be useful to resolve broader issues in fisheries management.

  1. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W.

    2005-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10 6 to 4 x 10 6 cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10 6 cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10 6 cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10 4 cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10 4 cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10 6 cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 μg/kg dw; ELISA) during the study. Hepatotoxin concentrations in

  2. Key to the identification of larvae and postlarvae of the penaeid prawns (Decapoda: Penaeidea) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.

    Some of the major criteria for identifying the larvae and early postlarvae of the penaeid prawns of the Indian Ocean are presented based on the study on material collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (1960-65). The key also...

  3. Concentrations of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Freshwater Prawn) from Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Farah Akmal; Basri, Masania Mohd; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd; Chong, Melissa Dennis

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males (muscle tissues and exoskeleton) except for Cd in exoskeleton. In gills, only Cu was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female than male. All samples contained metals below the permissible limit for human consumption (i.e., Cd < 2.00 mg/kg; Cu < 30.00 mg/kg; Zn < 150 mg/kg). Annual metals monitoring in prawn and environmental samples is recommended to evaluate changes of metals bioaccumulation and cycling in the system, which is useful for resources management.

  4. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Rigby

    Full Text Available The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  6. Starvation Promotes Autophagy-Associated Maturation of the Ovary in the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilairat Kankuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of food availability (starvation is known to influence the reproductive ability of animals. Autophagy is a lysosomal driven degradation process that protects the cell under metabolic stress conditions, such as during nutrient shortage. Whether, and how starvation-induced autophagy impacts on the maturation and function of reproductive organs in animals are still open questions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of starvation on histological and cellular changes that may be associated with autophagy in the ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobachium rosenbergii. To this end, the female prawns were daily fed (controls or unfed (starvation condition for up to 12 days, and the ovary tissue was analyzed at different time-points. Starvation triggered ovarian maturation, and concomitantly increased the expression of autophagy markers in vitellogenic oocytes. The immunoreactivities for autophagy markers, including Beclin1, LC3-II, and Lamp1, were enhanced in the late oocytes within the mature ovaries, especially at the vitellogenic stages. These markers co-localized with vitellin in the yolk granules within the oocytes, suggesting that autophagy induced by starvation could drive vitellin utilization, thus promoting ovarian maturation.

  7. Detection method of prawn irradiated in frozen state using tyrosine isomers as a marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, H.; Satomi, M.; Omura, Y.; Yano, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Internationally the use of food irradiation has been expanding. And therefore a method is needed to detect whether food has been irradiated or not. We examined the content of the tyrosine isomers, m-tyrosine and omicron-tyrosine, of prawns irradiated in the frozen state (< -30 deg C) as a marker of the detection method. The tyrosine isomer content linearly increased with increasing dose, and the level of tyrosine isomers in the frozen-irradiated prawn was 50 - 60 % of the un frozen ones. But the difference in the content of tyrosine isomers between non-irradiated and irradiated at 5.0 kGy, that is the approved dose for frozen shellfish in countries where this technique is approved, is enough for discrimination. In addition, the content of tyrosine isomers showed little change during the frozen storage for 120 days. So we think the method using tyrosine isomers is suitable for practical use in Japan for imports of many kinds of frozen shellfish

  8. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Meireles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  9. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2013-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.

  10. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati...

  11. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  12. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The

  13. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  14. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  15. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

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    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  16. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  17. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  18. Molecular data raise the possibility of cryptic species in the Brazilian endemic prawn Macrobrachiumpotiuna (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício L de Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent taxonomic revision indicated that Macrobrachiumpotiuna, an endemic prawn in Brazilian freshwater drainages, exhibits wide morphological variability along its limited geographical distribution. However, in some cases, taxonomic doubts at the species level have no clear morphological resolution. Considering that no molecular data of M. potiuna along its distribution were available to provide a complete and integrated overview, we analyzed 21 partial sequences (531 bp from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of M. potiuna and 9 sequences from outgroup species, by maximum likelihood and parsimony, in order to investigate the possibility of the existence of cryptic species, within the morphologically based M. potiuna. The topologies obtained revealed that M. potiuna represents a monophyletic clade. Nevertheless, two clades supported by both analyses were formed within the M. potiuna taxon. The mean genetic divergence between these two groups was 0.044 ± 0.007, and within each group (i.e., M. potiuna "sensu stricto" andM. potiuna "Affinis-Clade" the divergences were 0.010 ± 0.003 and 0.028 ± 0.005, respectively. As far as we know, this is the first report to show a genetic separation between populations of prawns with abbreviated larval development in South American drainages. Pending additional analysis, to propose a conclusive inference, the existence of these distinct genetic groups must be considered in future studies with the morphologically based M. potiuna. In addition, we extended the known northern distribution with a record from the state of Bahia.

  19. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish.  The taxonomic identification of Vibrio spp.was performed based on the physiological and biochemical characteristic following the isolation by Thiosulphate Citrate Bile-salt Sucrose Agar (TCBSA media. Amplified Ribosomoal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA for 16S-rRNA analysis and Macrorestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MLFP analysis using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE were applied to reveal the genetic diversity of V. harveyi. According to the taxonomic identification, of 361 isolates of Vibrio spp., 129 isolates (35.7% were identified as V. harveyi. The result of ARDRA analysis showed that the 16S-rRNA gene of V. harveyi digested by RsaI and HhaI enzyme, each generated three and four identical fragments respectively for the all samples. These meaned that ARDRA could not reveal any genetic variation on V. harveyi. The size range of all DNA fragment was less than 500 bp. This result indicated that the high genetic diversity of V. harveyi was revealed by MFLP-PFGE analysis. DNA fragment of V. harveyi was digested by NotI enzyme.

  20. Bio Accumulation Of Chromium, Nickel, Lead And Vanadium In Some Commercial Fish And Prawn From Qatari Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Moati, M. A. R. [محمد علاء الدين عبد المعطي; Nasir, N. A.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 150 fish and prawn samples representing the most economically important species were collected during 1995-96 by experimental fishing in three locations covering the coastal waters of Qatar. Fish and prawn flesh were analysed for the oil related metals Cr, Pb, Ni and V. The range of levels in fish were 0.06 -0.64 |Xg g"1, 0.03 - 0.93 (ig g"1, 0.31 - 2.23 |Xg g"1 and ND - 0.232 |ig g"1 for Cr, Pb, Ni and V, respectively; تم عن طريق الصيد التجريبي جمع 150 عينة من الأسماك الاقتصادي...

  1. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae in Northeastern Argentina: with remarks on population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Patricia Carnevali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size from 1m². In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m² and 1 411 ind/m². The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21% in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273. We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL was similar.

  2. The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Savaya Alkalay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG, which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our

  3. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  4. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  5. Bioaccumulation, distribution and elimination of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Dodet, Nathalie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus from 1972 to 1993. A few years after its introduction, widespread contamination of soils, rivers, wild animals and aquatic organisms was reported. Although high chlordecone concentrations have been reported in several crustacean species, its uptake, internal distribution, and elimination in aquatic species have never been described. This study aimed at investigating the accumulation and tissue distribution of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using both laboratory (30 days exposure) and field (8 months exposure) approaches. In addition, depuration in chlordecone-free water was studied. Results showed that chlordecone bioconcentration in prawns was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Moreover, females appeared to be less contaminated than males after 5 and 7 months of exposure, probably due to successive spawning leading in the elimination of chlordecone through the eggs. Chlordecone distribution in tissues of exposed prawns showed that cephalothorax organs, mainly represented by the hepatopancreas, was the most contaminated. Results also showed that chlordecone was accumulated in cuticle, up to levels of 40% of the chlordecone body burden, which could be considered as a depuration mechanism since chlordecone is eliminated with the exuviae during successive moults. Finally, this study underlined the similarity of results obtained in laboratory and field approaches, which highlights their complementarities in the chlordecone behaviour understanding in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphological and molecular features of some freshwater prawn species under genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Win; Kang, Peng-Fei; Mao, Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2018-02-28

    Myanmar is abundant in lakes and rivers, yet only a few investigations on the fauna of shrimps and prawns have been conducted and no molecular characteristics of prawn species have been described. This study reveals the morphologically identification of five freshwater prawn species under the genus Macrobrachium, including M. cavernicola, M. australiense, M. johnsoni, M. josephi and Macrobrachium sp.WMY-2017. As there was no previous record and information concerning with M. australiense, M. johnsoni, M. josephi and Macrobrachium sp. WMY-2017, they were regarded as the first record from Myanmar. A fragment of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene (COI) was amplified successfully from three studied species: M. australiense, M. josephi, and Macrobrachium sp.WMY-2017. The interspecific divergences of studied species varied from 0.01 to 0.15. The phylogenetic tree based on COI fragment sequences showed that M. australiense was closely related to M. rosenbergii, while Macrobrachium sp. WMY-2017 was closest to M. josephi. The results of molecular phylogeny has clarified the relationship within the genus Macrobrachium and represents the first step toward understanding the pattern of speciation base on molecular approach in Myanmar.

  7. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  8. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Baysa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae (PL 10; mean weight of 0.02 g stocked in 400m2 ponds. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate (0.19 g and 0.15 g/day and survival rate (34.27% and 24.49% than that of summer to rainy season (p<0.05. The second experiment investigated the effect of 2 different socking densities (25 and 50 individuals/m2 on the production survival of freshwater prawn. Results showed that the rate of growth, survival rate, and production, were much higher at a stocking density of 25 individuals/m2 (p<0.05 in contrast to 50 individuals/m2. Growth performances of freshwater prawns were triggered by stocking density and season.

  9. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ammar, Dib [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia, Campus Universitario, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Bioquimica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@histo.ufrj.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm{sup -2} UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of

  10. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria; Ammar, Dib; Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra; Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh; Allodi, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm -2 UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of the

  11. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  12. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

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    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  13. RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD FINGERPRINTING OF SIX INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of giant fresh water prawn (GFP germ plasms. Best utilization of these resources for the purpose of either aquaculture development or conservation of genetic resources requires some information on the structure and levels of their genetic diversity. This study was aimed to characterize those GFP genetic resources by applying RAPD genetic markers. Six Indonesian populations of GFP from Asahan, Barito, Ciasem, Ogan, GImacro and Papua were collected and analyzed for their genetic variation using five RAPD primers. The results showed the diversity within the populations, as revealed by the level of polymorphism, ranged from 29% to 76% while genetic divergence between populations as shown by genetic distance ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. In terms of genetic divergence, two genetically distinct groups of GFP, namely the Papua GFP in one group and the remaining five GFP populations in the other, were identified. The results also showed the presence of specific population markers that are useful for genetic identification of GFP populations. Implication of these finding with regard to breed development is discussed.

  14. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

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    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  15. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  16. The effect of different feeding frequency on growth indices, survival and body composition of Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849)

    OpenAIRE

    Etefaghdost, M.; Haghighi, H.; Alaf Noveirian, H.

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out in order to identify the effects of different feeding frequency on growth indices, feed conversion ratio, survival and body composition of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) during 56 days. 180 oriental river prawns, with mean (±SE) weight 1.40±0.11g were counted and distributed randomly in twelve 70-liter glass tanks with 60 l water in 4 treatments each with 3 replicates cultured in same conditions (dietary feeding, dissolved oxygen, photoperiod, de...

  17. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Cathepsin C (Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase I of Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in Insect Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Feng Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin C (CTSC is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Our previous study showed that CTSC precursor (zymogen is localized exclusively in cortical rods (CRs of mature oocyte in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, suggesting that CTSC might have roles on regulating release and/or formation of a jelly layer. In this study, enzymically active CTSC of the kuruma prawn was prepared by recombinant expression in the High Five insect cell line. The recombinant enzyme with a polyhistidine tag at its C-terminus was considered to be initially secreted into the culture medium as an inactive form of zymogen, because Western blot with anti-CTSC antibody detected a 51 kDa protein corresponding to CTSC precursor. After purification by affinity chromatography on nickel-iminodiacetic acid resin, the enzyme displayed three forms of 51, 31, and 30 kDa polypeptides. All of the forms can be recognized by antiserum raised against C-terminal polyhistidine tag, indicating that the 31 and 30 kDa forms were generated from 51 kDa polypeptide by removal of a portion of the N-terminus of propeptide. Following activation at pH 5.5 and 37∘C for 40 hours under native conditions, the recombinant CTSC (rCTSC exhibited increased activity against the synthetic substrate Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide and optimal pH at around 5. The purified rCTSC will be useful for further characterization of its exact physiological role on CRs release and/or formation of a jelly layer in kuruma prawn.

  18. Energy productivity and efficiency of the ‘gher’ (prawn-fish-rice) farming system in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Barmon, Basanta K.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Gher’ farming is a unique system that incorporates the joint operation of three enterprises: freshwater prawn, fish and HYV rice, and is expanding rapidly in the coastal regions of Bangladesh because of its proven high income earning potential. In this paper, the sustainability of this system is evaluated by analysing its performance in terms of energy use by applying a stochastic distance function approach which revealed interesting and unexpected results. The prawn enterprise which is the key income earning component is found to be technically inefficient while the rice enterprise is found to be efficient. The net energy balance and the energy use efficiency of the ‘gher’ farming system is estimated at 18,510 MJ ha −1 and 1.72 respectively. The ‘gher’ farmers are operating at a very high level of technical (energy) efficiency (92%). Diversification amongst enterprises is associated with technical (energy) inefficiency. However, larger operation size enhances efficiency. The key policy implication is that the ‘gher’ farming system can be sustained in the long run provided that productivity from the rice enterprise remains high. Also, policies to support the expansion of ‘gher’ farm sizes will improve efficiency. -- Highlights: ► Sustainability of gher farming system is evaluated in terms of energy use. ► The prawn enterprise is technically inefficient while rice enterprise is efficient. ► The net energy balance is 18,510 MJ ha -1 and energy use efficiency is 1.72. ► The overall technical (energy) efficiency is very high (92%). ► The gher farming system can be sustained if rice productivity remains high.

  19. Leptin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system, digestive organs, and gonads of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Anurucpreeda, Panat; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-06-01

    Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin. With WB, a leptin-like peptide, having a molecular weight of 15kDa, was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, hepatopancreas, adipocytes and gonads. By ID, leptin immunoreactivity (leptin-ir) was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia and intersegmental commissural nerve fibers of abdominal ganglia. In the gastrointestinal tract, there was intense leptin-ir in the apical part of the epithelial cells of the cardiac and pyloric parts of the stomach. In the midgut and hindgut, the leptin-ir was detected in epithelial cells and basal cells located near the basal lamina of the epithelium. In addition, there was leptin-ir in the Restzellen cells in the hepatopancreas which produce digestive enzymes. In the ovary, the strong intensity of a leptin-ir was detected in the cytoplasm of middle to late stage oocytes, whereas no positive staining was detected in follicular cells. An intense leptin-ir was detected in spermatocytes and sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules in the testes of small and orange claw males. Taken together, the detection of the leptin-ir in several organs implicates the existence of a leptin-like peptide in various organs of the freshwater prawn; and like in vertebrates this peptide may be an important hormonal factor in controlling feeding and reproductive process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Huaihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Yu, Yanyan; Bao, Fangyin; Wang, Song; Xiao, Ming Song

    2018-04-19

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an economically and nutritionally important species of decapod crustaceans in China. Genetic structure and demographic history of Macrobrachium nipponense were examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Samples of 191 individuals were collected from 10 localities in the upper to middle reaches of the Huaihe River. Variability was detected at a total of 42 nucleotide sites along 684 bp length of homologous sequence (6.14%), and base substitutions occurred mostly at the second codon position. Haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations were 0.9136 ± 0.0116 and 0.0078 ± 0.0042, respectively. Phylogenetic tree constructed using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method showed that the 44 haplotypes were assigned to two obvious clades associated with geographic regions. Moreover, the median-joining network was similar to the topology of the phylogenetic tree with 44 haplotypes. The pairwise F ST values between the populations varied from -0.0298 to 0.2994. Generally, moderate genetic differentiation (F ST  = 0.1598, p = .0000) among different geographic populations was detected, with the significant differentiation between the Huaibin (HB) and other Macrobrachium nipponense populations. Both mismatch distribution analyses and neutrality tests suggested the early stage of Late Pleistocene population expansion 85,500 years before present for the species, which was consistent with the palaeoclimatic condition of the Huaihe River Basin.

  1. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  2. An update of shrimp and prawn supply chain initiatives in Bangladesh : recommendations for inclusive shrimp supply chain development for the STDF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) project implemented by FAO in cooperation with the Department of Fisheries and WorldFish is funded by WTO. It will target 1,000 shrimp and prawn farmers in Southwest Bangladesh and focuses on improving their livelihoods and securing their market

  3. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  4. Use of artificial substrate in pond culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a new approach regarding growth performance and economic return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Milky Tuly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for six months to evaluate the effects of artificial substrates on the survival, growth and production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. The treatment T1 contained locally available bamboo-made substrate both vertical and horizontal and treatment T2 received no substrate. Juvenile prawns (0.40±0.13 g were stocked at the rate of 19,760 prawns ha-1. The water quality parameters range such as temperature, pH and DO were 22.06-33.45°C, 7.70-8.40 and 4.75-6.15 mgl-1 respectively which was no significant difference (P0.05 than T2 (56.87%. The specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were 1.19 % and 1.14 %, 3.15 and 4.39, 0.98 and 0.71 in T1 and T2 respectively which were not significantly different (P0.05 than T2. Thus growth and survival of prawn juveniles improved in presence of artificial substrate which could be economically viable technique for the freshwater prawn culture.

  5. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, in Brazil: new insights from molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Iketani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  6. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to

  7. Effects of addition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and substrates for periphyton developments on pond ecology and production in C/N-controlled freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Benerjee, S.; Akter, T.; Hasan, M.M.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of addition of tilapia and substrates for periphyton development on pond ecology, production and economic performances in C/N controlled freshwater prawn farming system. The absence and presence (0 and 0.5 individual m- 2) of tilapia were investigated in

  8. Inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) pathogen Vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, M; Harris, L; Rice, S A; de Nys, R; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-05-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections.

  9. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  10. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumkrong, Paramee [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Thiensong, Benjaporn [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Deawtong, Suladda [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yang, Lu, E-mail: Lu.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Mester, Zoltán [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-11-02

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a {sup 13}C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me{sup 198}Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative {sup 1}H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg{sup −1} for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg{sup −1} as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg{sup −1}. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in

  12. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumkrong, Paramee; Thiensong, Benjaporn; Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony; Deawtong, Suladda; Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette; Yang, Lu; Mester, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a "1"3C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me"1"9"8Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative "1H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg"−"1 for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg"−"1 as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg"−"1. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in cuttlefish. - Highlights:

  13. Genetic diversity analysis in Malaysian giant prawns using expressed sequence tag microsatellite markers for stock improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atin, K H; Christianus, A; Fatin, N; Lutas, A C; Shabanimofrad, M; Subha, B

    2017-08-17

    The Malaysian giant prawn is among the most commonly cultured species of the genus Macrobrachium. Stocks of giant prawns from four rivers in Peninsular Malaysia have been used for aquaculture over the past 25 years, which has led to repeated harvesting, restocking, and transplantation between rivers. Consequently, a stock improvement program is now important to avoid the depletion of wild stocks and the loss of genetic diversity. However, the success of such an improvement program depends on our knowledge of the genetic variation of these base populations. The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic variation and differentiation of these riverine sources using novel expressed sequence tag-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers, which not only are informative on genetic diversity but also provide information on immune and metabolic traits. Our findings indicated that the tested stocks have inbreeding depression due to a significant deficiency in heterozygotes, and F IS was estimated as 0.15538 to 0.31938. An F-statistics analysis suggested that the stocks are composed of one large panmictic population. Among the four locations, stocks from Johor, in the southern region of the peninsular, showed higher allelic and genetic diversity than the other stocks. To overcome inbreeding problems, the Johor population could be used as a base population in a stock improvement program by crossing to the other populations. The study demonstrated that EST-SSR markers can be incorporated in future marker assisted breeding to aid the proper management of the stocks by breeders and stakeholders in Malaysia.

  14. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia Induces Changes in AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity and Energy Metabolism in Muscle Tissue of the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Sun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has important effects on biological activity in crustaceans, and modulation of energy metabolism is a crucial aspect of crustaceans’ ability to respond to hypoxia. The adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK enzyme is very important in cellular energy homeostasis; however, little information is known about the role of AMPK in the response of prawns to acute hypoxia. In the present study, three subunits of AMPK were cloned from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNAs of the α, β, and γ AMPK subunits were 1,837, 3,174, and 3,773 bp long, with open reading frames of 529, 289, and 961 amino acids, respectively. Primary amino acid sequence alignment of these three subunits revealed conserved similarity between the functional domains of the M. nipponense AMPK protein with AMPK proteins of other animals. The expression of the three AMPK subunits was higher in muscle tissue than in other tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of AMPKα, AMPKβ, and AMPKγ were significantly up-regulated in M. nipponense muscle tissue after acute hypoxia. Probing with a phospho-AMPKα antibody revealed that AMPK is phosphorylated following hypoxia; this phosphorylation event was found to be essential for AMPK activation. Levels of glucose and lactic acid in hemolymph and muscle tissue were significantly changed over the course of hypoxia and recovery, indicating dynamic changes in energy metabolism in response to hypoxic stress. The activation of AMPK by hypoxic stress in M. nipponense was compared to levels of muscular AMP, ADP, and ATP, as determined by HPLC; it was found that activation of AMPK may not completely correlate with AMP:ATP ratios in prawns under hypoxic conditions. These findings confirm that the α, β, and γ subunits of the prawn AMPK protein are regulated at the transcriptional and protein levels during hypoxic stress to facilitate maintenance of energy homeostasis.

  16. EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF FRESHWATER PRAWN COLLECTED FROM MAKASSAR-SULAWESI, PANGKALANBUNKALIMANTAN, JAMBI-SUMATRA, SUKABUMI-JAVA, AND GIMacro USING mtDNA CO-I MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the genetic variability of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The genetic variability of freshwater prawn collected from Makassar-Sulawesi, Pangkalanbun-Kalimantan, Jambi-Sumatra, Sukabumi-Java, and GIMacro strain was examined using polymorphism of the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA markers. Twelve composite haplotypes were detected following digestion of CO1 sequences with four endonucleases: Hae III, Rsa I, Mbo I, and Taq I. The average haplotype diversity was 0.217. Significant genetic difference was observed among freshwater prawn populations, especially among Makassar-Sulawesi population and others. Makassar-Sulawesi strain has future prospect for genetic resources in breeding program.

  17. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae in Northeastern Argentina: with remarks on population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Patricia Carnevali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size from 1m². In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m² and 1 411 ind/m². The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21% in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273. We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL was similar.Los crustáceos decápodos de agua dulce son un componente importante de la cadena trófica, pero poco se sabe sobre la dieta de las especies que viven en aguas tropicales. Nosotros estudiamos la ecología alimentaria del camarón Pseudopalaemon bouvieri y la estructura de su población en dos áreas diferentes con seis lagunas, con una diferente composición y abundancia de macrófitas acuáticas. En cada

  18. Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae, from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN N. GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I starvation, (AL microalgae, (RO rotifers, (AN Artemia, (RO + AN rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.

  19. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungtaek Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  20. Some Aspects of the Population Biology of the Green Tiger Prawn Penaeus semisulcatus (De Haan, 1844 from Pilar and Capiz Bays, Northern Panay, West Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Villarta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first report on the population biology of the green tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan from northern Panay, west central Philippines. The study was conducted for eight months (May to December 2002 whereby total lengths of both male and female P. semisulcatus of various sizes were measured monthly from the catches of municipal trawlers operating at Pilar and Capiz Bays. Based on the Bhattacharya method, a mean growth rate of 0.78 ± 0.28 and 1.45 ± 0.39 mm/day were estimated for males and females, respectively. Using the ELEFAN I method, growth parameters derived for males were L∞ = 263 mm, k = 0.7/yr and a growth index (Ø' of 4.69. On the other hand, growth parameters derived for females were L∞ = 271 mm, k = 1.6/yr and a growth index (Ø' of 5.07.Based on length-converted catch curve analysis, the total mortality (Z of the male population is estimated to be 3.61/yr while that of the females is 5.65/yr. Male prawns showed a higher exploitation rate (0.53 compared to that of the females (0.35 indicating the susceptibility of males to fishing. This study also revealed that trawlers in Pilar and Capiz Bays are already getting small sizes of prawns, without allowing them to reach sexual maturity. Hence, there is a need to increase the present mesh size (2.5 cm of the cod end of trawls in order to avoid growth overfishing, which may occur with continued increase in fishing effort. Furthermore, the recruitment pattern showed two pulses of unequal strengths and time, dividing the year into a 7-5 month pattern. The said pattern, especially for females, may have resulted from a major and minor spawning peak of the said species during the months of June-September and January.

  1. Prawne zagadnienia związane z dostępem do zawodu syndyka = Legal issues related to access to profession of curator in bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Klimczyk, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Klimczyk Agata. Prawne zagadnienia związane z dostępem do zawodu syndyka = Legal issues related to access to profession of curator in bankruptcy. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(8):307-310. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.28819 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.28819 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%288%29%3A307-310 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/611539 POL-index https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex/browse/article/article-4fcd78eb-6ccb-4...

  2. Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seenivasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of probiotic, Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL. Experimental diets were the same in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. The probiotic L. sporogenes was used at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% inclusion in the experimental diets. These diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. The food index parameters, such as SR, WG, SGR, FCE and PER were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL, whereas the FCR was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. This indicates the fact that this feed produced higher growth rate than that of other experimental diets. Similarly the proximate composition of the total protein, total free amino acid, total carbohydrate, and total lipid content was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. However, insignificant differences were recorded in ash and moisture contents between control and experimental groups. Energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate and excretory rate were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. Statistically insignificant differences were recorded in metabolic rate between control and experimental groups. This indicates that there were no differences in energy loss between control and experimental groups. However, L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL produced better growth performance.

  3. Effects of carbohydrate source for maintaining a high C:N ratio and fish driven re-suspension on pond ecology and production in periphyton-based freshwater prawn culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Adhikary, R.K.; Rahman, S.M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CH) source for maintaining a high C:N ratio, and tilapia driven bioturbation on pond ecology, production and economical performances in C/N controlled periphyton-based (C/N-CP) freshwater prawn ponds. Two carbohydrate sources (high-cost

  4. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  5. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in irradiated fish and prawns by means of on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bogl, K.W.; Schreiberg, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were analyzed in a fatty (halibut) and a lean fish (cod) as well as in a prawn species by on-line coupled liquid chromatography (LC) -gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry. In irradiated halibut which is known to contain mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all expected radiolytic alkanes, alkenes, and alkadienes could be detected. The yields of the C(n-1) and C(n-2:1) hydrocarbons were comparable to those found in irradiated lipids of terrestrial animals and plants. However, in cod and prawns which contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the C(n-1) hydrocarbons were found in concentrations which were up to 10 times higher whereas the C(n-2:1) products were again comparable to those of terrestrial animals and plants. The identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in fish lipids was achieved by transfer of the hydrocarbons from the LC column to the gas chromatographic column in fractions differing in their degree of unsaturation. For the first time, radiation-induced hydrocarbons with more than four double bonds generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4 omega 6 and 20:5 omega 3) could be identified

  6. Identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in halibut, cod and prawns by on-line coupled LC-GC/MS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Schulzki, G.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were analysed in a fatty (halibut) and a lean fish (cod) as well as in a prawn species by on-line coupled liquid chromatography (LC) - gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometrical detection. In irradiated halibut which contains mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids all expected radiolytic alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes could be detected. The yields of the C n-1 and C n-2:1 hydrocarbons were comparable with those found in irradiated lipids of land animals and plants. However, in cod and the prawn species which contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the C n-1 hydrocarbons were found in concentrations up to tenfold higher whereas the C n-2:1 products were again comparable to those of land animals and plants. The identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in fish lipids was achieved by transfer of the hydrocarbons from the LC column to the gas chromatographic column in fractions differing in the degree of unsaturation. For the first time radiation induced hydrocarbons with more than four double bonds generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4ω6 and 20:5ω3) could be identified. (orig.) [de

  7. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Moshtaghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i, reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii, performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries

  8. Molecular and functional analyses of novel anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, De Man) and their expression responses under pathogen and temperature exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisapoome, Prapansak; Klongklaew, Nawanith; Areechon, Nontawith; Wongpanya, Ratree

    2018-06-15

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is an immune-related protein that is crucially involved in immune defense mechanisms against invading pathogens in crustaceans. In the current study, three different ALFs of giant river prawn (Mr-ALF3, Mr-ALF8 and Mr-ALF9) were discovered. Based on sequence analysis, Mr-ALF3 and Mr-ALF9 were identified as new members of ALFs in crustaceans (groups F and G, respectively). Structurally, each newly identified Mr-ALF contained three α-helices packed against a four-stranded β-sheet bearing the LPS-binding motif, which usually binds to the cell wall components of bacteria. Tissue expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that Mr-ALF3 was expressed in most tissues, and the highest expression was in the heart and hemocytes. The Mr-ALF8 gene was highly expressed in the heart, hemocytes, midgut, hepatopacreas and hindgut, respectively, while the Mr-ALF9 gene was modestly expressed in the heart and hemocytes, respectively. The transcriptional responses of the Mr-ALFs to Aeromonas hydrophila and hot/cold temperatures were investigated by qRT-PCR in the gills, hepatopancreas and hemocytes. We found that all Mr-ALFs were clearly suppressed in all tested tissues when the experimental prawns were exposed to extreme temperatures (25 and 35 °C). Moreover, the expression levels of these genes were significantly induced in all examined tissues by 2 different concentrations of A. hydrophila (1 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 9  CFU/ml), particularly 12 and 96 h after the injection. Finally, binding activity analysis of LPS-motif peptides of each Mr-ALF revealed that the LPS peptide of Mr-ALF3 exhibited the strongest adhesion to two pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi, and the non-pathogenic Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium. The results also showed that the Mr-ALF8 and Mr-ALF9 peptides had mild antimicrobial effects against similar tested bacteria. Based on information

  9. Feeding ecology of non-native Siberian prawns, Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in the lower Snake River, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hurst, William

    2016-01-01

    We used both stomach content and stable isotope analyses to describe the feeding ecology of Siberian prawns Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862), a non-native caridean shrimp that is a relatively recent invader of the lower Snake River. Based on identifiable prey in stomachs, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis Holmes, 1896 comprised up to 34-55% (by weight) of diets of juvenile to adult P. modestus, which showed little seasonal variation. Other predominant items/taxa consumed included detritus, amphipods, dipteran larvae, and oligochaetes. Stable isotope analysis supported diet results and also suggested that much of the food consumed by P. modestus that was not identifiable came from benthic sources — predominantly invertebrates of lower trophic levels and detritus. Palaemon modestus consumption of N. mercedis may pose a competitive threat to juvenile salmon and resident fishes which also rely heavily on that prey.

  10. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K(p)) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G.; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; Aggelen, Graham van; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1–4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K p ) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  12. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael G. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Buday, Craig [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  13. Candidate genes that have facilitated freshwater adaptation by palaemonid prawns in the genus Macrobrachium: identification and expression validation in a model species (M. koombooloomba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Md Lifat; Amin, Shorash; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2017-01-01

    The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba , provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of 75 bp paired end 227,564,643 high quality Illumina raw reads from 6 different cDNA libraries revealed 125,917 contigs of variable lengths (200-18,050 bp) with an N50 value of 1597. In total, 31,272 (24.83%) of the assembled contigs received significant blast hits, of which 27,686 and 22,560 contigs were mapped and functionally annotated, respectively. CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach) based transcriptome quality assessment revealed 96.37% completeness. We identified 43 different potential genes that are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation in M. koombooloomba . Identified candidate genes included: 25 genes for osmoregulation, five for cell volume regulation, seven for stress tolerance, three for body fluid (haemolymph) maintenance, eight for epithelial permeability and water channel regulation, nine for egg size control and three for larval development. RSEM (RNA-Seq Expectation Maximization) based abundance estimation revealed that 6,253, 5,753 and 3,795 transcripts were expressed (at TPM value ≥10) in post larvae, juveniles and adults, respectively. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that 15 genes were expressed differentially in different individuals but these genes apparently were not involved with freshwater adaptation but rather were involved in growth, development and reproductive maturation. The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in Macrobrachium prawns and other

  14. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis.

