WorldWideScience

Sample records for practical ephemeral communications

  1. The Allure of Privacy or the Desire for Self-Expression? Identifying Users' Gratifications for Ephemeral, Photograph-Based Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, T Franklin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary messaging programs continue to rise in popularity, due in large part to the perceived privacy that they afford. However, recent controversies have revealed that messages shared on ephemeral messaging services are persistent and potentially retrieval, thus undermining the privacy they are assumed to provide. Given this paradox, why are temporary messaging services so popular? Does the allure of privacy still motivate the use of temporary messaging programs? Or, if privacy is no longer afforded by ephemeral messaging, what other psychological gratifications do these applications fulfill that might account for their continued use? Informed by the Modality-Agency-Interactivity-Navigability (MAIN) model and the uses and gratifications tradition, the current study conducted qualitative interviews to identify the gratifications that individuals derive from the popular ephemeral messaging application, Snapchat. Study results show that the visual affordances of ephemeral messaging have legitimized photographic communication, providing self-expression and relational gratifications that are unfulfilled by text-based applications. By comparison, users report low levels of trust in the privacy affordances of ephemeral messaging, and instead projecting negative effects of temporary messaging on other users rather than self. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  2. From Ephemerizer to Timed-Ephemerizer: Achieve Assured Lifecycle Enforcement for Sensitive Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Ephemerizer, proposed by Perlman, is a cryptographic primitive for assured data deletion. With an Ephemerizer protocol, data in persistent storage devices will always be encrypted simultaneously using an ephemeral public key of the Ephemerizer (an entity which will publish a set of

  3. Defining perennial, intermittent and ephemeral channels in eastern Kentucky: application to forestry best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Svec; R. K. Kolka; J. W. Stringer

    2003-01-01

    In Kentucky stream classification is used to determine which forestry best management practice (BMP) to apply in riparian zones. Kentucky defines stream classes as follows (Stringer and others 1998): a) perennial streams that hold water throughout the year, b) intermittent streams that hold water during wet portions of the year, and c) ephemeral channels that hold...

  4. Agricultural intensification and drought frequency increases may have landscape-level consequences for ephemeral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Dalu, Mwazvita T B

    2017-03-01

    Ephemeral wetlands in arid regions are often degraded or destroyed through poor land-use practice long before they are ever studied or prioritized for conservation. Climate change will likely also have implications for these ecosystems given forecast changes in rainfall patterns in many arid environments. Here, we present a conceptual diagram showing typical and modified ephemeral wetlands in agricultural landscapes and how modification impacts on species diversity and composition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integrated process-based hydrologic and ephemeral gully modeling for better assessment of soil erosion in small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, A. Y.; Karimov, V. R.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive soil erosion in agriculturally dominated watersheds causes degradation of arable land and affects agricultural productivity. Structural and soil-quality best management practices can be beneficial in reducing sheet and rill erosion, however, larger rills, ephemeral gullies, and concentrated flow channels still remain to be significant sources of sediment. A better understanding of channelized soil erosion, underlying physical processes, and ways to mitigate the problem is needed to develop innovative approaches for evaluation of soil losses from various sediment sources. The goal of this study was to develop a novel integrated process-based catchment-scale model for sheet, rill, and ephemeral gully erosion and assess soil erosion mitigation practices. Geospatially, a catchment was divided into ephemeral channels and contributing hillslopes. Surface runoff hydrograph and sheet-rill erosion rates from contributing hillslopes were calculated based on the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. For ephemeral channels, a dynamic ephemeral gully erosion model was developed. Each channel was divided into segments, and channel flow was routed according to the kinematic wave equation. Reshaping of the channel profile in each segment (sediment deposition, soil detachment) was simulated at each time-step according to acting shear stress distribution along the channel boundary and excess shear stress equation. The approach assumed physically-consistent channel shape reconfiguration representing channel walls failure and deposition in the bottom of the channel. Soil erodibility and critical shear stress parameters were dynamically adjusted due to seepage/drainage forces based on computed infiltration gradients. The model was validated on the data obtained from the field study by Karimov et al. (2014) yielding agreement with NSE coefficient of 0.72. The developed model allowed to compute ephemeral gully erosion while accounting for antecedent soil moisture

  6. 37 CFR 384.3 - Royalty fees for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for ephemeral... BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT SERVICES § 384.3 Royalty fees for ephemeral recordings. (a) Basic royalty rate. For... minimum fees shall be nonrefundable, but shall be fully creditable to royalty payments due under paragraph...

  7. Communication as practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholamian, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    sort of human activity also include communication as practice. Inspired by Bakhtin, I believe that dialogical relationship is almost a universal phenomenon that permeates all human speech and in general all relationships and manifestations of human life, and "everything in life is dialogue", (Dysthe...... of communicational practices within conversations contexts. Based on Bakhtin’s thought, I understand any conversation as a sociocultural communicative practice. In this concept, the focus will be on how participants via interaction create meaning. In order to elaborate and examine these notions, I will include some......According to Schatzki "Practice" brings into view activities which are situated, corporeal, and shaped by habits without reflection. This notion has been extraordinarily successful and has now been extended to cover every sort of human activity” (Schatzki 2001:2). And I would like to add that every...

  8. Evaluating ephemeral gully erosion impact on Zea mays L. yield and economics using AnnAGNPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral gully erosion causes serious water quality and economic problems in the Midwest United States. A critical barrier to soil conservation practice adoption is often the implementation cost, although it is recognized that erosion reduces farm income. Yet few, if any, understand the relationshi...

  9. Communication that heals: mindful communication practices from palliative care leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omilion-Hodges, Leah M; Swords, Nathan M

    2016-01-01

    Though research has begun to highlight the centrality of communication in palliative care, studies have yet to focus on the use of mindful communication. Mindful communication is associated with increases in patient care and decreases in physician burnout. Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews the authors sought mindful communication practices from palliative care leaders in American Hospital Association Circle of Life® award-wining units. Four key mindful communication practices emerged: Know your audience, ask questions, discard scripts, and recognize your role. The discussion articulates how key mindful communication practices may be used as a stage model, where key practices may be used individually or in concert, by sole practitioners or within interdisciplinary teams and by new and seasoned clinicians. Theoretical contributions and areas for future inquiry are also discussed.

  10. Ephemeral-fluvial sediments as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. Vol. 1: Sedimentology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Although reservoirs formed from ephemeral-fluvial sandstones have previously been considered relatively simple, unresolved problems of sandbody correlation and production anomalies demonstrate the need for improved understanding of their internal complexity. Outcropping ephemeral-fluvial systems have been studied in order to determine the main features and processes occurring in sand-rich ephemeral systems and to identify which features will be of importance in a hydrocarbon reservoir. The Lower Jurassic Upper Moenave and Kayenta Formations of south-eastern Utah and northern Arizona comprise series of stacked, sand-dominated sheet-like palaeochannels suggestive of low sinuosity, braided systems. Low subsidence rates and rapid lateral migration rates enabled channels to significantly modify their widths during high discharge. (author)

  11. Wubbles: A Collaborative Ephemeral Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Berthaut, Florent; Knibbe, Jarrod

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a collaborative digital musical instrument that uses the ephemeral and physical properties of soap bubbles to explore the complexity layers and oscillating parameters of electronic (bass) music. This instrument, called Wubbles, aims at encouraging both individual and collaborative musical manipulations.

  12. The Permanence of Ephemeral: Tsoi Wall 23 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Zaporozhets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It became an academic convention to refer to ephemerality and temporality of graffiti and street-art. However studying some places as shaped by and known for these urban visuals, it is possible to consider them as con- stant and ever-present element of a city. A case under analysis is the Tsoi Wall, people’s memorial appeared in Moscow in 1990. The paper discusses how this city site gains its right to exist in multitude of cultural practices, interactions, and meanings assigned. The article reveals the role of creative sites for Soviet and Post-Soviet cities and explores who and why has been maintaining and protecting the Tsoi Wall for almost two decades.

  13. Practical impact of group communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schiper, A.

    2003-01-01

    Practical impact of group communication theory Andre Schiper Group communication is an important topic in fault-tolerant distributed applications. The paper summarizes the main contributions of practical importance that contributed to our current understanding of group communication. These contributions are classified into ''abstractions'' and ''specifications'', ''paradigms'', ''system models'', ''algorithms'', and ''theoretical results''. Some open issues are discussed at the end of the ...

  14. Industry challenge to best practice risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, J; Boateng, A

    2012-04-01

    Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. The Risk Communication Team of the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense has developed a list of 11 best practices recommended for effective risk communication. These practices, designed for a food defense crisis, are currently applied to food safety issues, since fortunately a food defense crisis has yet to occur. IFT examined the utility of these best practices and the limitations on their use during food safety and food defense crises by academics, trade associations, and the government. It was hypothesized that legal and business considerations as well as the nature of the event would determine the implementation of the best practices. Through the use of focus group meetings, it was discovered that there was a low level of awareness of the best practices. However, stakeholders practiced some aspects of the recommended practices. Participants felt some of the practices were related and could be consolidated. They also agreed that a food defense event will increase the urgency of the communication and include players not typically involved in food safety issues. The challenges reported by the stakeholders varied, but legal liability, as well as the impact their communications could have on an industry, were often cited. From the government perspective, their need to act within their authorities drove some of their actions with respect to communication. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to further developing and refining risk communications and specific messages targeted for a food defense incident. Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to

  15. Communication and Contraceptive Practices in Adolescent Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit-O'Hara, Denise; Kahn, Janet R.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a descriptive analysis of couple communication among stable, sexually active adolescent couples (N=83) and the effect of communication on actual contraceptive practices. Results showed couples with good communication were more likely to practice effective contraception. (BH)

  16. GridFactory - Distributed computing on ephemeral resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko

    2011-01-01

    A novel batch system for high throughput computing is presented. The system is specifically designed to leverage virtualization and web technology to facilitate deployment on cloud and other ephemeral resources. In particular, it implements a security model suited for forming collaborations...

  17. Let´s go to the cinema! A movie recommender system for ephemeral groups of users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Going to the cinema or watching television are social activities that generally take place in groups. In these cases, a recommender system for ephemeral groups of users is more suitable than (well-studied recommender systems for individuals. In this paper we present a recommendation system for groups of users that go to the cinema. The system uses the Slope One algorithm for computing individual predictions and the Multiplicative Utilitarian Strategy as a model to make a recommendation to an entire group. We show how we solved all practical aspects of the system; including its architecture and a mobile application for the service, the lack of user data (ramp-up and cold-start problems, the scaling fit of the group model strategy, and other improvements in order to reduce the response time. Finally, we validate the performance of the system with a set of experiments with 57 ephemeral groups.

  18. Classification and prediction of river network ephemerality and its relevance for waterborne disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Larsen, Joshua; Ceperley, Natalie; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of waterborne diseases hinges on the interactions between hydrology and ecology of hosts, vectors and parasites, with the long-term absence of water constituting a strict lower bound. However, the link between spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological ephemerality and waterborne disease transmission is poorly understood and difficult to account for. The use of limited biophysical and hydroclimate information from otherwise data scarce regions is therefore needed to characterize, classify, and predict river network ephemerality in a spatially explicit framework. Here, we develop a novel large-scale ephemerality classification and prediction methodology based on monthly discharge data, water and energy availability, and remote-sensing measures of vegetation, that is relevant to epidemiology, and maintains a mechanistic link to catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, with reference to the context of Burkina Faso in sub-Saharan Africa, we extract a relevant set of catchment covariates that include the aridity index, annual runoff estimation using the Budyko framework, and hysteretical relations between precipitation and vegetation. Five ephemerality classes, from permanent to strongly ephemeral, are defined from the duration of 0-flow periods that also accounts for the sensitivity of river discharge to the long-lasting drought of the 70's-80's in West Africa. Using such classes, a gradient-boosted tree-based prediction yielded three distinct geographic regions of ephemerality. Importantly, we observe a strong epidemiological association between our predictions of hydrologic ephemerality and the known spatial patterns of schistosomiasis, an endemic parasitic waterborne disease in which infection occurs with human-water contact, and requires aquatic snails as an intermediate host. The general nature of our approach and its relevance for predicting the hydrologic controls on schistosomiasis occurrence provides a pathway for the explicit inclusion of

  19. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  20. Shallow and Deep Groundwater Contributions to Ephemeral Streamflow Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M. A.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Our understanding of streamflow generation processes in low relief, humid landscapes is limited. To address this, we utilized an ephemeral-to-intermittent drainage network in the Piedmont region of the United States to gain new understanding about the drivers of ephemeral streamflow generation, stream-groundwater interactions, and longitudinal expansion and contraction of the stream network. We used hydrometric and chemical data collected within zero through second order catchments to characterize streamflow and overland, shallow soil, and deep subsurface flow across landscape positions. Results showed bi-directionality in stream-groundwater gradients that were dependent on catchment storage state. This led to annual groundwater recharge magnitudes that were similar to annual streamflow. Perched shallow and deep water table contributions shifted dominance with changes in catchment storage state, producing distinct stream hydrograph recession constants. Active channel length versus runoff followed a consistent relationship independent of storage state, but exhibited varying discharge-solute hysteresis directions. Together, our results suggest that temporary streams can act as both important groundwater recharge and discharge locations across the landscape, especially in this region where ephemeral drainage densities are among the highest recorded. Our results also highlight that the internal catchment dynamics that generate temporary streams play an important role in dictating biogeochemical fluxes at the landscape scale.

  1. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  2. Exploring healthcare communication models in private physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Amy; Guillemin, Marilys; Delany, Clare

    2015-10-01

    This project explored whether models of healthcare communication are evident within patient-physiotherapist communication in the private practice setting. Using qualitative ethnographic methods, fifty-two patient-physiotherapist treatment sessions were observed and interviews with nine physiotherapists were undertaken. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. In these clinical encounters physiotherapists led the communication. The communication was structured and focussed on physical aspects of the patient's presentation. These features were mediated via casual conversation and the use of touch to respond to the individual patient. Physiotherapists did not explicitly link their therapeutic communication style to established communication models. However, they described a purposeful approach to how they communicated within the treatment encounter. The communication occurring in the private practice physiotherapy treatment encounter is predominantly representative of a 'practitioner-centred' model. However, the subtle use of touch and casual conversation implicitly communicate competence and care, representative of a patient-centred model. Physiotherapists do not explicitly draw from theories of communication to inform their practice. Physiotherapists may benefit from further education to achieve patient-centred communication. Equally, the incorporation of casual conversation and the use of touch into theory of physiotherapy patient-centred communication would highlight these specific skills that physiotherapists already utilize in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication   There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways.   The first...... aim of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen’s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event...... change from concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt.   The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above...