  15. Occurrence of the Indo-Pacific freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens Dana 1852 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae on the coast of Brazilian Amazonia, with notes on its reproductive biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana R Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens, which is native species of the Indo-Pacific Region, was recorded for the first time on the Amazon coast of Brazil. This species was found to inhabit the same environment as two native Macrobrachium species, M. amazonicum and M. acanthurus, and is morphologically very similar to the latter. The identification of the species was confirmed by the genetic analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase (COI gene. A detailed description of the morphological features and reproductive biology of M. equidens in this new environment is presented.O camarão de água doce Macrobrachium equidens, nativo da região do Indo-Pacífico, foi registrada pela primeira vez na costa da Amazônia Brasileira. Esta espécie foi encontrada habitando o mesmo ambiente que duas espécies nativas do gênero Macrobrachium: M. amazonicum e M. acanthurus, e é morfologicamente muito similar à última. A identificação dessa espécie foi confirmada pela análise da seqüência genética do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase (COI. Uma descrição detalhada das características morfológicas e biologia reprodutiva de M. equidens neste novo ambiente é apresentada.

  16. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  17. Effects of high-salinity seawater acclimation on the levels of D-alanine in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masahumi

    2015-12-10

    Changes in D- and L-alanine contents were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, during acclimation from seawater containing 100% salinity to artificial seawater containing 150% salinity. In the hepatopancreas, contents of both amino acids increased by approximately threefold. The activity of alanine racemase, which catalyzes the interconversion of D- and L-alanine, also increased in the high-salinity seawater. In addition, the expression of the gene encoding alanine racemase increased in the hepatopancreas with an increase in the alanine racemase activity. These data indicate that the biosynthesis of D- and L-alanine is controlled by the gene expression level of alanine racemase, and D-alanine in the hepatopancreas functions as a major osmolyte for isosmotic regulation. In contrast, the content of D-alanine and alanine racemase activity did not change in the muscle during hyper-osmotic acclimation. Therefore, we suggest that D-alanine, which exists in the several tissues of M. japonicus, is considered to be utilized in some different physiological phenomena in different tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of radionuclides in mussels, winkles and prawns: Pt. 1; Study of organisms under environmental conditions using conventional radio-analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P [Scottish Research Reactor Centre, East Kilbride (United Kingdom); Baxter, M S; Fowler, S W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and winkles (Littorina littorea), collected from Ravenglass, Cumbria, England in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels plc nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and prawns (Palaemon serratus), landed nearby at Whitehaven, have been investigated to determine the distributions of [alpha]-emitting ([sup 210]Po, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu, [sup 241]Am) and [gamma]-emitting ([sup 95]Nb, [sup 95]Zr, [sup 103]Ru, [sup 106]Ru, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 241]Am) radionuclides in their tissues and organs. Previous studies have attempted to determine the principal nuclide source to marine organisms by comparing nuclide activity ratios in their tissues, sea water and particulate material. From the environmental samples studied here, no single transport medium appears to dominate uptake. The primary radiological implantation of the observed radionuclide concentrations in Ravenglass mussels and winkles is that, from seafood ingestion, the critical group receives only a small percentage (ca. 10%) of the ICRP-recommended subsidiary dose limit. Dose contributions from [sup 210]Po are higher than those from [sup 239] + [sup 240]Pu in mussels but are less than those from [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu in winkles. (Author).

  19. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatryczne oraz prawne aspekty stosowania przymusu bezpośredniego wobec uczniów na terenie szkoły specjalnej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Kmieciak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zastosowanie przymusu bezpośredniego to sytuacja szczególna, wymagająca użycia siły wobec drugiego człowieka. Możliwość podjęcia podobnych działań musi być regulowana przez określone akty prawne. W kontekście rzeczywistości psychiatrycznej należy wskazać przede wszystkim na zapisy ustawy o ochronie zdrowia psychicznego. Zwrócono w niej uwagę, że lekarz i pielęgniarka mogą podjąć wobec agresywnego lub autoagresywnego pacjenta takie działania, jak unieruchomienie, przytrzymanie, izolacja i przymusowe podanie leków. Jednak niebezpieczne zachowania mogą prezentować również uczniowie szkół specjalnych, których część była niegdyś pacjentami szpitali psychiatrycznych. Nie zmienia to faktu, że na terenie szkół pedagodzy nie mają formalnego prawa do zastosowania przymusu bezpośredniego wobec ucznia. Co zatem mogą zrobić, kiedy podopieczny stosuje siłę? W jaki sposób nauczyciel powinien postąpić w przypadku agresji ucznia, by chronić bezpieczeństwo własne oraz innych osób? Czy w  pewnych sytuacjach wolno mu przytrzymać podopiecznego albo go unieruchomić? Czy w  wybranych przypadkach pedagog ma obowiązek użycia siły wobec niepełnosprawnego ucznia? W artykule podjęta zostanie próba udzielenia odpowiedzi na powyższe pytania.

  2. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  3. Crescimento relativo do camarão canela Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae em viveiros Relative growth of Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M.C. Moraes-Riodades

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some morphometric relationships in Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 reared in earthen ponds were studied. A total of 239 individuals were collected, sexed and sorted to juvenile or adult. Total length (Lt, post-orbital length (Lpo, carapace length (Lcp and queliped length (Lql were measured. The relationships Lt/Lpo, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp are the same for juveniles, males and females, indicating unchanged growth pattern during post-larval ontogenetic development. While Lt/Lpo showed isometric growth, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp showed negative allometry. On the other hand, for the Lql/Lcp relationship, juveniles showed isometric growth, females slight positive allometry and males a strong positive allometry. It suggests that the importance of chelipeds may be different in these groups. Quelipeds play important role on food capture and on agonistic, social and reproductive behavior. Therefore, inter and intraspecific interactions may change during prawn growth, even after morphological

  4. Leki przeciwdepresyjne i przeciwpsychotyczne zarejestrowane u dzieci i młodzieży. Trudności prawne i etyczne związane z zakresem rejestracji leków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Niwiński

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Wykonując swój zawód, lekarz jest zobowiązany do przestrzegania nie tylko zasad sztuki lekarskiej, lecz także przepisów prawa. Regulacje prawne dotyczą m.in. zgody na leczenie i zasad rejestracji leków. Leki są zarejestrowane w ściśle określonych wskazaniach, dla konkretnych grup pacjentów. Zastosowanie leku poza rejestracją może zostać zinterpretowane jako przeprowadzenie eksperymentu medycznego. Podstawą stosowania leków są zalecenia towarzystw naukowych. W psychiatrii dzieci i młodzieży wiele leków nie ma rejestracji do stosowania u osób poniżej 18. roku życia, w związku z czym lekarz po udzieleniu odpowiednich informacji musi uzyskać pisemną zgodę na leczenie od rodzica lub opiekuna prawnego. Cel: Celem pracy był przegląd leków stosowanych w terapii zaburzeń depresyjnych i psychotycznych w populacji dzieci i młodzieży pod kątem wieku pacjentów zgodnego ze wskazaniami rejestracyjnymi. Metoda: Bazując na Indeksie Leków Medycyny Praktycznej, przeanalizowano charakterystyki produktów leczniczych. Wyniki: Spośród 226 leków przeciwpsychotycznych i przeciwdepresyjnych zarejestrowanych w Polsce 149 jest niewskazanych lub przeciwwskazanych do podawania pacjentom poniżej 18. roku życia. Kolejnych 29 leków zostało zarejestrowanych u dzieci, ale we wskazaniach innych niż leczenie zaburzeń depresyjnych i psychotycznych. Ponadto różne postacie leków lub postacie wytwarzane przez różne firmy farmaceutyczne mogą mieć odmienną rejestrację. Wnioski: Brak rejestracji leków stosowanych w psychiatrii dzieci i młodzieży stanowi zagrożenie prawne i finansowe dla lekarza, a także może powodować nieufność rodzica.

  5. Composição centesimal e perfil de ácidos graxos do camarão-d'água-doce Centesimal composition and fatty acids profile of freshwater prawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinação da composição centesimal e do perfil de ácidos graxos do camarão-d'água-doce Macrobrachium amazonicum visando à análise de seu potencial nutritivo. Seis lotes (100 g cada um de camarões inteiros e com massas individuais de 0,9 a 1,2 g foram triturados, armazenados e, posteriormente, analisados quanto aos teores de umidade, cinzas, PB e lipídios totais (70,3; 1,5; 24,8 e 1,5%, respectivamente. Foram detectadas 36 variedades de ácidos graxos, sendo o mais freqüente o ácido palmítico-16:0 (18,2%. Entre os da série ômega-3, os mais encontrados foram o eicosapentaenóico-20:5n-3, di-homo-alfa-linolênico-20:3n-3, docosahexaenóico-22:6n-3 e alfa-linolênico-18:3n-3 (frequências de 13,9; 9,5; 6,8 e 4,2%, respectivamente. As freqüências de somatórias de ácidos graxos foram de 36,9% para os ômega-3 e de 46,8% para os poliinsaturados. As razões entre os ácidos graxos ômega-6/ômega-3 (n-6/n-3 e os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados/ácidos graxos saturados (AGPI/AGS foram de 0,3 e 1,6, respectivamente. Todos os parâmetros observados indicaram bom potencial nutritivo para a carne do camarão-d'água-doce.The aim of this work was to determine the centesimal composition and fatty acids profile of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum for determination of its nutrient potential. Six lots (each one with 100 g containing whole prawns with individual mass ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 g were triturated and stored for posterior chemical analysis. The average values for moisture, ash, CP and total lipids were as follows: 70.3, 1.5, 24.8, and 1.5%, respectively. It was detected 36 varieties of fatty acids, and the most abundant was the palmitic -16:0 acid with 18.2%. The major omega-3 fatty acids were: eicosapentaenoic-20:5n-3, dihomo-alpha-linolenic-20:3n-3, docosahexaenoic-22:6n-3 and alpha-linolenic-18:3n-3 with frequencies of 13.9, 9.5, 6.8, and 4.2%, respectively. The total frequencies of fatty

  6. Alterações na qualidade do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii durante estocagem em gelo Changes in the quality of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sendo escassos os estudos sobre a conservação pós-captura do Macrobrachium rosenbergii e insuficientes os conhecimentos existentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar alterações na sua qualidade quando armazenado inteiro, em gelo, durante 10 dias. Foram comparadas duas condições de armazenamento: com e sem contato direto com o gelo. Em ambos os tratamentos foram observados aumentos (PDue the scarcity of studies about post-harvest conservation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and few knowledge in this topic, the aim of this work was to evaluate it shelf-life when stored as a whole in ice during 10 days. Two conditions were compared: with direct ice contact and without ice contact. In both treatments were observed an increase (P<0,05 in Non-Protein Nitrogen, Total Volatile Base Nitrogen, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and pH values. No faecal coliforms were observed in the prawn muscles during the storage. The score of total coliforms and psychrotrophic counting that was present in the storage period didn´t exceed the law limits allowed for consumption. There was degradation in flavour and odour attributes for both treatments during the storage. Analysis of tactile and oral texture showed a fast and significant degradation in both treatments in the first days of storage, and the same occurred with the instrumental compression force tests. We concluded the Macrobrachium rosenbergii could be consumed until the 4th storage day, either if kept in direct ice contact or packed in polyethylene bags.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermomechanical and morphological properties of chitosan obtained from prawn shell: Evaluation of potential for irradiated chitosan as plant growth stimulator for Malabar spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Kabir, Shahriar; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Nesa, Bodrun; Nasrin, Romana; Haque, Papia; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have synthesized chitosan from waste prawn shell via γ-irradiation of chitin and subsequent alkaline treatment. The detailed experimental studies demonstrated that nonirradiated chitin deacetylated by 40% NaOH solution showed 72% degree of deacetylation (DD), however 50 kGy irradiated chitin, deacetylated by 20% NaOH demonstrated 81.5% DD. Chitosan in solid state as obtained from γ-irradiation of chitin was further irradiated by different doses (2–100 kGy) of gamma irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the molecular weight, thermo-mechanical by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antimicrobial properties were evaluated with respect to nonirradiated chitosan sample. Gamma irradiation of chitosan with a dose of 100 kGy caused a decrease in average molecular weight from 1.9×10 5 to 6.5×10 4 Da and thus increased its solubility in water. Nonirradiated and γ-irradiated chitosan at concentration 1% (w/w) in water were prepared and used to evaluate of its potentiality for growth stimulation of Malabar spinach. The chitosan solution was sprayed on the specimen plants and neighboring soil where germinations were taken place and various plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf areas, dry and wet weight of the plants and roots were investigated. The details study revealed that application of 30 kGy irradiated chitosan yielded 60% higher growth of the Malabar spinach than that obtained from nonirradiated chitosan. The data are consistent with preliminary results from field experiments and unambiguously confirms that a minor amount of chitosan has a profound effect on the growth and development of Malabar spinach. - Highlight: ► A new approach for chitosan synthesis by γ-irradiation of chitin was described. ► Effect of irradiation on the various properties of chitosan was investigated. ► Irradiation causes scission of glycosidic linkage thus decrease of mw of

  8. Adult Artemia as food for juvenile prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments on three commercially important shrimps Penaues indicus, Metapenaeus dobsoni and M. monoceros were carried out using adult Artemia as feed. Good growth and food conversion efficiencies were recorded at 15% feeding level in all...

  9. Wyimki prawne z "Katechizmu biblioteki" Paula Ladewiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębołyś Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents one of the forerunners of the modern public libraries in Germany, Paul Ladewig, and his views on a library contained in The Library Catechism of the public library. The legal issues presented in The Library Catechism… are discussed, in particular those related to the financing of libraries, the library organizer’s responsibilities, library management, library statute, granting access to the collections, and others.

  10. Problematyka prywatności przy udzielaniu świadczeń zdrowotnych osobom starszym – wybrane aspekty prawne = Privacy issues in the provision of health services for the elderly – selected legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal

    2015-06-01

    2Zakład Zdrowia Publicznego Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego   Adres do korespondencji: Centrum Medyczne Kształcenia Podyplomowego 01 - 826 Warszawa; ul. Kleczewska 61/63; tel. 22 56-01-140   Streszczenie: O zawodzie lekarza można powiedzieć, że ma charakter humanistyczny, bo u jego podstaw leży życie i zdrowie człowieka, oraz respektowanie tej szczególnej wartości, jaką jest godność. Z godnością związane są wszelkie regulacje prawne, które chronią prywatność pacjentów. Są to przepisy odnoszące się do  intymności, tajemnicy zawodowej oraz ochrony dokumentacji medycznej.  Każdy pacjent ma prawo do poszanowania intymności i godności, w szczególności w czasie udzielania mu świadczeń zdrowotnych. Obowiązkiem lekarza jest troska by pozostały personel medyczny przestrzegał tych zasad. Intymność pacjenta, odnieść należy do wszelkich uczuć i działań nie tylko związanych z udzielaniem świadczeń zdrowotnych. Na tak pojmowaną intymność składa się dbanie o dobro pacjenta, szacunek dla pacjenta, zrozumienie jego sytuacji. Jednym z elementów tych praw jest również możliwość kontaktu pacjenta z innymi osobami, towarzyszenia osoby bliskiej przy udzielaniu świadczeń zdrowotnych oraz sprawowania przez tą osobę opieki nad pacjentem. Szczegóły dotyczące tych kontaktów określa regulamin szpitala bądź oddziału. Z prawem do prywatności łączą się gwarancje ochrony danych osobowych. Dane dotyczące stanu zdrowia pacjenta chronioną są w dwóch płaszczyznach. Chodzi tu o przepisy dotyczące prawa pacjenta do tajemnicy informacji z nim związanych oraz przepisy dotyczące ochrony dokumentacji medycznej. Tajemnica zawodowa obejmuje wszelkie informacje związane z pacjentem a uzyskane w związku z wykonywaniem zawodu medycznego. Przy czym obowiązek ten nie ma charakteru absolutnego albowiem ustawodawca enumeratywnie wskazał wyjątki w tym zakresie. Podmiot udzielający świadczeń zdrowotnych jest obowi

  11. Comportamento alimentar do camarão de agua doce, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Palaemonidae durante a fase larval: análise qualitativa Feeding behavior of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenberch (De Man (Crustácea, Palaemonidae, during the larval phase: qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice P Barros

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the larvae's prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879, in each stage of development was studied face alArtemia Linnaeus, 1758 nauplii, dry and wet diets. Groups of ten larvae in each stage were placed in 500 ml beakers at 29ºC in filtered brackish water. After the fasting period of acclimatization, the three types of food were offered separately to the larvae and the feeding behavior was observed during 30 min. Feeding perception, capture, grasp and ingestion of food were used to determine feeding pattern. Stage I lawac do not eat. The feeding behavior of larvae was similar on the stages II - XI. The perception in distance does not occur in most individuais; the feeding process generally started with the physrcal contact of food with the animal. Food is captured by thoracic appendages (maxillipeds until stage III, and maxillipeds + pereopods in stages IV - XI and particles are grasped and handled by maxillipeds. Inopposition at the capture, the ingestion is a seletive process. Selective responses decrease in later stages and larvae become omnivorous in greater degree.

  12. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarãode água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444 Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumcarcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 larval survival - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Moraes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas e seis repetições: 1 filé de peixe (Dp; 2 filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB; 3 dieta formulada (Df; e 4 dieta formulada + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DfB. As dietas foram ofertadas quatro vezes ao dia (07, 10, 13 e 16 horas durante 49 dias. No final do cultivo, as taxas de sobrevivência média das larvas foram 3,47; 7,40; 14,83 e 7,57%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos Dp, DpB, Df e DfB. No tratamento Dp obteve-se a menor sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05. A maior sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05 foi obtida com a dieta Df (14,83%, que se apresenta como a alternativa mais apropriada para a produção de pós-larvas de M. carcinus. Entretanto, o uso de biomassa de artêmia adulta pode resultar na melhoria da taxa de sobrevivência quando associada a filé de peixe.This work aimed to evaluate different diets in Macrobrachium carcinus larval culture in order to improve the performance of prawn postlarvae production. Twenty-four 20 L circular recipients provided of water recirculating and aeration systems were used, where 25 larvae per liter were stocked (stages V-VI. Four treatments (related to diets and six replicates were adopted: 1 Fish flesh (Ff; 2 Fish flesh + adult Artemia biomass (FfB; 3 Formulated diet (Fd; and 4 Formulated diet + adult Artemia biomass (FdB. The diets were offered four times a day (07:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00 hrs during 49 days. At the end of culture, the average of larval survival rates were 3.47, 7.40, 14.83 and 7.57%, respectively for Ff, FfB, Fd and FdB treatments. Ff treatment obtained the lowest survival (p ≤ 0

  13. The decline in phytoplankton biomass and prawn catches in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's oceans have seen significant declines in phytoplankton-the primary food source in the marine environment. This decline in primary producers is likely to impact the food chain and functions of most coastal and marine ecosystems. Despite being one of the most productive marine fishing grounds in the Western ...

  14. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C

    regenerated in less than 6 months and assumed the shape, size, structure and pigmentation of the unablated eye. Significance of this observation in the context of captive broodstock development and the need for detailed examination of the regeneration process...

  15. Further studies in using mangrove foliage as a prawn feed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Wafar, S.

    Changes in biochemical composition and energy content of foliage of eight mangrove species at various phases of life and during decay were studied. Decomposition resulted in loss of organic contents, carbon and C:N ratio and increase in calorific...

  16. Marine prawn fishery of India - Its problems and prospects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    stream_size 17 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indias_EEZ_1996_105.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indias_EEZ_1996_105.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Stock-structure and recruitment processes in eastern king prawns

    Trove (Australia)

    Die, D.J

    1995-01-01

    ... in concentration However our e xperiments have not explored whether certain elements are more likely to be taken from the food or from the water To determine that it would be necessary to manipulate ...

  19. Reproduction and larval distribution of the penaeid prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year period in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Gonadal macro- and microscopic examination enabled classification of breeding females into four stages of development. Breeding females were present throughout the study with a summer peak of late ...

  20. Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    . Breeding population of these species also showed monthly and seasonal fluctuation. In Metapenaeus dobsoni and Metapenaeus affinis, maximum number of gravid females was recorded during postmonsoon season while in the case of Penaeus merguiensis and Penaeus...

  1. Some aspects of prawn ecology in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    and nutrients especially phosphorus. Primary production during the premonsoon months was considerably lower than during the monsoon months, chlorophyll a values often being less than 20 mu g/l whereas the monsoon values were as high as 300 mu g/l in Pond 2...

  2. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    sp. for the enriched and frozen rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller, 1786 on the larval development and survival of the freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. The experiment was developed according to the following treatments: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/ mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/ mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/ mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4. Humid ration was added to all treatments. The results of the final survival in post-larvae were analyzed by the X² test and demonstrated no significant differences from treatment T2 (68.36% to T3 and T4: 68.76% and 64.60%, respectively. T1 treatment (100% B. plicatilis presented total mortality at 14th day of the experiment. Average dry weight of the pos-larvae was analyzed statistically by ANOVA and showed no significant differences in values: 3.29 mg (T2, 3.08 mg (T3 and 3.38 mg (T4. No significant differences among treatments T2, T3 and T4 were observed. The best mortality rate was observed from 1 to 15 day of hatchery based on the number of dead larval stored in the daily material siphoned. Therefore, these results suggest that the total substitution of the enriched and frozen rotifer is not recommended due to a total mortality of larvae, whereas the partial replacement of 40% and 60% of the Artemia sp nauplii by the enriched and frozen rotifer is possible, with no significant damages to survival and post-larval growth.

  3. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  4. A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2005-12-30

    A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae.

  5. Influence of rainfall on the dynamics of two prawn populations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment takes place 4 to 5 months after spawning. Thus the time span from rainfall to recruitment of the young of a given cohort is 7 to 8 months. For N. hastatus, the catch rate in the ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Preliminary studies on prawn, Penaeus merguiensis, for selection of broodstock in genetic improvement programs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Dalal, S.G.; Goswami, S.C.

    twice that in males in both localities. Stepwise sequential regression analysis indicated that morphometric characters like partial carapace length (PCL), exopod of uropod length (EUL) and posterior abdominal circumference (PAC), either individually...

  7. Spelaeomysis cochinensis, a new mysid (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from a prawn culture field in Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Viswakumar, M.

    to S. servatus Fage (1925) known from Zanzibar and S. cardisomae Bowman (1973) known from Mexico in many of its characters, notably in having separate eye- plates with visual elements and in the apical arma- ture of the telson. But S. cochinensis...

  8. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    for microbial control in the intensive rearing of marine larvae. Aquaculture 177, 333–343. Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J., 1995. Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. Freeman, New York, 887 pp. Stevenson, L.H., 1978. A case... to the feeding practice adopted. The larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii from day 2, while ()P.V. Phatarpekar et al.rAquaculture 203 2002 279–291 287 egg custard was fed from day 5. Very few bacteria associate internally and externally Ž. with Artemia nauplii...

  9. Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost

  10. Lunar, diel and tidal variabilityin penaeid prawn larval abundance in the Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_21_21.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_21_21.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Moulting and moult quality in eye-stalk ablated penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Sivadas, P.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Distribution of penaeid prawn larvae in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    distributed within the 20 m depth zone whereas those of Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, between 20 and 30m depth zone. Larval abundance also showed species specific seasonal variation.Statistical analysis indicated that larval and postlarval...

  13. Phytoplankton and zooplankton of some paddy-cum-prawn culture fields in and around Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mahasagar_21_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mahasagar_21_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Seasonal variability in penaeid prawn larval abundance in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.

    more in the bottom samples. Based on larval density, M. dobsoni appeared to be a continuous breeder. The active spawning periods in other species were during the late postmonsoon and premonsoon seasons varying with the species. Peak recruitment...

  15. Penaeid prawn population and fry resource in a mangrove swamp of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    are between 10 and 20 mm in size. Growth rate and period of stay in this environment vary with species. About 46.5% of the population is comprised of juveniles ranging in size from 10 to 30 mm. These could be collected in large numbers between December...

  16. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  17. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    and decaying food materials [8]. In order to reduce the excreted waste in the test tanks, the feeding was stopped 24hrs prior to the commencement of acute bioassay tests. Test method Short-term LC50 (median lethal concentration) toxicity tests were carried... of India. Material and Method The TDIE or the RO rejects were collected from 9 textile industries from the Erode Industrial area. Part of these collected effluents was used for physico-chemical analyses at the site itself and the other part was taken...

  18. Larval migration and growth of marine prawns in the estuarine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    -monsoon season (56.3%). The lower reaches of the estuary sustained the maximum density (73.2%). All species except @iM. affinis@@ had an initial growth in the mangrove swamp and a later stay in the estuary before finally migrating back to the sea. @iM. affinis...

  19. PROTOCOL FOR EXTRACTION OF BACTERIAL METAGENOME DNA TO PRAWN Macrobrachium carcinus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J U González de la Cruz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we adapted a protocol for the extraction of metagenomic DNA (ADNmg bacteria in the digestive system (intestines, stomach and hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium carcinus L., with reference to the method of extracting bacterial DNA from soils and sediments (Rojas-Herrera et al., 2008. This methodology consisted of enzymatic, physics, mechanics and chemistry after a series of tests was abolished enzymatic lysis. However, the success ADNmg extraction was influenced mainly by the preparation of the samples, in particular the hepatopancreas, where it was necessary to remove the fat by thermal shock temperature and phase separation by centrifugation with the sample frozen.The effectiveness of isolated DNA fragmentation was verified by gel electrophoresis in denaturing gradient (DGGE after amplification with universal primers. In general, it had a low diversity (19 phylotypes between the different organs analyzed of 13.5 ± 1 (intestines to 11.7 ± 0.96 (stomach. The Shannon-Weaver index (2.45, Simpsons (10.88 and equity (0972 obtained from the digitization of the image of the gel, suggested that the phylotypes that form the gut microflora M. carcinus, is distributed unevenly between the different organs analyzed.

  20. Effects of high pressure freezing (HPF) on denaturation of natural actomyosin extracted from prawn (Metapenaeus ensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lina; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhihang

    2017-08-15

    Effects of protein denaturation caused by high pressure freezing, involving Pressure-Factors (pressure, time) and Freezing-Factors (temperature, phase transition, recrystallization, ice crystal types), are complicated. In the current study, the conformation and functional changes of natural actomyosin (NAM) under pressure assisted freezing (PAF, 100,150,300,400,500MPa P -20°C/25min ), pressure shift freezing (PSF, 200MPa P -20°C/25min ), and immersion freezing ( 0.1MPa P -20°C/5min ) after pressure was released to 0.1MPa, as compared to normal immersion freezing process (IF, 0.1MPa P -20°C/30min ). Results indicated that PSF ( 200MPa P -20°C/30min ) could reduce the denaturation of frozen NAM and a pressure of 300MPa was the critical point to induce such a denaturation. During the periods of B→D in PSF or B→C→D in PAF, the generation and growth of ice crystals played an important role on changing the secondary and tertiary structure of the treated NAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in selected species of fish and prawn form northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, P.; Kadam, A.N.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    of the method was in he range of 36.9-78.5% for 1-10 mu g.g/1, wet wt chrysene concentrations. The levels observed were low ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 mu g.g/1 (wet wt, chrysene equivalent units). The most abundant species Johnius glaucus and Coilia dussumieri...

  2. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  3. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  4. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 634-638 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudoproleptus * Macrobrachium * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  5. Nursery life of the marine prawn, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers) in the Mandovi estuary, along Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of the estuary. Seasonal variation in abundance was discernible. Initial growth occurred in the shallow region of the estuary bordered by mangroves and later in the deeper waters of the open estuary. Optimum attainable size in the estuarine environment was 50...

  6. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  7. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns. 3. Growth pattern of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Kutty, M.K.

    Experimental studies on the growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ for three and a half months under different levels of feeding gave a growth pattern different from that of von Bertalanffy. The two distinct growth patterns...

  8. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  9. C/N-controlled periphyton-based freshwater prawn farming system: a sustainable approach to increase pond productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Three technologies showed to improve productivity and sustainability of pond production: (1) C/N ratio control, (2) providing substrates for periphyton development, and (3) fish driven re-suspension. The novelty of this PhD research is to combine these technologies, with the goal to raise pond

  10. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PRAWN Macrobrachium tenellum IN EXPERIMENTAL CULTURES DURING SUMMER AND AUTUMN IN THE TROPICAL MEXICAN PACIFIC COAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vega Villasante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For aquaculture purposes, Macrobrachium tenellum is considered as a good candidate, is not aggressive nor presents cannibalism and can tolerate an ample interval of temperatures, salinities and oxygen concentrations. The present work evaluates the semi-intensive culture of M. tenellum under environmental conditions of summer and autumn with special attention to water temperature. The results of the experimental cultures in the tropical Mexican Pacific coast, suggest this species demonstrates better growth during the end of the spring, summer and the beginning of the autumn, time at which the average temperature of the water is near 30°C. The experimental cultures of end of autumn and beginnings of winter demonstrate minimum growth, with an average temperature of the culture water of 27°C.  Other parameters like pH, O2 concentration and turbidity in the culture water were similar in all the experimental cultures reason why temperature is suggested the factor was the determinant in the differences found in growth. Â

  11. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  12. Dylematy etyczno‑prawne związane z hospitalizacją psychiatryczną kobiety w ciąży

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Kmieciak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Przeprowadzone w ciągu ostatnich kilku lat badania społeczne dowodzą, że coraz więcej Polaków korzysta z pomocy psy‑ chiatrycznej opieki zdrowotnej. Do szpitali psychiatrycznych zgłasza się także coraz więcej pacjentek w ciąży. Nie tylko leczenie, ale cały proces hospitalizacji pacjentki w ciąży stanowi niezwykłe wyzwanie dla personelu lekarsko‑pielęgniar‑ skiego. Psychiatryczna hospitalizacja pacjentki spodziewającej się potomstwa w sposób szczególny musi uwzględniać fundamentalną w polskiej psychiatrii zasadę najmniejszej uciążliwości. Poniższy artykuł ma na celu ukazanie kilku dyle‑ matów, jakie wiążą się z leczeniem i opieką nad tą grupą pacjentek. Przedstawione zostaną przykłady związane z przy‑ musową hospitalizacją, stosowaniem przymusu bezpośredniego oraz stosowaniem zabiegów elektrowstrzasów wobec pacjentek spodziewających się dziecka, a także zasady, jakich należy przestrzegać w trakcie wykonywania wspomnia‑ nych działań. Omówione zostanie również szczególnie delikatne zagadnienie dotyczące tzw. psychiatrycznych przesła‑ nek uprawniających do wykonania aborcji. Zagadnienie to, komentowane głównie poza granicami naszego kraju, powin‑ no być przeanalizowane także z perspektywy polskich przepisów prawa. Dlatego też w odniesieniu do proponowanego tematu, bazując na konkretnym kazusie, z jednej strony zostaną przedstawione informacje dotyczące polskich oraz za‑ granicznych podstaw prawnych uprawniających do dokonania aborcji, z drugiej – wyniki badań ukazujących wyraźnie niebezpieczeństwo legalizacji wspomnianych praktyk, co istotne – niebezpieczeństwo odnoszące się bezpośrednio do po‑ gorszenia się stanu zdrowia psychicznego pacjentki poddającej się zabiegowi przerwania ciąży.

  13. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    -length sequences of these immune-relevant genes, this study highlighted their conserved natures, which perhaps make them important defence-related proteins in the innate immune system of F. indicus....