  4. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways. The first aim...... of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen?s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event change from...... concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt. The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above, and as well how...

  5. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe: Current practice and priorities to enhance ecological status assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C M; Datry, Thibault

    2018-03-15

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are typically poorly represented in biomonitoring programmes implemented to characterize EU Water Framework Directive ecological status. We report the results of a survey completed by representatives from 20 European countries to identify current challenges to IRES status assessment, examples of best practice, and priorities for future research. We identify five major barriers to effective ecological status classification in IRES: 1. the exclusion of IRES from Water Framework Directive biomonitoring based on their small catchment size; 2. the lack of river typologies that distinguish between contrasting IRES; 3. difficulties in defining the 'reference conditions' that represent unimpacted dynamic ecosystems; 4. classification of IRES ecological status based on lotic communities sampled using methods developed for perennial rivers; and 5. a reliance on taxonomic characterization of local communities. Despite these challenges, we recognize examples of innovative practice that can inform modification of current biomonitoring activity to promote effective IRES status classification. Priorities for future research include reconceptualization of the reference condition approach to accommodate spatiotemporal fluctuations in community composition, and modification of indices of ecosystem health to recognize both taxon-specific sensitivities to intermittence and dispersal abilities, within a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Communication practices in inter-organisational product development

    OpenAIRE

    Paasivaara, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Geographically distributed, inter-organisational product development projects are becoming increasingly common. However, companies face challenges in managing this kind of complicated projects. Most of the challenges are related to communication. This study focused on communication needs, problems and practices in distributed inter-organisational product development projects. The main objective was to identify and describe successful communication practices. In addition, the study aimed t...

  7. The Fiera del Mediterraneo of Palermo 1946–1975 Ephemeral Architecture and Apparatuses during the Years of the Artistic Metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fatta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fiera del Mediterraneo Exhibition Centre of Palermo, in its original layout realized in 1946, is an interesting laboratory of visually striking ephemeral architecture and apparatuses. The whole fairgrounds lends itself to an analysis focusing on its dual image: one, “external”, because urban, territorial, Mediterranean, and another, “internal”, unfolding amidst the boulevards, the pavilions and the exhibits on display. For both images, there is a communicative project rightfully belonging to the period of the “Italian Metamorphosis” (1945/1968, the years in which Italian culture was invested by a renewed renaissance, even in the so-called minor arts such as graphics and visual communication.

  8. Effects of Intra-Storm Soil Moisture and Runoff Characteristics on Ephemeral Gully Development: Evidence from a No-Till Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Karimov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ephemeral gully erosion, prevalent on agricultural landscapes of the Great Plains, is recognized as a large source of soil loss and a substantial contributor to the sedimentation of small ponds and large reservoirs. Multi-seasonal field studies can provide needed information on ephemeral gully development and its relationship to physical factors associated with field characteristics, rainfall patterns, runoff hydrograph, and management practices. In this study, an ephemeral gully on a no-till cultivated crop field in central Kansas, U.S., was monitored in 2013 and 2014. Data collection included continuous sub-hourly precipitation, soil moisture, soil temperature, and 15 field surveys of cross-sectional profiles in the headcut and channelized parts of the gully. Rainfall excess from a contributing catchment was calculated with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP model for all storm events and validated on channel flow measurements. Twelve significant runoff events with hydraulic shear stresses higher than the critical value were identified to potentially cause soil erosion in three out of fourteen survey periods. Analysis of shear stress imposed by peak channel flow on soil surface, antecedent soil moisture condition, and channel shape at individual events provided the basis on which to extend the definition of the critical shear stress function by incorporating the intra-storm changes in soil moisture content. One potential form of this function was suggested and tested with collected data. Similar field studies in other agriculturally-dominated areas and laboratory experiments can develop datasets for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms associated with ephemeral gully progression.

  9. The non-layering of gravel streambeds under ephemeral flood regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronne, Jonathan B.; Reid, Ian; Yitshak, Yitshak; Frostick, Lynne E.

    1994-07-01

    The two-layer format common to perennial streambeds, in which a relatively coarse armour overlies a finer subarmour, develops as a function of both the ingress and subsequent near-surface winnowing of interstitial material and the selective non-entrainment or slower transport velocity of coarse clasts. Ephemeral streams appear to lack such vertical layering or are characterized by weak layer development. Some of this may be due to the degree of mixing associated with the scour-and-fill process. However, continuous monitoring of bedload discharge in the Nahal Yatir in the northern Negev Desert reveals that sediment transport rates are extremely high so that the chance of armour layer development through selective non-entrainment is much reduced. Indeed, a comparison of the bedload and bed material size-distributions confirms a high degree of similarity and hints at equal mobility regardless of clast size. The monitoring programme also indicates that the bed becomes highly mobile at comparatively modest fluid shear, so that practically all floods are associated with high transport rates. Consequently, the winnowing that might be brought about by low transport-rate events does not occur. Even within a single event, winnowing is precluded by the rapid nature of flow recession that is so characteristic of flash-floods. The high degree of bed material mobility is attributable, in part, to the lack of strength that would otherwise be a corollary of armour development. However, it also highlights the divergent nature of the feedback loops that govern the relationship between flow and channel deposit in ephemeral and perennial systems.

  10. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Shah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc. it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as one in a traditional archival domain. However, with the mass production and spread of digital objects, it may be difficult to do all the work manually. In the present article this problem is considered in the area of digital video preservation. We show how this problem can be formulated and propose a framework for capturing contextual infor­mation for ephemeral digital video preservation. This proposal is realized in a system called ContextMiner, which allows us to cater to a digital curator's needs with its four components: digital video curation, collection visualization, browsing interfaces, and video harvesting and monitoring. While the issues and systems described here are geared toward digital videos, they can easily be applied to other kinds of digital objects.

  11. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-09

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction.

  12. Flaser and wavy bedding in ephemeral streams: a modern and an ancient example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.

    2000-10-01

    Flaser and wavy bedding are sedimentary structures characterized by alternating rippled sand and mud layers. These structures often are considered to form mostly in tidally influenced environments; published examples from fluvial environments are rare. Flaser and wavy bedding were found in two ephemeral stream deposits: the Jurassic Kayenta Formation and the modern wash in Seven Mile Canyon, both located in southeastern Utah, USA. These examples demonstrate that flaser bedding can form and be preserved in ephemeral streams.

  13. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.; Datry, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are

  14. 37 CFR 262.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 262.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) Basic royalty rate. Royalty rates and fees for eligible nonsubscription...

  15. Communication: an ophthalmic practice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, S J

    1995-12-01

    In the 1990's communication becomes an ophthalmic practice issue. The present ophthalmic climate of cost containment, downsizing, budget cuts, and lack of appreciation of contributions, results in a low staff morale. Recognition of the effects of job satisfaction and productivity led one group to seek solutions. A communication task force was formed to identify problems and the appropriate interventions.

  16. Uncertainty Communication. Issues and good practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloprogge, P.; Van der Sluijs, J.; Wardekker, A.

    2007-12-01

    In 2003 the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) published the RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication. The Guidance assists in dealing with uncertainty in environmental assessments. Dealing with uncertainty is essential because assessment results regarding complex environmental issues are of limited value if the uncertainties have not been taken into account adequately. A careful analysis of uncertainties in an environmental assessment is required, but even more important is the effective communication of these uncertainties in the presentation of assessment results. The Guidance yields rich and differentiated insights in uncertainty, but the relevance of this uncertainty information may vary across audiences and uses of assessment results. Therefore, the reporting of uncertainties is one of the six key issues that is addressed in the Guidance. In practice, users of the Guidance felt a need for more practical assistance in the reporting of uncertainty information. This report explores the issue of uncertainty communication in more detail, and contains more detailed guidance on the communication of uncertainty. In order to make this a 'stand alone' document several questions that are mentioned in the detailed Guidance have been repeated here. This document thus has some overlap with the detailed Guidance. Part 1 gives a general introduction to the issue of communicating uncertainty information. It offers guidelines for (fine)tuning the communication to the intended audiences and context of a report, discusses how readers of a report tend to handle uncertainty information, and ends with a list of criteria that uncertainty communication needs to meet to increase its effectiveness. Part 2 helps writers to analyze the context in which communication takes place, and helps to map the audiences, and their information needs. It further helps to reflect upon anticipated uses and possible impacts of the uncertainty information on the

  17. Hashtagging Politics: Transnational Anti-Fracking Movement Twitter Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E. Hopke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I examine a 2-week window into an environmental movement trying to gain traction in the public sphere, centered on a transnational day of action calling for a ban on the drilling technology, high-volume hydraulic fracturing, the Global Frackdown. Twitter serves a different purpose for the anti-fracking Global Frackdown movement than other Internet-based communications, most notably email listservs. Findings show that Global Frackdown tweeters engage in framing practices of movement convergence and solidarity, declarative and targeted engagement, prefabricated messaging, and multilingual tweeting. In contrast to Global Frackdown tweeters’ use of the platform for in-the-moment communication, Global Frackdown activists report in in-depth interviews that they place more emphasis on private (i.e., listservs communication channels for longer term, durable movement building. The episodic, crowdsourced, and often personalized, transnational framing practices of Global Frackdown tweeters support core organizers’ goal of promoting the globalness of activism to ban fracking. This research extends past scholarship on socially mediated activism by providing a case study of how environmental activists use Twitter for ephemeral movement communication during a pre-planned transnational day of action, blurring internal movement collective identity-building and affirmation with publicly enacted strategic framing.

  18. CREATIVE PRACTICES IN DEVELOPING INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila M. Andryukhina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article is concerned with the topical problem of extending intercultural communicative competence in the educational process. Materials and Methods: the authors made a theoretical and empirical analysis of domestic and foreign research and analytical reports prepared in the framework of international projects, the activity of non-governmental organisations, in particular the activities of Sverdlovsk regiona l public organisation “Friends of France”. Results: it is proven that intercultural competence cannot be fully developed by traditional forms of education, and even the existing current innovative experience in this area is insufficient. The integration of education becomes a crucial factor. The article describes the creative educational practices of such integration as the conditions for broadening intercultural communicative competence. The basic characteristics of creative practices are described. Сreative practices being integrated fo rm a creative platform. Discussion and Conclusions: the system of conditions and means for broadening intercultural communicative competence is in constant development. The authors propose to consider the communicative competence as a system of creative practices transformed in the course of elaboration into creative platforms, expanding in the process of intercultural dialogue. This is a promising way to achieve the comprehensive result – completeness of integrated multi-component structure of the intercultural co mmunicative competence.

  19. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  20. 37 CFR 380.3 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public... EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 380.3 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) Royalty rates and fees for eligible digital transmissions of sound recordings made...

  1. Communication Practices in Technology Companies.

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Ruth; Gallagher, Marc

    2016-01-01

    It is contended that the skills or competencies that are required of business graduates by technology companies, range from the ability to communicate complex information about global issues in ways that are accessible to and connect with the general public, to problem-solving and project-based interaction. This represents a shift in the type of communication practice that now characterises the technology company, with its main focus on “agile” frameworks of teamwork. This report examines the...

  2. Governance, legislation and protection of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institutions and processes governing the conveyance and control of water have a long history. In this chapter, we discuss the extent to which water governance systems consider the management of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) and identify where research could inf...

  3. Effects of electronic communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, WJ; Moorman, PW; Koppejan-Mulder, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight into the effects of electronic communication on GPs by studying those publications in literature describing the effects of structured electronic clinical communication in general practice. Methods: We retrieved all publications in the English language indexed in MEDLINE

  4. [Teaching doctor-patient communication - a proposal in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Irene P; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Pais, Vanessa G; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Teles, Ana; Almeida, Susana S; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, doctor-patient communication was considered a matter of and , and a topic for informal learning. Recently, studies have shown the importance of communication skills in medical practice. Doctor-patient communication skills, such as knowing how to listen, how to observe, and how to inform are today considered important components of Medical Education, although they are often difficult to integrate in Medical Curricula. In the current work, the authors describe the program of Communication in the Doctor-Patient Relationship, initiated in 2001 in the Medical School of the University of Porto, part of its undergraduate program. Future studies will allow us to assess the effectiveness of the learning and application of these skills in clinical practice.

  5. Hydroregime prediction models for ephemeral groundwater-driven sinkhole wetlands: a planning tool for climate change and amphibian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Greenberg; S. Goodrick; J. D. Austin; B. R. Parresol

    2015-01-01

    Hydroregimes of ephemeral wetlands affect reproductive success of many amphibian species and are sensitive to altered weather patterns associated with climate change.We used 17 years of weekly temperature, precipitation, and waterdepth measurements for eight small, ephemeral, groundwaterdriven sinkhole wetlands in Florida sandhills to develop a hydroregime predictive...

  6. The Peronist festival: pathways and appropriations between photography, ephemeral architecture and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marchionni Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing some of the scenarios, photos, and posters used by the Peronist administration and explain their incidence in wine festivals and their imaginary construction after World War II. This proposal examines the relation between photography and ephemeral architecture mediated by political power, as a part of the strategies developed by the Peronist propaganda apparatus to feed the imaginary surrounding the ‘New Argentina.’ At this particular historical moment, the graphic and photographic records taken into account are a gateway to analyze the ephemeral phenomena that cannot be resumed otherwise. The methodological strategy used is qualitative and exploratory, and its design has a flexible nature. Although these testimonies, reflected in the sources described, do not give us back the possibility of being in direct contact to these experiences, they do allow us to access the set of desires, tensions, frustrations, expectations, debates, the achievements and failures, through which the scenic architecture projects were formulated and developed.   Keywords: Photographic Archives; Ephemeral Architecture; Harvest Festival; Power Relationships; Peronism.   Original title: La fiesta peronista: recorridos y apropiaciones entre fotografía, arquitectura efímera y poder político.

  7. Gender Representation in Communication Education and Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, and perhaps many countries in Africa and the world, gender may neither be equally represented nor fairly portrayed in communication education and practice. This makes finding answers to the following questions critical: What is the participation of women and men in communication training and education in ...

  8. Coaching and feedback: enhancing communication teaching and learning in veterinary practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cindy L; Kurtz, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Communication is a critical clinical skill closely linked to clinical reasoning, medical problem solving, and significant outcomes of care such as accuracy, efficiency, supportiveness, adherence to treatment plans, and client and veterinarian satisfaction. More than 40 years of research on communication and communication education in human medicine and, more recently, in veterinary medicine provide a substantive rationale for formal communication teaching in veterinary education. As a result, veterinary schools are beginning to invest in communication training. However, if communication training is to result in development of veterinary communication skills to a professional level of competence, there must be follow-through with effective communication modeling and coaching in practice settings. The purpose of this article is to move the communication modeling and coaching done in the "real world" of clinical practice to the next level. The development of skills for communication coaching and feedback is demanding. We begin by comparing communication coaching with what is required for teaching other clinical skills in practice settings. Examining both, what it takes to teach others (whether DVM students or veterinarians in practice for several years) and what it takes to enhance one's own communication skills and capacities, we consider the why, what, and how of communication coaching. We describe the use of teaching instruments to structure this work and give particular attention to how to engage in feedback sessions, since these elements are so critical in communication teaching and learning. We consider the preconditions necessary to initiate and sustain communication skills training in practice, including the need for a safe and supportive environment within which to implement communication coaching and feedback. Finally we discuss the challenges and opportunities unique to coaching and to building and delivering communication skills training in practice

  9. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  10. Accuracy of topographic index models at identifying ephemeral gully trajectories on agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Hutchinson, Stacy L.

    2018-04-01

    Topographic index (TI) models have been widely used to predict trajectories and initiation points of ephemeral gullies (EGs) in agricultural landscapes. Prediction of EGs strongly relies on the selected value of critical TI threshold, and the accuracy depends on topographic features, agricultural management, and datasets of observed EGs. This study statistically evaluated the predictions by TI models in two paired watersheds in Central Kansas that had different levels of structural disturbances due to implemented conservation practices. Four TI models with sole dependency on topographic factors of slope, contributing area, and planform curvature were used in this study. The observed EGs were obtained by field reconnaissance and through the process of hydrological reconditioning of digital elevation models (DEMs). The Kernel Density Estimation analysis was used to evaluate TI distribution within a 10-m buffer of the observed EG trajectories. The EG occurrence within catchments was analyzed using kappa statistics of the error matrix approach, while the lengths of predicted EGs were compared with the observed dataset using the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) statistics. The TI frequency analysis produced bi-modal distribution of topographic indexes with the pixels within the EG trajectory having a higher peak. The graphs of kappa and NSE versus critical TI threshold showed similar profile for all four TI models and both watersheds with the maximum value representing the best comparison with the observed data. The Compound Topographic Index (CTI) model presented the overall best accuracy with NSE of 0.55 and kappa of 0.32. The statistics for the disturbed watershed showed higher best critical TI threshold values than for the undisturbed watershed. Structural conservation practices implemented in the disturbed watershed reduced ephemeral channels in headwater catchments, thus producing less variability in catchments with EGs. The variation in critical thresholds for all

  11. Recommendable Practices for Effective Nuclear Crisis Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee

    2011-01-01

    'Crisis communication' refers one of the activities done by the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) in order to protect the public and the environment from the possible harmful effects. As denoted by the BMU, German NRO, crisis communication is not only 'public information' or 'information for the public', but also communication between authorities in order to guarantee that public information is consistent. This study proposes some recommendable practices for developing a guideline of well-prepared nuclear crisis communication system, including its management framework, and for introducing good insights, based on the study of international aspects provided by relevant OECD/NEA WPGC (Working Group on Public Communication for Nuclear Regulatory Organizations)i working group

  12. Dialogical communication and empowering social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel

    2015-01-01

    How to succeed in facilitating for empowering processes within social work practice is a central topic in both theoretical discussions and regarding its principles in practice. With a particular focus on how dialogical communication can play a part in order to practice empowering social work, through this text the author frames HUSK as a project facilitating the underpinning humanistic approaches in social work. Dialogical communication and its philosophical base is presented and recognized as a means to achieve empowering social work as well as highlighting the importance of the humanistic approach. The author also underscores how HUSK projects in themselves were enabled because of the required collaboration between service users, professionals, and researchers that signified HUSK. This is pinpointed as having potential for a future research agenda as well as pointing at how the outcomes of the projects may impact future social work practice when the goal is to conduct empowering social work.

  13. Why practitioners do (not) apply crisis communication theory in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, An-Sofie; Opgenhaffen, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five in-depth interviews with Belgian crisis communication practitioners were conducted to examine the gap between theory and practice. Crisis communication has become an important research area within public relations. Several studies have resulted in theories and guidelines regarding the effective use of communication during organizational crises. Unfortunately, these findings are not always put into practice. This study examines to what extent public relations practitioners apply th...

  14. The traditional, the innovative, the ephemeral: conception, realization, intervention in contemporary art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional, the innovative, the ephemeral: conception, realization, intervention in contemporary art. One must consider the traditional, the innovative and also the ephemeral related to the artistic intentions and thus to the interventions on works of contemporary art, for which the concepts of originality and authenticity do not always correspond. The Brandian vision and point of view do not completely resolve the problematics relative to restoration and conservation: artists realize their artifacts with the intention of undermining tradition or, however, of interpreting it in an unusual way. There are, therefore, cases when a diagnostic-analytical and conservative intervention is possible correspondently to the different and numerous typologies of the materials (poor, plastic, industrial and techniques (collage, enamel on rubber foam, paint on textile or plastic, neon. A vocation for the ephemeral can be transformed into the adoption of deteriorated materials or into the realization of works of conceptual art and net-art. Some case studies are treated in the comparison of art works of different age. The solutions to the aforementioned problematics are offered and the importance of the involvement of the historical-technical experts, authors and manufacturers of the materials used in the artifacts is highlighted. Finally the procedure of intervention cannot be the same for all works of contemporary art. One must employ a methodology based on the critical study, not only of the materials used but also of the philosophy and creative conceptual intentions of the artist.

  15. Transfer-of-Care Communication: Nursing Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Robin; Makary, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    The successful and safe transfer of the patient from one phase of care to another is contingent on optimal communication by all team members. Nurses are often in a natural leadership position to improve safe practices during hand overs. A holistic understanding of the patient allows the perioperative nurse the opportunity to identify issues and choose a nursing diagnosis based on key elements of a patient's needs and goals--information that should be relayed during patient transfers. This article reviews best practices in transfer-of-care communication to enable perioperative RNs to take an active, leading role in hand-over processes. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating sediment transport in flood-driven ephemeral tributaries using direct and acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K.

    2017-12-01

    One common source of uncertainty in sediment transport modeling of large semi-arid rivers is sediment influx delivered by ephemeral, flood-driven tributaries. Large variations in sediment delivery are associated with these regimes due to the highly variable nature of flows within them. While there are many sediment transport equations, they are typically developed for perennial streams and can be inaccurate for ephemeral channels. Discrete, manual sampling is labor intensive and requires personnel to be on site during flooding. In addition, flooding within these tributaries typically last on the order of hours, making it difficult to be present during an event. To better understand these regimes, automated systems are needed to continuously sample bedload and suspended load. In preparation for the pending installation of an automated site on the Arroyo de los Piños in New Mexico, manual sediment and flow samples have been collected over the summer monsoon season of 2017, in spite of the logistical challenges. These data include suspended and bedload sediment samples at the basin outlet, and stage and precipitation data from throughout the basin. Data indicate a complex system; flow is generated primarily in areas of exposed bedrock in the center and higher elevations of the watershed. Bedload samples show a large coarse-grained fraction, with 50% >2 mm and 25% >6 mm, which is compatible with acoustic measuring techniques. These data will be used to inform future site operations, which will combine direct sediment measurement from Reid-type slot samplers and non-invasive acoustic measuring methods. Bedload will be indirectly monitored using pipe-style microphones, plate-style geophones, channel hydrophones, and seismometers. These instruments record vibrations and acoustic signals from bedload impacts and movement. Indirect methods for measuring of bedload have never been extensively evaluated in ephemeral channels in the southwest United States. Once calibrated

  17. Investigation of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion on arable land of the forest-steppe and steppe zone of the East of the Russian Plain from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoncheva, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Spatio-temporal estimation of the erosion of arable soils is still an urgent task, in spite of the numerous methods of such assessments. Development of information technologies, the emergence of high and ultra-high resolution images allows reliable identification of linear forms of erosion to determine its dynamics on arable land. The study drew attention to the dynamics of the most active erosion unit - an ephemeral gully. The estimation of the dynamics was carried out on the basis of different space images for the maximum possible period (from 1986 to 2016). The cartographic method was used as the main research method. Identification of a belt of ephemeral gully erosion based on materials of multi-zone space surveys and GIS-technology of their processing was carried out. In the course of work with satellite imagery and subsequent verification of the received data on the ground, the main signs of deciphering the ephemeral gully network were determined. A methodology for geoinformation mapping of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion belt was developed and a system of indicators quantitatively characterizing its development on arable slopes was proposed. The evaluation of the current ephemeral gully network based on the interpretation of space images includes the definition of such indicators of ephemeral gully erosion as the density of the ephemeral gully net, the density of the ephemeral gullies, the area and linear dynamics of the ephemeral gully network. Preliminary results of the assessment of the dynamics of the belt erosion showed an increase in all quantitative indicators of ephemeral gully erosion for the observed period.

  18. Practising science communication in the information age theorising professional practices

    CERN Document Server

    Holliman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of open access on science communication? How can scientists effectively engage and interact with the public? What role can science communication have when scientific controversies arise? Practising science communication in the information age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading scholars and practitioners of science communication. It considers how scientists communicate with each other as part of their professional practice, critically evaluating how this forms the basis of the documenting of scientific knowledge, and investigating how open access publication and open review are influencing current practices. It also explores how science communication can play a crucial role when science is disputed, investigating the role of expertise in the formation of scientific controversy and consensus. The volume provides a theoretically informed review of contemporary trends and issues that are engaging practitioners of science communication, focusing on issues such as the norms...

  19. Mobile Communication and Work Practices in Knowledge-based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hurme

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile communication, mobile tools and work practices in the context of organizations, especially knowledge-based organizations. Today, organizations are highly complex and diverse. Not surprisingly, various solutions to incorporating mobile tools and mobile communication in organizations have been devised. Challenges to technological development and research on mobile communication are presented.

  20. Communicating the Future: Best Practices for Communication of Science and Technology to the Public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Gail

    2002-09-30

    To advance the state of the art in science and technology communication to the public a conference was held March 6-8, 2002 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. This report of the conference proceedings includes a summary statement by the conference steering committee, transcripts or other text summarizing the remarks of conference speakers, and abstracts for 48 "best practice" communications programs selected by the steering committee through an open competition and a formal peer review process. Additional information about the 48 best practice programs is available on the archival conference Web site at www.nist.gov/bestpractices.

  1. Teaching and training for global engineering perspectives on culture and professional communication practices

    CERN Document Server

    Flammia, Madelyn

    2016-01-01

    Provides a foundation for understanding a range of linguistic, cultural, and technological factors to effectively practice international communication in a variety of professional communication arenas This book presents a range of perspectives, examples, and concepts for teaching international professional communication in different settings. Industry professionals and academic researchers alike have written entries for Teaching and Training for Global Engineering: Perspectives on Culture and Professional Communication Practices, which have been organized into four cohesive, context-based sections that examine central issues associated with offering effective instruction on communication in global settings. The first section presents approaches for teaching issues of language and visual design related to international communication. The second section reviews aspects of software use and ethical practices associated with communicating globally. The third ection discusses how educators can use information a...

  2. Modeling ephemeral gully erosion from unpaved roads: Equifinality and implications for scenario analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling gully erosion in urban areas is challenging due to difficulties with equifinality and parameter identification, which complicates quantification of management impacts on runoff and sediment production. We calibrated a model (AnnAGNPS) of an ephemeral gully network that formed on unpaved ro...

  3. Communication course for midwives teaching students in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Pernille Mølholt

    taking place in clinical practice and try to align the educational efforts in school and clinical settings for the benefit of the students PERSPECTIVES It is known that students in medical education find that clinical learning experiences do not reinforce the communication skills they learn pre......-clinically (Rosenbaum et al. 2013) and our own experience teaching Danish midwifery students indicates the same problem in our program. Providing an opportunity for the clinical teachers to learn, discuss and practice communication issues with each other and with theoretical teachers can represent an important...

  4. [Effect of doctor-patient communication education on oral clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tang, Yu; He, Yan; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of doctor-patient communication education on dental clinical practice. The process of 61 dental interns' clinical practice was divided into two stages. The dental interns were taught with traditional teaching method in the first stage. Doctor-patient communication and communication skill training were added to the second stage. Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by themselves after two stages. The SEGUE frame work was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by teachers after two stages. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. The result of scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was analyzed using Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The score of the SEGUE frame work was analyzed using Student's t test. The result of Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior showed only 37.71% of dental interns could establish good doctor-patient relationship in the first stage. After doctor-patient communication and communication skill training, the percentage became 75.4%. The result of the SEGUE frame work showed the score was raised from 16.066±3.308 to 21.867±2.456, and a significant difference was found between the two stages. Doctor-Patient communication education can improve dental interns' communication skills and help to establish a good doctor-patient relationship.