  14. Prawne aspekty wykorzystania wizerunku sportowca w świetle działań marketingowych = Legal aspects of athletes' image rights usage in the light of marketing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Westfal

    2016-06-01

    Summary                 Usually the law is at least one step behind the market demands. Economic potential of athletes’ image rights has been recognized by marketing specialists many years ago. Selling image rights brings huge amounts of money to professional athletes each year. In market practice and in the realities of professional sport, commercial character of the image rights has become a fact.                 Also noticeable tendencies in development of Polish law interpretation seems to acknowledge that fact. Latest attempts of redefining nature of the image rights as economical or mixed economical-personal one deserves for approval.                 The importance of the issue of professional athletes’ image has found its reflection in legislation. Art. 14 par. 1-3 of the Sports Act of 25th June 2010 sets lex specialis to art. 23 and 24 paragraphs 1-3 of the Polish Civil Code as well as to art. 81 par. 1 and 2 of the Copyright and Related Rights Act of 4th February 1994 which sets general legal frameworks for image rights in Poland. Abovementioned provisions of the Sport Act grants the Polish sports unions and the Polish Olympic Committee with the exclusive right to use, in order to their business goals, image of the athletes wearing, respectively, the Polish national team outfit or the Olympic team outfit.                 Specific legal provisions functioning in relation to the professional athletes’ image were also the subject of the case law of the Supreme Court. Of key importance for the interpretation of art. 14 paragraphs 1-3 of the Sports Act has a Supreme Court judgment of 16th December 2009, I CSK 160/09, which was issued on the basis of art. 33 paragraph 1 and 2 of the repealed Qualified Sport Act.                 For issues of athletes image usage not without significance is the fact that professional athletes usually have the status of a commonly known persons. In the light of art. 81 par. 2 of Sports Act disseminating the image of an athlete who is commonly known person as well, does not require the consent of such a person, provided that the image has been made in connection with the performance of public functions, in particular social or professional ones.                 Regarding to the issue of entities authorized to disseminating athletes image there is considerable diversity. Depending on the factual situation, except of an athlete itself, such entitled entity might become the Polish Olympic Committee, the Polish sport union, sport club or organization for collective management of rights of athletes.                 Having regard to the multidimensional issue of the athletes' image, and bearing in mind how common practice concluding of the marketing contracts concerning image rights has become, it should be postulated that observable changes concerning issue in question, shall be made towards meeting the needs espoused by the market.   Keywords: sports law, image rights, athletes’ image rights, image rights commercialization, marketing in sports [1] mgr Krzysztof M. Westfal, e-mail: k.m.westfal@gmail.com

  15. Interaction of Haematopoietic Tissue Cultures of the Dublin Bay Prawn,Nephrops Norvegicus(L.),with the Causal Agent of Luminous Vibriosis Vibrio Harveyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mulford A.L.; ZHANG X.H.; XU H. S.; Austin B.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi cells (dose = > 103 cells mL 1) and extracellular products (ECP; >25μg m L-1 of total protein concentration) destroyed haematopoietic cultures of Nephrops norvegicus within 24 h of exposure. Cytopathic effects (CPE)started after 4 h of exposure to the bacterial cells, with some granularity in the cytoplasm, mostly in cells in the outer periphery of the explant growth. At the end of the infection, a considerable number of nuclei remained attached to the substrate,apparently unaffected. Following exposure to ECP, initial deterioration was observed at 2 h with the presence of granularity in the cytoplasm of< 20% cells, and few cells displayed small vacuoles around the nuclei. Parallel results were obtained using whole animal experiments, with V. harveyi cells being lethal to nephrops within 24 h.

  16. Interaction of haematopoietic tissue cultures of the Dublin Bay Prawn, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), with the causal agent of luminous vibriosis Vibrio harveyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, A. L.; Zhang, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Austin, B.

    2002-04-01

    Vibrio harveyi cells (dose—25 μmg mL-1 of total protein concentration) destroyed haematopoietic cultures of Nephrops norvegicus within 24 h of exposure. Cytopathic effects (CPE) started after 4h of exposure to the bacterial cells, with some granularity in the cytoplasm, mostly in cells in the outer periphery of the explant growth. At the end of the infection, a considerable number of nuclei remained attached to the substrate, apparently unaffected. Following exposure to ECP, initial deterioration was observed at 2 h with the presence of granularity in the cytoplasm of<20% cells, and few cells displayed small vacuoles around the nuclei. Parallel results were obtained using whole animal experiments, with V. harveyi cells being lethal to nephrops within 24 h.

  17. Problemy etyczno-prawne błędu medycznego w praktyce lekarza rodzinnego - odpowiedzialność karna, cywilna i zawodowa

    OpenAIRE

    Morawski, Andrzej; Steciwko, Andrzej; Źórawska, Joanna; Drobnik, Jarosław; Pirogowicz, Iwona

    2003-01-01

    Problem of medical malpractice is now one of the most popular problems in Polish society and in the polish media. The legal definition of medical malpracitice was made in Poland in 1952 by Highest Law Court. In that definition Highest Law Court decided that about medical ault we can say, when doctor’s diagnosis or therapy is made against the code of practice in contemporary medicine but only in approachable to him conditions. In our work we want to present contemporary classification of me...

  18. Concentration of metals in shrimps and crabs from Thane-Bassein creek system, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamurti, A.J.; Nair, V.R.

    was in the order of Zn>Cu>Cd>Ni>Pb. In shrimps maximum level of Cu (av. 41.3 ppm dry wt) and Zn (av. 164 ppm dry wt) were observed respectively in Metapenaeus brevicornis from Thane Creek and Exopalaemon stylifera from Bassein Creek. The crabs, Scylla serrata from...

  19. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Bøge Søndergaard, Annette; Bøknæs, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while...... summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p

  20. The operation and production in Penaeid farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ludi parwadani aji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid prawn demand in the world market has brought about a dramatic raise in the price of prawns, so, the aquaculture prawn industry also increase. Prawn farming can be divided by intensive, semi intensive or extensive culture system. Extensive culture system has low stocking densities, whereas, intensive culture (very high stocking densities has highest level of environmental control such as recirculation system and stable ecological system. Predation and disease is the major obstacles in culture system. To deal with predation, farmers use net for covering the ponds and fencing the ponds. Disease organism such as parasites, bacteria, fungal and viruses may be eliminated through sterilization of the water. The commercial diets made from squid and white fish meal may replace fresh diet in semi-intensive culture as fish diet has a problem with preservation. Moreover, maintaining water quality such as dissolve oxygen, pH, nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium and temperature is very important to support productivity and profitability in prawn farming. The most prominent aims at harvest are to pack the prawn in a way that avoids physical damage, minimize the quantity of prawn left on the bottom of pond, and directly chill prawn. Therefore, good management of water quality, feeding, disease, predation, and harvesting is important in prawn culture.

  1. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submitted to different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos, nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os regimes alimentares substituindo progressivamente náuplio de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots foram os seguintes tratamentos: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas/mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4, sendo adicionada a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da mudança dos subestádios larvais demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. No tratamento T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis houve mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O efeito da ocorrência das primeiras metamorfoses para pós-larvas, ocorreu ao 27º dia nos tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. Conseqüentemente, o ciclo de larvicultura até a metamorfose de 90% para pós-larva (PL1 foi o mesmo nos tratamentos (35 dias. Portanto, a utilização do rotífero enriquecido e congelado no regime alimentar das larvas permitiu desempenho satisfatório em termos de desenvolvimento larval de M. rosenbergii até a passagem para o estádio de pós-larva.The feeding is one of the most important factors to larval development and the sucess of the commercial cultivation of decapod crustacean larvae depends on the efficient and economic utilization of the available food. The performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larva submitted to four different feeding systems was tested by using the daily observation of the larval substages and the first metamorphoses. The larvae were stocked in a density of approximately 100 larvas.l-1, in 16 tanks, with 33 liters capacity. The experiment was divided in four experimental units (blocks. Four feeding systems were tested in the hatchering in an open circuit, with four replicates for treatment. The feeding systems in which progressive substitutions of the nauplii of Artemia sp. (nas were accomplished, for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (rots, the following treatments were tested: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas / mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/mL (T3 and 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/mL (T4, Humid ration was added to all treatments. The results of the change of the larval stage demonstrated that there was not significant difference among the treatments T2, T3 and T4. The treatment T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis had total mortality in the 14th day of the experiment. The effect of the occurrence of the first metamorphoses for post-larvae, ocurred at 27th day in the treatments T2, T3 and T4. Consequently, the hatchering cycle to the metamorphosis of 90% for post-larvae (PL1, was the same in the respective treatments (35 days. Therefore, the use of the enriched rotifer and frozen in the feeding systems of the larvae allowed a satisfactory performance in terms of larval development of M. rosenbergii until the passage for the post-larvae stage.

  2. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products... prawns that are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  3. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size... prawns that are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  4. Impact analysis of calcium hydroxide on the juveniles of the river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of inorganic chemicals to boost agro production has recently been extended to other environmental purposes. This study thus was carried out to assess the potential lethal impact of calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) on aquatic environment using the brackish river prawn as the indicator organism. The prawns were ...

  5. Maturation of Metapenaeus moyebi (Kishinouye) in Goa estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T; Parulekar, A

    An assessment of the stake net fishery in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries of Goa revealed that Metapenaeus moyebi, a penaeid prawn hitherto rarely recorded in Indian waters, formed a good percentage of the estuarine prawn fishery of Goa. At one...

  6. Evaluating European imports of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate the environmental sustainability of European imports of farmed aquatic food products from Asia, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Farming of Asian tiger prawn, whiteleg shrimp, freshwater prawn, tilapia and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam

  7. TINGKAT DAYA TETAS TELUR UDANG GALAH (Macrobranciun rosenbergii DENGAN SALINITAS YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Rimalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the best salinity for honey prawn (macro egg prawn (Macrobrancium rosenbergii. This study used Completely Randomized Design, with three treatments and three replications. The results showed that with the salinity of 6 ‰ resulted in an average hatchability of 86.4%, with the salinity of 8 ‰ resulted in 70.5% hatchability, and at salinity 10 ‰ yielded hatchability of 56, 5%. The result of analysis of variance (ANOVA, hatching power of prawn egg very different between treatment. Water quality such as temperature, DO, and pH, during the study can still be tolerated by giant prawns. The results of this study recommend using a salinity of 6 ‰ to do hatching of prawn eggs.

  8. Growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with probiotic Clostridium butyricum incorporated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saifuddin Sumon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine antagonistic effect of Clostridium butyricum against Vibrio harveyi and its probiotic effect on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles were examined following feeding with C. butyricum incorporated feed for 60 days. Significant reduction of V. harveyi growth was found at 8 hr and onward in in-vitro and at 10 days and onward in in-vivo challenge test. After rearing prawn with the bacteria in feed treatment for 60 days, body weight and growth rate of prawns was significantly higher (p  0.05 compared to control group. This study revealed that probiotic, C. butyricum incorporated diets were found to be beneficial for M. rosenbergii culture in terms of hindering the growth of pathogenic bacteria and increasing the growth, protease and amylase activities of prawn. Results from this study will be helpful to improve fresh water prawn farming.

  9. Recruitment and connectivity influence the role of seagrass as a penaeid nursery habitat in a wave dominated estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D; Fry, Brian; Becker, Alistair; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

    2017-04-15

    Estuaries provide a diverse mosaic of habitats which support both juveniles and adults of exploited species. In particular, estuaries play an important role in the early life history of many penaeid prawn species. This study used a combination of stable isotope ecology and quantitative sampling to examine recruitment and the nursery function of seagrass habitats for Eastern King Prawn (Penaeus [Melicertus] plebejus), and the processes that contributed to this nursery role. Stable isotopes were used to assign prawns joining the adult stock to putative nursery habitat areas within the estuary. Emigrating prawns originated from only 11 of the 20 sites surveyed. Of these, 8 sites were designated as Effective Juvenile Habitat (EJH), and 5 sites designated as Nursery Habitat (NH). The contribution of individuals from different nursery areas to the adult stock was related to both the abundance of prawns within an area and the distance to the mouth of the estuary, and with the exception of 1 site all EJH and NH were located in the northern section of the estuary. Quantitative sampling in this area indicated that prawns were present at an average density of 165±11 per 100m 2 , and density formed non-linear relationships with the distance to the mouth of the estuary, seagrass cover and temperature. Prawn size also formed non-linear relationships with prawn density and seagrass cover. Spatial patterns in abundance were consistent with wind-driven recruitment patterns, which in turn affected the nursery role of particular areas within the system. These findings have implications for targeted fishery restoration efforts for both Eastern King Prawn and other ocean spawned species in wave dominated estuaries where circulation is primarily wind-driven. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Bacterial Pathogens in Exported and Imported Foods and Evaluation of Methods of Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, A.; Ramos, J.; Elano, R.; Co, C.; Manalastas, Z. [Food Development Center, National Food Authority, Metro Manila (Philippines)

    2005-01-15

    Phase I consisted of comparison of recovery of Salmonella in inoculated and uninoculated pond prawns, frozen prawns, and imported frozen fish fillet using six available rapid methods vs. conventional method. The best rapid method is S2 which is based on lateral immunoprecipitation. In Phase II, Salmonella was monitored in 120 samples of field prawns, catfish, milkfish and tilapia from ponds. S{sub 8} or Tecra Visual Immuno Assay (VIA) for Salmonella had 99.2 % agreement with BAM/AOAC method. During Phase III, Salmonella was monitored in a further 83 samples of aquaculture prawns and milkfish. Tecra VIA for Salmonella remained number 1 in accuracy with 99% agreement with BAM/AOAC method. (author)

  11. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  12. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  13. The effect of algal and bacterial filters on sea water quality during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality changes in bacterial and algal filtration systems over a two month period. Juvenile ..... of the algae, prawns and micro-organisms (decomposition of excess food and .... Cultivation of marine organisms: Water quality management and ...

  14. Status and prospects of fish farming in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Verlecar, X.N.

    -cum-prawn culture. Relevant information on the indigenous methods of cultivating common species, their annual yield and economics of aquaculture are discussed in the paper with reference to future prospects of fish farming in Goa...

  15. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    .... Hiravati International Pvt. Ltd. (located at APM-- Mafco Yard, Sector--18, Vashi, Navi, Mumbai--400 705... Seafood Products Co., Ltd. Thai Ocean Venture Co., Ltd. Thai Patana Frozen Thai Prawn Culture Center Co...

  16. trawl bycatch in the fishing grounds of Bus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    . Biol. 86: 1455-1462. Watson RA, Dredge MLC, Mayer DG (1990). Spatial and seasonal variation in demersal trawl fauna associated with a prawn fishery on the CentralGreat Barrier Reef, Australia. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.

  17. Studies on the environmental conditions of tidal ponds in the Ramanthuruth Island (Cochin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Environmental characteristics of certain enclosures and tidal ponds in Ramanthuruth Island, Kerala, India where prawns grow in abundance were studied. Various parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 479 ... Nigerian Food Journal. ... Vol 28, No 2 (2010), Improving consumer safety and satisfaction at fast food outlets in Owerri metropolis, Nigeria, Abstract ... associated with the natural fermentation of prawn (Litopenaus sp.) ...

  19. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-26

    Sep 26, 1988 ... Blaber 1978a; Coetzee 1981, 1982a; Coetzee & Pool. 1985), taxonomic ...... mainly the swimming prawn Macropetasma africana, bivalves (Donax spp.) ..... higher energy value of zooplankton relative to other organisms of ...

  20. The dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus is a large sciaenid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and Pool 1991) and in one in Australia (Hall 1986), but all those studies were ... included calanoid copepods, mysids, insects, amphipods and swimming prawns. The impact of reduced ... gives a measure of the energy contribution of that. 138.

  1. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    of eyestalk excision on the energy budget of juveniles of the Malaycian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was attempted by Perez and Luna, (1995). Materials and methods Collection of prawns Metapenaeus monoceros was collected from Cochin... siphon system for the cultivation maintenance and management of marine/ estuarine organisms under controlled/ simulated conditions. CSIR patent No. 829. Perez Cruz, M.E. and Luna Figueroa, J. 1995. Effect of the unilateral ablation of the eyestalk...

  2. A study of burrow morphology in representative axiidean and gebiidean mud shrimps, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sepahvand

    Full Text Available Mud shrimps (formerly Thalassinidea are common burrow dwelling decapod crustaceans in the littoral zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Their burrow morphology was investigated using foam casting methods. The present study shows that the burrow morphology in Upogebia carinicauda is not consistent and the recorded variations are based on habitat type and some physical characteristics of sediments. Adult burrow morphology in sandy-muddy substrate with shells, and boulder field habitats were Y-shaped and complex burrows of horizontal channels with turning chambers and vertical connections to internal passages or crevices of boulders, respectively. In burrows of U. carinicauda, some narrow passages, connected to the upper part of adult burrows in sandy-muddy habitats, belong to juveniles. Another species, Neocallichirus jousseaumei was found under boulders in sandy-muddy habitats of the Gulf of Oman and Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Since this type of habitat is special in some features, no conspicuous ex-current openings (usually obvious as conical mounds of extruded sediment have been observed on the sediment surface; as these were hidden among the boulders surrounded by mixed sand and shells. The only method for observing this type of burrow was to remove the boulders by hand or lever.

  3. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar Eyestalk ablation in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: effects on reproduction, epidermic pigmentation and feeding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879. Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application of antibiotic pomades. The animals were maintained at constant temperature (28 ± 1,05ºC and photoperiod of 12L: 12D within fibercement boxes with sandy bottom and biological filter. Females were observed once a day during fourteen weeks, registering gonadal condition, ecdysis and presence of spermatophore (mating and spawning. Unilateral ablation technique is more efficient due to the anticipation of the first spawn, repeatability between spawns, expressive rate of ovigerous females and survival, that favored its applicability. Bilateral eyestalk ablation produced the mortality of ali the females with change in coloration and food activity patterns. These results corroborate other observations on penaeid shrimps. though bilateral ablation on some lobsters was a success. These results showing an interespecific variation and can be used in aquaculture projects.

  4. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W C; Smith, K C

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  6. Macrobrachium amazonicum: an alternative for microbiological monitoring of aquatic environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the role of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, as carrier of Candida spp., by analyzing the correlation between Candida spp. from these prawns and their environment (surface water and sediment, through M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR. For this purpose, 27 strains of Candida spp. were evaluated. These strains were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of adult M. amazonicum (7/27 from Catú Lake, Ceará State, Brazil and from the aquatic environment (surface water and sediment of this lake (20/27. Molecular comparison between the strains from prawns and the aquatic environment was conducted by M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR, utilizing the primers M13 and OPQ16, respectively. The molecular analysis revealed similarities between the band patterns of eight Candida isolates with the primer M13 and 11 isolates with the primer OPQ16, indicating that the same strains are present in the digestive tract of M. amazonicum and in the aquatic environment where these prawns inhabit. Therefore, these prawns can be used as sentinels for environmental monitoring through the recovery of Candida spp. from the aquatic environment in their gastrointestinal tract

  7. FILOGENETIK POPULASI UDANG JERBUNG (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis de Man DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUENS 16S-rRNA DNA MITOKONDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok udang jerbung Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Udang jerbung uji berasal dari Pantai Bengkulu, Selat Sunda (Banten, Pantai Cilacap (Jawa Tengah, Selat Lombok (NTB, dan Pontianak (Kalimantan Barat. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing daerah 16S-rRNA DNA mitokondria dilakukan menggunakan primer 5’-CGCCTGTTTAAC-AAAAACAT-3’ dan 5’-CCGGTCTGAACTCAGATCATGT-3’. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida 16S-rRNA DNA mitokondria menunjukkan bahwa udang jerbung yang digunakan dalam penelitian merupakan Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Hasil analisis kekerabatan menunjukkan bahwa 5 populasi udang jerbung uji dapat dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok besar, yaitu kelompok Kalimantan Barat dan kelompok Bengkulu-Banten-Jawa Tengah-NTB. Populasi udang jerbung Kalimantan dan Bengkulu masing-masing memiliki sekuens spesifik, yaitu ACTGACT dan C-GAC di terminal 5. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program pemuliaan udang jerbung Indonesia. The experiment was conducted to understand the family relationship of banana prawn in Indonesia and to provide basic information for breeding program. Prawns were obtained from Bengkulu Coast, Sunda Strait (Banten, Cilacap Coast (Central Java, Lombok Strait (West Nusa Tenggara, Pontianak Coast (West Kalimantan. PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S-rRNA mitochondrial DNA region were performed using 5’-CGCCTGTTTAAC-AAAAACAT-3’ and 5’-CCGGTCTGAACTCAGATCATGT-3’. Analysis of homology sequences of 16S-rRNA mtDNA showed that banana prawn used in this study was Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Result of family relationship analysis indicated that five populations of banana prawn can be divided into two groups, i.e. West Kalimantan and Bengkulu-Banten-Central Java-NTB groups. Banana prawns from West Kalimantan and Bengkulu have specific sequences at 5’ terminal, ACTGACT and C-GAC, respectively. Those sequences can

  8. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture the observed locality of interactions. Traditional self-propelled particle models fail to capture the fine scale dynamics of the system. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics, while maintaining a biologically plausible perceptual range. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  9. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  10. Raft River Geothermal Aquaculture Experiment. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Rose, F.L.; Kent, J.C.; Watson, L.R.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1979-08-01

    Channel catfish, tilapia and Malaysian prawns were cultured directly in geothermal water for approximately seven months at the Department of Energy, Raft River Geothermal Site, to evaluate the organisms throughout a grow-out cycle. Parameters evaluated included survival, growth, bioaccumulation of metals and fluoride, collagen synthesis, and bone calcium levels. Growth at Raft River was slightly lower than at a companion commercial facility at Buhl, Idaho, but was attributed to facility differences rather than an adverse impact of geothermal water. No significant differences were recorded between Raft River and Buhl fish for bone calcium or collagen concentrations. No significant accumulation of heavy metals by fish or prawns was recorded.

  11. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products... addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight...; and (5) that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered...

  12. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based...

  13. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp Co.; JBS Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  14. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope of the order. In addition, food preparations (including dusted... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  15. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  16. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations... dusted, but prior to being frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (IQF) freezing...

  17. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (IQF) freezing immediately after application of...

  18. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  19. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products... addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight...; and (5) that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered...

  20. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp... individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in...

  1. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing... with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  2. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... orders. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that..., but prior to being frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing...

  3. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight...; and (5) that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered...

  4. 75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... scope of this investigation. In addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based product that...

  5. 76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after...

  6. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may..., food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight of... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  7. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The... scope of this order. In addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more...; and 5) that is subjected to individual quick freezing (``IQF'') immediately after application of the...

  8. A comparison of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico, A.; Zhang, W.; Al-Nahid, A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.; Jaithiang, J.; Dao, H.M.; Phu, T.M.; Little, D.C.; Murray, F.J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, Q.; Haque, M.M.; Kruijssen, F.; de Snoo, G.R.; Heijungs, R.; van Bodegom, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different

  9. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico Artero, A.; Zhang, W.; Nahid, S.S.A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different

  10. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words : Giant African river prawn, coastal Zone, growth/mortality, culture indice ... the use of sun-dried smaller individuals as condiments for ... Cameroon' coastal waters include good soil types and water ... improve on the living standards of Cameroon's coastal The commercial ..... production and pond management.

  11. Studies on transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from seaweed to fish through crustacea, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of 106 Ru in a model of the graizing food chain of marine organisms: the radioactive sea water → seaweed (Chondrus crispus) → crustacea (prawn, Palaemon serratus) → fish (plaice, Pleuronectes platessa). The seaweeds were cultured in the radioactive sea waters A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Thereafter, accumulations of 106 Ru in prawns and plaice by the ingestions of their diets (the seaweeds contaminated with 106 Ru in each water and the meats of prawns accumulated 106 Ru from each diet, respectively), were investigated and compared with those from the radioactive sea waters reported previously. It was shown that 106 Ru would be accumulated by the prawns from the sea water A about 3 times higher than from the contaminated diet in this water, however from the contaminated diets in the waters B and C about 2 times, respectively, higher than from each water. While, accumulations of 106 Ru by the plaice from each diet were negligible in comparison with those from each water. No higher concentrations of 106 Ru were observed in these organisms from lower to higher in the trophic level. (author)

  12. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  13. NOAA Photo Library - Meet the Photographers/Dr. James P. McVey

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sea Grant College Program. He is responsible for reviewing the proposals pertaining to aquaculture saltwater prawns and was responsible for introducing brackishwater pond culture to Micronesia. During this time in Micronesia, and while a student at the University of Hawaii, he participated in several

  14. Determination of toxic elements in Malaysian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Z.; Wood, A.K.H.; Mahmood, C.S.; Hamzah, S.

    1988-01-01

    This project is concentrating on the analysis of toxic elements content in seafoods including fishes, mussel, squid and prawn. Samples were collected from various places throughout Malay Peninsular. Samples were prepared according to RCA research protocol - nuclear techniques for toxic element in foodstuffs. Techniques used for elemental analysis were neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical) and anodic stripping voltametry. (author). 9 refs, 9 tabs

  15. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Containment Area Aquaculture Held in South Padre Island, Texas on 11-15 November 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    animals unfit with fish meal supply resulting from El Nihio for human consumption. Thus, care must be events off Peru and Chile in the past have led taken...commercial feasibility Sorgeloos, 0. Roels, and E. Jaspers, ed., of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) The brine shrimp Anemia , Universal farming in

  16. Patterns in abundance, population structure and biology of knife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deep-water trawl fishery along the KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa targets several crustacean species, with the knife (or pink) prawn Haliporoides triarthrus contributing most of the catch. Logbook data of fishing effort and catch between 1988 and 2010 were used to assess the distribution and abundance of H.

  17. 1761-IJBCS-Article-Cathérine Nicole Doume Doume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    11-76. Oyekanmi, Funmilayo B. 2011. Bio-ecology of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) and. Caridina africana (Kingsley, 1882) at. Asejire Lake and Erin-ijesa waterfalls,. Nigeria. M.Tech. Fisheries Management. Sipauba -Tavares LH. 1998. Limnologia dos Sistemas de Cultivo. Carcinicultura.

  18. Authenticating the origin of different shrimp products on the Tunisian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAIS

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... methods (with various modifications) and the use of commercial kit such as Chelex ... Authenticity determination of prawn and shrimp species in commercial frozen, pre-cooked products. .... primers have equal length (23 nucleotides), GC content ..... Temperatures in Diffusion-Generated Chemical Gradients.

  19. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the prawn fishery. We combined in-situ measurement and ocean colour satellite data to determine and assess ...... Frocklin S, de la Torre-Castro M, Lindstrom L, Jiddawi ... Kimirei IA, Igul, MM, Semba M, Lugendo BR (2016) Small. Estuarine ...

  1. A choice experiment application to estimate willingness to pay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... most recent research available on the adult dusky kob popula- tion suggests that it is ... mud prawn (an example of invertebrate macrofauna) can attain high densities in ..... This study applied a CE to the. Bushmans River ...

  2. KERAGAAN AGROINDUSTRI KERUPUK UDANG DI KECAMATANKWANYAR KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Hastinawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the village of West Kwanyar, Kwanyar District, Bangkalan. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and financial feasibility of agro-industries of prawn cracker. The sampling method in this study use a purposive technique that is implemented in the West Kwanyar Village, Kwanyar District. The analysis used was a qualitative descriptive analysis to determine the performance profile agro prawn crackers, while the agro-industry analysis of the financial feasibility of prawn crackers use quantitative descriptive analysis is the calculation of BEP, R/C ratio and ROI. The technique of data collected by through observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study and documentation. Based on research result shows that the performance profile of agro-industrial scale prawn crackers is a household that is using the loan capital as initial capital to start a business, yet have a business license so that the market is still in the vicinity of Sub Kwanyar by using two channels, the first manufacturer to distributor and then to the consumer and finally manufacturer to market directly to consumers. Is financially feasible to develop agro-industry that is obtained from the calculation of cost and revenue analysis, analysis of BEP (Break Even Point, R/C Ratio (Revenue Cost Ratio and ROI (Return on Investment.

  3. (Ortmann) (Decapoda, Crustacea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-13

    Mar 13, 1987 ... duration and current velocity) of the populations to the flow of water ... The mud prawn Upogebia africana (Ortmann) is a filter ... three sources namely, treated sewage released into the ... indicating the positions of the sampling sites for macrobenthos (1 - 40) ..... punctata feeding on a variety of marine algae.

  4. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-29

    Mar 29, 1987 ... KENSLEY, B. 1972. Shrimps and prawns of southern. Africa. Trustees of the S.A. Museum, Cape Town. KENSLEY, B. 1981. On the zoogeography of southern. African decapod Crustacea, with a distributional .... capense Hewitt, 1925; and C. JeJeupi Laurent, 1950. The frog here described undoubtedly ...

  5. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C.

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  6. Growth and maturation of Penaeus indicus under blue and green light

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of the penaeid prawn Penaeus indicus was tested by comparing dim green ... light quantity and quality. tank size and/or handling stress. It was decided to ... Three circular, temperature-controlled 8000 e (2,8 m diameter) glass ... of eggs and nauplii in the water. Occasional ..... Penaeus vannamei Boone. J. expo mar.

  7. 78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Zones 12. Provision of Seed and Fry for LTAR 13. Loans Under the Fund for Food Program 14. Loans Under...

  8. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Facilities for LTAR 21. Government Provision of Shrimp Breeding Stock and Seed for LTAR 22. Government Loans...

  9. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  10. Removal of off-flavours in some Australian crustacea by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Development of an export industry based on the deep sea royal red prawn, haliporoides sibogae and the shallow water shovel nosed lobster or balmain bug, lbacus peronii has been hampered by the sweet garlic off-flavour often encountered in both these species. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source

  11. An Analysis of the Naval Postgraduate School’s Commissioned Officers’ and Faculty Club Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    cheese, vinaigarette) VEGETABLES Buttered Carrots Peas w/Mushrooms Green Beans Almondine Mixed Vegetables Corn w/Pimentos *Broccoli w/ Hollandaise Sauce ...PRAWNS W/COCKTAIL SAUCE $14.75 GRILLED HALIBUT STEAK 11.25 (lemon hollandaise sauce ) HERB BAKED ICELANDIC COD 8.90 (bechemel sauce ) SHRIMP CURRY ON A BED...Meatballs Fruit Boat Vegetable Tray w/Dip 3.10 Chicken Nuggets w/ Sauce Dip Cheeseboard w/Crackers Deviled Eggs 2. Chicken (or) Seafood Carolines

  12. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Okubo

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium caused by rising temperatures (bleaching, reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa, and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi. Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore

  13. Eficiência de wetland com macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes dispostas em serie para o tratamento do efluente do cultivo de camarão

    OpenAIRE

    Henares, MNP; Camargo, AFM

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m(3)) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a ...

  14. Chemical score of different protein sources to four Macrobrachium species

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Martínez, Cynthia; Nolasco-Soria, Héctor; Carrillo-Farnés, Olimpia; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Álvarez-González, Carlos; Vega-Villasante, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Food production for aquaculture requires finding other protein sources or ingredients as potential alternatives in the formulation of aquaculture feeds, due to the shortage and high price of protein sources that are most commonly used. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between the essential amino acids in 13 types of proteins available in the market with the essential amino acids found in the muscle of four of the most important farmed prawn species of the genus Macrob...

  15. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  16. The mobile macro-invertebrate fauna of the Oosterschelde and the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Both in the marine bay the Oosterschelde and in the Westerschelde estuary, the mobile macro- invertebrate fauna from sub tidal soft substrates was sampled with a three-metre beam trawl during 10 quarterly surveys between August 1999 and November 2001. A total of 35 species was recorded. In the Oosterschelde 33 species were found: 9 caridean prawns, 9 brachyuran crabs, 6 echinoderms, 3 caridean shrimps, 3 cephalopods, 2 anomuran crabs and 1 lobster. The dominating species in the Ooste...

  17. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.1-58, January-March 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    *Table of Contents* Sustainable Aquaculture Fertilization, soil and water quality management in small-scale ponds part II:Soil and water quality management S. Adhikari Fisheries and aquaculture activities in Nepal Tek Gurung Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: A knowledge-base for rural aquaculture Farmers as Scientists: Commercialization of giant freshwater prawn culture in India M.C. Nandeesha Aquaculture in reservoir fed canal based irrigation systems of I...