  5. Effective Organisational Communication: Perspectives, principles and practices (4th edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard; Ippolito, Kate; Donnarumma, David

    2013-01-01

    Effective Organisational Communication gives students from all backgrounds the tools to communicate both within and between organisations of all kinds. With thorough coverage of the theoretical background of organisational communication, as well as practical content that helps readers develop their own communication skills, this is the perfect resource for those who want to improve their ability to work effectively with others. \\ud \\ud This heavily revised fourth edition reflects the rapidly ...

  6. Communicating Effectively in Pediatric Cancer Care: Translating Evidence into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Blazin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential to the practice of pediatric oncology. Clear and empathic delivery of diagnostic and prognostic information positively impacts the ways in which patients and families cope. Honest, compassionate discussions regarding goals of care and hopes for patients approaching end of life can provide healing when other therapies have failed. Effective communication and the positive relationships it fosters also can provide comfort to families grieving the loss of a child. A robust body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of optimal communication for patients, families, and healthcare providers. This review aims to identify key communication skills that healthcare providers can employ throughout the illness journey to provide information, encourage shared decision-making, promote therapeutic alliance, and empathically address end-of-life concerns. By reviewing the relevant evidence and providing practical tips for skill development, we strive to help healthcare providers understand the value of effective communication and master these critical skills.

  7. A Listener's Perspective: Using Communication Theory and Practice to Reframe Persuasion in the Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Kellie L.; Wright, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is presented throughout the communication curriculum, from the introductory public speaking course to upper-level courses devoted to communication theory and advanced study of persuasion. Within the progression of these courses, there is often a shift in emphasis from practice to theory. For example, the public speaking course is…

  8. Theoretical foundations of intercultural business communication and their practical consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikhart Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural business communication is well researched regarding theoretical foundations; however, we still lack practical consequences of this theoretical enquiry. The aim of the paper is to bring crucial practical implications which could be efficiently used in everyday business activity (such as negotiations, advertising and meetings in the current global business environment. The current reality of business communication is based purely on interaction with people from other cultures, backgrounds, nations and continents. To communicate successfully we make surface adaptation so that we are able to cross cultural boundaries and transcendent culture, and not only survive in today multicultural society but we manage to prosper, and even economically. When being aware of the differences in rhetoric style and conversational style in various cultures, we can become better communicators and negotiators and therefore be more successful in the global market.

  9. "Fundamental communication skills in medical practice" as minor elective subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalihić, Amra; Černi Obrdalj, Edita

    2014-01-01

    Poor and inadequate communication affects the therapeutic relationship between doctors and patients. Guided by this idea, we organized a minor elective course entitled "communication skills". We wanted to bring closer to the students the holistic approach of the family physician to the patient, the importance of the family, its impact on the patient and vice versa, and the significance of the local community and its influence on an individual's health. The aim of this article is to explain how we organized this elective course. The course was organized in the form of 12 hours of theory (3 lectures and 9 seminars) and 24 hours of practical training. There were 26 students from all years. Through theory, and even more through the practical part the students met with different types of patients. At the end of the course, students in lower years were evaluated by means of an interview, and graduate students through a practical test - a conversation with a patient. The initial results, including the students' grading of this course, were highly encouraging. Both teachers and students were highly satisfied on completion of the course. Content on communication training is rare in teaching. Practicing communication skills will empower the doctor - patient therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Critical reflections on the theory versus practice debate in communication for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linje Manyozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the cliché ‘theory is practice’ registers in most communication for development debates, available evidence seems to suggest there is a growing chasm between the theory and practice of communication for development. This discussion argues that, with the increasing demand by governments and organisations for communication for development specialists, universities and training providers should rethink their graduate curricula. As course content, teaching methodologies and theoretical paradigms are revisited, trainers need to grill students on how the contestation of power is central to the application of communication in development. This paper advances two arguments. The first is that communication for development training has to begin listening to the innovative thinking that is shaping practice on the ground if the curriculum is to stay relevant. The second is that such programmes have forge strong linkages with development studies departments to ensure that students are well-grounded in development theory and practice.

  11. Estimating groundwater-ephemeral stream exchange in hyper-arid environments: Field experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Vasilevskiy, Peter Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Surface water infiltration from ephemeral dryland streams is particularly important in hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions. However, streamflow transmission losses can vary significantly, partly due to spatiotemporal variations in streambed permeability. To extend our understanding of changes in streambed hydraulic properties, field investigations of streambed hydraulic conductivity were conducted in an ephemeral dryland stream in north-western China during high and low streamflow periods. Additionally, streamflow transmission losses were numerically estimated using combined stream and groundwater hydraulic head data and stream and streambed temperature data. An analysis of slug test data at two different river flow stages (one test was performed at a low river stage with clean water and the other at a high river stage with muddy water) suggested that sedimentation from fine-grained particles, i.e., physical clogging processes, likely led to a reduction in streambed hydraulic properties. To account for the effects of streambed clogging on changes in hydraulic properties, an iteratively increasing total hydraulic resistance during the slug test was considered to correct the estimation of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The stream and streambed temperature can also greatly influence the hydraulic properties of the streambed. One-dimensional coupled water and heat flux modelling with HYDRUS-1D was used to quantify the effects of seasonal changes in stream and streambed temperature on streamflow losses. During the period from 6 August 2014 to 4 June 2015, the total infiltration estimated using temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity accounted for approximately 88% of that using temperature-independent hydraulic conductivity. Streambed clogging processes associated with fine particle settling/wash up cycles during flow events, and seasonal changes in streamflow temperature are two considerable factors that affect water

  12. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  13. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  14. Report from risk communication practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) set up a phone consulting service early after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and inquiries to the service attained over 14,000 at August end, 2011. This paper describes the process, present state and future view of the risk communication based on experiences through the service. The communication is classified in 3 stages of consensus/care in peacetime, crisis, and consensus/care post disaster. The first one contains the consensus of atomic power policy and provision of its information; the second, of evacuation/indoor evacuation and indication of restricted water and food intake; and the third, communication for changes and standard of radiation related matters. Initial inquiries to the NIRS service were many concerning examinations of radiation screening, decontamination and internal exposure, from inside and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, suggesting the concern had been spread to remote area from the Prefecture. Then, the time needed per inquiry/consultation prolonged, implying the wish for solving the concern. The risk communication and consideration for realizing radiation risk at peacetime might have rather unrealistic, which was thought to be the major cause of problems at crisis. In addition, interpretation of various values relating to radiation had been apparently different from expert to expert, and findings by radiation effects and rules of radiation protection had been confusedly understood, which probably influenced on people's correct understanding. However, it is conceivably a fruit of taken risk communication that the past understanding ''radiation, unseeable, is terrible'' has changed to the current understanding ''protection can be done through risk assessment of radiation, measurable''. Hereafter, important are the practical use of various numerical values officially informed and realization of dose through exposure routes, and dispatch of their integrated information to lessen the

  15. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  16. Practical science communication strategies for graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D

    2014-10-01

    Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will

  17. Bovine Ephemeral Fever pada ternak sapi potong di Kabupaten Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfarisa Nururrozi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF or three days sickness is one of the most common disease in cattle. The disease is caused by rhabdoviridae virus transmitted through mosquito as a vectors. This paper aims to determine the incidence of BEF cases in Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta. Diagnoses BEF based on information collected through the anamnesis from owner and the results of clinical examination. 134 (48% from 277 cows were examined in the Gunungkidul district period October-November 2016 diagnosed BEF. Clinical signs were found consist of anorexia 111 cases (34%, hyperthermia 99 cases (31%, lameness 42 cases (13%, cow downer 31 cases (10%, nasal discharge 35 cases (11% and hypersalivation 6 cases (2%. Bovine Ephemeral Fever mayority reported on the second day of the disease progression by 67 cases (42%. The most common therapy used combinations of antipyretics, antibiotics and vitamins were 45 cases (33%. Based on the information from the farmers, the treatment has given good results and absence of the absence of post-treatment recurrence

  18. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston C Chandler

    Full Text Available The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi, a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014 of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis. Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions.

  19. Study on Students' Impression Data in Practical Training Using Text Mining Method-Analysis of Considerable Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramachi, Hitomi; Sugita, Ikuto; Ino, Yoko; Hayashi, Yuta; Yoshida, Aki; Otsubo, Manami; Ueno, Anri; Katsuno, Hayato; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Tachi, Tomoya

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed impression data and the scale of communication skills of students using text mining method to clarify which area a student was conscious of in communication in practical training. The results revealed that students tended to be conscious of the difference between practical hospital training and practical pharmacy training. In practical hospital training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient-visit", "counseling-conduct", "patient-counseling", and "patient-talk". In practical pharmacy training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient counseling-conduct", "story-listen", "patient-many", and "patient-visit". In practical hospital training, the word "patient" was connected to many words suggesting that students were conscious of a patient-centered communication. In practical pharmacy training, words such as "patient counseling", "patient", and "explanation" were placed in center and connected with many other words and there was an independent relationship between "communication" and "accept". In conclusion, it was suggested that students attempted active patient-centered communication in practical hospital training, while they were conscious of listening closely in patient counseling in practical pharmacy training.

  20. Successful and practical intercultural communication techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dresser, Cynthia H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will describe the author's approach in teaching students to use a variety of language and communication skills to improve participation and success in cross-cultural situations. including networking techniques. how to attract useful language. and how to impact a situation while still learning the language. It will provide the audience with practical suggestions through the use of humor and examples. Appropriate for language teachers as well as for business prof...

  1. Anytime-Anywhere? Mobile Communicative Practices and the Management of Relationships in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Becerra, Tabita Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines how mobile practices of social-media use are integrated into individuals' everyday lives as a way to manage their relationships. Mobile communication technologies and social-media use intersect in people's everyday communicative practices, allowing individuals to engage in continuous interactions that take place on the…

  2. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING AND ITS MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE PRACTICE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Diana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Communicative Language Teaching (CLT has been accepted as one of the teaching methods by numerous language teachers due to its major focus on developing learners’ communicative competence. This paper aims to describe communicative language teaching, misinterpretations about its practice and the factors leading to teachers’ misconceptions. It shows four misinterpreted beliefs of the implementation of communicative language teaching: communicative skills, teacher’s role in communicative activities, fluency and accuracy as the main goals and teaching techniques. It then presents three reasons that might lead to teachers’ misinterpretations concerning the practice of CLT. Teachers do not have enough training and  adequate resources.

  3. International survey for good practices in forecasting uncertainty assessment and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Lionel; Piotte, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Achieving technically sound flood forecasts is a crucial objective for forecasters but remains of poor use if the users do not understand properly their significance and do not use it properly in decision making. One usual way to precise the forecasts limitations is to communicate some information about their uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment and communication to stakeholders are thus important issues for operational flood forecasting services (FFS) but remain open fields for research. French FFS wants to publish graphical streamflow and level forecasts along with uncertainty assessment in near future on its website (available to the greater public). In order to choose the technical options best adapted to its operational context, it carried out a survey among more than 15 fellow institutions. Most of these are providing forecasts and warnings to civil protection officers while some were mostly working for hydroelectricity suppliers. A questionnaire has been prepared in order to standardize the analysis of the practices of the surveyed institutions. The survey was conducted by gathering information from technical reports or from the scientific literature, as well as 'interviews' driven by phone, email discussions or meetings. The questionnaire helped in the exploration of practices in uncertainty assessment, evaluation and communication. Attention was paid to the particular context within which every insitution works, in the analysis drawn from raw results. Results show that most services interviewed assess their forecasts uncertainty. However, practices can differ significantly from a country to another. Popular techniques are ensemble approaches. They allow to take into account several uncertainty sources. Statistical past forecasts analysis (such as the quantile regressions) are also commonly used. Contrary to what was expected, only few services emphasize the role of the forecaster (subjective assessment). Similar contrasts can be observed in uncertainty

  4. FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of

  5. "Best practice" for patient-centered communication: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ann; Hoppe, Ruth B

    2013-09-01

    Communicating with patients has long been identified as an important physician competency. More recently, there is a growing consensus regarding the components that define physician-patient communication. There continues to be emphasis on both the need to teach and to assess the communication skills of physicians. This narrative review aims to summarize the work that has been conducted in physician-patient communication that supports the efficacy of good communications skills. This work may also help to define the physician-patient communication skills that need to be taught and assessed. A review of the literature shows it contains impressive evidence supporting positive associations between physician communication behaviors and positive patient outcomes, such as patient recall, patient understanding, and patient adherence to therapy. There is a consensus about what constitutes "best practice" for physician communication in medical encounters: (1) fostering the relationship, (2) gathering information, (3) providing information, (4) making decisions, (5) responding to emotions, and (6) enabling disease- and treatment-related behavior. Evidence supports the importance of communication skills as a dimension of physician competence. Effort to enhance teaching of communication skills to medical trainees likely will require significant changes in instruction at undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as changes in assessing the developing communication skills of physicians. An added critical dimension is faculty understanding of the importance of communication skills, and their commitment to helping trainees develop those skills.

  6. Practical Provably Secure Multi-node Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Omar; Ayoub, Mahmoud F.; Youssef, Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    We present a practical and provably-secure multimode communication scheme in the presence of a passive eavesdropper. The scheme is based on a random scheduling approach that hides the identity of the transmitter from the eavesdropper. This random scheduling leads to ambiguity at the eavesdropper with regard to the origin of the transmitted frame. We present the details of the technique and analyze it to quantify the secrecy-fairness-overhead trade-off. Implementation of the scheme over Crossb...

  7. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-09-30

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.

  8. Communication practices and political engagement with climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Anabela; Wessel, van Margit; Maeseele, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we call for a refocusing of research on citizens’ political engagement with climate change. In doing so, we argue that communication practices not only help create the conditions for political engagement but they also comprise the modes of such engagement. Our argument proceeds in

  9. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  10. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  11. Communication's Role in Safety Management and Performance for the Road Safety Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Keffane (s)

    2014-01-01

    Communication among organizations could play an important role in increasing road safety. To get in-depth knowledge of its role, this study measured managers' and employees' perceptions of the communication's role on six safety management and performance criteria for road safety practices by conducting a survey using a questionnaire among 165 employees and 135 managers. Path analysis using AMOS-19 software shows that some of the safety management road safety practices have high correlation wi...

  12. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-07-19

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  13. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  14. Examining Education Leadership Communication Practices around Basic and Advanced Skill Sets: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore and describe the leadership communication practices of school principals in Southern California schools with demonstrated high levels of academic performance in order to identify practices that might be replicated in other schools. Communication practices were studied in relation to two…

  15. Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zarytska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

  16. 37 CFR 10.34 - Communication of fields of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.34 Communication of fields of practice. A registered... who is an attorney may use the designation “Patents,” “Patent Attorney,” “Patent Lawyer,” “Registered...

  17. Teaching communications skills to medical students: Introducing the fine art of medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta

    2015-08-01

    Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.

  18. Evaluation of Fourth-Year Veterinary Students' Client Communication Skills: Recommendations for Scaffolded Instruction and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brenda J; Kedrowicz, April A

    Effective client communication is important for success in veterinary practice. The purpose of this project was to describe one approach to communication training and explore fourth-year veterinary students' communication skills through an evaluation of their interactions with clients during a general practice rotation. Two raters coded 20 random videotaped interactions simultaneously to assess students' communication, including their ability to initiate the session, incorporate open-ended questions, listen reflectively, express empathy, incorporate appropriate nonverbal communication, and attend to organization and sequencing. We provide baseline data that will guide future instruction in client communication. Results showed that students' communication skills require development. Half of the students sampled excelled at open-ended inquiry (n=10), and 40% (n=8) excelled at nonverbal communication. Students needed improvement on greeting clients by name and introducing themselves and their role (n=15), reflective listening (n=18), empathy (n=17), and organization and sequencing (n=18). These findings suggest that more focused instruction and practice is necessary in maintaining an organized structure, reflective listening, and empathy to create a relationship-centered approach to care.

  19. Practice and Conceptions: Communicating Mathematics in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Leigh N.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the experience of communication in the workplace for mathematics graduates with a view to enriching university curriculum. I broaden the work of Burton and Morgan (2000), who investigated the discourse practices of academic mathematicians to examine the discourse used by new mathematics graduates in industry and their…

  20. Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, George N.

    Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication--interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented--from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first…

  1. Communication is the key to success in pragmatic clinical trials in Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Susan; Graham, Deborah; Kurland, Marge; Pace, Wilson; Madison, Suzanne; Yawn, Barbara P

    2013-01-01

    Effective communication is the foundation of feasibility and fidelity in practice-based pragmatic research studies. Doing a study with practices spread over several states requires long-distance communication strategies, including E-mails, faxes, telephone calls, conference calls, and texting. Compared with face-to-face communication, distance communication strategies are less familiar to most study coordinators and research teams. Developing and ensuring comfort with distance communications requires additional time and use of different talents and expertise than those required for face-to-face communication. It is necessary to make sure that messages are appropriate for the medium, clearly crafted, and presented in a manner that facilitates practices receiving and understanding the information. This discussion is based on extensive experience of 2 groups who have worked collaboratively on several large, federally funded, pragmatic trials in a practice-based research network. The goal of this article is to summarize lessons learned to facilitate the work of other research teams.

  2. An ecohydrological stream type cassification of intermittent and ephemeral streams in the Southwestern United States 2397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral and intermittent streams are the predominant fluvial forms in arid and semi-arid environments. Various studies have shown biological and habitat diversity in these lands to be considerably higher along stream corridors in comparison to adjacent uplands, yet knowledge of how these streams f...

  3. Folklore and the Internet: The Challenge of an Ephemeral Landscape1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. Blank

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the lens of memetic folk humor, this essay examines the slippery, ephemeral nature of hybridized forms of contemporary digital folklore. In doing so, it is argued that scholars should not be distracted by the breakneck speed in which expressive materials proliferate and then dissipate but should instead focus on the overarching ways that popular culture and current news events infiltrate digital folk culture in the formation of individuals' cultural inventories. The process of transmission and variation that shapes the resulting hybridized folklore requires greater scrutiny and contextualization.

  4. A Virtual Practice Environment to Develop Communication Skills in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Kim; Duncan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop communication skills in second-year pharmacy students using a virtual practice environment (VPE) and to assess students’ and tutors’ (instructors’) experiences. Design. A VPE capable of displaying life-sized photographic and video images and representing a pharmacy setting was constructed. Students viewed prescriptions and practiced role-playing with each other and explored the use of nonverbal communication in patient-pharmacist interactions. The VPE experiences were complemented with lectures, reflective journaling, language and learning support, and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Assessment. Most students believed the VPE was a useful teaching resource (87%) and agreed that the video component enabled them to contextualize patient problems (73%). While 45% of students questioned the usefulness of watching the role plays between students after they were video recorded, most (90%) identified improvement in their own communication as a result of participating in the tutorials. Most tutors felt comfortable using the technology. Focus group participants found the modified tutorials more engaging and aesthetically positive than in their previous experience. Conclusion. The VPE provided an effective context for communication skills development classes. PMID:23275667

  5. Practices in communicating technical issues to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Storey, P.

    2006-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations of this session can be summarized this way. - Basic goal for the regulator is to protect the public and communication is a must to fully achieve this goal. - Regulator should become the prime source of information to the public and the media, regulator should base its actions upon values of competence, independence, transparency and stringency. - Set up of a Information and Communication Policy will help for consistency and efficiency. Policy will include setting goals, strategies, organisational aspects, procedures, and tools. Practices should be developed in accordance with local culture. - Challenges will consider transparency, public involvement and consultation with the stakeholders. - Practices will include in general: - Interactions with the media like press releases, news conferences, media workshops. Printed materials from plant periodical status reports, to periodical and annual reports and specific reports. Audio-visual materials. Use of radio and TV. Web site and electronic mail. - Method chosen depends on the targeted audience and the relevance of the topic. - Messages should be clearly understandable. Do not dehumanize the message by making it technically unintelligible. - Two excellent examples presented. How local culture and social characteristics were taken into account in designing and implementing plans is key for success. - Municipalities are to be considered as front line stakeholders. - Communicators role is relevant to meet regulatory needs. Good collaboration between communicators and technical staff produces benefits for the nuclear regulator and the public. (authors)

  6. Best practices for implementing, testing and using a cloud-based communication system in a disaster situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the basics for approaching the selection and implementation of a cloud-based communication system to support a business continuity programme, including: • consideration for how a cloud-based communication system can enhance a business continuity programme; • descriptions of some of the more popular features of a cloud-based communication system; • options to evaluate when selecting a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to design a system to be most effective for an organisation; • best practices for how to conduct the initial load of data to a cloud-based communication system; • best practices for how to conduct an initial validation of the data loaded to a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to keep contact information in the cloud-based communication system current and accurate; • best practices for conducting ongoing system testing; • considerations for how to conduct user training; • review of other potential uses of a cloud-based communication system; and • review of other tools and features many cloud-based communication systems may offer.

  7. Expectations of Graduate Communication Skills in Professional Veterinary Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi

    Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.

  8. The Transformative Power of Communication: Democratizing Practices for the General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynal, Kaitlyn

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the common communication practices of deliberation, discussion, delivery, and debate, for their democratizing potential through their greater inclusion in all general education classrooms. It argues that these tools are underutilized outside of communication classrooms but offer numerous benefits to teachers and students…

  9. From an Enclosure to the Corraleja. An Analysis of the Genesis of an Ephemeral and Vernacular Colombian Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Leserri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean region, human extraordinary ability to interpret nature’s functioning and mechanical language, has allowed man to manage and use, throughout history, natural elements to improve living conditions. In Architecture, technical-constructive knowledge development has enabled constructions of a temporary and stable nature. In fact, this research project begins with the relationship between the understanding of nature and the creation of Colombian vernacular architecture, which has led to a special and unique form of architecture such as the Corraleja. In this architecture, vernacular constructive tradition and ephemeral character are concurremt. This has been an object of interest due to its folkloric aspects, however, it has rarely been researched for its architecture. Currently, it is usually built only when its real spatial function is needed, becoming a place destined to contain the annual bullfighting-like festivities. In fact, its limited and cyclical permanence, gives it an ephemeral and also nomadic character since it is not always built, necessarily, in the same place. This research study begins by means of the importance of the vertical balance control of the alive branches nailed in the ground, still present in the whole Caribbean region through enclosures. This can be considered as a primordial action and conquest, and has allowed the realization of every vernacular construction. In Europe, the tradition of ephemeral architecture when there are some civil and religious festivities becomes stable architecture over time; bullfighting party in Spain is an emblematic case which is transformed into stable spaces such as bullrings. This tradition extends to the Spanish colony in America in the eighteenth century. In the Colombian Caribbean, for example, the bullfighting festival keeps an ephemeral character that is fed by a vernacular architectural tradition. In addition, existing literature on the vernacular theme

  10. The Discursive Construction of Organizational Knowledge – Communication Theoretical Issues and Practical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    as in organizational practice, two camps exist. One holds that knowledge is basically information, i.e. a knowledge-as-representation view, and that organizational knowledge, therefore, can be gathered, produced and/or communicated by means of documents, databases etc. The other camp favors the radically different...... a communication theoretical problem, pertaining to lack of conceptual consistency and clarity (although it surely is that); it is also a problem for organizational communication practice. For if organizational knowledge is discursively constructed as a ‘thing’ (as representation) then it can indeed be harvested...... view, the prevailing organizational discourse becomes one of logistics; according to the second view, it becomes one of enabling. Each discourse gives rise to the communicative construction of fundamentally different organizations – and not only as far as organizational knowledge is concerned. I...

  11. The Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communication Competence in Oral English Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the main problems and difficulties in current college English oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching…

  12. How do medical specialists value their own intercultural communication behaviour? A reflective practice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, E; Scheele, F; van Rossum, T R; Seeleman, M C; Scherpbier, A J J A; van Dulmen, A M

    2016-08-24

    Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how purposefully medical specialists think they practise intercultural communication and how they reflect on their own communication behaviour. Using reflective practice, 17 medical specialists independently watched two fragments of videotapes of their own outpatient consultations: one with a native patient and one with a non-native patient. They were asked to reflect on their own communication and on challenges they experience in intercultural communication. The interviews were open coded and analysed using thematic network analysis. The participants experienced only little differences in their communication with native and non-native patients. They mainly mentioned generic communication skills, such as listening and checking if the patient understood. Many participants experienced their communication with non-native patients positively. The participants mentioned critical incidences of intercultural communication: language barriers, cultural differences, the presence of an interpreter, the role of the family and the atmosphere. Despite extensive experience in intercultural communication, the participants of this study noticed hardly any differences between their own communication behaviour with native and non-native patients. This could mean that they are unaware that consultations with non-native patients might cause them to communicate differently than with native patients. The reason for this could be that medical specialists lack the skills to reflect on the process of the communication. The participants focused on their generic communication skills rather than on specific intercultural communication skills, which could either indicate their lack of awareness, or demonstrate that

  13. SHOULD I TEXT OR SHOULD I TALK? TRANSFORMATIONS OF COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICES BY MOBILE PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Praprotnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents contemporary transformations of communicative practices among individuals. Communication is a primary vehicle for establishing and maintaining relationships, so it is of vital importance to understand why we communicate in certain ways. The article firstly presents the global climate of modern relationships, which are conducted by social media platforms. The technological convergence of various devices provides additional support for reinforcing communication and networking. Features offered by new media devices (collaboration, networking are presented, along with current practices, which reflect certain problems at the level of usage. The relationship between society and technology is explored, and the fact that our usage of technologies is a reflection of society’s and individuals’ key understandings and orientations is stressed. In line with these remarks the article interprets modern conceptions of relationships that are becoming mere “connections”. Namely, our communication practices of text messaging and e-mailing are to a certain extent a reflection of contemporary orientations. Individuals may like a company, but nevertheless they like distance too. Our modern “connections” are therefore quite intentional. One of the article’s conclusions is that by using “poor” mobile devices (smartphones enable us to send messages of up to 160 characters we mask/disguise our own unpreparedness to engage in complex and “exhaustive” communication (i.e. face-to-face or phone call conversations. This way our own intentions can be ascribed to “poor” technology. We are not confronted with our own intention to be connected, but still at a distance. Additionally, the article also stresses other contextual factors for communication practices, from technological constraints to communicative norms. Nevertheless the usage of technologies is at our command and it reflects the type of relationships we are looking for.

  14. WE COULDN’T COMMUNICATE IN ENGLISH, COULD WE? THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH PRACTICES, A CRITICAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam DARWISH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a brief background of its history, Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLT will be critically evaluated as theoretical principles as well as its practice in teaching English as a foreign language in the Arab world. The field of language teaching has passed through many changes and shifts over the last few decades. Some suppose that the language instruction has at last come of age (Harper, Lively, and Williams, 1998; others consider it as the post-method area (Richards and Rodgers 2001. In general, it is thought that there is no one particular best method that achieves the goals and meets the needs of all learners and teachers. However, I believe that the flexibility of CLT explains why it can continue and dominate the teaching environments. The term Communicative approach is an umbrella for all teaching methods whose goals are improving students’ abilities to communicate. It embraces all kinds of teaching approaches. Most lessons presentations I have seen so far about Task Based Approach, Humanistic Approach and even Total Physical Response Method are communicative. There was communication between the teacher and the students or among students themselves. The purpose of my writing is to highlight some of the difficulties of the application of this approach in the Arab world especially Egypt although I do believe those points of weakness could be easily overcome by a few modifications and regulations. This article is divided into four main sections; the first is an introduction and a historical background about CLT. The second is the CLT theoretical principles with a critical view. The third is a critical evaluation of the CLT practice especially in the Arab World. Finally, there is a conclusion followed by references.

  15. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  16. Best practice in communications training for public engagement with science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bultitude

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective training in key communications skills is critical for successful public engagement. However, what are the secrets to designing and delivering an effectual training course? This paper outlines key findings from a research study into communication training programmes for public engagement with STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The research focused on training in direct communication methods, (as separate from media training and encompassed both trainers and trainees, the latter group spanning across both scientists and explainers. The findings indicated that training courses are effective at increasing involvement in science communication events and trainees feel more confident and able to engage due to training. An interactive style was found to be a key element of training courses. Demonstrations of good practice followed by own performance with feedback were also important, preferably involving a ‘real’ audience. A list of guidelines on best practice has been developed which offers practical advice.