  18. Functional morphology of the hepatopancreas of Palaemonetes argentinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) : influence of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, L. G.; Petriella, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Morphological and functional state of hepatopancreas were analyzed in Palaemonetes argentinus from two environments with different pesticide concentrations. Los Padres lagoon (Argentina) is an area subjected to contamination due to the slow exchange of water, the shallow depth and the input of contaminated water. Prawns living in this lagoon accumulate high amounts of organochlorine pesticides in their tissues. Hepatopancreas of prawns from Canal 5, an adjacent shallow stream where the amount of pesticides is below toxic levels, and from Los Padres lagoon were processed by standard histological techniques with light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. At Los Padres lagoon, there were found important tissular alterations, such as intertubular infiltration of haemocytes and connective tissue, epithelial retraction in some tubules, and a folded basal lamina. Important necrotic desquamation, with cariolysis, cariorrexis and lack of cellular details were also observed. Numerous tubules presented an enlarged and irregular lumen with the epithelium atrophied or completely absent. In general, the lesions were particularly located in the medullar region of the organ. At the ultrastructural level, R and F cells were the most damaged. Both cell types had nuclear retraction, chromatin condensation and cytoplasmic lysis. Some R cells also had dilated mitochondria and numerous lysosomes, and the basal cytoplasm was nearly completely lysed. The hepatopancreas of prawns from Canal 5 did not evidence any alterations. The histopathological study of the hepatopancreas is a highly sensitive tool to evaluate the physiological condition of prawns and water quality. Other environmental conditions were similar, so it can be assumed that pollutants were the main cause of organ deterioration. (author)

  19. China Report Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-22

    n?ti0n in Prawn catches, but also supplies the world’s more costly items, such as scallops, sea cucumbers and abalone. There is an area of more...cotton, meat , aquatic products, afforested area, steel, pig iron, coal, natural gas, electricity, financial revenue, and retail sales. [Summary...in shallow waters of the sea and expanding the export of marine products; third, energetically developing the processing of imported materials, with

  20. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  1. Effect of eyestalk extirpation on haemolymph ionic concentration of Metapenaeus monoceros

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Abhilash, K.R.

    _________________________________________________________ Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences http://www.jebas.org KEYWORDS Metapenaeus monoceros Prawn Haemolymph Ionic concentration Eyestalk extirpation Osmoregulation ABSTRACT Metapenaeus monoceros in the size range 65... September 20, 2013. EFFECT OF EYESTALK EXTIRPATION ON HAEMOLYMPH IONIC CONCENTRATION OF Metapenaeus monoceros E-mail: kvjayaparam@yahoo.co.in (Jayalakshmy KV) Peer review under responsibility of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural...

  2. Recent advances in marine microbiology: the Indian scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    reported in the literature. These were tested against a battery genus (86% in sediments, 72% in water, 71% in prawns and 65% in fishes). Laboratory studies indicated that factors suchof test cultures, which included cultures of pathogenic bacte- ria, fungi... that the relative abundance of these organisms couldimportant in anoxic sediments such as mangrove sediments. Sulfate ion represents 7.7% of the salts in seawater and is be one possible reason for higher nitrite concentrations ob- served here. The simultaneous...

  3. Characterization of Vibrio species isolated from freshwater fishes by ribotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, P.; Samanta, M.; Mohanty, S.; Maiti, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Three Vibrio species from the resident microflora of gastrointestinal tract of freshwater carps and prawns were isolated and confirmed biochemically as V. fluvialis from Cyprinus carpio/Labeo rohita; V. parahaemolyticus from Macrobrachium rosenbergii and V. harveyi from Macrobrachium malcomsoni. The genetic relationship among these Vibrio species was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene followed by restriction digestion with Hae III, Bam HI and Pst I. ...

  4. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-06-01

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of catching efficiency of two Indonesian traditional traps, Ayunan and Tamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The catching efficiency of traditional traps: Ayunan and Tamba were tested in Sungai Batang River, South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Trials consisted of 320-trap hauls/type using 1-day submersion time of 24 hr. The baited traps sampling accounted for 82 specimens assigned to 5 species of 5 families. There was a large variability in number of catch between prawns and fish species collected (T=2.318, P<0.05. The prawns catch was represented by only the species Macrobrachium rossenbergii with total of 53 and 1,015 g weight. The prawns weight of Tamba was significantly higher than that of Ayunan (T=3.453, P<0.01.The fish catch composed of Mystus gulio 79%, Osteochilus hasselti 10%, Hypostomus plecostomus 7%, and Macrognathus aculeatus 3%, with total weight ranged from 35 to 560 g. A clear difference was found in catching efficiency. Comparative fishing trials showed that Tamba collected specimens were 1.8 times higher than Ayunan (T=2.223, P<0.05. Catch per unit effort for Tamba ranged from 58.13 to 80.00, and for Ayunan ranged from 5.31 to 7.19. The gear modifications and various treatments (e.g. bait odor, light are necessary to be taken to increase their relative catching efficiency.

  6. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower 4066, QLD (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Exposed three species of prawns of same genus to solid- and dissolved-phase metals. • Cd bioaccumulated from dissolved phase was significantly different between species. • All three species retained >95% of bioaccumulated Cd during the depuration phase. • Bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn from solid phase was different between species. • Results highlight variability among species, even under controlled conditions. - Abstract: Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated

  7. Using a multibiomarker approach and behavioural responses to assess the effects of anthracene in Palaemon serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravato, Carlos; Almeida, Joana R; Silva, Carlos; Oliveira, Cristiana; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognised as one of the main groups of contaminants that assume more importance in the marine environment, enhancing the need of studies concerning their adverse effects and more efficient and ecologically relevant tools for environmental monitoring purposes. This study aims to apply an integrated approach including several multi-level biological responses (accumulation levels, biochemical responses important for different physiological functions and behavioural alterations) to assess the ecological relevance of the effects induced by sub-lethal concentrations of anthracene (ANT) in Palaemon serratus (common prawn). ANT accumulation was assessed by measuring the levels of ANT-type compounds in prawn digestive gland, muscle and eye; biochemical responses were determined using biomarkers involved in biotransformation, oxidative damage, energy production and neurotransmission processes; and behavioural alterations through swimming performance after 96 h exposure bioassay (ANT:16-1,024 μg/L). The rationale behind this approach is to assess the ecologically relevant effects induced by ANT in prawn, given by the association between behavioural alterations with biochemical responses, in search for more efficient tools for environmental risk assessment. Results show a significant decrease of swimming velocity (LOEC=128 μg/L) along with increased levels of ANT-type compounds in digestive gland (LOEC=128 μg/L), muscle (LOEC=256 μg/L) and eye (LOEC=32 μg/L) in prawn exposed to ANT. Increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), involved in anti-oxidant defence system, were also observed (LOEC=256 μg/L; 1024μg/L, respectively) in the digestive gland of prawn, induction of oxidative damage in lipids (LPO) also occurred (LOEC=32 μg/L). The inhibition of swimming velocity showed a correlation with some biochemical parameters measured, including the levels of ANT-type compounds in tissues and LPO, and

  8. Microbial flora associated with submerged mangrove leaf litter in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanasamy Rajendran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microbial flora in decomposing mangrove leaves in relation to changes in nitrogen and tannin levels, and in penaeid prawn assemblages. Senescent leaves of two mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina kept in nylon bags, were separately immersed for 80 days in five tanks full of mangrove water. A known amount of decomposing leaves was collected every ten days from each tank for microorganism counts, total nitrogen and tannin measurement, and juvenile penaeid prawn counts. Five genera of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, three species of azotobacters and 19 species of fungi were identified. The azotobacters showed a significant peak around 40-50 days after the beginning of of decomposition, similar to the trend for total nitrogen and for prawn assemblages. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 393-400. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se estudió la flora microbiana en hojas en descomposición de mangles, considerando nitrógeno, taninos y camarones peneidos jóvenes. Colocamos hojas viejas de dos especies de mangle (Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina en bolsas de nylon y las sumergimos en agua de manglar durante 80 días usando cinco tanques separados. Cada diez días extrajimos una cantidad conocida de hojas en descomposición de cada tanque. Hallamos cinco géneros de bacterias heterotróficas totales (THB, tres especies de azotobacterias y 19 especies de hongos. Las azotobacterias presentaron un pico significativo de abundancia alrededor de los 40-50 días de descomposición, un patrón similar a los del nitrógeno total y los camarones.

  9. Present status of fish culture using warm waste water from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The research of fish culture using warm waste water from power stations in Japan has history of over ten years. It is being gradually commercialized, but still various problems remain. Among the fish culture activities, those related to nuclear power generation are described as follows: Tokai ponds of Warm Water Fish Culture Development Society of Japan (culturing crimson sea bream, ear shell, flatfish, prawn, and eel); Fukui Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station (culturing sweetfish and young yellowtail); and, Warm Water Utilization Center of Shizuoka Prefecture (culturing ear shell). (Mori, K.)

  10. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  11. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico, in Estuaries, edited by Lauff G H (Amer Ass Adv Sci Publ, Washington D C) 1967, pp. 621-638. 3 Mair J McD, Salinity and water-type preference of four species of postlarval shrimp (Penaeus) from... west Mexico, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 45(1980)69-82. 4 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters, Indian J Mar Sci, 15 (1986)171-173. 5 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Distribution of penaeid...

  12. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume III. Preferred utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional considerations that must be resolved before implementing options to recover energy from the heated SRP effluent are examined. Detailed hypothetical siting options and expected economic returns are examined for power generation, prawn production, and one industrial park scenario. The likely indirect effects on regional population, income, taxes, and infrastructure requirements if the industrial park scenario is implemented are also projected. Recommendations for follow-on studies to make possible an informed go/no-go decision for implementing attractive waste heat options using reject SRP effluent are included

  13. Rapid food decomposition by H2O2-H2SO4 for determination of total mercury by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebon, Odair; Sakuma, Alice M; Dovidauskas, Sergio; Okada, Isaura A; de, MaioFrancaD; Lichtig, Jaim

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of 50% H2O2-H2SO4 (3 + 1, v/v) was used for decomposition of food in open vessels at 80 degrees C. The treatment allowed rapid total mercury determination by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Cabbage, potatoes, peanuts paste, hazelnuts paste, oats, tomatoes and their derivatives, oysters, shrimps, prawns, shellfish, marine algae, and many kinds of fish were analyzed by the proposed methodology with a limit of quantitation of 0.86 +/- 0.08 microg/L mercury in the final solution. Reference materials tested also gave excellent recovery.

  14. Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, B.M.; Swallow, A.J.; Margison, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32 p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

  15. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate and plant (soybean meal ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05. A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%, enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83% foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com

  16. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  17. Bioaccumulation of 210Pb in the Kaveri River ecosystem, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, P.S.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Data on the concentrations of 210 Pb in water, sediment and biota (plankton, weed, snail, bivalve, prawn and fish) of the Kaveri River ecosystem at Tiruchirappalli in South India are presented. The highest level of 210 Pb activity was observed in the sediment (15.5 Bq kg -1 dry) and the lowest activity in water (2.7 mBq l -1 ). The root of the aquatic weed, Eichhornia crassipes, showed a higher activity (1.17 Bq kg -1 wet) than its shoot (0.22 Bq kg -1 wet). Among the biotic components, the shells and bones of animals accumulated higher 210 Pb than their tissues and muscle. Among animals, the freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate more 210 Pb in its soft tissues (0.79 Bq kg -1 wet) and shell (6.55 Bq kg -1 wet) than prawns (muscle 0.65 Bq kg -1 wet; exoskeleton: 1.06 Bq kg -1 ) wet and fish (muscle: 0.24 Bq kg -1 wet; bone: 1.37 Bq kg -1 wet). The concentration factors (CFs) of 210 Pb in biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 1 to ∼ 10 3 with higher CFs observed for shells and bones. It is shown that 210 Pb undergoes a seasonal variation in surface deposition with minimum values in summer and maximum values in winter. The significance of the results of 210 Pb in the abiotic and biotic environment of Kaveri River is discussed. (Author)

  18. Characterization, expression patterns of molt-inhibiting hormone gene of Macrobrachium nipponense and its roles in molting and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui; Jiang, Fengwei; Xiong, Yiwei; Jiang, Sufei; Fu, Hongtuo; Li, Fei; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Shengming; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important commercial aquaculture resource in China. In order to overwinter, M. nipponense displays decreased physiological activity and less consumption of energy. Sudden warming would trigger molting and cause an extensive death, resulting in huge economic losses. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the molting mechanism of oriental river prawns. Molt-inhibiting hormone gene (MIH) plays a major role in regulating molting in crustaceans. In this study, a full length MIH cDNA of M. nipponense (Mn-MIH) was cloned from the eyestalk. The total length of the Mn-MIH was 925 bp, encoding a protein of 119 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Mn-MIH was highly expressed in the eyestalk, and that it had relatively low expression in gill, ovary, and abdominal ganglion. Mn-MIH was detected in all developmental stages, and changed regularly in line with the molting cycle of the embryo and larva. Mn-MIH varied in response to the molting cycle, suggesting that Mn-MIH negatively regulates ecdysteroidogenesis. Mn-MIH inhibition by RNAi resulted in a significant acceleration of molting cycles in both males and females, confirming the inhibitory role of MIH in molting. After long-term RNAi males, but not females had significant weight gain, confirming that Mn-MIH plays an important role in growth of M. nipponense. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the role of Mn-MIH in crustacean molting and growth.

  19. Removal of garlic-like off-odours from crustacea by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, D.J.; Izzard, M.E.; Whitfield, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The strong garlic-like off-odours associated with the male shovel-nosed lobster (Ibacus peronii) and the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae) have been attributed principally to the presence of the sulphur-containing compound bis-(methylthio)-methane. In the male shovel-nosed lobster the concentration of this compound increases very rapidly following death, and a small number of contaminated crustacea may cause an entire consignment to be condemned. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma-irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source. Eight lobsters were subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 10 kGy an hour; one half of each was given a dose of 25 kGy and the other half a dose of 5 kGy. Results showed that a high dose completely removes the existing off-odour, and also prevents its further formation. With the lower dose the off-odour is not completely removed. A trial using fresh royal red prawns at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy showed irradiation removed all traces of the off-odour, but in those irradiated at the higher dose a slight burnt flavour was noticeable

  20. Efektivitas Pemberian Bacillus sp. D2.2 pada Media Teknis Molase terhadap Kualitas Air dan Performa Pertumbuhan Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu NOVITASARI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vanamei prawns have fast growth and can reared in high density. it has an impact on water quality deterioration and disruption of survival rates and growth. Various ways to cope has been done, one of them is with probiotic bacteria. The new strain of D2.2 bacteria is thought to be effective of ammonia utilization. Probiotics with local bacteria Bacillus sp. D2.2 is cultured on molasses technical medium to be applied semi-mass. The purpose of this study is to asses the efectivity of Bacillus sp. D2.2 inthe molasses technical medium on water quality and growth performance of vaname prawns (Litopenaeus vannamei. The research was used complete randomized design (RAL with four treatments, A (Control, B (Application of 5 ppm Bacillus sp. D2.2 cultured in molasses technical medium, C (Application of 10 ppm Bacillus sp. D2.2 cultured in molasses technical medium, D (Application of 15 ppm Bacillus sp. D2.2 cultured in molasses technical medium were repeated three times each. The results showed no effect on water quality and shrimp survival rate, but absolute growth (W, daily growth rate (GR and feed conversion ratio (FCR showed that B and C treatment had better  than control. Keywords: Vaname shrimp, growth, Bacillus sp. D2.2, molasses technical medium

  1. The Deepest Cut: Political Ecology in the Dredging of a New Sea Mouth in Chilika Lake, Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujovny Eial

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the political and historical ecology surrounding the 2002 dredging of a new sea mouth in Chilika Lake, India. It contends that the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and mathematical flow models advanced an ′environmental orthodoxy′ that coalesced around the narrative of a rapidly ′shifting sea mouth′. This orthodoxy ignored historical evidence of the importance of seasonal flooding to the ecosystem′s health and discounted the fishing communities′ concerns regarding the introduction of prawn aquaculture. The product of over two centuries of flood control policies, this hydrological intervention has freed up waterlogged soils for cultivation and produced favourable conditions for the further spread of prawn aquaculture in the lake. While ostensibly engineered to improve the lake′s ecology and benefit the fishing communities, this paper argues that the much-touted intervention has unsettled a slew of ecological relationships and primarily benefited the lake′s agricultural communities. Most recently, unanticipated declines in the fishery have led to calls for further studies and government interventions. This research contends that successive attempts to engineer solutions for Chilika and its watershed are precisely what necessitate additional interventions. At the same time, it questions the Indian government′s claim that the dredging of a new sea mouth was both necessary and scientifically sound.

  2. Trophic relationships of the spinner dolphin at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, SW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martins Silva-Jr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of predator-prey and other trophic relationships of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris around Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeastern Brazil, with use of original data and a brief review of data published elsewhere. Records were made while snorkelling among the dolphins in daytime. Individual fish pursuit and coordinated school herding were the two hunting tactics recorded. Three small prey types (oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns were recovered from vomits collected in situ and from stomachs of two stranded dolphins. In their turn, spinners were preyed on by the cookiecutter sharks (Dalatiidae as evidenced by round and crater-like wounds and circular scars. Additionally, the dolphins were preyed on by large sharks (Lamnidae, Carcharhinidae, as evidenced by crescent-shaped wounds and scars. Unidentified fishes bit fin pieces, as evidenced by variably-shaped marks. On the other hand, dolphins’ particulate faeces, vomits and live roundworms were eaten by plankton-feeding fishes. Thus, the trophic role of the spinner dolphins of Fernando de Noronha may be summarised as that of : 1 a predator of small oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns; 2 a prey for the small, piece-eating cookiecutter sharks and other unidentified fishes; 3 a prey for large sharks able to kill a dolphin; and 4 a particulate food supplier for plankton-eating fishes.

  3. Autophagy-Associated Shrinkage of the Hepatopancreas in Fasting Male Macrobrachium rosenbergii Is Rescued by Neuropeptide F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirorat Thongrod

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate neuropeptide F-I (NPF-I, much alike its mammalian homolog neuropeptide Y, influences several physiological processes, including circadian rhythms, cortical excitability, stress response, and food intake behavior. Given the role of autophagy in the metabolic stress response, we investigated the effect of NPF-1 on autophagy during fasting and feeding conditions in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of the male giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Starvation up-regulated the expression of the autophagy marker LC3 in both tissues. Yet, based on the relative levels of the autophagosome-associated LC3-II isoform and of its precursor LC3-I, the hepatopancreas was more responsive than the muscle to starvation-induced autophagy. Injection of NPF-I inhibited the autophagosome formation in the hepatopancreas of fasting prawns. Relative to the body weight, the muscle weight was not affected, while that of the hepatopancreas decreased upon starvation and NPF-1 treatment could largely prevent such weight loss. Thus, the hepatopancreas is the reserve organ for the nutrient homeostasis during starvation and NPF-I plays a crucial role in the balancing of energy expenditure and energy intake during starvation by modulating autophagy.

  4. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  5. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression and 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Hanikenne, Marc; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns. First, the results revealed that chlordecone was accumulated in M. rosenbergii. Then, it was found that Vg and VgR gene expression were increased in male and female M. rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone for 90 and 240 days, while the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentrations were decreased. This work suggests that chlordecone accumulates in prawn tissues and could affect key molecules involved in the reproduction and the growth of the invertebrate M. rosenbergii. However, many questions remain unresolved regarding the impacts of chlordecone on growth and reproduction and the signaling pathways responsible for these effects, as well as the potential role of confounding factors present in in situ studies.

  6. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  7. Bioaccumulation and public health implications of trace metals in edible tissues of the crustaceans Scylla serrata and Penaeus monodon from the Tanzanian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Elskens, Marc

    2017-09-30

    The coastal population in East Africa is growing rapidly but sewage treatment and recycling facilities in major cities and towns are poorly developed. Since estuarine mangroves are the main hotspots for pollutants, there is a potential for contaminants to accumulate in edible fauna and threaten public health. This study analysed trace metals in muscle tissues of the giant mud crabs (Scylla serrata) and the giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the Tanzanian coast, in order to determine the extent of bioaccumulation and public health risks. A total of 180 samples of muscle tissues of S. serrata and 80 of P. monodon were collected from nine sites along the coast. Both species showed high levels of trace metals in the wet season and significant bioaccumulation of As, Cu and Zn. Due to their burrowing and feeding habits, mud crabs were more contaminated compared to tiger prawns sampled from the same sites. Apart from that, the measured levels of Cd, Cr and Pb did not exceed maximum limits for human consumption. Based on the current trend of fish consumption in Tanzania (7.7 kg/person/year), the measured elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are not likely to present health risks to shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, potential risks of As and Cu cannot be ruled out if the average per capita consumption is exceeded. This calls for strengthened waste management systems and pollution control measures.

  8. Removal of garlic-like off-odours from crustacea by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, D J; Izzard, M E [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights; Whitfield, F B [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Food Research

    1985-04-01

    The strong garlic-like off-odours associated with the male shovel-nosed lobster (Ibacus peronii) and the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae) have been attributed principally to the presence of the sulphur-containing compound bis-(methylthio)-methane. In the male shovel-nosed lobster the concentration of this compound increases very rapidly following death, and a small number of contaminated crustacea may cause an entire consignment to be condemned. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma-irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source. Eight lobsters were subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 10 kGy an hour; one half of each was given a dose of 25 kGy and the other half a dose of 5 kGy. Results showed that a high dose completely removes the existing off-odour, and also prevents its further formation. With the lower dose the off-odour is not completely removed. A trial using fresh royal red prawns at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy showed irradiation removed all traces of the off-odour, but in those irradiated at the higher dose a slight burnt flavour was noticeable.

  9. Variasi Morfologis Udang Galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879 Hasil Inbreeding dan Outbreeding Populasi Probolinggo dan Mahakam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Suwartiningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has high biodiversity, one of them is the diversity of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879. The giant freshwater prawn was easy to reproduce and has high nutritional value. This study was conducted to determine the morphological variation of inbreed and outbreed of Probolinggo and Mahakam (Mama, Gogo, Goma, and Mago populations that was developed in Unit Kerja Budidaya Air Payau Balai Budidaya Udang Galah (UKBAP BBUG Samas as a basic for seed selection. Research of morphological variation carried out by observing 12 morphological characters, four meristic characters and 52 morphometric characters in four populations. Analysis of basic morphometric characters using a statistical program to determine the linear regression and the significance of parameters. Analysis of morphological characters using a statistical program to make dendrogram showing the similarity of four populations. The result of morphometry shows that the ratio of cephalothorax and abdomen of Mago and Goma is lower than Mama and Gogo. When viewed from the ratio of the carapace and rostrum length, Mago produces the longest rostrum. So, when only carapace length is compared to abdomen length, Mago showed the greatest value. Gogo has the highest ratio of cephalothorax and abdomen, while Mago has the highest ratio of carapace and abdomen among populations. Morphological data analysis showed that Gogo and Goma had reached 76% similarity, Goma and Mama have a similarity of 68% while Mago has 52% similarity with another three populations.

  10. Quorum quenching bacteria protect Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, D T; Cam, D T V; Wille, M; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Sorgeloos, P

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) on larviculture of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The larval performance in terms of larval growth, larval survival, larval quality, duration of the larval rearing process and microflora levels in the rearing water as well as inside the prawn gut was investigated. The application of the EC bacteria was performed in two ways: by adding them directly into the larval rearing water and via enriched Artemia nauplii used for larval feeding. The results of the study demonstrated that both ECs that were tested had a similar positive effect on larval survival and larval quality, whereas they did not affect larval growth or the duration of the larval rearing process. Under normal hatchery conditions, the optimal EC densities were found to be 10(6) CFU ml(-1) for adding into the rearing water and 5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for enrichment of Artemia nauplii used for feeding of the larvae. In the hatchery, the ECs can be grown on waste streams of Artemia hatching. Application of this kind of ECs could lead to a more sustainable aquaculture production, by replacing the use of antibiotics to control diseases. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I, a CD36 Related Protein in Macrobrachium nipponense: Characterization, RNA Interference, and Expression Analysis with Different Dietary Lipid Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI, is a member of the CD36 superfamily comprising transmembrane proteins involved in mammalian and fish lipid homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that this receptor plays an important role in Macrobrachium nipponense lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to SR-BI in commercial crustaceans. In the present study, we report a cDNA encoding M. nipponense scavenger receptor class B, type I (designated as MnSR-BI, obtained from a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The complete MnSR-BI coding sequence was 1545 bp, encoding 514 amino acid peptides. The MnSR-BI primary structure consisted of a CD36 domain that contained two transmembrane regions at the N- and C-terminals of the protein. SR-BI mRNA expression was specifically detected in muscle, gill, ovum, intestine, hepatopancreas, stomach, and ovary tissues. Furthermore, its expression in the hepatopancreas was regulated by dietary lipid sources, with prawns fed soybean and linseed oils exhibiting higher expression levels. RNAi-based SR-BI silencing resulted in the suppression of its expression in the hepatopancreas and variation in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes. This is the first report of SR-BI in freshwater prawns and provides the basis for further studies on SR-BI in crustaceans.

  12. A Late Formative Period Occupation in El Oro, Ecuador: A Case for Ecological Catastrophe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Currie

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1970s shrimp farmersbegan an intensive and ecologically controversial exploitation of the coast of El Oro, constructing extensive and intricate systems of banks, dykes and lagoons ('camaroneras' within which to rear large tropical prawns for the international export market. This prawn-breeding industry in some ways represents a commercial elaboration of a process started in prehistory, when the capacity of the marine and mangrove environment to support large populations of people over long periods of time is attested by the numbers and size attained by many of the shell middens. Many consist almost exclusively of a species of large flat oyster ('Crassostera' now unknown to present-day inhabitants of the coast. In 1975 shrimp farmers operating near the mangrove coast to the north of the town of Santa Rosa near the Estero Guaramal, cut a deep profile through a shell mound, exposing the stratigraphy which revealed a clear environmental change, manifested by a replacement of shellfish species.

  13. Dose transfer to human population of' Pichavaram mangrove through dietary intake of sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Raja, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Committed Effective Dose (CED) from 210 Po and 210 Pb to the coastal population of Pichavaram Mangrove due to consumption of sea food such as prawns. lobster, crabs, gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods and fishes. The data generated during March 2002- February 2003 reveal that 210 Po and 210 Pb is non uniformly distributed with specific bioaccumulation capability. The 210 Po concentration was (16.1 - 211 Bq/kg) decisively higher in the edible muscles of the food organism while 210 Pb maintained a low level (range: 1.2-10.4 Bq/kg). The contribution of various seafood types to the total activity intake depends on both the concentration and the amount of food consumed. Shell fishes (prawns, crabs and molluscs) contributed a substantial level of alpha radiation to the public (range: 7.7 -76.0μSv/y) as compared to fishes (range: 3.9 -105.1 μSv/y). The internal dose received by the public of Pichavarm was 883.05 μSv/y from 210 Po and 152.21 μSv/y from Lead-210. (author)

  14. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini F. Strati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices.

  15. UPAYA PERBAIKAN KUALITAS KERUPUK UDANG TIPE MILD-B PADA PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Utami Handayani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan makanan adalah satu bisnis yang menghasilkan makanan untuk manusia. Salah satu bentuk makanan adalah kerupuk udang. Perusahaan makanan berkembang luas di Indonesia. Banyak perusahaan di dalam dan juga luar negeri aktif dalam hal ini. Konmpetisi membuat setiap perusahaan mencari cara untuk mampu berdiri. Tak terkecuali PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. Salah satu usaha PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mampu bertahan sebagai satu industri makanan di Indonesia adalah tidak berhenti meningkatkan kualitas produk yang mana mereka hasilkan. Tetapi dalam proses produksi masih ditemukan produk cacat dan rework dalam jumlah tinggi. Sebagian besar produk rework terjadi pada jenis Mild B dari kerupuk udang karena Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai standar. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk mencari dan meneliti penyebab Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai dari standar sehingga didapatkan solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Metoda yang digunakan dalam laporan ini adalah Sig Sigma dengan proses tahap adalah DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control. Dari penerapan metoda dihasilkan perbaikan untuk PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mengurangi sejumlah produk rework. Kata kunci : Sig Sigma, MC (Moisture Content, Kerupuk udang               Food Manufacturing is a business that produce food for human. One of forming food that is prawn crisply. Food manufacturing expand in Indonesia. A lot of good company own in and also abroad active in this. Tighten emulation make every company look for the way of in order to still able to stand up. Do not aside from PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. One of effort of PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP in order to able to hold out as one of food industry in Indonesia is non-stoped to improve the quality of product which they yield. But from the production process remain to be found defect product and high rework. Mostly rework happened in type Mild B of  prawn crisply because Moisture Content level (MC inappropriate from the

  16. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  17. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  18. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  19. Determination of human pathogen profiles in food by quality assured microbial assays. Proceedings of a final Research Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    This publication includes the results of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). Major food microbial contaminants were identified in some of the main foods exported in the international food market. Thousands of samples in a wide variety of foods were selected to be studied during different points of the food chain: meat (chicken, beef and pork), seafood (shellfish such as shrimp, prawns, scampi, squid, and lobsters, and different types of fish such as salmon, cuttle fish, rohu, fin herring, catfish, milkfish, and tilapia), spices (pepper, paprika), frozen vegetables (asparagus, peas and corn) and other products (coconut and dairy products). The analysis included pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. (several serotypes), Escherichia coli, E. coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio choleare, Vibrio parahaemolitycus and Yersinia enterolítica. This publication includes data that may be used to conduct better risk assessments on food by importing as well as exporting countries.

  20. Measurement and evaluation of thermal effects in the intermixing zone at low power nuclear station outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.; Gurg, R.P.; Bhat, I.S.; Vyas, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    Observations and evaluations of thermal effects in the lake near the RAPS-1 REACTOR, are reported. The coolant waters are drawn from the lake at a depth of 8-10 m below the surface and discharged through an open channel with a temperature rise of 10deg C. Temperature profiles and spread in the velocity of the outfall are mapped using in situ monitors. These studies show evidence of thermal stratification in the period following winter and the existence of a well established thermocline. Parasitism and eutrophication are also observed. The thermal effects are found to be accentuated by photosynthetic effects. Proposal to utilise waste heat for algal culture in the Kalpakkam nuclear site in South and mariculture (lobsters, prawns) in the heated effluents canal at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station near Bombay are discussed. (K.B.)

  1. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  2. Really sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation in environmental, market-based product certification schemes. Typically, certifying bodies provide labels that assure that the products have been extracted or produced using environmentally (and sometimes socially) responsible practices. Ideally......, consumers can then make informed choices and select certified products over non-certified. We discuss the advantages as well as the limitations associated with such market-based certification systems drawing on three case studies of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification: the Alaska Pollock Fishery......, the Faroe Islands' Saithe Fishery, and the Australian Northern Prawn Fishery. Based on our cases, a key indication is that incentives generated by market forces create a risk of certification schemes making questionable claims in order to increase and retain market shares. Monopolization of the concept...

  3. Urbanização e gestão do litoral centro-sul do estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six municipalities form the littoral of Santa Catarina State. These municipalities are divided in five sectors: north, center-north, center, center–south and south. Six municipalities belong to the center-south littoral and in this sector is located the bigger coastal lagoon chain of the State. Laguna is the faster growing municipality in this region and has the highest number of inhabitants. The rapid and non-organized urbanization of this area has been causing remarkable environmental impacts such as water pollution, sand dune erosion, loss of coastal vegetation and biodiversity. Activities such as prawn farms, agriculture, tourism and urbanization are the most impacting activities. For a sustainable development of the region some actions should be taken, such as: sewage treatment, urban planning,aquiculture zoning, coastal ecosystems preservation, development and implementation of management plan for conservation areas, environmental laws enforcement.

  4. Przymus bezpośredni stosowany w celach leczniczych

    OpenAIRE

    Kubanek, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Państwo, w celu realizacji swoich funkcji, wyposażone jest w różnorodne środki i narzędzia prawne. Jednym z najbardziej dolegliwych jest przymus bezpośredni, który wiąże się z użyciem siły fizycznej. Tylko państwo może legalnie stosować ten rodzaj przymusu, gdyż jego użycie głęboko ingeruje w sferę praw i wolności człowieka i obywatela. Przymus stosowany państwo może dotyczyć wielu sfer życia jednostki. Dlatego zjawisko to jest tak zróżnicowane i swym zakresem sięga tak wielu obszarów. Ich ro...