  17. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... § 261.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) For the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital...

  18. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive communication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  19. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive com-munication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  20. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  1. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  2. The elephant in the prayer room. Exploring the non/ephemeral effects of racialized atmospheres and mood politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Hvenegaard-Lassen, Kirsten

    The elephant in the prayer-room. Exploring the non/ephemeral effects of racialized atmospheres and mood politics by Kirsten Hvenegård-Lassen, kirs@ruc.dk and Dorthe Staunæs dost@edu.au.dk In this paper, we zoom in on atmosphere and mood politics in order to discuss the dismissal of race and racism...... in a Danish context. We use the recent debate in the Danish Parliament concerning a state ban on “prayer-rooms” or multifaith-rooms in educational institutions as our point of departure. The now retired Vice-chancellor of Copenhagen University, declared that banning prayer-rooms was an example of what he...... in these debates. The naming of the prayer-room ban as ‘mood politics’ is worth pursuing: how is it that race matters become ephemeral and perhaps atmospheric? (Ahmed, 2014). We read the debate diffractively through the metaphor The elephant in the room (Barad, 2007; Haraway, 1997). This metaphor hints towards...

  3. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.; Dulmen, S. van; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Kramer, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication performance

  4. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.T.J.M.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Kramer, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication

  5. Moms and Media: Exploring the Effects of Online Communication on Infant Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Robert; McKeever, Brooke W

    2017-09-01

    Using a survey of mothers with young children (N = 455), this study applies Fishbein and Ajzen's reasoned action approach (RAA) to examine the relationship between online communication and infant feeding practices. Contrary to expectations, attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) did not fully mediate the relationship between time spent online and behavioral intentions. Our findings indicate a significant, direct, negative association between time spent online and breastfeeding intentions In this article, theoretical and practical implications for health communication are discussed.

  6. An Ephemeral Dinoflagellate Bloom during Summer Season in Nearshore Water of Puri, East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, Sanjiba Kumar; Dwivedi, Rashmin; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Jayashankar, Reeta; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Srichandan, Suchismita; Samanta, Alakes; Parida, Chandanlal; Srinivasakumar, Tummala; Sahu, Kali Charan

    2018-03-01

    The present paper reports on the phenomenon of pinkish-red discoloration of the nearshore water of Puri, Odisha on 12th May 2016. Many local newspapers covered this event, as Puri city is a major tourist and pilgrimage place on the east coast of India. Field observations were carried out in order to provide a scientific basis to the event and to elicit possible causes of this discoloration. Taxonomic analysis of the phytoplankton samples revealed the dominance of red colored dinoflagellate species Gonyaulax polygramma, contributing 90% to total phytoplankton population. The localized concentration of G. polygramma was responsible for the pinkish-red discoloration of nearshore water. The exact factor that lay behind the genesis of this bloom could not be delineated due to the short period of its persistence. But two factors - upwelling and anthropogenic nutrient influx - can be viewed as the main cause for this ephemeral bloom. Non-hypoxic conditions in the coastal water following the ephemeral bloom event indicated no significant risk of ecological deterioration to the ambient medium.

  7. Communication in Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-07-01

    The paper presents results from the 'Communication 2000' project within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) framework which aimed at developing methods as well as knowledge related to problems in risk communication. Focus groups and questionnaires were used to explicitly pinpoint the problems encountered when informing about or discussing risk and technologically advanced information (e.g. PSA-results) relative the public and across professional groups with different types of expertise. Personnel at a nuclear power plant and politicians of a local safety board provided their views of essential communication problems related to their work tasks in focus group discussions. Central topics that emerged from these discussions were later used in a questionnaire study, distributed to similar groups of power plant personnel, and politicians and administrators, in the local community. Some results are presented, together with a comparison of the two modes of investigating what is problematic in risk communication (e.g. focus groups vs. questionnaires). The difficulties involved in establishing a similar understanding of a phenomenon is addressed in the discussion.

  8. Communication in Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents results from the 'Communication 2000' project within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) framework which aimed at developing methods as well as knowledge related to problems in risk communication. Focus groups and questionnaires were used to explicitly pinpoint the problems encountered when informing about or discussing risk and technologically advanced information (e.g. PSA-results) relative the public and across professional groups with different types of expertise. Personnel at a nuclear power plant and politicians of a local safety board provided their views of essential communication problems related to their work tasks in focus group discussions. Central topics that emerged from these discussions were later used in a questionnaire study, distributed to similar groups of power plant personnel, and politicians and administrators, in the local community. Some results are presented, together with a comparison of the two modes of investigating what is problematic in risk communication (e.g. focus groups vs. questionnaires). The difficulties involved in establishing a similar understanding of a phenomenon is addressed in the discussion

  9. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-06-01

    This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  11. Social workers in pediatric primary care: communication, gender, and scope of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sean

    2014-01-01

    While many child mental health issues manifest themselves in primary care, few pediatricians have received mental health training, and their communication with social workers may be limited due to unfamiliarity with mental health professions. The purpose of this study was to use ethnographic interviews to investigate factors affecting communication satisfaction between social workers and pediatricians. The study found that scope of practice issues were a communication barrier. This barrier is significant because health reform may lead social workers and pediatricians to collaborate more frequently in the future.

  12. Barriers and enablers to good communication and information-sharing practices in care planning for chronic condition management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Sweet, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to document current communication and information-sharing practices and to identify the barriers and enablers to good practices within the context of care planning for chronic condition management. Further aims were to make recommendations about how changes to policy and practice can ......, and the expectation of collaborative and effective communication of care that underpins it, within their practice with patients and all members of the care team. To assist in meeting these aims, we make several recommendations....... as a communication and information-sharing tool may be achieved through practice initiatives that reflect the rhetoric of collaborative person-centred care, which is already supported through existing policy in Australia. General practitioners and other primary care providers should operationalise care planning...

  13. Exploring leadership and team communication within the organizational environment of a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Alexa Stough

    2009-10-01

    A lack of training in leadership and communication skills can place dentists at a disadvantage, leading to high degrees of staff-related stress and turnover. A dentist's leadership style directly affects an office's communication practices, and specific leadership behaviors affect the degree of team identity, interdependence and social distance (a measure of the influential power of team members). The author recruited 10 dental offices to take part in a study. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews of one dentist, one senior staff member and one newer staff member from each office. The interview findings show that clear and definable relationships exist between leadership behaviors--hierarchical or team-oriented organizational perspectives, proactive or laissez-faire leadership styles, and autocratic or participative decision-making processes--and the team's communication practices. Decision-making processes directly affect the degree of team identification experienced by staff members, and conflict-management tactics affect team members' sense of interdependence and social distance. The findings of this study indicate that dentists should engage in participative decision-making processes that include staff members, thereby communicating their value to the practice and empowering employees. They also must become proactive in facilitating an environment that encourages collaboration and confrontation as healthy forms of conflict management. These leadership and communication behaviors are the most significant in creating a real rather than nominal team culture, which, in turn, leads to increased overall productivity, an enhanced level of services provided to patients and improved team member satisfaction.

  14. The impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of sexually transmitted infections in populations with ephemeral pair bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maxin, D.; Berec, Luděk; Covello, M.; Jessee, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 292, - (2012), s. 1-10 ISSN 0022-5193 Grant - others:NSF Grant(US) DMS-0851721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ephemeral pair bond * population dynamics * promiscuous mating system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2012

  15. Destituent Spaces, Fugitive Practices and Improvised Institutions between collectivity and critique: Searching for the threshold of articulability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gigi Argyropoulou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the critical relationship between self-organisation, modes of social improvisation and sedimental societal practices in order to consider how emergent practices may ephemerally contested the dominant production of space by enforcing, destabilising and initiating new modes of organisation. Focusing on the cultural and political landscape of Athens during the years of crisis this article will discuss practices that appeared in unexpected forms engaging with cultural production, research cultures and social solidarity in relation to the changing socio-political landscape. While social frameworks collapsed, cultural workers questioned the limits of their praxes and a diversity of self-instituted forms emerged such as occupations, interventions, acts of institutional critique, emergent DIY performance praxes, curatorial and research platforms. I argue that such praxes could be understood and examined as forms of ‘instituting otherwise’ in relation to social and material contexts. Specifically, this article will discuss two cultural occupancies that took place in recent years: Embros Theatre occupancy in 2011 and Green Park Occupancy in 2015. These ephemeral experiments as instances of study engaged simultaneously with theoretical production, performance practice, spatial organisation, and social action which seemed to reinforce each other through public programs/actions. Examining curatorial practices, political methods, research clusters, modus operandi and public participation I will work from specific conditions in order to offer wider considerations on imaginative destituent strategies that bear the potential to criticality devise ephemeral forms of instituting otherwise. This article problematises the relation between art and activism, resistance and incorporation, collectivity and disintegration in order to theorise potential positions we might seek to institute in the coming years.

  16. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo

    2017-01-01

    studies from socio and applied linguistics research. Special attention is paid to the notions of symbolic capital and power as well as to language attitudes particularly in relation to linguistic evaluation and ‘common sense’ perceptions of language practice. We explore the relationship between language......This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...

  17. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  18. Revisiting Communicative Competence in Augmentative and Alternative Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial paper is to explore the novel nature of communicative competence in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) practice by comparing it to communicative competence in naturally verbal dyadic communication. This paper first reviews the four domains of communicative competence in AAC practice. Second, it examines competence in dyadic communications between naturally verbal people without disabilities, deriving new insights and using these to analyze the evolution of communicative competence in AAC practice. Communicative competence in AAC practice should be reconceptualized from a new perspective as dyadic, learned, co-constructed, and of relative value, ascertained through performance. In the past decades, the study of communicative competence in AAC practice has primarily focused on individual persons who use AAC. However, the conceptualization of communicative competence should shift away from an individualized construct toward a dyadic construct. This leads to a discussion of potential implications and future research directions. This paper might offer AAC researchers and practitioners an opportunity to deepen their understanding of communicative competence and promote more positive outcomes for people who use AAC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Best practices in risk and crisis communication: Implications for natural hazards management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddi A. Steelman; Sarah McCaffrey

    2013-01-01

    As societies evolve, often the most appropriate response to the hazard must also evolve. However, such shifts in appropriate response to a hazard, whether at the individual or at the societal level, are rarely straightforward: Closing the gap between desired practice and current practice requires effective communication. Although there is a significant literature on...

  20. Gendered, Bilingual Communication Practices: Mobile text-messaging among Hong Kong College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Lin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile text messaging—variously known as SMS (short message service, text messaging, or texting—has become a common means of keeping in constant touch, especially among young people, in many parts of the world today. The research literature abounds with studies on the social, cultural, and communicative aspects of mobile text messaging in different sociocultural contexts in the world. In this paper, current theoretical positions in the research literature on mobile communication will be summarized and then findings of a pilot study on the mobile text-messaging practices of university students in Hong Kong will be reported. Implications for emerging bilingual and bicultural identities and gendered sociality practices among Hong Kong young people will be discussed.

  1. Barriers and enablers to good communication and information-sharing practices in care planning for chronic condition management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Sweet, Linda; Battersby, Malcolm; Skinner, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to document current communication and information-sharing practices and to identify the barriers and enablers to good practices within the context of care planning for chronic condition management. Further aims were to make recommendations about how changes to policy and practice can improve communication and information sharing in primary health care. A mixed-method approach was applied to seek the perspectives of patients and primary health-care workers across Australia. Data was collected via interviews, focus groups, non-participant observations and a national survey. Data analysis was performed using a mix of thematic, discourse and statistical approaches. Central barriers to effective communication and information sharing included fragmented communication, uncertainty around client and interagency consent, and the unacknowledged existence of overlapping care plans. To be most effective, communication and information sharing should be open, two-way and inclusive of all members of health-care teams. It must also only be undertaken with the appropriate participant consent, otherwise this has the potential to cause patients harm. Improvements in care planning as a communication and information-sharing tool may be achieved through practice initiatives that reflect the rhetoric of collaborative person-centred care, which is already supported through existing policy in Australia. General practitioners and other primary care providers should operationalise care planning, and the expectation of collaborative and effective communication of care that underpins it, within their practice with patients and all members of the care team. To assist in meeting these aims, we make several recommendations.

  2. Characterization of the cyanobacteria and associated bacterial community from an ephemeral wetland in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Nick H; Chua, Jocelyn P S; Laurie, Rebecca E; McNoe, Les; Guy, Paul L; Orlovich, David A; Summerfield, Tina C

    2016-10-01

    New Zealand ephemeral wetlands are ecologically important, containing up to 12% of threatened native plant species and frequently exhibiting conspicuous cyanobacterial growth. In such environments, cyanobacteria and associated heterotrophs can influence primary production and nutrient cycling. Wetland communities, including bacteria, can be altered by increased nitrate and phosphate due to agricultural practices. We have characterized cyanobacteria from the Wairepo Kettleholes Conservation Area and their associated bacteria. Use of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing identified several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing filamentous heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacterial taxa. One Nostoc OTU that formed macroscopic colonies dominated the cyanobacterial community. A diverse bacterial community was associated with the Nostoc colonies, including a core microbiome of 39 OTUs. Identity of the core microbiome associated with macroscopic Nostoc colonies was not changed by the addition of nutrients. One OTU was highly represented in all Nostoc colonies (27.6%-42.6% of reads) and phylogenetic analyses identified this OTU as belonging to the genus Sphingomonas. Scanning electron microscopy showed the absence of heterotrophic bacteria within the Nostoc colony but revealed a diverse community associated with the colonies on the external surface. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  3. A pilot investigation in constructing crisis communications: what leads to best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Rachel M; Everly, George S

    2013-01-01

    Crisis communications can play an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral reactions to critical incidents and disasters. Effective crisis communications can serve to mitigate anxiogenesis and direct rapid and focused rescue, recovery, and rehabilitative operations. Ambiguous and/or deceptive communications can serve to worsen mental health reactions and delay operational response and recovery (Everly, Strouse, & Everly, 2010). It seems, therefore, that inquiry into the content of acute crisis communications would be warranted Said more simply, given limited time, cryptic messaging in social media, and the "sound bite" mentality that seems to govern news dissemination, it is important to identify the most important content to convey in the wake of critical incidents and disasters. This paper reports on a pilot investigation into "best practices" for the construction of acute crisis communications.