  5. KONTRIBUSI DAN PELUANG PENINGKATAN PENDAPATAN ISTERI NELAYAN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN KELUARGA DI KECAMATAN ALUH-ALUH KABUPATEN BANJAR KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Nurul Hidayah

    2016-06-01

    The research method used a descriptive method and survey method. Data collection performed with observation and interview techniques. Technique of sampling locations use purposive sampling and respondents sampling use purposive random sampling. The results showed that types of work fisherman’s wife performed in fisheries include : salted fish processing, shrimp paste processing, processing ebi, ang processing of prawn crackers, revenue contribution fisherman’s wife who worked as a salted fish processing amounted to 32,32%, as processing shirmp paste amounted to 31,29%, as processing ebi amounted to 31,01%, as processing shrimp crackers amounted to 23,95%. Average revenue contribution amounting to 29,64%, fish crackers opportunies amounted to 48,58%, shrimp meatball amounted to 30,36%, shrimp amplangs amounted to 10,12%, and shrimp nuggets amounted to 10,93%.

  6. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/K in the flesh of fish of the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, B G [Link Systems Ltd., High Wycombe (UK)

    1979-06-01

    The flesh of fish obtained from fishing industries based in Penang was dried and analyses for /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/K concentration by gamma-ray spectrometry. Results for tuna, bluefin, round scad, prawns and anchovy are listed. Values of /sup 137/Cs concentration in the larger fish were very similar, about 9pCi/wet kg. /sup 40/K values varied between 0.6 and 3.9 nCi/wet kg with an average of 3.1 +- 0.3 nCi/wet kg for tuna. Results are compared with those reported for fish caught in other areas. The highest value of /sup 137/Cs activity found represents less than 0.4% of the value determined for natural /sup 40/K.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15363-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ary B A... 137 6e-28 2 ( DY584155 ) C018-G11 Acropora millepora presettlement library... 137 7e-28 2 ( EY026...7e-28 2 ( DY585393 ) C007-G9 Acropora millepora presettlement library ... 137 7e-28 2 ( DY584007 ) C017-B4 Acropora millepora presett...library... 137 7e-28 2 ( DY584872 ) C002-A4 Acropora millepora presettlement library ... 137 8e-28 2 ( DR985...tlement library... 137 7e-28 2 ( DY581272 ) B031-D3 Acro...7e-28 2 ( DY583096 ) B029-D4 Acropora millepora prawn chip library B A... 137 7e-28 2 ( DY584396 ) C012-G11 Acropora millepora preset

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci from Metapenaeopsis barbata Using PCR-Based Isolation of Microsatellite Arrays (PIMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Lin, Hung-Du; Cho, Ching-Ju; Lin, Feng-Jiau

    2012-01-01

    The red-spot prawn, Metapenaeopsis barbata, is a commercially important, widely distributed demersal species in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Overfishing has made its populations decline in the past decade. To study conservation genetics, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated. Genetic characteristics of the SSR (simple sequence repeat) fingerprints were estimated in 61 individuals from adjacent seas of Taiwan and China. The number of alleles, ranging from 2 to 4, as well as observed and expected heterozygosities in populations, ranging from 0.048 to 0.538, and 0.048 and 0.654, respectively, were detected. No deviation from Hardy–Weinberg expectations was detected at either locus. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in locus pairs. The polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for investigations of the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species. PMID:22489123

  9. Heating an aquaculture pond with a solar pool blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisely, B; Holliday, J E; MacDonald, R E

    1982-01-01

    A floating solar blanket of laminated bubble plastic was used to heat a 0.11 ha seawater pond of 1.3 m depth. The covered pond maintained daily temperatures 6 to 9/sup 0/C above two controls. Local air temperatures averaged 14 to 19/sup 0/C. Oysters, prawns, seasquirts, and fish in the covered pond all survived. After three weeks, the blanket separated. This was the result of pond temperatures exceeding 30/sup 0/C, the maximum manufacturer's specification. Floating blankets fabricated to higher specifications would be useful for maintaining above-ambient temperatures in small ponds or tanks in temporary situations during cold winter months and might have a more permanent use.

  10. A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

    1996-01-01

    A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species. PMID:8795252

  11. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Jeruju (Acanthus ilicifolius terhadap Pertumbuhan Vibrio harveyi Secara in vitro (ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF JERUJU (ANACTHUS ILICIFOLIUS EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF VIBRIO HARVEYI IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Saptiani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the potential of jeruju (Acanthus ilicifolius extract as anantibacterial for alternative therapy and control of bacterial diseases in prawn nurseries. Ethanol extractionwas prepared from jeruju’s leaves, trunks, fruits, and flowers..Each extract was prepared at differentconcentrations (50 ppm, 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm, 700 ppm, 800 ppm,900 ppm, and 1000 ppm, respectively and further tested its antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyiusing the agar disc diffusion method. The results showed that A. ilicifolius is a potential antibacterial,extract of the leaves seemed to be more effective in inhibit the growth of V. harveyi compared to other partsof the plant.

  12. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    S=stomach content, T=time after ingestion, R and B=constants. This model allows for various curve shapes, including linear (B=O) and exponential (B=1), and the curve shape (B) was estimated from the data. Meal size was included in the model by modifying the constant R=R′ × MD, with M=meal size...... in weight and D=constant. When meal size was included in the model, the resulting B values were strongly dependent on the food type and the estimated D values were negatively correlated with B: capelin, B=1.37, D= -1.16; herring, B=0.84, D= -0.57; and prawn, B=0.35, D= -0.14. When meal size was excluded...

  13. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  14. Freshwater lakes--a potential source for aquaculture activities--a model study on Perumal Lake, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, R; Ramalingam, K; Bharathi Rajan, U D

    2006-10-01

    The freshwater Perumal lake located at Cuddalore was assessed for its suitability and potential for aquaculture practices. Various hydrobiological parameters determined reveals that the various physicochemical characteristics are with in normal range of values. The DO level, BOD and COD values determined in the lake revealed the consequences of community activities and pollution possibilities. The primary productivity data revealed maximum productivity during March which infer that the lake is unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance and community contamination. The bacterial count remained higher during the monsoon periods, which characterize profuse rainfall and storm water discharge into the lake. The microfauna includes zooplankter such as cladocerans, copepods, rotifers and ostracods. Benthos include carps, catfishes, mullets and prawns. The above study revealed that the various parameters in the lake conform to the levels suited for freshwater fish culture and represents a resource for scientific management.

  15. Elewacyjne wyprawy szlachetne w budownictwie międzywojennego Krakowa. Estetyka, ochrona, konserwacja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bogdanowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł porusza problematykę ochrony zewnętrznych wypraw tynkowych z okresu międzywojnia. Temat ten, wobec intensyfikacji prac remontowych, nowych środków i metod renowacyjnych oraz stopniowej degradacji zasobu zasługuje na szczególną uwagę. Mimo starań podejmowanych przez środowiska konserwatorów i architektów, społeczna świadomość wartości architektury modernistycznej jest bardzo niska, stąd jej niszczenie i żywiołowe przekształcenia Nie istnieją także mechanizmy prawne ani administracyjne, które mogłyby skutecznie przeciwdziałać tym procesom.

  16. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  17. Bioaccumulation of {sup 210}Pb in the Kaveri River ecosystem, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, P.S.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N. [Jamal Mohamed Coll., Post-Graduate Dept. of Zoology, Tiruchirappalli (India); Iyengar, M.A.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Health Physics Div., Kalpakkam (India)

    1997-12-31

    Data on the concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in water, sediment and biota (plankton, weed, snail, bivalve, prawn and fish) of the Kaveri River ecosystem at Tiruchirappalli in South India are presented. The highest level of {sup 210}Pb activity was observed in the sediment (15.5 Bq kg{sup -1} dry) and the lowest activity in water (2.7 mBq l{sup -1}). The root of the aquatic weed, Eichhornia crassipes, showed a higher activity (1.17 Bq kg{sup -1} wet) than its shoot (0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} wet). Among the biotic components, the shells and bones of animals accumulated higher {sup 210}Pb than their tissues and muscle. Among animals, the freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate more {sup 210}Pb in its soft tissues (0.79 Bq kg{sup -1} wet) and shell (6.55 Bq kg{sup -1} wet) than prawns (muscle 0.65 Bq kg{sup -1} wet; exoskeleton: 1.06 Bq kg{sup -1}) wet and fish (muscle: 0.24 Bq kg{sup -1} wet; bone: 1.37 Bq kg{sup -1} wet). The concentration factors (CFs) of {sup 210}Pb in biotic components ranged from {approx} 10{sup 1} to {approx} 10{sup 3} with higher CFs observed for shells and bones. It is shown that {sup 210}Pb undergoes a seasonal variation in surface deposition with minimum values in summer and maximum values in winter. The significance of the results of {sup 210}Pb in the abiotic and biotic environment of Kaveri River is discussed. (Author).

  18. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  19. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  20. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  1. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (I org ) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  2. Radioactivity in the marine environment. Report from the national surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickel, M.A.; Selnaes T.D.; Christensen, G.C.

    1995-02-01

    During 1994 a large number of samples from the marine environment have been measured. Regarding fish, 22 samples have been measured for all gamma emitting radioisotopes using HPGe detectors. Four pooled samples have been analyzed for 90 Sr, three pooled and seven single samples have been measured for plutonium. Approximately 900 samples have been analyzed for radiocaesium using equipment with higher detection limit. In addition, 21 samples of minke whale, one sample of prawns, ten samples of seaweed, and four samples of sea-water have been analyzed for gamma emitters. Three seaweed samples and three sea-water samples have been analyzed for 90 Sr and plutonium. So far, all the samples have confirmed the low levels of radioactivity in the North Atlantic Ocean. The fish samples which have been measured for all gamma emitting isotopes show activity levels of 137 Cs of approximately 1 Bq/kg and up to 3 Bq/kg for one single sample of meat. In addition, selected samples are measured for 90 Sr and plutonium isotopes. These radionuclides are found in levels up to 0.5 Bq/kg and 1.3 mBq/kg for 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu, respectively. Compared to the intervention levels for foodstuffs, the levels found in marine fish from the Norwegian fishing areas are negligible. Measurements have also been carried out on other kinds of seafood, i.e. prawns and whale meat. These samples showed a maximum value of 0.18 and 5.9 Bq/kg 137 Cs, respectively. Samples of seaweed and sea-water also confirm these low levels of contamination. 19 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  3. PEMBUATAN DAN KAJIAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA, MEKANIKAL, DAN FUNGSIONAL EDIBLE FILM DARI KITOSAN UDANG WINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop bioplastic as primary packaging or edible film of chitosan biopolymer derived from tiger prawn shells (Penaeus monodon, and to perform physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. An evaluation of the physicochemical properties of plastic films made from chitosan, by modifying the order of the different treatment processes, namely: a DPMA (deproteination, demineralization, deacetylation, b DMKA (demineralization, decoloration, and deacetylation has conducted. The results of scanning FT-IR of the product shows that chitosan has identical spectrum compare of standard compound. Chitosan product from tiger prawn shells was the used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics. Experiments variable on the manufacture of edible film is a study of the effect of the use of different plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol and carboxylmethylcelullose (CMC additives to the physicochemical, mechanical characteristics, and edible film functional. The results showed that all the edible film produced has a clear coat with a thickness between 0.05 to 0.3 mm. Meanwhile, the film density is highest at the DPMA + chitosan edible film sorbitol + CMC with a value of 1.7300 g/cm3. The use of plasticizer sorbitol provides great tensile strength but not too elastic, compared to the glycerol, while an increase in the average CMC can increase tensile strength and %Elongation. The use of different plasticizers and additives CMC does not significantly affect its functional properties, where the value of WVTR (water vapor transmission rate is relatively the same on both types of edible films, ranging from 3.2409 to 4.8858 g /hr.m2.

  4. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria species Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested MethodsSM program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the

  5. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 071304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay

  6. Study of the growth, reproductive biology and abundance for invasive shrimps Palaemon elegans Rathke from Garmat Ali river Basrah, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khasaf Al-Khafaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the growth, reproductive biology and abundance of the population of invasive shrimps Palaemon elegans (P. elegans in one of the branches of Garmat Ali river at Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods: Monthly samples of the prawn P. elegans were collected with a bottom hand net (40 cm, 0.5 mm mesh hauled over a distance of 10 m. A simple random sampling was conducted monthly between December 2012 and November 2013. Results: Seasonal changes were observed in the composition of the population of the species during the study year with the highest abundance in 2013 and the lowest abundance for the males was reported in January and for the females occurred in June. Salinity showed a significant correlation with the abundance of shrimps at the sampling site. The largest female measured 67.90 mm while the corresponding value for males was 61.31 mm. The proportion of ovigerous adults rose during spring season to peak on about July and ovigerous prawns were taken in all months of the year. The sex ratio indicated a preponderance of females over males in all months in the study period. Each females produced around 36–1324 eggs and the incubation period lasted for 11–14 days at 17–29 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that this species has a wide distribution range, high density, and great reproduction potential. This study reveals the lack of researches on this species in environments of Shatt Al-Arab river and its branches. Thus, P. elegans has most likely formed a permanent population in all the brackish waters in Basrah area.

  7. New insights into seafood allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Andreas L; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2009-06-01

    Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition worldwide, sustained by international trade of a variety of new seafood products. Increased production and consumption have resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions, highlighting the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of seafood allergy. This review discusses recent literature in this field. The most recent prevalence data from Asia highlight seafood as a significant sensitizer in up to 40% of children and 33% of adults. Furthermore, the demonstration of species-specific sensitization to salt-water and fresh-water prawns and processed prawn extract should improve diagnosis. Studies on humans demonstrated for the first time that biologically active fish allergens can be detected in serum samples as early as 10 min after ingestion. These studies highlight that minute amounts of ingested seafood allergens can quickly trigger allergic symptoms; also, inhaled airborne allergens seem to induce sensitization and reactions. In the past 2 years, over 10 additional seafood allergens have been characterized. Allergen-specific detection assays in food products are available for crustacean tropomyosin; however, many specific mollusk and some fish allergens are not readily identified. Although cross-reactivity between crustacean and mollusks as well as mites is demonstrated, the often poor correlation of IgE reactivity and clinical symptoms calls for more detailed investigations. The recent development of hypoallergenic parvalbumin from carp could form the basis for safer vaccination products for treatment of fish allergy. Molecular characterization of more universal marker allergens for the three major seafood groups will improve current component-resolved clinical diagnosis and have a significant impact on the management of allergic patients, on food labeling and on future immunotherapy for seafood allergy.

  8. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  9. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  10. Model Polikultur Udang Windu (Penaeus monodon Fab, Ikan Bandeng (Chanos-chanos Forskal dan Rumput Laut (Gracillaria Sp. Secara Tradisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murachman - -

    2012-05-01

    ,157 mgl-1, H2S 0,025 mgl-1, NO2 0,109 mgl-1, PO4-3 0,461 mgl-1, pH 8,05, TOM 38.635 mgl-1, TSS 176,418 mgl-1, alkalinitas 4,665 mgl-1, suhu 32.96 °C, kadar garam 32,5, BOD 2,88 mgl-1 dan kandungan Pb 0,245 mgl-1. Secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif tingkat produksi udang windu adalah (201.11 kgha-1m-1 dan ikan bandeng (1180,56 kgha-1m-1 pada sistem polikultur tiga komoditas lebih tinggi daripada tingkat produksi di sistem polikultur dua komoditas. Secara kuantitatif diketahui bahwa untuk budidaya udang windu kelimpahan plankton adalah 11,466 ekor tiap liter, pertumbuhan absolut 23,93 g, lemak 0,604, tingkat kelangsungan hidup 53% dan rata-rata ukuran tubuh adalah  34 ekor tiap kg. Parameter untuk budidaya ikan bandeng adalah  kelimpahan plankton adalah 69,845 ekor tiap liter, pertumbuhan absolut 354,99 g, lemak 0,604, tingkat kelangsungan hidup 95% dan rata-rata ukuran tubuh adalah 4,25 ekor tiap kg. Keuntungan finansial pada polikultur tiga komoditas adalah Rp. 20.717.628 dan Rp. 11.924.115 pada polikultur dua komoditas untuk tiap hektar tambak pada satu musim tanam.   Katakunci: polikultur, ikan bandeng, komoditas, udang windu     Abstract Polyculture is an alternative to solving water quality problems leading to decrease of fish production in the ponds. The present research is aimed at establishing the management of polyculture of black tiger prawn, milkfish, and seaweed. This study employs method of case study in Dusun Tanjung Sari, Desa Kupang, sub-district of Jabon, Regency of Sidoarjo. Samples were collected from 18 polyculturers of three commodities (black tiger prawn, milkfish, and seaweed and 20 polyculturers of two commodities (black tiger prawn and milkfish by means of proportional sampling. Variables to be investigated were type of commodity, treatment in the polyculture processes, stocking density, water quality, mangrove forest, social and economic institutions, investment and operational funds, production, quality and fertility of water, and financial

  11. Hydrobiological characteristics of Shark River estuary, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    sardines (Harengula pensacolae) were the dominant animals collected in the higher salinities (10-25 g/l) near the mouth of the estuary. Amphipods (Corophium sp. and Grandidierella sp.), mysids (Mysidopsis almyra and Gastrosaccus dissimilis), crab larvae, and the young anchovies, sardines, and related fish were the dominant forms in the brackish water (1-10 g/l) of the mid-estuary. The presence of large numbers of juvenile and young animals and young animals indicated the importance of these brackish waters as nursery grounds. Aquatic insects, cyclopoid copepods (Macrocyclops sp.), cladocerans, mysids (Taphromysis bowmani), ostracods (Cypridopsis sp. ), fresh-water prawns (Palaemonetes paludosus), and various marshfish were dominant in the ?fresh? headwaters. The amount of plant detritus collected in the estuary averaged about ten times that of the zooplankton. The estimated mean wet-weight of the zooplankton was 65 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m?) and ranged from 1 to 173 mg/m?, with the smallest amounts occurring in the ?fresh? headwaters. Nekton, consisting of small fish and prawns, ranged from 3 to 214 mg/m? in weight and had a mean of 30 mg/m?. Largest catches were made in the headwaters at the end of the dry season, where the weight of the standing crop increased more than 15 times during the sampling period. The small fish and prawns, which were concentrated in the headwaters at the water level dropped, served as a rich source of food for predatory marine fish and birds.

  12. Biological features on epibiosis of Amphibalanus improvisus (Cirripedia on Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epibiosis of barnacles Amphibalanus improvisus on eight adult Macrobrachium acanthurus males from the Mundaú Lagoon, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The number of epibiont barnacles varied from 247 to 1,544 specimens per prawn; these were distributed predominantly on the cephalothorax and pereiopods, but also on the abdomen and other appendices. Although some were already reproducing, most barnacles had been recruited recently or were still sexually immature; this suggests recent host arrival in that estuarine environment. Despite the fact that other barnacles occur in this region, A. improvisus is the only species reported as an epibiont on Macrobrachium acanthurus; this was also the first record of epibiosis on this host. The occurrence of innumerable specimens in the pereiopods' articulations and the almost complete covering of the carapace of some prawns (which also increased their weight suggest that A. improvisus is adapted to fixate this kind of biogenic substrate and that the relationship between the two species biologically damages the basibiont.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a epibiose de cirrípedes Amphibalanus improvisus em oito camarões machos adultos da espécie Macrobrachium acanthurus provenientes da Laguna Mundaú, Alagoas, Brasil. O número de cirrípedes epibiontes variou desde 247 até 1.544 espécimes por camarão, distribuídos predominantemente no cefalotórax e pereiópodos, mas presentes também no abdome e demais apêndices. A grande maioria dos cirrípedes era recém-recrutada ou ainda estava sexualmente imatura, embora de alguns estivessem já em reprodução, sugerindo a chegada recente de seu hospedeiro no ambiente estuarino. Apesar de ocorrem outros cirrípedes na região, A. improvisus foi à única espécie relatada como epibionte em Macrobrachium acanthurus e isto se constituiu o primeiro registro de epibiose de Amphibalanus improvisus A ocorrência de inúmeros esp

  13. A study on the 210Po distribution in marine organisms around the coastal waters of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Preetha, J.; Madhuparna, D.; Narayani, K.; Vandana, P.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-shore environment and the surface oceans are very reactive zones with heavy geochemical and biological activity. Among the natural radionuclide, Po assumes importance as it is a good representative isotope of naturally occurring radionuclide present in the sea water which is particle reactive and high-energy alpha emitter. The source of Po is mainly from the diffusion of 222 Rn gas from its parent 238 U decay product 226 Ra. 210 Po gets accumulated in very high level in organisms and thus becomes responsible for the internal radiation dose to human. The main path for entry of the activity into human-is through consumption of marine food. This paper presents the results on the study conducted to investigate the 210 Po accumulation in the marine organism around Mumbai. The results were compared with 210 Po activity in representative marine organisms from eastern and western coastal India. Twelve different varieties of marine organisms (Fish, Crab, Prawns) consumed by the local population were collected from the catch at the shore and from the local fish markets. 210 Po was estimate in the organisms and in the sea water by standard radiochemical analysis. The edible portion of the organism were separated, freeze dried, acid digested at controlled temperature of 90℃ and the residue was extracted in 0.5M HCI. 210 Po in sea water was concentrated using Fe(OH) 3 scavenging followed by extraction by 0.5M HCI. Po was further separated from the acid extract by spontaneous deposition on to a Ag disk at 80℃. Alpha activity in the deposited sample was estimated using Alpha spectrometry. 208 Po and 209 Po tracers were used as yield monitor. 210 Po was observed to be in the range of <0.008-8.39 Bq.kg -1 in fish varieties. In prawns, activity was in the range of <0.008-1.41 Bq.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation factor was calculated and the values were compared with the IAEA reported values and discussed. (author)

  14. Dose estimates to the public from 210Po ingestion via dietary sources at Kalpakkam (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, V.; Iyengar, M.A.R.; Ramesh, R.

    2001-01-01

    Distribution of one of the natural radionuclides 210 Po activity in food of plant origin such as cereals, pulses, vegetables and food of animal origin such fish, crab, prawn, chicken, egg etc. were determined in and around Kalpakkam up to a distance of 32 km radius. The general range of 210 Po activity levels in all the dietary components (excluding milk and drinking water which are reported in mBq l -1 ) ranged widely from ≤10 to 122,641 mBq kg -1 fresh, the minimum being in vegetables and maximum being in the edible portions (muscle) of crab samples. 210 Po levels in drinking water and milk samples ranged between 0.6-2.6 and 8-12 mBq l -1 respectively. 210 Po content in cereals ranged from ≤32 to 745 mBq kg -1 and in pulses it was found to vary between ≤32 and 294 mBq kg -1 . The range of 210 Po activity in different types of vegetables was found to be ≤10-653 mBq kg -1 . Among the different varieties of vegetables, 210 Po was significantly higher in leafy vegetables (28-653 mBq kg -1 ) as compared to rooty and other types of vegetables which ranged from ≤10-180 mBq kg -1 . In food of animal origin, the observed minimum activity of 210 Po was 8 mBq l -1 in milk and the maximum observed was 122,641 mBq kg -1 in the muscles of crab. It was also observed that 210 Po activity was found to be in higher levels in the food of aquatic animal origin (1414-122,641 mBq kg -1 ) than in the food of terrestrial animal origin (other than milk) which varied from 41 to 963 mBq kg -1 . It is evident from the present study that the foods of animal origin especially crab, fish and prawn deliver significantly greater dose (93-3364 μSv yr -1 ) to the public compared to foods of plant origin whose mean dose ranged 0.08-128 μSv yr -1 . The study showed evidence to suggest that the total ingestion dose due to 210 Po received by the Kalpakkam public through dietary sources is significantly higher than the ingestion dose received due to fallout sources such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr

  15. KARAKTERISTIK SEKUEN cDNA PENGKODE GEN ANTI VIRUS DARI UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis pada ikan merupakan sebuah teknik modern yang berpotensi besar dalam menghasilkan organisme yang memiliki karakter lebih baik melalui rekombinan DNA gen target termasuk gen anti virus dalam peningkatan resistensi pada udang. Gen anti virus PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene merupakan salah satu gen pengkode anti virus yang berasal dari spesies krustase. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik gen anti virus yang diisolasi dari udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Isolasi gen anti virus menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan selanjutnya dipurifikasi untuk sekuensing. Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan program Genetyx Versi 7 dan basic local alignment search tool (BLAST. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen anti virus PmAV yang berhasil diisolasi dari cDNA udang windu dengan panjang sekuen 520 bp yang mengkodekan 170 asam amino. BLAST-N menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang sangat tinggi (100% dengan gen anti virus yang ada di GeneBank. Komposisi asam amino penyusun gen anti virus yang paling besar adalah serin (10,00%, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah asam amino prolin dan lisin masing-masing 1,76%. Analisis sekuen gen dan deduksi asam amino (BLAST-P memperlihatkan adanya C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD yang memiliki kemiripan dengan gen C-type lectin yang diisolasi dari beberapa spesies krustase. Transgenic fish technology is a potential modern technique in producing better character organism through DNA recombinant of target genes including anti viral gene for improvement of shrimp immunity. PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene is one of anti viral genes isolated from crustacean species. The research was conducted to analyze the characteristics anti viral gene isolated from tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Anti viral gene was isolated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique and then purified for sequencing. Data obtained were analyzed using Genetyx Version 7 software and basic local alignment

  16. Experimental study on the efficiency of different types of traps and baits for harvesting Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is a freshwater prawn endemic to South America with wide distribution in Brazilian Amazon rivers. In estuary and freshwater streams of the Pará State, they are captured with different types of traps locally know matapi. This study evaluated the efficiency of traps of different sizes (large, medium and small and baits (babassu coconut and fish for sampling this shrimp. Samplings were conducted with 24 traps with different treatments (trap size and bait. We captured 909 specimens. Higher mean catches were observed in traps baited with babassu coconut. Interactions between babassu coconut bait and medium matapi (BM-M, and fish bait and large matapi (FISH-L were significant. Carapace length (CL varied significantly between sites (F = 12.74, p < 0.01. The total maximum length was13.65 cm. Medium traps baited with babassu coconut were the most successful in the tested combinations, however, there was a clear correlation between size trap and size of shrimp, for both body weight and carapace length.

  17. Natural aquatic insect carriers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul

    2008-04-01

    Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii.

  18. A study on the distribution of alpha emitting radionuclides Polonium-210 in the Pitchavaram mangrove forest, southeast coast of India (Bay of Bengal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, P.; Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental samples such as water, sediment and biota (prawns, crabs, bivalves and fishes) were collected from Pitchavaram mangrove ecosystem and subjected to analyses of 210 Po. The concentration of 210 Po in water and sediment was 1.8 mBq/l and 2.6 Bq/kg respectively. It was observed that the muscle and soft tissues of animals concentrated a higher level of 210 Po than the hard parts like shells and bones. The ranges of 210 Po activity in biological samples were analysed in crustaceans (muscle: 72.3-227.7 Bq/kg and exoskeleton 31.2-92.3 Bq/kg), molluscs (soft tissue: 295-584.7 Bq/kg and shell: 2.9-11.9 Bq/kg) and fishes (muscle: 14.3- 43.7 Bq/kg and bone: 10.3-21.9 Bq/kg). The oyster Crassostrea madrasensis was identified to concentrate higher level of 210 Po in their soft tissues, suggesting that this could serve as a bioindicator organism. The study demonstrates that the 210 Po Pitchavaram mangrove has been rather very low as compared to adjacent Kalpakkam coast on the North and Gulf of Mannar on the South. (author)

  19. Bioaccumulation of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the crustaceans of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, Tamil nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, P.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2017-01-01

    It was observed that the concentrations of "2"1"0Po in water and sediment were 1.64mBq/l and 5.92 Bq/kg and "2"1"0Pb in water and sediment samples 3.10 mBq/l and 2.45 Bq/kg respectively. The muscle of crabs registered a higher level of "2"1"0Po (152 Bq/kg) than that of prawns (71.87 Bq/kg) and lobster (49.3Bq/kg). Conversely the exoskeleton of crustacean species analyzed, accumulated a higher level of "2"1"0Pb (range 5.7-9.11 Bq/kg) as compared to level of accumulated "2"1"0Pb in muscle (range 1.62-2.54 Bq/kg). The study reveals the base line data on the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the prestart environment of Pichavaram Mangrove Ecosystem with special reference to the crustaceans. (author)

  20. Radiation detection technique on the fishery foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Satomi, Masataka; Nakamura, Koji; Yano, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Recently irradiation of fishery products such as sea bream, lobster etc has been spreading in South-east Asia. It is thus necessary to establish a detection technique for irradiated foods . This study aimed to investigate the effects of irradiation on the production of tyrosine isomers with relation to the status of food sample (frozen and cold-storage) and also the stabilities of the isomers in frozen foods after irradiation. Production of tyrosin isomers (meta-tyrosine, ortho-tyrosine) due to γ-ray irradiation (5 kGy) were observed in the muscles of frozen prawns as well as those at room temperature and the contents of these isomers after the irradiation was not different between the two states of the sample. The content increased depending on the radiation dose. The contents of these tyrosine isomers were not changed after storage at -20degC for 120 days. Therefore, it was thought that the tyrosine isomers were available as an effective indicator for detection of an irradiated food. (M.N.)

  1. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  2. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  3. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  4. Effects of macro-nutrient, micro-nutrient composition and cooking conditions on in vitro digestibility of meat and aquatic dietary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Taylor, Cheryl; Nebl, Thomas; Ng, Ken; Bennett, Louise E

    2018-07-15

    Animal and aquatic meats represent important sources of dietary protein and micro-nutrients. Although red and processed meats carry some risks for human health, sensory and nutritional advantages drive meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand how meat processing and cooking influence healthiness. The research aim was to investigate relationships of meat composition (proximates, amino acids and minerals) and cooking conditions (raw, 90 s microwave, 200 °C oven for 10 or 30 min) on protein digestibility, for a selection of four animal (beef, chicken, pork, kangaroo) and four aquatic meats (salmon, trout, prawn, oyster). Lean meats were minced before cooking followed by in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion and analysed for progress of hydrolysis, and size ranges of peptides using MALDI-TOF-MS. Correlation matrix analysis between compositional and functional parameters indicated that digestibility was significantly linked with protein and metal concentrations, likely reflecting moisture-dependent solubility and inter-mixing of sarcoplasmic metallo-proteins and insoluble myofibrillar proteins. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Report for fiscal 1998 on a new energy vision establishment in Yonaguni Township; 1998 nendo Yonagunimachi shin energy vision sakutei hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given and establishment was made on the new energy vision at Yonaguni Township in Okinawa Prefecture. The overall image of the new energy introduction vision at Yonaguni Township may be depicted by the wind power generation project to be implemented by the Development Public Corporation, by which megawatt-class wind power generation facilities will be built for effective utilization of the power by the whole island. Surplus electric power generated in a great amount in a certain season will be utilized for high value addition by electrifying agricultural works, expansion in production, (water pumping-up for irrigation, prawn cultivation, and sugar making factories), and melting and volume reducing of refuses. In addition, new type batteries for power storage with large capacity will be introduced to achieve stable power supply and introduce electric vehicles for official use and tourism business. Solar cells and small wind mills subject to stand-alone utilization will be arranged along sightseeing roads in the island, on tourism facilities and sightseeing infrastructural facilities. Careful considerations will be given on introduction and arrangement of the new energies for harmony with scenery of the island. Transmission wires related to the new energy utilization will be laid underground. (NEDO)

  6. Technetium-99 in the Irish marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Ryan, T.P

    2001-07-01

    Technetium-99 activity concentrations in seawater and biota from Irish coastal waters are presented. Time series measurements of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and Fucus vesiculosus from the western Irish Sea show that activity concentrations have increased in line with the increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield. The peak in activity concentrations in both seawater and Fucus vesiculosus occurred in 1997 approximately two years after the peak in {sup 99}Tc discharges. The highest activity concentration recorded in Fucus vesiculosus showed a 29-fold increase over the mean concentration for the period 1988-1993. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in fish, lobsters, prawns, mussels and oysters landed at major fishing ports on the east and northeast coasts of Ireland between 1996 and 1998. Concentration factors for {sup 99}Tc in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and certain species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs from the Irish Sea were estimated. In general, these concentration factors were higher than those in the literature which were derived from laboratory studies, but agreed well with values which were based on field studies. The mean committed effective doses to Irish typical and heavy seafood consumers due to {sup 99}Tc in the period 1996-1998 were 0.061 and 0.24 {mu}Sv, respectively.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in concentration factors in NW European seas - secondary use of monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Mcmahon, C.A.; Rudjord, A.L.; Smedley, C.; Nawakowski, C.; Leonard, K.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents new data on concentration factors (CFs: concentration kg-1 biota/concentration l-1 seawater) for several marine species-radionuclide pairs, in three regions: coastal waters of Ireland, eastern Irish Sea, coastal waters of Norway. The CFs were estimated using data from long-term monitoring programmes, obtained for radiological protection purposes. The practical constraints of using such data sources are discussed. CFs were obtained for Mytilus edulis (mussels), Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster/Dublin Bay prawn/scampi), Pleuronectes platessa (plaice), Cancer pagurus (edible crab), Littorina littoria (winkles) and Fucus vesiculosus, for one or more of the following radionuclides: {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. In general, there was a relatively high degree of variability in the values obtained, and it was not possible to discern systematic regional or time-dependent differences. However, for two datasets in the eastern Irish Sea ({sup 137}Cs in winkles and crabs) there was a statistically-significant increase in the CF over the 40 year monitoring period. In several cases the range of values obtained exceeded the range recommended by the IAEA. In 2002, the average {sup 99}Tc CF for F. vesiculosus from the eastern Irish Sea coastline was 26, significantly lower than the IAEA recommended valve (1 x 10{sup 3} - 1 x 10{sup 5}).The results are discussed in relation to the influence of contemporaneous discharges and the possible impact of re-mobilised radionuclides. (author)

  8. Feeding Relationships among Six Seagrass-associated Fishes in the Northeastern Gwangyang Bay, Southern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Myun; Kwak, Seok Nam; Han, In-Seong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted dietary analyses of six seagrass-associated fish species inhabiting northeastern Gwangyang Bay, Korea. These six species consumed a variety of benthic invertebrates and teleosts, but their preferences for different food resources varied. Although all species consumed crustaceans, the contributions of different crustacean taxa differed among the species' diets. Caridean shrimps and crabs were a significant part of the Hexagrammos agrammus and H. otakii diets, respectively, while amphipods were consumed mainly by Sebastes inermis. Caridean shrimps and prawns were abundant within the Lateolabrax japonicas diet, but were not common prey resources for Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae or S. schlegelii. Polychaetes and ophiurids were ingested by P. yokohamae, and the former prey taxon also made moderate contributions to the diets of H. agrammus and L. japonicus. With the exception of P. yokohamae, the diets of all species included teleosts. Teleosts contributed the largest proportion of the S. schlegelii diet, followed by the S. inermis and L. japonicas diets; however, H. agrammus and H. otakii rarely consumed teleosts. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination plots and permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the variation in dietary composition among species and the contributions of each prey taxon. These interspecific differences in diet increase the range of food resources available to these fishes, thereby reducing competition for resources within the fish community in this region.

  9. Bounded and unbounded boundaries - Untangling mechanisms for estuarine-marine ecological connectivity: Scales of m to 10,000 km - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the self-recruitment and connectivity of estuarine and coastal fauna and flora were made possible by an integration of physical oceanographic observations and modelling with results from studies of the behaviour of the seeds, eggs, larvae, propagules, juveniles and polyps, of population dynamics, microchemical tagging using natural and artificial markers, genetics and direct observations of trajectories. The species studied in those case studies were jellyfish in marine lakes, corals in acidified bays, seagrass, mangrove propagules, mussels and oysters, prawns, some estuarine fish larvae, the copepod Calanus finmarchius in the North Sea, sea turtles in the Coral Sea, and the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus in the Southeast Asia archipelago. The spatial scales for self-recruitment and connectivity vary with the species from a few m to 10,000 km, and the temporal scales vary from one to three generations. These studies suggest that, with increasing physical openness of a given site for a given species, self-recruiting increasingly relies on the behaviour of the species. Estuarine and coastal systems thus are simultaneously bounded and unbounded depending on the sites and the species considered and, although often ignored, the integration of oceanographic and behavioural understanding is increasingly required. This paper has shown the importance of understanding the hydrological and ecological dynamics with unbounded boundaries in creating the connectivity between parts of the aquatic continuum from the river catchment to the open seas.

  10. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  11. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  12. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures and operations for the irradiation of raw, untreated, fresh (chilled), or frozen finfish and aquatic invertebrates, while ensuring that the irradiated product is safe and wholesome. 1.1.1 Aquatic invertebrates include molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms, etc. 1.1.1.1 Molluscs include bivalve shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters; snails; and cephalopods, such as squid and octopus. 1.1.1.2 Crustacea include shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, crabs, prawns and crayfish. 1.1.1.3 Echinoderms include sea urchins and sea cucumbers. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses used to reduce the microbial and parasite populations in aquatic invertebrates and finfish. Such doses typically are below 10 kGy (1). 1.3 The use of reduced-oxygen packaging (vacuum or modified atmosphere, and including products packed in oil) with irradiated, raw product is not covered by this guide. The anaerobic environment created by reduced-oxygen packaging provides the potential for outgrowth o...

  13. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  14. Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.E.

    1978-11-01

    Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references

  15. Detection of irradiated food. Progress report 1989/90-1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990 the Swedish National Food Administration was commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture to prepare and develop methods of analysis to identify irradiated foods. This work has been done in cooperation with the Department of Radioecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Two methods for analyses of irradiated foods have been developed; a chemical method for analysis of products containing fat, and a method for analysis of DNA in cells obtained from foods. Both methods have been tested within the Nordic cooperation programme and the BCR programme (Bureau Communautaire de Reference) organized by the EC. The chemical method for analysis of fats is already an established method that is approved for certain foods by authorities in, for example, Germany. The DNA approach is new and is considered to be a rapid screening method for use in combination with other methods. However, this method requires testing in cooperation with other laboratories before it can be accepted internationally. Laboratories from several countries are already using the method. The two methods described here make it possible to monitor foods such as chicken and duck that have been irradiated due to the risk of salmonella infection. Establishment of wider possibilities to monitor foods will require an additional method. One such method used today for several foods is the thermoluminescence method. This procedure can be used on prawns and other marine fauna, on spices, and possibly also on strawberries and tomatoes. It is an established approach and is used today for controls in most countries. 37 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Economic feasibility of food irradiation in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.; De Guzman, Z.M.; Pasion, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation is not a new technology and is accepted in many countries. Market acceptance of irradiated foods is established and the importance of radiation to reduce post-harvest food losses, increase shelf-life and improve hygienic quality of foods has been recognized in Asia and the Pacific. Countries with strict quarantine restrictions, such as the United States and Japan, require treatment of fresh fruits and produce for insect pests disinfestation. Several studies have established the technical feasibility of using radiation to preserve some food items in the country such as mangoes, onions, garlic, black pepper, coffee, prawns and desiccated coconut. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of setting up an irradiation facility in the Philippines, to undertake the processing of selected food items especially those with good export potentials, to identify areas of concern vital to the success or failure of this type of undertaking and to make recommendations to enhance the viability of this project. (auth.). 13 refs.; appendices; 6 tabs

  17. Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: Moving beyond roving banditry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Aaron M.

    2008-02-01

    This review addresses mangrove management activities in the broader context of the diversity of the mangrove benthos. Goals for mangrove ecosystem management include silviculture, aquaculture, or 'ecosystem services' such as coastal protection. Silvicultural management of mangroves generally neglects the benthos, although benthic invertebrates may affect tree establishment and growth, and community composition of benthic invertebrates may be a reliable indicator of the state of managed mangrove forests. Similarly, mangrove aquaculture focuses on particular species with little attention paid either to impacts on other trophic levels or to feedbacks with the trees. Exploitation of mangrove-associated prawns, crabs, and molluscs has a total economic value > US $4 billion per year. These aquaculture operations still rely on wild-collected stock; world-wide patterns of exploitation fit the well-known process of 'roving banditry', where mobile agents move from location to location, rapidly exploiting and depleting local resources before moving on to other, as-yet unprotected grounds. Collection of brood stock and fishing for other external inputs required by aquaculture (e.g., 'trash fish') removes intermediate trophic levels from marine food webs, may destabilize them, and lead to secondary extinctions of higher-order predators. Increased attention being paid to the role of mangroves in coastal protection following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami provides an opportunity to reassess the relative merits of management focused on short-term economic gains. Managing for ecosystem services may ultimately preserve benthic biodiversity in mangrove ecosystems.

  18. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  20. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of 5.8S rRNA to identify Penaeus semisulcatus and its subspecies, Penaeus semisulcatus persicus (Penaeidae and some Decapoda species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Noroozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus is one of the most important members of the family Penaeidae in the Persian Gulf. Based on the morphological characteristics, two groups, including P. semisulcatus and its subspecies viz. P. s. persicus are recognized. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic distance between P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus by analyzing partial sequence of 5.8S rRNA. Another objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of 5.8S rRNA to identify the species of Decapoda. The results indicated that the 5.8S rRNA gene of both P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus were exactly identical, and sequence variation was not observed. The results also indicated that 5.8S rRNA sequences between species of the same genus of analysed species of Decapoda are conserved, and no genetic distance was observed in species level. The low evolutionary rate and efficient conservation of the 5.8S rRNA can be attributed to its role in the translation process.

  2. Czy praktyczny profil studiów wymaga nowej organizacji programów nauczania i innowacyjnych metod edukacji?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kurowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zmiany społeczno-gospodarcze, jakie zachodzą we współczesnym świecie, związane z rozwojem nauki i technologii, wymagają nowych, innowacyjnych podejść do edukacji, a w tym do szkolnictwa wyższego. Egalitaryzm przejawia sięprzede wszystkim masową dostępnością do szkolnictwa wyższego. Proces ten zmusza szkoły wyższe do rozwijania, nie tylko elitarnych kursów akademickich, lecz także programów zorientowanych zawodowo. Konieczność wykorzystania nowych narzędzi i metod edukacyjnych staje się oczywistością. W artykule przedstawiono podstawy prawne profilu studiów praktycznych na kierunki akademickie w Polsce po reformie szkolnictwa wyższego w 2014 r., a także kontekst kształcenia i szkolenia zawodowego w zakresie europejskich oraz polskich ram kwalifikacji odnośnie uczenia się przez całe życie (LLL. Przedstawiono także przykłady nowych form edukacji przydatnych w rozwijaniu kompetencji i umiejętności wymaganych od dzisiejszych absolwentów szkół wyższych.

  3. The effects of low-level ionising radiation on primary explant cultures of rainbow trout Pronephros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olwell, P.; Ni Shuilleabhain, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Cottell, D.C.; Lyng, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has long been known that the haematopoietic tissue of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive tissues. In vitro studies on prawn have also shown that low doses of radiation has an extremely deleterious effect on cells cultured from this animal's blood forming tissues. This raises the question on the relative effects of radiation between animals from different species. One of the most important aquatic animals, from both an economic and ecologic point of view, is the fish. With this in mind, primary cultures of the blood forming tissues of rainbow trout were exposed to radiation followed by a morphological comparison between control and irradiated cultures. The cultured cells were characterised as macrophages following incubation with non-specific fluorescent beads and human apoptotic PMN. The cells demonstrated both specific and non-specific phagocytosis, by consuming the non-indigenous bodies, and were classified as phagocytic leucocytes. These cells were found in two morphological forms, stretched and rounded. It was shown that there was a commensurate increase in the number of stretched cells following application of radiation. Radiation was also shown to cause a dose-dependent increase in the amounts of apoptosis and necrosis in cells over time. The phagocytic efficacy of the irradiated leucocytes compared to controls was also investigated. (author)

  4. Evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium inferred from mitochondrial markers: a molecular clock approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Deepak; Harikrishnan, Mahadevan

    2018-04-17

    Caridea, an infraorder of shrimps coming under Pleocyemata was first reported from the oceans before 417 million years followed by their radiation recorded during the Permian period. Hitherto, about 3877 extant caridean species were accounted within which one quarter constitute freshwater species. Freshwater prawns of genus Macrobrachium (Infraorder Caridea; Family Palaemonidae), with more than 240 species are inhabitants of diverse aquatic habitats like coastal lagoons, lakes, tropical streams, ponds and rivers. Previous studies on Macrobrachium relied on the highly variable morphological characters which were insufficient for accurate diagnosis of natural species groups. Present study focuses on the utility of molecular markers (viz. COI and 16S rRNA) for resolving the evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium using a combination of phylogeny and timescale components. It is for the first time a molecular clock approach had been carried out towards genus Macrobrachium in a broad aspect with the incorporation of congeners inhabiting diverse geographical realms including endemic species M. striatum from South West coast of India. Molecular results obtained revealed the phylogenetic relationships between congeners of genus Macrobrachium at intra/inter-continental level along with the corresponding evolutionary time estimates.

  5. Rapid Associative Learning and Stable Long-Term Memory in the Squid Euprymna scolopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Emily A; Veline, Robert J; Crook, Robyn J

    2017-06-01

    Learning and memory in cephalopod molluscs have received intensive study because of cephalopods' complex behavioral repertoire and relatively accessible nervous systems. While most of this research has been conducted using octopus and cuttlefish species, there has been relatively little work on squid. Euprymna scolopes Berry, 1913, a sepiolid squid, is a promising model for further exploration of cephalopod cognition. These small squid have been studied in detail for their symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria, and their short generation time and successful captive breeding through multiple generations make them appealing models for neurobiological research. However, little is known about their behavior or cognitive ability. Using the well-established "prawn-in-the-tube" assay of learning and memory, we show that within a single 10-min trial E. scolopes learns to inhibit its predatory behavior, and after three trials it can retain this memory for at least 12 d. Rapid learning and very long-term retention were apparent under two different training schedules. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration of learning and memory in this species as well as the first demonstration of associative learning in any squid.

  6. Environment of developing countries. ; Centered around 1992 white paper or environment. Kaihatsu tojokoku no kankyo. ; 1992 nenban kankyo hakusho wo chushin ni shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, N [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-12-01

    The present paper outlines the present situation of environment of developing countries, factors causing environmental devastation, and the influence in the international linkage as described in 1992 White Paper on Environment. The present environmental devastation is originated from national poverty. In general, as the results of imposing excessive pressure on the natural environment accompanying the increase of population or causing urban pollution due to the movement or densification of population, poverty brings about the reduction and devastation of forest, deterioration of soil, desertification, contamination of air and rivers, causing miserable situation. Prawn culture as primary export industry damages mangrove woods, and causes water pollution. Industrial development is rapidly spreading pollution of water and air. As for international relations, the net transfer amount of money in the flow of funds between advanced countries and developing countries is in the direction from the latter to the former due to payment of debts. In enforcing direct investment or overseas development aid projects, advanced countries must be aware of their responsibility, make efforts in grasping the situations of aided countries and perform sufficient environmental assessment. 5 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Small scale integrated agriculture: a tool of poverty alleviation, gender equality promotion and improving food security at household level in coastal region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Begum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  8. Otter trawls in Greece: Landing profiles and potential mιtiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fleet of 326 bottom trawlers operate in Greek Seas and their landings represent approximately 30% of the total fish production in Greece. In this study, otter trawl landings data were analyzed in order to identify potential métiers. Landings data between 2002 and 2006 were used, collected from 42 ports in the Aegean and East Ionian Sea. A three-step procedure was applied to identify potential métiers: the first step involved a factorial analysis of the log-transformed landings profiles, the second step a classification of the factorial coordinates, and the third step a further aggregation of clusters based on expert knowledge. In all, six potential métiers were identified in the Aegean Sea, and five in the Ionian Sea. The most important target species were European hake (Merluccius merluccius, deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, caramote prawn (Melicertus kerathurus, picarel (Spicara smaris, cephalopods, bogue (Boops boops, anglers (Lophiusspp., and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. Otter trawls in Greece use more or less the same gear with minor modification, and métier selection is basically reflected as a choice of geographical sub-area and hauling depth. The limitations of using landings profiles to identify métiers and the need for further verification are discussed.

  9. Utilization of hot exhaust water from power station to marine cultivation to increase product. Hatsudensho onhaisui no suisan zoyoshoku eno riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1990-07-20

    A large quantity of waste sea water, exhausted after having been used as cooling water in the thermal and unclear power stations, is higher by about 7 centigrade in temperature than that when taken in. Its utilization to the marine cultivation to increase product was explained in present status and points of problem. Among aquatic animals to like high temperature, those, valuavle from the viewpoint of fishery, are bred in different places. Upon breeding spawn to fry young fish, there are two methods of using it, ie., as species to be cultivated or let go in the water flow, and for the production of edible fish, high in price, such as sea bream, yellowtail and lobster. In any case, hot exhaust water gives effect of having fish quickly grow, and stimulating spawn and fry young fish in sexual ripeness. For example, ear shell and prawn are 5 to 6 times in elongation of shell length and 9 times even in weight, respectively, as large as those in case of natural sea water. While there are problems in costing required for pumping hot exhaust water up in the cultivation on land, and temperature adjustment in summer and winter, and water quality control in the crawl cultivation at the water takeout, which must be going to be solved for the commercialization and industrialization. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual adaptive, cross protection responses and growth phase resistance against peroxide killing in a bacterial shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattanaviboon, P; Mongkolsuk, S

    2001-06-12

    Oxidant induced protection against peroxide killing was investigated in a prawn bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. Exposure to 250 microM H(2)O(2) induced adaptive protection against subsequent exposure to killing concentrations of H(2)O(2). In addition, 200 microM t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced cross protection to H(2)O(2) killing. On the other hand, peroxide pretreatment did not induce protection against tBOOH killing. Peroxide induced adaptive and cross protection responses required new protein synthesis and were abolished by addition of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Pretreatments of V. harveyi with 250 microM H(2)O(2) and 200 microM tBOOH induced an increase in peroxide scavenging enzymes, catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C. In addition, stationary phase cells of V. harveyi were more resistant to H(2)O(2) and iodoacetamide killing but highly susceptible to tBOOH killing compared to exponential phase cells. Many aspects of the oxidative stress response of V. harveyi are different from those of other bacteria and these factors may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and during interactions with host shrimp.

  12. What is the diet of Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837 (Crustacea, Decapoda, a non-indigenous species in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Palaemon elegans, a new component of the Gulf of Gdańsk macrozoobenthos,colonised the southern Baltic coastal zone in the late 20th and early 21stcentury. Analysis of the stomach contents of P. elegans revealed 16plant and animal taxa that these prawns had fed on. The principal dietarycomponent was detritus, with a mean frequency of occurrence in stomachs of > 80%.The most frequently occurring plant components in the diet were algaefrom the genus Cladophora and the family Ectocarpaceae, while the mostsignificant animal components were Harpacticoida, Chironomidae, Ostracoda andGammarus spp. The results of the study show that the dietary composition ofP. elegans differed significantly between stations and months. The foraging area consisted of two distinctive regions - the Inner Puck Bay, and the Outer Puck Bay together with the Dead Vistula River; two of the stations - Gdynia and Sopot - were distinctfrom all the others. However, no obvious seasonality in the food compositioncould be demonstrated.

  13. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

  15. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of stomach contents analyses of harp and hooded seals collected in West Greenland waters in the period 1986-1993 are reviewed, and compared with published data and circumstantial information from local hunters.  The diet of harp seals in this region is variable but consists mainly of pelagic crustaceans (Thysanoessa spp. and Parathemisto libellula and small fish species like capelin (Mallotus villosus, sandeel (Ammodytes spp., polar cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctic cod (Arctogadus glacialis. Species of importance for commercial fisheries in Greenland, such as Northern prawn (Pandalus borealis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides play a minor role in the diet of harp seals in this area. Variation in the diet of hooded seals is less well documented, but in addition to the species also taken by harp seals, larger demersal fishes like Greenland halibut, redfish (Sebastes spp., cod, and wolffish (Anarhichas minor are apparently important prey items.

  16. Fast Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Crustacean Allergens in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaclara, Francisco J; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with seafood intake are one of the most common food allergies in adults. Crustaceans including shrimps, prawns, crabs, lobster, and crayfish are a common cause of anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity, with shrimps and crabs being the most common causes of allergy. Symptoms occur most often when food or cooking water are ingested.These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; as evidenced by the existence of several regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers.The methodology herein exposed allows the detection of crustaceans in any type of product, including those where very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure are used during the manufacturing process.The main features of this method are its high sensitivity and specificity, and reduced analysis time of real-time PCR (40 min). This assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.

  17. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  18. Distribution and intake of polonium-210 in the environment of Goa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Narayana, Y.; Siddappa, K.; Karunakara, N.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution of 210 Po in soil, sand and food samples of the Goa region. The activity concentration of 210 Po in diet samples of the region were also measured and the annual effective internal dose due to ingestion of this radionuclide was estimated. The activity of 210 Po in soil and sand samples vary from 9.8 Bq kg -1 to 43.2 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 26.3 Bq kg -1 and from 0.94 Bq kg -1 to 3.67 Bq kg -1 with the mean value of 1.82 Bq kg -1 respectively. Among food samples fish and prawn shows higher concentration of 210 Po. The committed effective dose equivalent due to veg and non-veg meals were found to be 13.49 μSvy -1 and 24.83 μSvy -1 respectively which is well below the dose limit of 1 mSvy -1 recommended by ICRP. (author)

  19. Polonium-210 in the total environment of Goa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution of 210 Po in total environment of Goa. The activity concentration of 210 Po in food, diet, water and air samples of the region were measured and the annual effective dose due to ingestion of this radionuclide was estimated. The activity of 210 Po in soil and sand samples vary from 3.2 Bq kg -1 to 186.2 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 57.4Bq kg -1 and from 0.94 Bq kg -1 to 3.7 Bq kg -1 with the mean value of 1.8 Bq kg -1 respectively. Among food samples fish and prawn shows higher concentration of 210 Po. The Committed Effective Dose Equivalent due to ingestion of non veg meal, veg meal, breakfast and potable water were found to be 94.6 μSv y -1 , 49.1 μSv y -1 , 10.5 μSv y -1 and 4.2 μSv y -1 respectively. All the results are compared with the reported literature values and discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  20. PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; De Schryver, Peter; Van Delsen, Bart; Maignien, Loïs; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. In this study, we isolated for the first time PHB-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. Pure strains of PHB-degrading bacteria were isolated from Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and giant river prawn. The capability of selected isolates to degrade PHB was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium containing PHB as the sole carbon (C) source, (2) production of clearing zones on minimal agar containing PHB as the sole C source and (3) degradation of PHB (as determined by HPLC analysis) in 10% Luria-Bertani medium containing PHB. Challenge tests showed that the PHB-degrading activity of the selected isolates increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged to a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain by a factor 2-3. Finally, one of the PHB-degrading isolates from sturgeon showed a double biocontrol effect because it was also able to inactivate acylhomoserine lactones, a type of quorum-sensing molecule that regulates the virulence of different pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the combined supplementation of a PHB-degrading bacterium and PHB as a synbioticum provides perspectives for improving the gastrointestinal health of aquatic animals. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Present scenario of landing and distribution of fish in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Khatun, S; Hossain, M B; Hassan, M N; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-11-15

    The present study was designed to know the landing and distribution pathways of fish and types and nature of stakeholders involved in fish distribution chain in Bangladesh. A total of 237 fish landing centers and 5440 markets were detected. The number of landing center and market were highest in Chittagong and Dhaka division respectively. Stakeholders in fish distribution, viz., arotdars, paikers and retailers were found to be 6219, 39506 and 122922, respectively. A 84.71% of the landing centers were found to be operated year round while 15.29% were seasonal. The major fish production zones and major gateways of the country where inland capture and culture and marine capture fish landed were identified. In any locality 62.83% of the landed fish were transported within 100 km area and 5.73% of fish were transported beyond 500 km. The quantity of fish harvested from river, beel, Kaptai lake floodplain, pond, baor, coastal area/sea and shrimp/prawn farm were 5.25, 4.41, 0.13, 35.03, 38.22, 0.23, 10.93 and 5.80%, respectively. The common constraints identified were lack of adequate infrastructure facilities in the landing center and market, unhygienic environment, influence of middlemen, money lending at high rate etc. For the betterment of fish landing and distribution, appropriate authority should pay proper attention so that both quality and fair price are ensured.

  2. Occurrence of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp culturing waters and its brunt in specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei with particular allusion to molecular verdicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.

  3. Evaluating the promise and pitfalls of a potential climate change-tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kirk N; Powell, Jackson; Rudie, Dave; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-05-01

    Marine fishery stakeholders are beginning to consider and implement adaptation strategies in the face of growing consumer demand and potential deleterious climate change impacts such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation. This study investigates the potential for development of a novel climate change - tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California based on Strongylocentrotus fragilis (pink sea urchin), a deep-sea species whose peak density was found to coincide with a current trap-based spot prawn fishery ( Pandalus platyceros ) in the 200-300-m depth range. Here we outline potential criteria for a climate change - tolerant fishery by examining the distribution, life-history attributes, and marketable qualities of S. fragilis in southern California. We provide evidence of seasonality of gonad production and demonstrate that peak gonad production occurs in the winter season. S. fragilis likely spawns in the spring season as evidenced by consistent minimum gonad indices in the spring/summer seasons across 4 years of sampling (2012-2016). The resiliency of S. fragilis to predicted future increases in acidity and decreases in oxygen was supported by high species abundance, albeit reduced relative growth rate estimates at water depths (485-510 m) subject to low oxygen (11.7-16.9 µmol kg -1 ) and pH Total (climate-tolerant fishery development in an attempt to inform future urchin fishery stakeholders.

  4. Report on the project for working out the new energy vision of the Chinen Village area in FY 2001; 2001 nendo Chinen son chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Chinen Village, Okinawa Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the trend of energy consumption of the village, existence amount of new energy, case study for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of Chinen Village in FY 1999 was estimated at 591,935 x 10{sup 3} MJ/y. By sector, the consumption amount in the transportation sector was the highest, approximately 40%, followed in order by the household sector, business sector and industrial sector. The rate of energy source was 49.2% of petroleum, 42.3% of electric power and 8.5% of gas. As the case study for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation to the village office/Azama Sun Beach/hydroponics/JA branch office/prawn farm, introduction of photovoltaic power generation/wind power generation to the village gymnasium/village drainage pump/refrigerating facilities of the fisheries cooperative association, etc. Further, as the new project, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation/wind power generation to the agricultural irrigation project/comprehensive sports park, introduction of photovoltaic power generation to the new building of Chinen Elementary School/maker of processed medicinal herbs. (NEDO)

  5. Narażenie zawodowe i środowiskowe na azbest w świetle obowiązujących aktów prawnych = Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in the light of applicable legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2015-09-01

    Anna Kowalczyk1, Ewelina Kozłowska2, Jolanta Pacian3   1. Studenckie Koło Naukowe Zdrowia Publicznego, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 2. Samodzielna Pracownia Epidemiologii, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 3. Katedra Zdrowia Publicznego, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie   Autor do korespondencji / Author for correspondence lic. Anna Kowalczyk e-mail: annakowalczyklublin@gmail.com   STRESZCZENIE Azbest stwarza ogromne zagrożenie zdrowotne. Jest szczególnie niebezpieczny w procesie wydobywania i produkcji, podczas obróbki, eksploatacji, usuwania,  w wyniku uszkodzeń lub korozji wyrobów zawierających azbest. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie regulacji prawnych dotyczących środowiskowego i zawodowego narażenia na azbest. Przedmiotem analizy są akty prawne dotyczące: zakazu stosowania azbestu, bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w narażeniu na azbest, gospodarki i transportu odpadów azbestowych, budownictwa oraz szeroko pojętej ochrony środowiska przed szkodliwym działaniem azbestu. W pracy szczegółowo omówiono zasady ochrony zdrowia pracowników i byłych pracowników narażonych na azbest. Przybliżono podstawowe założenia programu wieloletniego pt. „Program Oczyszczania Kraju z Azbestu na lata 2009-2032”. Zastosowaną metodą była metoda dogmatyczna oraz prawno-porównawcza polegająca na analizie aktów prawnych oraz dostępnej literatury.   Słowa kluczowe: azbest, narażenie zawodowe, narażenie środowiskowe, akty prawne.       ABSTRACT Asbestos creates a huge threat. It is particularly dangerous in the process of extraction and production, while processing, use, disposal or as a result of damage or corrosion of products containing asbestos. An aim of the work is to present regulations concerning environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos. The subject of analysis are legislative acts relating: prohibition of asbestos use, health and safety at work in

  6. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  7. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    ślający wartość nieruchomości, niejednokrotnie w odległym terminie od chwili utraty gruntów przez właściciela. Jedną z przyczyn przedłużających się postępowań odszkodowawczych jest kwestionowanie proponowanej kwoty odszkodowań, nieuregulowane stany prawne nieruchomości a także nieprecyzyjne przepisy prawne. Istotne znaczenie ma prawidłowe opracowywanie dokumentacji geodezyjno-prawnej dołączanej do wniosku o wydanie decyzji a także wykorzystywanej w postępowaniach odszkodowawczych. Praca została zrealizowana w ramach badań statutowych Katedry GIiB nr 11.11.150.00

  8. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, A. S.; Bandekar, J. R.M.; Karani, S.; Jadhav, R.; Shashidhar, A.; Kakatkar, S.; Pingulkar, K.; Ghadge, N; Warrier, S. B.R.; Venugopal, V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Panda, K. [Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai (India); Bhat, A. [Vikram University, Ujjain (India)

    2005-01-15

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  9. Overview of the Activities on Radiation Processing of Polymeric Materials in Bangladesh. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M.; Dafader, N. C.; Sultana, S.; Mollah, M. Z.I. [Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry Division, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Mandal, M. M.A. [Crop Physiology Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, BAU Campus, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    2014-07-15

    Natural polymers processed through radiation are used in agriculture, health care, and environmental protection. The process of chitosan extraction from prawn/shrimp shells has been established. The method used in determining the molecular weight of chitosan had previously been standardized during the harmonization program of protocol for molecular weight determination organized by IAEA in cooperation with Poland and UK during which Bangladesh was a participant. Increased yield of several crops over the control was achieved using chitosan as plant growth promoter: up to 13% for rice when chitosan with 50 ppm concentration was applied two times, up to 56% for summer tomato when chitosan with a concentration of 75 ppm was sprayed one time, up to 30% for mungbean when 50 ppm chitosan was applied two times, and up to 24% for maize when 100 ppm chitosan was applied three times. Field tests covering three seasons to confirm any increase in the yield of tomato and maize are still being conducted. Funding from the CRP helped carry out these activities to a great extent. Through the IAEA TC project, radiation processing laboratories were enhanced with new equipment, chemicals/monomers/polymers, and the capability of staff members was improved through additional training, expert assistance and scientific visits. One PhD student and several MSc students were able to complete their theses and had them published. Super Water Absorbent (SWA) hydrogel was prepared using 5%Acrylamide blended with 3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and irradiating at 25 kGy. It was applied on tomato plants as soil conditioner and positive results were obtained. Government funding aided in the establishment of a pilot plant that eventually became a full-fledged institute for radiation processing. (author)

  10. Does ‘You Are What You Eat’ Apply to Mangrove Grapsid Crabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Hong Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2014-01-01

    In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma erythodactyla feeding on a mangrove leaf litter or mangrove+microphytobenthos diet developed a significantly higher hepatosomatic index than those with access to only sediment. Lipid biomarker analysis and feeding experiments using 13C and 15N-enriched mangrove leaf litter confirmed rapid assimilation of mangrove C and N by P. erythodactyla. Eight-week feeding experiments utilizing three food types (mangrove leaf litter, microphytobenthos and prawn muscle) established different food-specific trophic discrimination values (Δδ13C and Δδ15N) that are significantly different from those commonly applied to mixing model calculations. The mean Δδ13C(crab-mangrove) of +5.45‰ was close to the mean and median literature values for grapsid-mangrove pairs in 29 past studies (+5.2±1.8‰ and +5.6‰, respectively), suggesting that this large discrimination may generally be characteristic of detritivorous grapsid crabs. Solutions from the IsoConc mixing model using our determined trophic discrimination values suggest significantly higher and dominant contributions of mangrove C to the diet than those based on the global mean trophic discrimination values. Our results reaffirm the physiological capacity for and important mediating role of grapsid crabs in processing low-quality mangrove C in tropical estuaries, and caution against the use of global trophic discrimination values in stable isotope analysis of food-web data, especially those involving detritivores. While recent studies have questioned the trophic significance of mangrove detritus in coastal food chains, the contribution of this productive carbon source needs to

  11. Does 'you are what you eat' apply to mangrove grapsid crabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Hong Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2014-01-01

    In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma erythodactyla feeding on a mangrove leaf litter or mangrove+microphytobenthos diet developed a significantly higher hepatosomatic index than those with access to only sediment. Lipid biomarker analysis and feeding experiments using (13)C and (15)N-enriched mangrove leaf litter confirmed rapid assimilation of mangrove C and N by P. erythodactyla. Eight-week feeding experiments utilizing three food types (mangrove leaf litter, microphytobenthos and prawn muscle) established different food-specific trophic discrimination values (Δδ(13)C and Δδ(15)N) that are significantly different from those commonly applied to mixing model calculations. The mean Δδ(13)C(crab-mangrove) of +5.45‰ was close to the mean and median literature values for grapsid-mangrove pairs in 29 past studies (+5.2 ± 1.8‰ and +5.6‰, respectively), suggesting that this large discrimination may generally be characteristic of detritivorous grapsid crabs. Solutions from the IsoConc mixing model using our determined trophic discrimination values suggest significantly higher and dominant contributions of mangrove C to the diet than those based on the global mean trophic discrimination values. Our results reaffirm the physiological capacity for and important mediating role of grapsid crabs in processing low-quality mangrove C in tropical estuaries, and caution against the use of global trophic discrimination values in stable isotope analysis of food-web data, especially those involving detritivores. While recent studies have questioned the trophic significance of mangrove detritus in coastal food chains, the contribution of this productive carbon

  12. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Occupational dermatoses in restaurant, catering and fast-food outlets in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Sylvia; Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Siang, Lee Hock; Lin, Gan Siok; Koh, David

    2009-10-01

    The restaurant industry is a rapidly growing sector in Singapore and workers in this industry are trained in culinary skills but not on recognition of safety and health hazards and their control measures. Anecdotal clinical evidence has suggested an increased prevalence of occupational dermatoses among restaurant workers. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for contact dermatitis and burns among restaurant, catering and fast-food outlet (FFO) staff. Workers were interviewed and then clinical examination and patch and/or prick tests were conducted in selected individuals. In total, 335 of 457 workers (73% response) were interviewed and 65 (19%) had occupational dermatitis or burns and were examined. Of these, contact dermatitis was the commonest diagnosis, with a 12-month period prevalence of 10% (35 workers) and 3-month period prevalence of 8% (26 workers). All 35 workers had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and there were no cases of allergic contact dermatitis. The adjusted prevalence rate ratios of risk factors for ICD were 2.78 (95% CI 1.36-5.72) for frequent hand washing >20 times per day, 3.87 (95% CI 1.89-7.93) for atopy and 2.57 (95% CI 1.21-5.47) for contact with squid. The 3-month period prevalence for burns was 6% (20 workers). Ten workers had other occupational dermatoses such as work-related calluses, paronychia, heat rash and allergic contact urticaria to prawn and lobster. ICD and burns are common occupational skin disorders among restaurant, catering and FFO workers.