  4. Five Essential Practices for Communication: The Work of Instructional Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak, Temple A.

    2016-01-01

    The work of instructional coaches, both general and discipline-specific, has become increasingly important as more schools rely on their leadership for improvements in teaching and learning. Much of their work hinges upon their effective communication with teachers and school administrators. This article outlines five practices for instructional…

  5. Digital communication between clinician and patient and the impact on marginalised groups: a realist review in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Caroline J; Atherton, Helen; Watkins, Jocelyn Anstey; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, the NHS is embracing the use of digital communication technology for communication between clinicians and patients. Policymakers deem digital clinical communication as presenting a solution to the capacity issues currently faced by general practice. There is some concern that these technologies may exacerbate existing inequalities in accessing health care. It is not known what impact they may have on groups who are already marginalised in their ability to access general practice. To assess the potential impact of the availability of digital clinician-patient communication on marginalised groups' access to general practice in the UK. Realist review in general practice. A four-step realist review process was used: to define the scope of the review; to search for and scrutinise evidence; to extract and synthesise evidence; and to develop a narrative, including hypotheses. Digital communication has the potential to overcome the following barriers for marginalised groups: practical access issues, previous negative experiences with healthcare service/staff, and stigmatising reactions from staff and other patients. It may reduce patient-related barriers by offering anonymity and offers advantages to patients who require an interpreter. It does not impact on inability to communicate with healthcare professionals or on a lack of candidacy. It is likely to work best in the context of a pre-existing clinician-patient relationship. Digital communication technology offers increased opportunities for marginalised groups to access health care. However, it cannot remove all barriers to care for these groups. It is likely that they will remain disadvantaged relative to other population groups after their introduction. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  6. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

  7. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring English Language Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers in the USA, UK and France relating to the application of a model of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to English language programmes. Broadly, "intercultural" approaches to language learning and teaching are strongly advocated in both the…

  8. Some Practical Issues in the Design and Implementation of Group Communication Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Shivakant

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed research was to investigate four important practical issues in the understanding, design, and implementation of group communication services. These issues were (1) Performance...

  9. Constructing, Consuming, and Complicating the Human-Nature Binary: Communication Practices in Forest Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This project combines interdisciplinary conversations within the field of communication to examine environmental meaning systems and communication practices in the context of forest environmental education. Due to concerns over children's environmental alienation, there has been a continued push toward place-based environmental education. One such…

  10. Resilience moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghua; Liu, Yun; Li, Guopeng; Fang, Yueyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Li, Ping

    2016-11-01

    To examine the positive association between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among practice nursing students, and to determine whether resilience plays a moderating role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students. Three hundred and seventy-seven practice nursing students from three hospitals participated in this study. They completed questionnaires including the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EII), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), and Clinical Communication Ability Scale (CCAS). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among emotional intelligence, resilience, and clinical communication ability. Emotional intelligence was positively associated with clinical communication ability (Pintelligence and clinical communication ability (Pintelligence is positively related to clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students, and resilience moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability, which may provide scientific evidence to aid in developing intervention strategies to improve clinical communication ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of Interhospital Transfer Communication Practices and Association With Adverse Events on an Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borofsky, Jennifer S; Bartsch, Jason C; Howard, Alan B; Repp, Allen B

    Communication practices around interhospital transfer have not been rigorously assessed in adult medicine patients. Furthermore, the clinical implications of such practices have not been reported. This case-control study was designed to assess the quality of communication between clinicians during interhospital transfer and to determine if posttransfer adverse events (PTAEs) are associated with suboptimal communication. Cases included patients transferred to a Medicine Hospitalist Service from an outside hospital who subsequently experienced a PTAE, defined as unplanned transfer to an intensive care unit or death within 24 hours of transfer. Control patients also underwent interhospital transfer but did not experience a PTAE. A blinded investigator retrospectively reviewed the recorded pretransfer phone conversations between sending and receiving clinicians for adherence to a set of 13 empiric best practice communication elements. The primary outcome was the mean communication score, on a scale of 0-13. Mean scores between PTAE (8.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.6-8.9) and control groups (7.9; 95% CI, 7.1-8.8) did not differ significantly (p = .50), although suboptimal communication on a subset of these elements was associated with increased PTAEs. Communication around interhospital transfer appears suboptimal compared with an empiric set of standard communication elements. Posttransfer adverse events were not associated with aggregate adherence to these standards.

  12. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  13. Studying physician-adolescent patient communication in community-based practices: recruitment challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Michael E; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gao, Xiaomei; Lyna, Pauline; Alexander, Stewart C; Dolor, Rowena J; Østbye, Truls; Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A; Graves, Sidney; Irons, Alexis; Pollak, Kathryn I

    2015-11-13

    Practice-based studies are needed to assess how physicians communicate health messages about weight to overweight/obese adolescent patients, but successful recruitment to such studies is challenging. This paper describes challenges, solutions, and lessons learned to recruit physicians and adolescents to the Teen Communicating Health Analyzing Talk (CHAT) study, a randomized controlled trial of a communication skills intervention for primary care physicians to enhance communication about weight with overweight/obese adolescents. A "peer-to-peer" approach was used to recruit physicians, including the use of "clinic champions" who liaised between study leaders and physicians. Consistent rapport and cooperative working relationships with physicians and clinic staff were developed and maintained. Adolescent clinic files were reviewed (HIPAA waiver) to assess eligibility. Parents could elect to opt-out for their children. To encourage enrollment, confidentiality of audio recordings was emphasized, and financial incentives were offered to all participants. We recruited 49 physicians and audio-recorded 391 of their overweight/obese adolescents' visits. Recruitment challenges included 1) physician reticence to participate; 2) variability in clinic operating procedures; 3) variability in adolescent accrual rates; 4) clinic open access scheduling; and 5) establishing communication with parents and adolescents. Key solutions included the use of a "clinic champion" to help recruit physicians, pro-active, consistent communication with clinic staff, and adapting calling times to reach parents and adolescents. Recruiting physicians and adolescents to audio-recorded, practice-based health communication studies can be successful. Anticipated challenges to recruiting can be met with advanced planning; however, optimal solutions to challenges evolve as recruitment progresses.

  14. Communicating science a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Boxman, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Read this book before you write your thesis or journal paper! Communicating Science is a textbook and reference on scientific writing oriented primarily at researchers in the physical sciences and engineering. It is written from the perspective of an experienced researcher. It draws on the authors' experience of teaching and working with both native English speakers and English as a Second Language (ESL) writers. For the range of topics covered, this book is relatively short and tersely written, in order to appeal to busy researchers.Communicating Science offers comprehensive guidance on: Graduate students and early career researchers will be guided through the researcher's basic communication tasks: writing theses, journal papers, and internal reports, presenting lectures and posters, and preparing research proposals. Extensive best practice examples and analyses of common problems are presented. Advanced researchers who aim to commercialize their research results will be introduced to business plans and pat...

  15. Quantifying geomorphic change at ephemeral stream restoration sites using a coupled-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Sankey, Joel B.; Dean, David; Caster, Joshua J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Henderson-DeLong, Whitney; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2017-01-01

    Rock-detention structures are used as restoration treatments to engineer ephemeral stream channels of southeast Arizona, USA, to reduce streamflow velocity, limit erosion, retain sediment, and promote surface-water infiltration. Structures are intended to aggrade incised stream channels, yet little quantified evidence of efficacy is available. The goal of this 3-year study was to characterize the geomorphic impacts of rock-detention structures used as a restoration strategy and develop a methodology to predict the associated changes. We studied reaches of two ephemeral streams with different watershed management histories: one where thousands of loose-rock check dams were installed 30 years prior to our study, and one with structures constructed at the beginning of our study. The methods used included runoff, sediment transport, and geomorphic modelling and repeat terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys to map landscape change. Where discharge data were not available, event-based runoff was estimated using KINEROS2, a one-dimensional kinematic-wave runoff and erosion model. Discharge measurements and estimates were used as input to a two-dimensional unsteady flow-and-sedimentation model (Nays2DH) that combined a gridded flow, transport, and bed and bank simulation with geomorphic change. Through comparison of consecutive DEMs, the potential to substitute uncalibrated models to analyze stream restoration is introduced. We demonstrate a new approach to assess hydraulics and associated patterns of aggradation and degradation resulting from the construction of check-dams and other transverse structures. Notably, we find that stream restoration using rock-detention structures is effective across vastly different timescales.

  16. Delivering Communication Strategy Training for People with Aphasia: What Is Current Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Communication strategy training (CST) is a recognized part of UK speech and language therapists' (SLTs) role when working with a person with aphasia. Multiple CST interventions have been published but, to date, there are no published studies exploring clinical practice in this area. Aims: To investigate UK SLTs' current CST practices.…

  17. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  18. Rehanging Reynolds at the British Institution: Methods for Reconstructing Ephemeral Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Roach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of historic exhibitions made with current technologies can present beguiling illusions, but they also put us in danger of recreating the past in our own image. This article and the accompanying reconstruction explore methods for representing lost displays, with an emphasis on visualizing uncertainty, illuminating process, and understanding the mediated nature of period images. These issues are highlighted in a partial recreation of a loan show held at the British Institution, London, in 1823, which featured the works of Sir Joshua Reynolds alongside continental old masters. This recreation demonstrates how speculative reconstructions can nonetheless shed light on ephemeral displays, revealing powerful visual and conceptual dialogues that took place on the crowded walls of nineteenth-century exhibitions.

  19. Leveraging mobile smart devices to improve interprofessional communications in inpatient practice setting: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Timothy Dy; Belliveau, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As mobile smart device use has increased in society, the healthcare community has begun using these devices for communication among professionals in practice settings. The purpose of this review is to describe primary literature which reports on the experiences with interprofessional healthcare communication via mobile smart devices. Based on these findings, this review also addresses how these devices may be utilized to facilitate interprofessional education (IPE) in health professions education programs. The literature search revealed limited assessments of mobile smart device use in clinical practice settings. In available reports, communication with mobile smart devices was perceived as more effective and faster among interdisciplinary members. Notable drawbacks included discrepancies in the urgency labeling of messages, increased interruptions associated with constant accessibility to team members, and professionalism breakdowns. Recently developed interprofessional competencies include an emphasis on ensuring that health profession students can effectively communicate on interprofessional teams. With the increasing reliance on mobile smart devices in the absence of robust benefit and risk assessments on their use in clinical practice settings, use of these devices may be leveraged to facilitate IPE activities in health education professions programs while simultaneously educating students on their proper use in patient care settings.

  20. Towards a Renaissance in Communication for Social Change Redefining the discipline and practice in the post ‘Arab Spring’ era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices influencing and informing the thinking and practice of institutionalized communication for development and social change? And what are the underlying conceptual differences in the notions of action, participation and social change......Worldwide, we have experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which voice, citizenship and collective action have centre stage as core values, principles and practices. This resurgence sparks a series of questions; How are these new...... which inform the new generation of social movements, on one side, and the established field of communication for social change, on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter....

  1. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  2. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do corporate Web sites in Africa communicate investor information according to best practice guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Web sites have become very popular media of information over the past decade. The Investor Relations Society published best practice Web site guidelines in December 2006 to guide companies seeking to improve the quality of their on-line communication with investors via their corporate Web sites. Guidelines were given for presentation (the way in which information is communicated and content (the information that is communicated. This study focused only on content. A 20-point checklist was developed from the prescribed best practice. The checklist focused on the six categories of best practice that entail company information, annual reports of the current year and archive, relevant news, shareholder information, bondholder information, corporate governance and corporate responsibility. Seventy-eight companies in Africa (40 from South Africa and 38 from the 'rest of Africa', that is Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Tunisia were evaluated against this checklist. Companies from the 'rest of Africa' rated lower than South African companies in all categories on the checklist. Although South African companies received ratings above 90% for all categories, besides bondholder information, many of these companies do not supply shareholder, corporate governance and corporate responsibility information via dedicated sections on their corporate Web sites. The results for companies from the 'rest of Africa' were disappointing, especially with regard to communication of annual reports, shareholder information, bondholder information and corporate responsibility. Although possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed in this study, further research should be conducted to determine the reason(s why important elements of information are not communicated via corporate Web sites.

  4. Activation of a small ephemeral lake in southern Jordan during the last full glacial period and its paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, Gentry A.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Li, Shanying; Honke, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Playas, or ephemeral lakes, are one of the most common depositional environments in arid and semiarid lands worldwide. Playa deposits, however, have mostly been avoided as paleoclimatic archives because they typically contain exceptionally low concentrations of organic material, making 14C dating difficult. Here, we describe a technique for concentrating

  5. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  6. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  7. Benefits, challenges, and best practices for involving audiences in the development of interactive coastal risk communication tools: Professional communicators' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D.

    2017-12-01

    To make scientific information useful and usable to audiences, communicators must understand audience needs, expectations, and future applications. This presentation synthesizes benefits, challenges, and best practices resulting from a qualitative social science interview study of nine professionals on their experiences developing interactive visualization tools for communicating about coastal environmental risks. Online interactive risk visualization tools, such as flooding maps, are used to provide scientific information about the impacts of coastal hazards. These tools have a wide range of audiences and purposes, including time-sensitive emergency communication, infrastructure and natural resource planning, and simply starting a community conversation about risks. Thus, the science, purposes, and audiences of these tools require a multifaceted communication strategy. In order to make these tools useable and accepted by their audiences, many professional development teams solicit target end-user input or incorporate formal user-centered design into the development process. This presentation will share results of seven interviews with developers of U.S. interactive coastal risk communication tools, ranging from state-level to international in scope. Specific techniques and procedures for audience input that were used in these projects will be discussed, including ad-hoc conversations with users, iterative usability testing with project stakeholder groups, and other participatory mechanisms. The presentation will then focus on benefits, challenges, and recommendations for best practice that the interviewees disclosed about including audiences in their development projects. Presentation attendees will gain an understanding of different procedures and techniques that professionals employ to involve end-users in risk tool development projects, as well as important considerations and recommendations for effectively involving audiences in science communication design.