  14. Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae and some aspects impacting its conservation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukherjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is a medium sized cat that is widely but patchily distributed across Asia and strongly associated with wetlands. It is among the 15 felid species that inhabit India and like other smaller cat species it is very poorly understood. Apart from a few recent surveys in specific locations, no concerted effort has been made to assess its current distribution and threats to its persistence within India. In this study we collected scats from natural habitats, through six states including five protected areas throughout India and performed informal interviews with locals to get a better overview of the current distribution and threats for Fishing Cats in India. Of the 114 scats used for molecular analysis, 37% were assigned to felids, including 19 Fishing Cats. We confirmed that Fishing Cat populations persisted in all locations where they were recorded before, including Keoladeo Ghana, from where it was reported in recent years that fishing cats are possibly extinct. Most populations face imminent threats with the worst being in the Howrah District of West Bengal where 27 dead individuals were traced during the study period of only one year. The major threats across populations include ecologically unbalanced land policies and land uses, direct persecution due to human-Fishing Cat conflicts as well as ritual hunts. To address these threats we recommend a stronger dialogue among scientists, policy makers, administrators, locals and other stake holders such as commercial fish and prawn cultivators. Further awareness campaigns for stakeholders, and surveys for monitoring fishing cat populations, studying their ecology and estimating economic losses to local people due to the Fishing Cat predation on livestock and poultry, is needed in order to design effective conservation strategies.

  15. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  16. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D

    2016-02-27

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (± 1.56) and 7.5 (± 0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (± 0.10) and 4.5 (± 1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions.

  17. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-06-01

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  18. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2017-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:549-557, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S.; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (±1.56) and 7.5 (±0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (±0.10) and 4.5 (±1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions. PMID:26927152

  20. Udział Książnicy Kopernikańskiej w tworzeniu bibliografii narodowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Barecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Od 1 stycznia 2006 roku Wojewódzka Biblioteka Publiczna – Książnica Kopernikańska w Toruniu współtworzy elektroniczną bazę bibliograficzną „Artykuły z gazet i tygodników polskich (MARC21, 2005- ”. Stanowi ona część polskiej bieżącej bibliografii narodowej, wyodrębniła się bowiem z Bibliografii Zawartości Czasopism. Baza dostępna jest bezpłatnie w Internecie pod adresem: http://mak.bn.org.pl/cgi-bin/makwww.exe?BM=26 Wspólną Bazę Prasy w Książnicy Kopernikańskiej w Toruniu tworzą pracownicy Działu Informacyjno - Bibliograficznego. Obecnie opracowujemy w systemie MAK dwa tytuły: „Tygodnik Solidarność” i „Dziennik Gazetę Prawną”. Od 2006 roku wprowadziliśmy do bibliografii artykułów z gazet i tygodników już 33.998 rekordów bibliograficznych. Stanowi to 1/6 zawartości całej bazy tworzonej przez 14 bibliotek. Więcej opisów od nas stworzyła tylko Biblioteka Narodowa. Baza zawiera 209.404 dokumentów. Odwiedziło ją 599.408 użytkowników. Oznacza to, że ponad 1/3 sprawdzających Bibliografię Zawartości Czasopism korzysta ze Wspólnej Bazy Prasy. Dzieje się tak mimo, że rejestruje ona tylko 25 czasopism. Dowodzi to olbrzymiego zainteresowania naszą bazą i wskazuje na potrzebę dalszego jej rozwoju.

  1. The synthesis and characterization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and the investigation of the fluorescence properties of its 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-chitosan films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, Deana; Zulqarnaen, Muhammad; Suendo, Veinardi

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan fluorescent films containing 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) have been successfully prepared. Used chitosan was obtained from chitin isolated from skin of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) through the deproteination, demineralization, and deacetylation process. The yields of chitin and chitosan are 10.66% and 23.83%, respectively. The chitosan has 55.00% degree of deacetylation based on FTIR spectroscopy. Average molecular mass of chitosan which was determined by Ostwald viscometry method is 8.55 × 106 g/mol. The 7H4MC was synthesized from resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate using amberlyst-15 as catalyst based on Pechmann reaction with chemical yields of 90.01% and the melting point of 189-190°C. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopies confirmed the structure which corresponds to the structure of 7H4MC. The films of chitosan containing 7H4MC were prepared by solvent evaporation method in 2% (v/v) acetic acid. The 7H4MC content in each film was 0% (blank), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (w/w). The UV-Vis spectrum of 7H4MC in methanol showed λmax at 235 and 337 nm. The observed fluorescence is the fluorescence color of cyan. The excitation wavelengths are 200, 235, 275, 337, and 365 nm. The highest intensity of cyan color fluorescence of chitosan containing 7H4MC films was obtained at the concentration of 0.2% of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at the excitation wavelength of 275 nm.

  2. The synthesis and characterization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and the investigation of the fluorescence properties of its 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Organic Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Zulqarnaen, Muhammad [Chemistry Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suendo, Veinardi [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chitosan fluorescent films containing 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) have been successfully prepared. Used chitosan was obtained from chitin isolated from skin of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) through the deproteination, demineralization, and deacetylation process. The yields of chitin and chitosan are 10.66% and 23.83%, respectively. The chitosan has 55.00% degree of deacetylation based on FTIR spectroscopy. Average molecular mass of chitosan which was determined by Ostwald viscometry method is 8.55 × 10{sup 6} g/mol. The 7H4MC was synthesized from resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate using amberlyst-15 as catalyst based on Pechmann reaction with chemical yields of 90.01% and the melting point of 189–190°C. The FTIR, {sup 1}H–NMR, and {sup 13}C–NMR spectroscopies confirmed the structure which corresponds to the structure of 7H4MC. The films of chitosan containing 7H4MC were prepared by solvent evaporation method in 2% (v/v) acetic acid. The 7H4MC content in each film was 0% (blank), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (w/w). The UV-Vis spectrum of 7H4MC in methanol showed λ{sub max} at 235 and 337 nm. The observed fluorescence is the fluorescence color of cyan. The excitation wavelengths are 200, 235, 275, 337, and 365 nm. The highest intensity of cyan color fluorescence of chitosan containing 7H4MC films was obtained at the concentration of 0.2% of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at the excitation wavelength of 275 nm.

  3. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  4. Intra-Eu Capital Movements: Ten Years Of Poland’S Experiences As An Eu Member In The Global Context / Wewnątrz-Unijne Przepływy Kapitałowe: Doświadczenia 10 Lat Członkostwa Polski W Unii Europejskiej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest analiza i ocena konsekwencji ustanowienia swobodnego przepływu kapitału między Polską i innymi krajami członkowskimi Unii Europejskiej (EU z perspektywy dziesięciu lat jej członkostwa w UE. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na rolę wewnątrz-unijnych bezpośrednich inwestycji zagranicznych (BIZ napływających do polskiej gospodarki. Rozszerzenie UE w 2004r. spowodowało poważne prawne i ekonomiczne procesy dostosowawcze w nowych krajach członkowskich. Ustanowienie swobodnego przepływu kapitału, jako jednej z czterech tzw. swobód w ramach jednolitego rynku europejskiego, było koniecznością między UE15 i nowymi krajami członkowskimi. Nowe kraje członkowskie UE musiały tego dokonać w stosunkowo krótkim okresie. Ustanowienie swobody przepływu kapitału między Polską a resztą UE nie tylko nie spowodowało zakłóceń w jej gospodarce, ale przyczyniło się do stabilizacji sfery ekonomicznej i społecznej. Wewnątrz-unijne BIZ ułatwiają procesy restrukturyzacji polskiej gospodarki. Rola inwestorów zagranicznych w sferze zatrudnienia i handlu zagranicznego jest znacząca dla stabilizacji sytuacji ekonomicznej Polski. Zaangażowanie inwestorów zagranicznych w procesy innowacyjne, chociaż rosnące, nie zmienia radykalnie pozycji Polski w tym obszarze. Według unijnych rankingów innowacyjności, Polska należy do grupy raczej słabych innowatorów.

  5. IMPACT OF TSUNAMI 2004 IN COASTAL VILLAGES OF NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumaraperumal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Nagapattinam coast of southern India on December 26, 2004 at around 9.00 am (IST. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats, prawn culture ponds, soil and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The study was carried out in the Tsunami affected villages in the coastal Nagapattinam with the help of remote sensing and geographical information science tools. Through the use of the IRS 1D PAN and LISS 3 merged data and quick bird images, it was found that 1,320 ha of agricultural and non-agricultural lands were affected by the tsunami. The lands were affected by soil erosion, salt deposition, water logging and other deposited sediments and debris. The maximum run-up height of 6.1 m and the maximum seawater inundation distance of 2.2 km were observed at Vadakkupoyyur village in coastal Nagapattinam.Pre and Post Tsunami survey on soil quality showed an increase in pH and EC values, irrespectiveof distance from the sea. The water reaction was found to be in alkaline range (> 8.00 in most of the -1wells. Salinity levels are greater than 4 dS m in all the wells except the ring well. The effect of summer rainfall on soil and water quality showed the dilution of soluble salts. Pumping of water has reduced the salinity levels in the well water samples and as well as in the open ponds. Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent to know the relative tsunami hazard for this coastal Nagapattinam. So, the Tsunami hazard maps are generated using a geographical information systems (GIS approach and the results showed 20.6 per cent, 63.7 per cent and 15.2 per cent of the study area fall under high hazard, medium hazard and low hazard category respectively.

  6. Life histories of two deep-water Australian endemic elasmobranchs: Argus skate Dipturus polyommata and eastern spotted gummy shark Mustelus walkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, C L; White, W T; Smart, J J; Simpfendorfer, C A

    2016-03-01

    Two Australian endemic elasmobranchs, the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata and the eastern spotted gummy shark Mustelus walkeri, were collected from the by-catch of a prawn Melicertus plebejus trawl fishery off Queensland. Age and growth parameters were estimated from growth band counts in vertebral sections of 220 D. polyommata and 44 M. walkeri. Dipturus polyommata males and females had an observed maximum age of 10 years and reached maximum sizes of 369 and 371 mm total length (LT ), respectively. Mustelus walkeri lived longer, with the oldest female aged 16 years and measuring 1050 mm stretched total length (LST ), and oldest male aged 9 years and 805 mm LST . Dipturus polyommata grew relatively fast with a von Bertalanffy growth completion parameter of k = 0·208 year(-1) with males reaching maturity at 4·0 years (c. 278 mm LT ) and females at 5·1 years (c. 305 mm LT ). Mustelus walkeri grew more slowly with k = 0·033 year(-1) with males estimated to mature at 7-9 years (670-805 mm LST ) and females at 10-14 years (833-1012 mm LST ). Length at birth inferred from neonate D. polyommata was 89-111 mm LT while for M. walkeri it was estimated to be 273 LST based on the value of L0 from the von Bertalanffy growth model. Both species appeared to have continuous reproductive cycles and low fecundity with an average ovarian fecundity of eight follicles for D. polyommata and a litter size of five to seven pups for M. walkeri. Based on these life-history traits, D. polyommata is more resilient to fishing pressure than M. walkeri. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Baird

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil™ against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilised in the near future.

  8. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria monocytogenes Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Hopper, Craig; Simpson, Helen; Withey, Sophie; Oleksiuk, Milena; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria monocytogenes Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food and environmental samples. This assay was validated using the AOAC Research Institute (AOAC-RI) Performance Tested Methods program in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996, including Amendment 1:2004 with the following foods and food contact surfaces: smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, fresh cantaloupe, cooked prawns (chilled product), cooked sliced turkey meat (chilled product), ice cream, pork frankfurters, salami, ground raw beef meat (12% fat), plastic, and stainless steel. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, bagged lettuce, and stainless steel) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. Using probability of detection (POD) statistical analysis, a significant difference was demonstrated between the candidate and reference methods for salami, cooked sliced turkey and ice cream in favor of the SureTect assay. For all other matrixes, no significant difference by POD was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was also conducted with 53 and 30 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect assay was able to detect all serotypes of L. monocytogenes. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside the recommended parameters open to variation, i.e., enrichment time and temperature and lysis temperature, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was also conducted, validating the assay shelf life.

  9. Mechanical Behavior Optimization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells as a Sustainable Material for Shopping Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Giacomo; Elhussieny, Amal; Faisal, Marwa; Fahim, I S; Everitt, Nicola M

    2018-05-22

    The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. The raw materials most abundantly available are the shells of crab, shrimp, and prawn. Hence, in this study chitosan was selected as one of the main components of biodegradable materials used for shopping bag production. Firstly, chitin was extracted from shrimp shell waste and then converted to chitosan. The chitosan was next ground to a powder. Although, currently, polyethylene bags are prepared by blown extrusion, in this preliminary research the chitosan powder was dissolved in a solvent and the films were cast. Composite films with several fillers were used as a reinforcement at different dosages to optimize mechanical properties, which have been assessed using tensile tests. These results were compared with those of conventional polyethylene bags used in Egypt. Overall, the chitosan films were found to have a lower ductility but appeared to be strong enough to fulfill shopping bag functions. The addition of fillers, such as chitin whiskers and rice straw, enhanced the mechanical properties of chitosan films, while the addition of chitin worsened overall mechanical behavior.

  10. Mechanical Behavior Optimization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells as a Sustainable Material for Shopping Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo D’Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research—with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. The raw materials most abundantly available are the shells of crab, shrimp, and prawn. Hence, in this study chitosan was selected as one of the main components of biodegradable materials used for shopping bag production. Firstly, chitin was extracted from shrimp shell waste and then converted to chitosan. The chitosan was next ground to a powder. Although, currently, polyethylene bags are prepared by blown extrusion, in this preliminary research the chitosan powder was dissolved in a solvent and the films were cast. Composite films with several fillers were used as a reinforcement at different dosages to optimize mechanical properties, which have been assessed using tensile tests. These results were compared with those of conventional polyethylene bags used in Egypt. Overall, the chitosan films were found to have a lower ductility but appeared to be strong enough to fulfill shopping bag functions. The addition of fillers, such as chitin whiskers and rice straw, enhanced the mechanical properties of chitosan films, while the addition of chitin worsened overall mechanical behavior.

  11. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  12. In Vitro Test of Feed Supplements Quality in Urea Multi nutrient Molase Block (UMMB) Derived from Several Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andini LS; Suharyono; Sasongko, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    This research was conducted due to the huge number of UMMB manufacturers in the suburbs, using local supplements which feed quality is not yet known. Feed supplements of UMMB came from P3TIR as sample A (from soy sauce dregs), and sample B (from soy oil cake), South Sulawesi, Bali, Bandung, Padang as Saka Block, Wonosobo, Sleman, Blora, Malang, and Boyolali. Quality parameters which are measured are dry matter (DM), crude fibre (CF), crude fatty acid (CFA), Ash, crude protein (CP), Ca, P, NaCl and comparison of bacterium and protozoa ratio with 32 P. Result of analysis shows highest ash content (mineral) of UMMB was found in soy oil cake of P3TIR, which is equal to 28.88% Saka block from Padang is the lowest which is equal to 11.94%. The highest crude protein is from P3TIR and the lowest is from Malang equal to 32.21 and 5.21 % respectively. The highest crude fibre is form Blora 15.55% and Malang is lowest 4.83. The highest crude fat is from soy sauce dregs from P3TIR 9.43 and Bandung is the lowest with 0.81. The highest ratio of bacterium and protozoa of UMMB come from Malang 27 : 1 and the lowest is from Boyolali 2 : 1 and in grass 0.25 : 1. Source of protein mostly comes from coconut oil cakes. All energy source come from, brans, with dried cassava flour added, milled maize seed, waste of tapioca etc. While for mineral source used are TSP, agriculture calcify, sulfur and there are some added with scallop-shell or prawn-head. (author)

  13. Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Freshwater Shrimps of the Genus Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae in Lake Lindu, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annawaty Annawaty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to reveal ecological preferences and distribution of all species of Caridina found in Lake Lindu and their catchment area. Specimens from 39 sampling sites were caught using tray net and hand net. There are three species of Caridina found in the lake system, i.e. Caridina linduensis, Caridina kaili and Caridina dali. There is no overlapping distribution among the species. Caridina kaili is a true riverine species and it is never encountered sympatric with C. dali nor C. linduensis. This species is abundant in streams and ditches with moderate flow running water and gravel–cobble substrate. It is mainly spread within streams west to the lake. Both C. dali and C. linduensis can be found in the lake and streams with very slow current to almost stagnant water, muddy sand substrate and associated with roots of water plants and leaf litter. However, C. dali is never occurred together with C. linduensis and they are less abundant compare to C. kaili. Distribution of Caridina spp. in Lake Lindu is probably affected by the temperature of their habitats and the occurrence of introduced fish such as Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and an alien riceland prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri. These introduced and alien species can have the potency to become predators or competitors for the Caridina spp. It is also the first record for M. lanchesteri present in Lake Lindu.

  14. Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Nick; Kangas, Mervi; Denham, Ainslie; Feng, Ming; Pearce, Alan; Hetzel, Yasha; Chandrapavan, Arani

    2016-06-01

    An extreme marine heat wave which affected 2000 km of the midwest coast of Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies of 2-5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave was influenced by a strong Leeuwin Current during an extreme La Niña event at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This event had a significant effect on the marine ecosystem with changes to seagrass/algae and coral habitats, as well as fish kills and southern extension of the range of some tropical species. The effect has been exacerbated by above-average SST in the following two summers, 2011/12 and 2012/13. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied. A 99% mortality of Roei abalone ( Haliotis roei ) and major reductions in recruitment of scallops ( Amusium balloti ), king ( Penaeus latisulcatus ) and tiger ( P. esculentus ) prawns, and blue swimmer crabs were detected with management adapting with effort reductions or spatial/temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and restocking being evaluated. This study illustrates that fisheries management under extreme temperature events requires an early identification of temperature hot spots, early detection of abundance changes (preferably using pre-recruit surveys), and flexible harvest strategies which allow a quick response to minimize the effect of heavy fishing on poor recruitment to enable protection of the spawning stock. This has required researchers, managers, and industry to adapt to fish stocks affected by an extreme environmental event that may become more frequent due to climate change.

  15. Induction of peroxide and superoxide protective enzymes and physiological cross-protection against peroxide killing by a superoxide generator in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Panmanee, Warunya; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2003-04-11

    Vibrio harveyi is a causative agent of destructive luminous vibriosis in farmed black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). V. harveyi peroxide and superoxide stress responses toward elevated levels of a superoxide generated by menadione were investigated. Exposure of V. harveyi to sub-lethal concentrations of menadione induced high expression of genes in both the OxyR regulon (e.g., a monofunctional catalase or KatA and an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C or AhpC), and the SoxRS regulon (e.g., a superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). V. harveyi expressed two detectable, differentially regulated SOD isozymes, [Mn]-SOD and [Fe]-SOD. [Fe]-SOD was expressed constitutively throughout the growth phase while [Mn]-SOD was expressed at the stationary phase and could be induced by a superoxide generator. Physiologically, pre-treatment of V. harveyi with menadione induced cross-protection against subsequent exposure to killing concentrations of H(2)O(2). This induced cross-protection required newly synthesized proteins. However, the treatment did not induce significant protection against exposures to killing concentrations of menadione itself or cross-protect against an organic hydroperoxide (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). Unexpectedly, growing V. harveyi in high-salinity media induced protection against menadione killing. This protection was independent of SOD induction. Stationary-phase cells were more resistant to menadione killing than exponential-phase cells. The induction of oxidative stress protective enzymes and stress-altered physiological responses could play a role in the survival of this bacterium in the host marine crustaceans.

  16. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz-Rivera

    Full Text Available The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt, a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny. Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown.

  17. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-08-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p level at 48 h (p > 0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dosimetric consideration of polonium-210 for Tiruchirappalli public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the committed effective dose equivalent from polonium-210 to the public of Tiruchirappalli district in south India on consumption of cereals, vegetables and animal food. It is demonstrated that the activity of 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed between cereals, vegetables and animal food. Among cereals, the green gram recorded a higher activity of 210 Po (0.62 Bq.kg -1 ) than the others tested. The study also recorded a relatively enhanced activity in raw rice (0.90 Bq.kg -1 ) than in boiled rice (0.03 Bq.kg -1 ). Among vegetables, the tubers accumulated more 210 Po than the shoot growing vegetables. The muscle of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) recorded the highest level of 210 Po activity (13.9 Bq.kg -1 ) among the animal food. With reference to dosimetry, the animal food was identified to contribute higher radiation dose (0.38-29.5 μSv.y -1 ) than the cereals (0.05 - 1.9 μSv.y -1 ) and vegetables (0.05 - 1.9 μSv.y -1 ). Among animal food, the fish contributed a substantial level of α radiation dose to man. Though activity in raw rice was higher than the activity in boiled rice, the dose delivered from raw rice was substantially low since the average consumption of this rice represents only 7 kg.y -1 when compared to the consumption of boiled rice (108 kg.y -1 ). From the dose estimates made, it was evident that the total dose received by the general public (2.7 μSv.y -1 ) from 210 Po was well below the dose limit of 1mSv.y -1 . (author)

  20. Shrimp pathogenicity, hemolysis, and the presence of hemolysin and TTSS genes in Vibrio harveyi isolated from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanama, Pimonsri; Srinitiwarawong, Kanchana; Thompson, Janelle R; Pomwised, Rattanaruji; Supamattaya, Kidchakarn; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2009-09-23

    The virulence factors of Vibrio harveyi, the causative agent of luminous vibriosis, are not completely understood. We investigated the correlations between shrimp mortality, hemolysis, the presence of a hemolysin gene (vhh), and a gene involved in the type III secretion system (the Vibrio calcium response gene vcrD). V harveyi HY01 was isolated from a shrimp that died from vibriosis, and 36 other V. harveyi isolates were obtained from fish and shellfish in Hat Yai city, Thailand. An ocean isolate of V. harveyi BAA-1116 was also included. Thirteen isolates including V harveyi HYO1 caused shrimp death 12 h after injection. Most V harveyi isolates in this group (designated as Group A) caused hemolysis on prawn blood agar. None of the shrimp died after injection with V harveyi BAA-1116. Molecular analysis of all V harveyi isolates revealed the presence of vcrD in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. Although vhh was detected in all V harveyi isolates, some isolates did not cause hemolysis, indicating that vhh gene expression might be regulated. Analysis of the V harveyi HYO1 genome revealed a V cholerae like-hemolysin gene, hlyA (designated as hhl). Specific primers designed for hhl detected this gene in 3 additional V harveyi isolates but the presence of this gene was not correlated with pathogenicity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed a high degree of genetic diversity in all V harveyi isolates, and there were no correlations among the hhl-positive isolates or the pathogenic strains.

  1. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia S. Abebe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI between 4.7 (±1.56 and 7.5 (±0.02 log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (±0.10 and 4.5 (±1.04 log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities < 1 NTU, which meet turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO. According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions.

  2. Special tax regimes for sportsmen = Systemy opodatkowania sportowców

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2015-04-01

      E-mail: szwajdli@onet.eu     Abstract         The main purpose of this work is to show diversity of tax regimes for sportsmen. The author focuses on tax regulations in Germany and in France. In this work is showed, that  not only tax regimes, which are applicable to all sportsmen, are in force, but also regimes, which are applicable only to sportsmen who are non- residents. Author of this article is going to answer , if it is necessary to  treat sportsmen in other way than other taxpayers. In this work, the author analyses legal regulations and specialist literature. Key words: taxation of sportsmen, tax regimes for sportsmen, taxes.   Streszczenie         Głównym celem niniejszej pracy jest wskazanie na różnorodność systemów opodatkowania sportowców. Autor  skupia się przede wszystkim na regulacjach obowiązujących we Francji oraz w Niemczech. W pracy zostało wskazane, że specyficzne systemy opodatkowania sportowców dzielą się na konstrukcje prawne dotyczące wszystkich sportowców oraz na rozwiązania jurydyczne mające zastosowanie tylko do nierezydentów. Autor odpowiada w niniejszym artykule na pytanie, czy istnieją powody, dla których sportowcy powinny być opodatkowani w sposób odmienny, niż pozostali podatnicy. W pracy zastosowana została metoda polegająca na analizie tekstów prawnych oraz poglądów doktryny. Słowa kluczowe: opodatkowanie sportowców, systemy opodatkowania sportowców, podatki.

  3. Spatial distribution of southern brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus subtilis on the Amazon continental shelf: a fishery, marine geology and GIS integrated approach

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    Déborah E. G. Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatial distribution of the southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 was studied based on industrial fishing fleet activities and is associated with geological and oceanographic characteristics of the benthonic environments on the Amazon continental shelf. Using a geographical information system (GIS this paper sought to calculate the relative abundance of brown shrimp based on catch per unit effort (CPUE and compare it with bathymetry, type of sedimentary structure, sedimentation rate and bottom salinity. As a result, we have concluded that the relative abundance (in terms of CPUE is not uniformly distributed in space. Spatial analysis indicates that commercial trawling efforts were made in the (foreset region of the subaqueous Amazon delta at depths of 40 to 60 m. In this region, prawn are responsible for the bioturbation of the sediments and the creation of a sedimentary structure called mottled mud. In the foreset region, sedimentation rates progressively increased up to 10 cm.yr-1; re-suspension was reduced and bottom salinity was high (~ 36. It appears that all of these factors define a stable muddy area with intense bioturbation. This notable biological activity is to be explained by the occurrence of a high F. subtilis abundance that appears to originate in a microbial loop. We concluded that by combining fishery information with environmental data from a GIS, it was possible to identify abundance distribution patterns for southern brown shrimp and other economically important fishery resources and to understand how they change on a large spatial-scale.

  4. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  5. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  6. Differences in chewing sounds of dry-crisp snacks by multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Belie, N.; Sivertsvik, M.; De Baerdemaeker, J.

    2003-09-01

    Chewing sounds of different types of dry-crisp snacks (two types of potato chips, prawn crackers, cornflakes and low calorie snacks from extruded starch) were analysed to assess differences in sound emission patterns. The emitted sounds were recorded by a microphone placed over the ear canal. The first bite and the first subsequent chew were selected from the time signal and a fast Fourier transformation provided the power spectra. Different multivariate analysis techniques were used for classification of the snack groups. This included principal component analysis (PCA) and unfold partial least-squares (PLS) algorithms, as well as multi-way techniques such as three-way PLS, three-way PCA (Tucker3), and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) on the first bite and subsequent chew. The models were evaluated by calculating the classification errors and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for independent validation sets. It appeared that the logarithm of the power spectra obtained from the chewing sounds could be used successfully to distinguish the different snack groups. When different chewers were used, recalibration of the models was necessary. Multi-way models distinguished better between chewing sounds of different snack groups than PCA on bite or chew separately and than unfold PLS. From all three-way models applied, N-PLS with three components showed the best classification capabilities, resulting in classification errors of 14-18%. The major amount of incorrect classifications was due to one type of potato chips that had a very irregular shape, resulting in a wide variation of the emitted sounds.

  7. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  8. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  9. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  10. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  11. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  12. Psychospołeczne uwarunkowania wczesnego wspomagania rozwoju dziecka przebywającego z matką w izolacji penitencjarnej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Fajfer-Kruczek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rozwój jednostki i jego uwarunkowania znajdują się w kręgu zainteresowań medycyny, psychologii, pedagogiki i socjologii. Pobyt dziecka z matką w izolacji penitencjarnej jest szczególną, trudną sytuacją społeczną. Z jednej strony umożliwia prawidłowy rozwój dziecka w wieku 0–3 lat, z drugiej niesie za sobą szereg zagrożeń. Celem artykułu jest ukazanie uwarunkowań rozwoju dziecka przebywającego z matką w izolacji więziennej w kontekście społecznym, a także w świetle wybranych teorii psychologicznych. W pracy przedstawiono specyfikę odbywania kary pozbawienia wolności przez kobiety będące matkami oraz aspekty prawne, formalne i resocjalizacyjne odnoszące się do matki, dziecka i diady matka–dziecko. Przyjmuje się, że przywięzienne domy matki i dziecka stanowią formę wczesnego wspomagania rozwoju dziecka w trudnej sytuacji skierowania matki do zakładu karnego. Szczegółowo opisano standardy pobytu matek z dziećmi w takich placówkach (pomieszczenia mieszkalne, rekreacyjne i terapeutyczne, warunki socjalne – jako formy zabezpieczenia podstawowych i specyficznych potrzeb kobiet i dzieci. Skupiono się na zobrazowaniu czynników środowiskowych wspomagających i chroniących prawidłowy rozwój dziecka oraz relację matki z dzieckiem, takich jak obecność personelu penitencjarnego (wychowawcy, psychologowie i personelu medycznego (lekarze, pielęgniarki. Zaprezentowano zasoby (norma intelektualna, wysoka motywacja do realizowania się w roli matki i obciążenia (deficyty w funkcjonowaniu w rolach społecznych, niska samoocena, brak poczucia kompetencji czy instrumentalne traktowanie dzieci kobiet skazanych za przestępstwo oraz metody oddziaływań resocjalizacyjnych, edukacyjnych i terapeutycznych. Ważnymi aspektami omawianych oddziaływań są kształtowanie właściwej relacji matki z dzieckiem, budowanie kompetencji rodzicielskich i ciągła weryfikacja stanu relacji przez kadr

  13. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

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    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  14. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    A methodology based on descriptive analysis techniques used in the evaluation of human food has been successfully refined to allow for a human taste panel to profile the flavour and texture of a range of cat food products (CFP) and their component parts. Included in this method is the development of evaluation protocols for homogeneous products and for binary samples containing both meat chunk (MC) and gravy/gel (GG) constituents. Using these techniques, 18 flavour attributes (sweet, sour/acid, tuna, herbal, spicy, soy, salty, cereal, caramel, chicken, methionine, vegetable, offaly, meaty, burnt flavour, prawn, rancid and bitter) and four texture dimensions (hardness, chewiness, grittiness and viscosity) were generated to describe the sensations elicited by 13 commercial pet food samples. These samples differed in intensity for 16 of the 18 flavour attributes, which allows for individual CFP flavour profiles to be developed. Principal components analysis (PCA) could successfully discriminate between samples within the PCA space and also reveal some groupings amongst them. While many flavour attributes were weakly correlated, a large number (describing both taste and retro-nasal aroma qualities) were required to adequately differentiate between samples, suggesting considerable complexity in the products assessed. For both MC and GG, differences between samples for each of the texture dimensions were also found. For MC, grittiness appears to be the most discriminating textural attribute, while for GG viscosity discriminates well between samples. Meat chunks and gravy/gels differed significantly from each other in both flavour and texture. Cat food products differed in their liking ratings, although no differences were found between homogeneous, MC and GG samples, and eight flavour attributes were correlated with overall liking scores. It is now necessary to determine the usefulness and limits of sensory data gathered from human panels in describing and predicting

  15. PERAMALAN NILAI RUPIAH TERHADAP US DOLLAR UNTUK MEMPERSIAPKAN EKSPOR UNGGULAN INDONESIA

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    Delu Damelia

    2017-06-01

    set for Indonesia's main export commodity. Indonesia's largest shrimp export to the base price of most is to the State of the USA or the United States. So in this study examines how the conditions of the exchange or transaction amount to US Dollar to face a growing export shrimp and prawn exports largely penetrated into  the United States.

  16. Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application

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    Romana Nasrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1–20% of PLA reinforced PLA films (CTP were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2 and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa. After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP yielded 0.265–1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical

  17. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  18. Myocardial infarction during anaphylaxis in a young healthy male with normal coronary arteries- is epinephrine the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamali, W D; Herath, H M M T B; Kulathunga, Aruna

    2017-09-04

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal medical emergency. Myocardial injury or infarction in the setting of an anaphylaxis can be due the anaphylaxis itself, when it is known as Kounis syndrome or it can also be due to the effect of epinephrine treatment. Epinephrine is considered as the cornerstone in management of anaphylaxis. Myocardial infarction secondary to therapeutic doses of adrenaline is a rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The mechanism of myocardial injury was considered to be due to coronary vasospasm secondary to epinephrine as the coronary angiograms were normal on these occasions. A 21-year- old previously healthy male got admitted to the local hospital with an urticarial rash and difficulty in breathing, one hour after ingestion of prawns for which he was known to be allergic. He was treated with 0.5 ml of intramuscular adrenaline (1:1000) which was administered to the lateral side of the thigh, following which he developed palpitations and tightening type central chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST segment depressions in leads III, aVF and V1 to V5 and he was transferred to a tertiary care hospital. The second electrocardiogram, done 2 h later, showed resolution of ST segment depressions but new T inversions in leads I and aVL. Troponin I was elevated with a titer of 2.15 ng/ml. He was treated with sublingual GTN in the emergency treatment unit and the symptoms resolved. Transthoracic 2D echocardiogram and stress testing with treadmill was normal and CT coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries. Here we present a case of a young healthy adult with no significant risk factors for coronary artery disease who developed myocardial infarction following intramuscular administration of therapeutic dose of adrenalin for an anaphylactic reaction. The postulated mechanism is most likely an alpha receptor mediated coronary vascular spasm. However the use of adrenaline in the setting of life

  19. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  20. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  1. Sposób prowadzenia badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych, a możliwości wykorzystania ich wyników w procesie projektowym na przykładzie byłego Szpitala im. Babińskiego we Wrocławiu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kleszcz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Niniejszy artykuł stanowi omówienie zagadnienia trybu i sposobu prowadzenia badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem możliwości prawnych oraz analizę skutków (pozytywnych i negatywnych wyboru poszczególnych form na sposób, w jaki prowadzone są prace projektowe oraz możliwości ekspozycji odsłoniętych reliktów. Zagadnienia te zostaną omówione głównie na przykładzie prac prowadzonych od 2015 roku na obszarze byłego szpitala im. Babińskiego przy placu Jana Pawła II we Wrocławiu przez zespół badawczy pod kierunkiem dr inż. arch. Piotra Kmiecika oraz dr Roberta Szweda, przy współudziale dr Czesława Lasoty. Teren byłego Szpitala był zdecydowanie jednym z najciekawszych pod względem archeologiczno – architektonicznym we Wrocławiu, jednocześnie jednak również jednym z najbardziej skomplikowanych. Na stopień skomplikowania miało wpływ nie tyle nagromadzenie warstw kulturowych i spodziewanych odkryć, a samo położenie oraz nawarstwienie ciągłych przekształceń obszaru, skutkujące gęstą zabudową, a także nagromadzeniem czynnych magistrali sieciowych o znaczeniu tranzytowym, ukształtowaniem powiązań komunikacyjnych w obrębie rozległego obszaru i ukształtowaniem zieleni objętej ochroną prawną. Jednoczesne wystąpienie tylu czynników spowodowało niemożliwość oszacowania zakresu i wielkości prowadzonych prac przed ich rozpoczęciem, wymusiło elastyczność oraz konieczność zaaranżowania badań z uwzględnieniem udziału ekip budowlanych w ich trakcie. Poziom komplikacji wymuszał także pewne modyfikacje w trybie prowadzonych prac, co ukazuje konieczność weryfikacji podejścia do restrykcyjnego podziału, oraz ukazuje szereg możliwości, jakie daje ściślejsza współpraca na linii architekt-archeolog-urząd konserwatora zabytków-budowa.

  2. Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Romana; Biswas, Shanta; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Afrin, Sanjida; Jahan, Rumana Akhter; Haque, Papia; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur

    2017-12-01

    The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA) laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1-20% of PLA) reinforced PLA films (CTP) were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP) were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method) with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2) and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa) and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa). After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP) yielded 0.265-1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical sector.

  3. PEMANFAATAN KOLAM PENGENDAP TAMBANG BATUBARA UNTUK BUDIDAYA IKAN LOKAL DALAM KERAMBA

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    Asfie Maidie

    2016-11-01

    of 5 floating net cages were located in DS 2, an abandoned settling pond owned by Kalimantan Timur Prima Coal (KPC. Each cage was stocked with natural barb seed (Barbodes schwanenfeldii with mean weight of 20.2 g, fresh water carp or puyau (Osteichilus kappenii with mean weight of 66.1 g, and common carp (Cyprinus carpio with mean weight of 28.96 g from fish hatchery with density of 200 seeds per species per cage, wild seed of climbing pearch (Anabas testudineus with mean weight of 41.4 g and density of 50 seeds per cage, and giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii with mean weight 113.8 g and density of 50 seeds per cage. The fishes were feed ad libitum. Water quality parameters were measured daily consisting of DO, pH, temperature, conductivity, and turbidity, while fish growth was determined by measuring its weight. After 4 months of rearing and reached marketable size, the fish were then measured for the evidence of Sb, Se, As, Hg, Mn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The result shows that the settlement pond of coal mining is feasible to rear fish in cage. The recorded fish growths were 570.79% for barb fish with survival rate/SR: 95%, 202.57% for local carp with SR: 97%, 573% for common carp with SR:2.5%, 238.92% for giant prawn with SR:10%, 447.10% for climbing perch with SR:14%. All of the reared fish are safe to be consumed because they have normal content of Sb (0.24 to 2.45 mg/L, and detected ratio in all sample was: 100%, Se (0.00 to 0.06; 57.14%, As (not detected/nd, Hg (0.00 to 0.06 mg/L, 50%, Mn (nd to 1,68 mg/L, 14.29%, Cd (nd, Fe (nd-5.45 mg/L, 7.14%, Cu (nd, Pb (nd, and Zn (7.82-61.50 mg/L, 100%.

  4. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  5. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human-Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human-animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed (juvenile prawn), and 4.7% honey

  6. Zadania inwestycyjne jednostek samorządu terytorialnego województwa lubelskiego w zakresie ochrony zdrowia = Investment projects of local government units in the province of Lublin about health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Warchoł

    2016-07-01

    2Katedra i Zakład Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie,   mgr Martyna Warchoł1 dr n. med. Marzena Furtak – Niczyporuk2 mgr Małgorzata Pachuta3   Adres do korespondencji dr n. med. Marzena Furtak – Niczyporuk Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 20 – 081 Lublin ul. Chodźki 1       Abstrakt Wprowadzenie Samorząd terytorialny jest to związek publiczno-prawny, powołany przez państwo, ale odrębny od niego. Działa on w obrębie swoich struktur i w zakresie określonym przez nie oraz w ramach obowiązującego prawa. Jednostki samorząd terytorialnego jako podmioty tworzące dla podmiotów leczniczych mają określone w stosunku do tego zadania. Do nich zalicza się, m. in. zadania inwestycyjne. Cel pracy Celem pracy jest przedstawienie zadań inwestycyjnych jednostek samorządu terytorialnego  w zakresie ochrony zdrowia na terenie województwa lubelskiego. Materiał i metody W badaniu zastosowano metodę sondażu diagnostycznego. Narzędziem badawczym był kwestionariusz ankiety własnego autorstwa złożony z 24 pytań. Grupę badaną stanowili urzędnicy 213 samorządów gminnych województwa lubelskiego, z czego 170 to gminy wiejskie, 23 to gminy miejsko – wiejskie, 20 to gminy miejskie. Badania odbywały się na zasadzie anonimowości. Ankiety zostały wysyłane do respondentów za pomocą Internetu. Wyniki i wnioski Z badań wynika, że jednostki samorządu terytorialnego podejmują bardzo okrojone zadania inwestycyjne w zakresie ochrony. Często nie wykonując obowiązkowych zadań do których zobowiązują ich normy prawne.   Słowa kluczowe: jednostki samorządu terytorialnego, ochrona zdrowia, inwestycje.     Abstract Introduction Local government is the relationship of public - legal, appointed by the state, but distinct from it. It works within its structures, and to the extent specified by and under the law. Units of local government units as those that make up for those medicines are determined in relation to this task

  7. Polityka bilansowa spółek akcyjnych– uwarunkowania skutecznościoraz skutki rozpoznania przez inwestorów 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grabowski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardy i normy prawne określające zasady rachunkowości zawierają szereg praw wyboru i pól swobodnego działania. Ich wykorzystywanie w celu oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy było często poddawane krytyce. Jednak wykorzystanie swobody pozostawionej na płaszczyźnie uregulowań w zakresie rachunkowości nie umożliwia oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy, jeżeli są spełnione dwa warunki. Warunek I wymaga, aby rynek kapitałowy odznaczał się przynajmniej tzw. efektywnością w średniej formie. Skutkiem odznaczania się przez rynek kapitałowy efektywnością w średniej formie jest między innymi to, że inwestorzy wyceniający akcje danej spółki natychmiast uwzględniają w swych ocenach wszystkie publicznie dostępne informacje dotyczące tej spółki, w tym także dane zawarte w informacji dodatkowej. Warunek II wymaga, aby sprawozdanie finansowe umożliwiało poznanie, jakie wartości (tych pozycji byłyby ujęte, gdyby zastosowano opcjonalną metodę rachunkową. W literaturze przedmiotu opisanych jest wiele badań, których celem było ustalenie, czy tendencyjne ukształtowanie bilansu oraz rachunku zysków i strat umożliwia oddziaływanie na inwestorów giełdowych. Trzeba jednak podkreślić, że praktycznie we wszystkich opracowaniach, koncentrowano się na warunku I, dotyczącym efektywności rynków kapitałowych. Kwestia warunku II odnoszącego się do zawartości informacyjnej sprawozdań finansowych nie była gruntownie badana. To skłoniło współautora niniejszego referatu do podjęcia próby ustalenia, czy opisane powyżej warunki braku skuteczności polityki bilansu handlowego są spełnione. Wyniki, jakie uzyskał autor badania pozwoliły stwierdzić, że pomimo, iż warunek I jest spełniony, polityka bilansu handlowego kształtowana na podstawie MSSF może być nadal skutecznie wykorzystywana do kształtowania ocen formułowanych przez interesariuszy. Wynika to z

  8. Zadania samorządów gminnych województwa lubelskiego w zakresie ochrony zdrowia = The tasks of local governments Lublin province about Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Warchoł

    2016-07-01

    2Katedra i Zakład Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie   Adres do korespondencji dr n. med. Marzena Furtak-Niczyporuk Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 20 – 081 Lublin ul. Chodźki 1     Abstrakt Wprowadzenie Gmina jest podstawową jednostką samorządu terytorialnego. Konstytucja RP określa gminę jako podstawową jednostkę samorządu terytorialnego. Dostęp do świadczeń opieki zdrowotnej gwarantuje obywatelom art. 68 ust 1  Konstytucji RP. W ust. 2 tegoż artykułu nakłada na władze publiczne obowiązek zapewnienia równego dostępu do opieki zdrowotnej finansowanych ze środków publicznych. Zgodnie z u. s. g. do zadań własnych gminy należy zaspokajanie potrzeb zbiorowych wspólnoty w sprawach ochrony zdrowia. Cel pracy Celem pracy jest przedstawienie działalności  samorządu gminy w zakresie ochrony zdrowia na terenie województwa lubelskiego. Materiał i metody W badaniu zastosowano metodę sondażu diagnostycznego. Narzędziem badawczym był kwestionariusz ankiety własnego autorstwa złożony z 24 pytań. Grupę badaną stanowili urzędnicy 213 samorządów gminnych województwa lubelskiego, z czego 170 to gminy wiejskie, 23 to gminy miejsko – wiejskie, 20 to gminy miejskie. Badania odbywały się na zasadzie anonimowości. Ankiety zostały wysyłane do respondentów za pomocą Internetu. Wyniki i wnioski Z badań wynika, że jednostki samorządu terytorialnego podejmują bardzo okrojone działania w zakresie ochrony. Często nie wykonując obowiązkowych zadań do których zobowiązują ich normy prawne.   Słowa kluczowe: gmina, ochrona zdrowia, zadania.     Abstract Introduction The municipality is the basic unit of local government. The Constitution defines the municipality as the basic unit of local government. Access Health Care Services do guarantee citizens the art. 68 of the Constitution Paragraph 1. Paragraph. 2 of the same article imposes on the public authorities to ensure equal access to health care financed

  9. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS DAN RELUNG MAKANAN IKAN PASCA INTRODUKSI IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus DI WADUK MALAHAYU, KABUPATEN BREBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunto Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    niche breadth of fishes. Results of this study showed that the structure of fish community compose of thirteen fish species which were dominated by nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium sp., and snakehead (Channa striata. The food resources consumed by fishes in this reservoir are phytoplankton (20%, detritus (19%, zooplankton (17%, insect (11%, aquatic plants (9%, fish (9%, shrimp (9%, and molusc (6%. The striped catfish, mozambique tilapia and spotted barb were generalist because used all of the food resources. The lesser spiny eel (Macrognathus aculeatus and twospot catfish (Mystus nigriceps were specialist, only used the insect larva as the food item. The striped catfish (introduced in 2009 and nile tilapia in this reservoir not compete each other because the main food item are different, the striped catfish mainly eats the molusc while nile tilapia eats phytoplankton. The fish production range from 34.3-1,323.1 ton/yr with average 157.3 ton/yr.

  10. PREPARATION AND APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST THE PATHOGENIC HARVEYI FROM PSEUDOSCIAENA CROCEA%大黄鱼病原哈维氏弧菌单克隆抗体的制备及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝贵杰; 沈锦玉; 徐洋; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 尹文林

    2009-01-01

    用甲醛灭活哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)GYC1108-1制备免疫原免疫8周龄雌性BALB/c小鼠,利用淋巴细胞杂交瘤技术,用间接酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对杂交瘤进行筛选,阳性克隆经2-3次亚克隆后,共获得5株针对GYC1108-1的单克隆抗体.选取1B7制备小鼠腹水抗体,其细胞上清及腹水效价分别为1∶3200和1∶32000.同样用灭活的哈维氏弧菌免疫新西兰大白兔,5次免疫后颈动脉采血,离心取血清,并用饱和硫酸铵法进行纯化,制备了兔抗哈维氏弧菌多克隆抗体,其ELISA效价为1∶51200.利用1B7单克隆抗体和兔抗哈维氏弧菌多克隆抗体以及山羊抗小鼠HRP酶标二抗,建立了检测哈维氏弧菌的三抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附试验(TAS-ELISA)方法.该方法对哈维氏弧菌的最小检出浓度为1×104个/mL.用该TAS-ELISA方法检测大黄鱼(Pseudosciaena crocea)样品,54尾患病大黄鱼中有45尾检出哈维氏弧菌,而14尾健康大黄鱼都没有检出哈维氏弧菌.由此可见,本试验建立的TAS-ELISA方法,可以用于患病大黄鱼哈维氏弧菌的快速诊断.%Vibrio harveyi is a kind of important pathogenic bacteria for seawater animals, such as prawn, crab, calm and ormer. Along with the development of seawater fish cage-culture in China, Vibrio harveyi also becomes a main cause of disease of cage-culture fish, including Lutianus erythopterus, Seriola dumerili , Epinephelus coioides and Pseudosciaena cro-cea. One pathogenic V. harveyi strain, GYC1108-1, which was isolated from diseased Pseudosciaena crocea in Zhejiang Province, 2003, was identified after morphological observation, biochemical characteristic analysis, 16sRNA and HSP60 gene sequence detection.

  11. Chitins and Chitosans as Immunoadjuvants and Non-Allergenic Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli

    2010-02-01

    is greatly amplified during many infections and diseases, the common feature of chitinase-like proteins and chitinase activity in all organisms appears to be the biochemical defense of the host. Unfortunately, conceptual and methodological errors are present in certain recent articles dealing with chitin and allergy, i.e., (1 omitted consideration of mammalian chitinase and/or chitotriosidase secretion, accompanied by inactive chitinase-like proteins, as an ancestral defensive means against invasion, capable to prevent the insurgence of allergy; (2 omitted consideration of the fact that the mammalian organism recognizes more promptly the secreted water soluble chitinase produced by a pathogen, rather than the insoluble and well protected chitin within the pathogen itself; (3 superficial and incomplete reports and investigations on chitin as an allergen, without mentioning the potent allergen from crustacean flesh, tropomyosine; (4 limited perception of the importance of the chemical/biochemical characteristics of the isolated chitin or chitosan for the replication of experiments and optimization of results; and (5 lack of interdisciplinarity. There is quite a large body of knowledge today on the use of chitosans as biomaterials, and more specifically as drug carriers for a variety of applications: the delivery routes being the same as those adopted for the immunological studies. Said articles, that devote attention to the safety and biocompatibility aspects, never reported intolerance or allergy in individuals and animals, even when the quantities of chitosan used in single experiments were quite large. Therefore, it is concluded that crab, shrimp, prawn and lobster chitins, as well as chitosans of all grades, once purified, should not be considered as "crustacean derivatives", because the isolation procedures have removed proteins, fats and other contaminants to such an extent as to allow them to be classified as chemicals regardless of their origin.

  12. Chitins and chitosans as immunoadjuvants and non-allergenic drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzarelli, Riccardo A A

    2010-02-21

    amplified during many infections and diseases, the common feature of chitinase-like proteins and chitinase activity in all organisms appears to be the biochemical defense of the host. Unfortunately, conceptual and methodological errors are present in certain recent articles dealing with chitin and allergy, i.e., (1) omitted consideration of mammalian chitinase and/or chitotriosidase secretion, accompanied by inactive chitinase-like proteins, as an ancestral defensive means against invasion, capable to prevent the insurgence of allergy; (2) omitted consideration of the fact that the mammalian organism recognizes more promptly the secreted water soluble chitinase produced by a pathogen, rather than the insoluble and well protected chitin within the pathogen itself; (3) superficial and incomplete reports and investigations on chitin as an allergen, without mentioning the potent allergen from crustacean flesh, tropomyosine; (4) limited perception of the importance of the chemical/biochemical characteristics of the isolated chitin or chitosan for the replication of experiments and optimization of results; and (5) lack of interdisciplinarity. There is quite a large body of knowledge today on the use of chitosans as biomaterials, and more specifically as drug carriers for a variety of applications: the delivery routes being the same as those adopted for the immunological studies. Said articles, that devote attention to the safety and biocompatibility aspects, never reported intolerance or allergy in individuals and animals, even when the quantities of chitosan used in single experiments were quite large. Therefore, it is concluded that crab, shrimp, prawn and lobster chitins, as well as chitosans of all grades, once purified, should not be considered as "crustacean derivatives", because the isolation procedures have removed proteins, fats and other contaminants to such an extent as to allow them to be classified as chemicals regardless of their origin.

  13. CZYNNIKI CHŁODNICZE O NISKIM WSPÓŁCZYNNIKU GWP STOSOWANE W POWIETRZNYCH POMPACH CIEPŁA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr KOPEĆ

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono obecny stan prawny dotyczący czynników chłodniczych stosowanych w pompach ciepła oraz urządzeniach chłodniczych i klimatyzacyjnych a także omówiono ich wpływ na środowisko. Obowiązujące regulacje prawne zawierają plan redukcji stosowania czynników chłodniczych wpływających na ocieplenie klimatu. Następnie dokonano analizy rynku pomp ciepła w Polsce w latach 2010-2015. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na pompy ciepła pracujące w układzie powietrze-woda, które w 2015 roku odnotowały znaczny wzrost sprzedaży. Wzrost ten wynosił około 70% w stosunku do roku 2014. Ze względu na niski koszt inwestycyjny, bardzo duży udział w rynku posiadają powietrzne pompy ciepła przeznaczone do podgrzewania ciepłej wody użytkowej. W związku z regulacjami prawnymi, dobór odpowiedniego czynnika chłodniczego staje się trudnym zagadnieniem. Należy bowiem dobrać czynnik chłodniczy, który będzie zarówno bezpieczny dla środowiska oraz będzie posiadał bardzo dobre właściwości termodynamiczne. Przedstawiono właściwości idealnego czynnika chłodniczego oraz kryteria jakimi powinno się kierować przy doborze nowego. Dokonano również porównania proponowanych przez producentów alternatywnych czynników chłodniczych o niskim współczynniku GWP, które mogą być stosowane w powietrznych pompach ciepła. W tym celu założono idealny jednostopniowy sprężarkowy obieg chłodniczy dla pompy ciepła w którym przyjęto stałą temperaturę górnego źródła ciepła, przegrzania i dochłodzenie czynnika. Temperatura dolnego źródła ciepła była zmienienia w zakresie od -20C do +15C. Analizy proponowanych czynników dokonano pod względem zmiany współczynnika wydajności grzewczej COP w stosunku do obecnie stosowanych freonów.

  14. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Villanueva Jiménez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems presents a selection of the scientific work conducted in recent years in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, associated with its agroecosystems, considering in a wide sense the term “ager” (field. Reviewing research carried out in a defined territory, such as a state, on its contrasting and sometimes complementary productive systems, allows us to visualize the topics on development by its scientific community frequently associated with the problems of a productive chain, the lack of sustainability, contamination affecting the regions and their living beings, the impacts of socioeconomic problems on food production and productivity. In this particular case livestock-related topics dealing with the yield of forages used for cattle grazing are revised, as well as epidemiological and animal-health aspects referring to the presence of paratuberculosis in goats and cryptosporidiosis in calves. As for agricultural aspects, biofertilization with rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi in citrus is presented as an alternative to traditional fertilization; in the case of papaya, the integrated management of its pest mites as well as a participatory methodology to achieve its technological transfer are revised. In addition, the influence that human migration has on the change of land use in a mountain range community is presented, and the eating habits related with the potential practice of horticulture in peri-urban families from the subhumid tropics are revised. Some aquacultural elements are also included, such as the presence of parasitic microorganisms in the oyster depending on the season of the year, the cultivation of tilapia fry in water recirculation systems, basic studies on the genetic improvement of the crayfish, as well as the establishment of a hydroponic-aquaponic system where cultivation of basil and production of Malaysian prawn are combined. As for varied topics, the impact

  15. O litoral do Rio Grande do Norte: dinâmica e modelo espacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Castro Panizza

    2008-07-01

    zones occupées engendrant des problèmes environnementaux et sociaux.The northeastern brazillian coast is experiencing rapid land cover changes. The growth of cities, tourism and some prawn fisheries are responsible of these changes, which alter the natural systems and can affect the quality of human life. This work brings part of the research results developed during a post-doctoral position conducted in the laboratory COSTEL (Climat et du Sol Occupation par Télédétection of the University of Rennes 2 (France and funded by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, during the years 2005 and 2006. We propose a study of the dynamic of the landscape of the municipalities of Extremoz, Natal and Parnamirim (State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The images of the satellites Landsat TM5 and ETM +7 are the main sources used to generate spatial data. We use multi-temporal image, years 1992, 2001 and 2003 to detect land cover changes. We see that the urban and residential has continued to grow during the period study, which represented an expansion of 62 km². Opposite behavior occurred with the classes that represent the vegetalized areas, which have suffered reductions of their areas. This information has been applied in the construction of a spatial model (Brunet, 1980 and 1990 to highlight the basic structures of the geographical area. The graphic representation proposal for the model space highlights the forms and spatial structures, as well as its duties and tries to explain the land cover changes of this area. We note that a fragmented arc surrounding the areas of human occupation, which generate environmental and social problems.O litoral nordeste brasileiro vem sofrendo rápidas mudanças de uso e cobertura da terra. O crescimento das cidades, a atividade turística e a carcinicultura são alguns indutores destas transformações, que alteram os sistemas naturais e podem afetar a qualidade de vida das populações. Este trabalho traz parte dos

  16. Analysis and Comparison of Nutritional Quality of Muscle from Coilia nasus Fed Formulated Feed and Live Feed%配合饲料和活饵料喂养刀鲚肌肉营养品质分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施永海; 张根玉; 张海明; 刘永士; 严银龙; 谢永德; 陆根海; 徐嘉波; 刘建忠

    2014-01-01

    )(P<0.05),多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)和单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)相对百分含量在2组之间则没有显著差异(P>0.05);配合饲料组的肌肉n-6 PUFA相对百分含量(4.24%)显著高于活饵料组(1.35%)(P<0.05),导致配合饲料组的n-3 PUFA/n-6 PUFA(2.34)显著低于活饵料组(8.85)(P<0.05)。由此得出,配合饲料喂养的刀鲚肌肉蛋白质品质略优于活饵料喂养的刀鲚,但其肌肉粗脂肪含量较低,建议提高配合饲料中粗脂肪含量,优化脂肪酸组成。%In order to understand the effects of formulated feed and live feed on muscle nutrient components of Coilia nasus, the nutrient components of muscle from juvenile Coilia nasus fed formulated feed and live feed were analyzed by biochemical analysis method, and the nutritional quality was analyzed and compared.There were 2 groups in the experiment, one was formulated feed group in which the fish were fed formulated feed, the other was live feed group in which the fish were fed post larvae, juvenile prawn and larvae of living mysid shrimp and copepods.Each group had 3 replicates and each replicate had 300 juvenile Coilia nasus ( body length, 80.0 to 100.0 mm;body weight, 2.0 to 3.0 g).The experiment was from the beginning of June 10, 2012 to the ending of December 5, 2012.The results showed as follows:the muscle moisture content of for-mulated feed group (75.53%) was significantly higher than that of live feed group (68.22%) (P0 .05 ) .A total of 18 kinds of amino acids were found in muscle from two groups, there were no significant differences in the contents of 8 kinds of amino acids ( aspartate, threonine, glutamic acid, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, tryptophane and cystine ) between two groups ( P >0.05), while in another 10 kinds of amino acids (serine, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline) , the contents of formulated feed group were

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 12th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 19-22, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-10-01

    Aufiero, L. Dall'Oglio, P. De Angelis, A. Villani, P. Bagolan, R. CutreraABS 12. FROM MAZARA DEL VALLO: PRAWNS IN CHILDREN'S DIET FOR THE ROOTS OF MEDITERRANEAN CULTURE • I. FarnetaniABS 13. THE METABOLIC FINGERPRINT OF TERM INFANTS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED FETAL GROWTH • Ch. Fotakis, M. Zoga, Th. Tsiaka, Th. Boutsikou, D.D. Briana, K. Dendrinou, A. Malamitsi-Puchner, P. ZoumpoulakisABS 14. IN THEIR MOM THEY FIND THEIR ENTIRE WORLD, NOT JUST THE MILK: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ABOUT SKIN-TO-SKIN • C. Ortu, S. Atza, D. Licheri, M. Crisafulli, A. DessìABS 15. UNEXPECTED PAINLESS DUODENAL ULCER IN A GIRL WITH REFRACTORY IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA (IDA DUE TO H. PYLORI (HP INFECTION • F. Marino, S. Rossin, F. Rigon, V. Rametta, G. Passarella, F. Rimondi, C. Santagati, M. Berardi, S. Innaurato, E. Michelin, C. Lorenzetto, L. Nai Fovino, S. RugolottoABS 16. EARLY CLINICAL AND SEROLOGIC MARKERS OF BILIARY ATRESIA: ANALYSIS OF THREE CASES IN NORTH SARDINIA • C. Solinas, M.L. Cassitta, A.R. Carta, A. Cualbu, G. Olzai, D. Alberti, M.G. ClementeABS 17. GASTRIC PNEUMATOSIS IN AN EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANT: A CASE REPORT • C. Loddo, V. Dell'Orto, S. Shankar Aguilera, Y. Soreze, D. De LucaABS 18. RISK FACTORS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS • I. Ignatko, A. Strigakov, A. RodionovaABS 19. MALFORMATIVE PATHOLOGIES IN FETAL AUTOPSIES: A FOCUS ON CARDIOVASCULAR AND GENITOURINARY SYSTEMS. OUR DECENNIAL EXPERIENCE • M. Paudice, B. Spina, F. Todeschini, U. Leone Roberti Maggiore, S. Ferrero, L. Tegaldo, E. Fulcheri, V.G. VelloneABS 20. ROLE OF IMAGING IN NEONATAL ARTERIAL AND VENOUS STROKE • A. Cosseddu, A. Lai, M. Scarano, L. Saba, M. MarrasABS 21. UNEXPECTED ENDOCARDITIS IN A PRETERM INFANT • G. Passarella, C. Santagati, F. Rigon, F. Rimondi, V. Rametta, M. Berardi, F. Marino, S. Innaurato, E. Michelin, C. Lorenzetto, L. Nai Fovino, E. Baraldi, O. Milanesi, S. Rossin, S. RugolottoABS 22. SHOCK IN NEONATES: DON'T FORGET THE HEART! • M. Furno, E. Aru, D. Congiu, P