  8. Do indicators influence communication in SEA? — Experience from the Chinese practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey, the results suggest that indicators are used mainly in internal communication although a change of approach, with more external communication and stakeholder engagement, is taking place as a consequence of working with indicators in the SEA. However, the external communication mainly involves the experts and other relevant sectors (planning, energy, land use, forestry, etc.), the involvement of the public and NGOs is still not well implemented in Chinese SEA practice, and the direction of communication is mainly one-way channel of providing information rather than a two-way channel of dialogue and participation. Highlights: • Exploring indicators' influence on the communication in SEA with Chinese experience. • Providing a conceptual model covering directions and level of communication in SEA. • Empirical findings from two specific SEA cases and collected general experience. • The external communication mainly involves the experts and other sectors. • More one-way information provision than two-way dialogue and participation

  9. Do indicators influence communication in SEA? — Experience from the Chinese practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjing@plan.aau.dk; Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per, E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2013-11-15

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey, the results suggest that indicators are used mainly in internal communication although a change of approach, with more external communication and stakeholder engagement, is taking place as a consequence of working with indicators in the SEA. However, the external communication mainly involves the experts and other relevant sectors (planning, energy, land use, forestry, etc.), the involvement of the public and NGOs is still not well implemented in Chinese SEA practice, and the direction of communication is mainly one-way channel of providing information rather than a two-way channel of dialogue and participation. Highlights: • Exploring indicators' influence on the communication in SEA with Chinese experience. • Providing a conceptual model covering directions and level of communication in SEA. • Empirical findings from two specific SEA cases and collected general experience. • The external communication mainly involves the experts and other sectors. • More one-way information provision than two-way dialogue and participation.

  10. Communication as Relational Practice of Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational u...... understanding of communication and leading. The chapter ends with a discussion of how leadership communication can be understood as polyphony of voices.......This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational...

  11. Radiographers' and radiology practitioners' opinion, experience and practice of benefit-risk communication and consent in paediatric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, J.L.; McNulty, J.P.; Bezzina, P.; Rainford, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate radiographers' and radiology practitioners' opinion, experience and practice of radiation benefit-risk communication and consent for paediatric imaging examinations. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst radiographers and radiology practitioners working at a primary paediatric referral centre in Malta, so as to acquire information about their interactions with paediatric patients and/or their parents, particularly their opinion and practice of communicating benefit-risk information and seeking consent for imaging examinations. Results: The return of 112 questionnaires provided a response rate of 66.7%. Findings revealed varied practice relating to the provision of benefit-risk information, whereby details concerning examination benefits and potential risks are not always conveyed. For 89% of participants, parental consent was sought for paediatric imaging examinations in their current practice. Only 36.7% of participants indicated that they were highly confident in their ability to communicate benefit-risk information. The study findings also revealed that parents can truly be worried about the associated radiation exposure, with some even refusing an imaging examination as a result of such concerns. Conclusions: The practice of communicating benefit-risk information to paediatric patients and/or their parents is varied. A possible gap in benefit-risk communication education and/or training was identified, which may impact radiographers' and radiology practitioners' confidence in conveying such information. Education/training activities for radiographers and radiology practitioners are therefore necessary to foster improved benefit-risk dialogues and help provide reassurance to parents/guardians about the benefits of appropriately indicated paediatric imaging examinations. - Highlights: • The practice of communicating radiation benefit-risk information to parents of paediatric patients is varied.

  12. Modeling the Contribution of Ephemeral Gully Erosion Under Different Soil Management in An Olive Orchard Microcatchment Using AnnAGNPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Spain, few studies have been carried out to explore the erosion caused by processes other than interrill and rill erosion, such as gully and ephemeral gully erosion, especially because most of the available studies have evaluated the erosion at plot scale. A study about the en...

  13. Identifying ephemeral and perennial stream reaches using apparent thermal inertia for an ungauged basin: The Rio Salado, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Night and day temperature images from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing images are used to identify ephemeral and perennial stream reaches for use in the calibration of an integrated hydrologic model of an ungauged basin. The concept is based on a...

  14. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; Kramer, Anneke

    2011-12-13

    Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication performance levels, on average, do not appear adequate. The context of daily practice may require different skills or specific ways of handling these skills, whereas communication skills are mostly treated as generic. So far no empirical analysis of the context has been made. Our aim was to identify context factors that could be related to GP communication. A purposive sample of real-life videotaped GP consultations was analyzed (N = 17). As a frame of reference we chose the MAAS-Global, a widely used assessment instrument for medical communication. By inductive reasoning, we analyzed the GP behaviour in the consultation leading to poor item scores on the MAAS-Global. In these cases we looked for the presence of an intervening context factor, and how this might explain the actual GP communication behaviour. We reached saturation after having viewed 17 consultations. We identified 19 context factors that could potentially explain the deviation from generic recommendations on communication skills. These context factors can be categorized into doctor-related, patient-related, and consultation-related factors. Several context factors seem to influence doctor-patient communication, requiring the GP to apply communication skills differently from recommendations on communication. From this study we conclude that there is a need to explicitly account for context factors in the assessment of GP (and GP registrar) communication performance. The next step is to validate our findings.

  15. Practising verbal maritime communication with computer dialogue systems using automatic speech recognition (My Practice session)

    OpenAIRE

    John, Peter; Wellmann, J.; Appell, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This My Practice session presents a novel online tool for practising verbal communication in a maritime setting. It is based on low-fi ChatBot simulation exercises which employ computer-based dialogue systems. The ChatBot exercises are equipped with an automatic speech recognition engine specifically designed for maritime communication. The speech input and output functionality enables learners to communicate with the computer freely and spontaneously. The exercises replicate real communicati...

  16. Mixed Method Study Examines Undergraduate Student Researchers’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Scholarly Communication Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Riehle, C. F., & Hensley, M. K. (2017. What do undergraduate students know about scholarly communication?: A mixed methods study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(1, 145–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pla.2017.0009 Abstract Objective – To examine undergraduate student researchers’ perception and understanding of scholarly communication practices and issues. Design – Mixed method study involving a survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two major undergraduate universities in the Midwest region of the United States. Subjects – Undergraduate students who participated in or had completed undergraduate research experiences with faculty mentors. Method – The method was first approved by Institutional Review Board offices at both campuses involved in the study. Then, students received invitations to participate in a survey via email (Campus 1 = 221 students; Campus 2 = 345 students. Identical online surveys ran separately on each campus; both remained open for a period of three weeks. All respondents received a reminder email one week before the survey closed. Participants answered twelve questions related to demographics and scholarly communication practices. The survey examined knowledge and experience across five areas: the peer review process, author and publisher rights, publication and access models, impact of research, and data management. All students who completed the survey were entered in a drawing for a $50 Amazon card. The response rates were 34.8% (Campus 1 and 18.6% (Campus 2. Surveys on both campuses were administered using different software: campus 1 utilized Qualtrics survey software while campus 2 used an institution-specific survey software. Data sets were normed and merged later in the study to enable comparison and identify broad themes. Survey respondents were also invited to participate in a 15 to 20 minute follow-up interview and were compensated with a $20 Amazon gift card. The

  17. Quantifying uncertainty in high-resolution remotely sensed topographic surveys for ephemeral gully channel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Robert R.; Momm, Henrique G.; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Spatio-temporal measurements of landform evolution provide the basis for process-based theory formulation and validation. Over time, field measurements of landforms have increased significantly worldwide, driven primarily by the availability of new surveying technologies. However, there is no standardized or coordinated effort within the scientific community to collect morphological data in a dependable and reproducible manner, specifically when performing long-term small-scale process investigation studies. Measurements of the same site using identical methods and equipment, but performed at different time periods, may lead to incorrect estimates of landform change as a result of three-dimensional registration errors. This work evaluated measurements of an ephemeral gully channel located on agricultural land using multiple independent survey techniques for locational accuracy and their applicability in generating information for model development and validation. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry platforms were compared to terrestrial lidar, defined herein as the reference dataset. Given the small scale of the measured landform, the alignment and ensemble equivalence between data sources was addressed through postprocessing. The utilization of ground control points was a prerequisite to three-dimensional registration between datasets and improved the confidence in the morphology information generated. None of the methods were without limitation; however, careful attention to project preplanning and data nature will ultimately guide the temporal efficacy and practicality of management decisions.

  18. Observational Constraints on Ephemeral Wind Gusts that MobilizeSoil Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Leung, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Dust aerosol models resolve the planetary scale winds that disperse particles throughout the globe, but the winds raising dust are often organized on smaller scales that are below the resolution of the model. These winds, including ephemeral wind gusts associated with boundary layer mixing, are typically parameterized. For example, gusts by dry convective eddies are related to the sensible heat flux. What remains is to constrain the magnitude of the wind gusts using boundary layer measurements, so that dust emission has the correct sensitivity to these gusts, relative to the resolved wind. Here, we use a year of ARM measurements with high temporal resolution from Niamey, Niger in the Sahel to evaluate our parameterization. This evaluation is important for dust aerosol models that use 'nudging' to reproduce observed transport patterns.

  19. Ephemeral Channel Modelling at Historic timescales in Semi-arid Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, C. J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Nearing, M. A.; Brazier, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing need to understand how ephemeral channels mediate the movement of water through catchment systems, both to identify the quantity of groundwater and reservoir recharge and to inform flash flood prediction. At historic timescales (10 1 -10 2 years) it is recognised that this requires an understanding of the interactions between flow, sediment and vegetation which feedback to control morphological change and future flood wave propagation. Reduced-complexity models provide a means to develop such understanding. This paper presents a couple 1D-2D numerical model that can be applied at the catchment scale to account for transmission losses and flood wave propagation (1D model), but which also simulates local-scale flow patterns that may be applied to simulate geomorphic response to flood inundation (2D model). The initial model evaluation, conducted at the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona is presented. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public... Preexisting Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services § 382.12 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings. (a) In general. The monthly royalty fee to be paid by a...

  1. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  2. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  3. Desert potholes: Ephemeral aquatic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M.A.; Moser, K.; Davis, J.M.; Southam, G.; Hughes, K.; Graham, T.

    2005-01-01

    An enigma of the Colorado Plateau high desert is the "pothole", which ranges from shallow ephemeral puddles to deeply carved pools. The existence of prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms within these pools is largely controlled by the presence of collected rainwater. Multivariate statistical analysis of physical and chemical limnologic data variables measured from potholes indicates spatial and temporal variations, particularly in water depth, manganese, iron, nitrate and sulfate concentrations and salinity. Variation in water depth and salinity are likely related to the amount of time since the last precipitation, whereas the other variables may be related to redox potential. The spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry affect the distribution of organisms, which must adapt to daily and seasonal extremes of fluctuating temperature (0-60 ??C), pH changes of as much as 5 units over 12 days, and desiccation. For example, many species become dormant when potholes dry, in order to endure intense heat, UV radiation, desiccation and freezing, only to flourish again upon rehydration. But the pothole organisms also have a profound impact on the potholes. Through photosynthesis and respiration, pothole organisms affect redox potential, and indirectly alter the water chemistry. Laboratory examination of dried biofilm from the potholes revealed that within 2 weeks of hydration, the surface of the desiccated, black biofilm became green from cyanobacterial growth, which supported significant growth in heterotrophic bacterial populations. This complex biofilm is persumably responsible for dissolving the cement between the sandstone grains, allowing the potholes to enlarge, and for sealing the potholes, enabling them to retain water longer than the surrounding sandstone. Despite the remarkable ability of life in potholes to persist, desert potholes may be extremely sensitive to anthropogenic effects. The unique limnology and ecology of Utah potholes holds great scientific

  4. Communication in healthcare: a narrative review of the literature and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, P; Vandijck, D; Degroote, S; Peleman, R; Verhaeghe, R; Mortier, E; Hallaert, G; Van Daele, S; Buylaert, W; Vogelaers, D

    2015-11-01

    Effective and efficient communication is crucial in healthcare. Written communication remains the most prevalent form of communication between specialised and primary care. We aimed at reviewing the literature on the quality of written communication, the impact of communication inefficiencies and recommendations to improve written communication in healthcare. Narrative literature review. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library by means of the (MeSH)terms 'communication', 'primary health care', 'correspondence', 'patient safety', 'patient handoff' and 'continuity of patient care'. Reviewers screened 4609 records and 462 full texts were checked according following inclusion criteria: (1) publication between January 1985 and March 2014, (2) availability as full text in English, (3) categorisation as original research, reviews, meta-analyses or letters to the editor. A total of 69 articles were included in this review. It was found that poor communication can lead to various negative outcomes: discontinuity of care, compromise of patient safety, patient dissatisfaction and inefficient use of valuable resources, both in unnecessary investigations and physician worktime as well as economic consequences. There is room for improvement of both content and timeliness of written communication. The delineation of ownership of the communication process should be clear. Peer review, process indicators and follow-up tools are required to measure the impact of quality improvement initiatives. Communication between caregivers should feature more prominently in graduate and postgraduate training, to become engraved as an essential skill and quality characteristic of each caregiver. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity.

  6. Information and Communication Technologies for the Dissemination of Clinical Practice Guidelines to Health Professionals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gino; Davies, Barbara; King, Judy; McEwan, Jessica; Cavallo, Sabrina; Loew, Laurianne; Wells, George A; Brosseau, Lucie

    2016-11-30

    The transfer of research knowledge into clinical practice can be a continuous challenge for researchers. Information and communication technologies, such as websites and email, have emerged as popular tools for the dissemination of evidence to health professionals. The objective of this systematic review was to identify research on health professionals' perceived usability and practice behavior change of information and communication technologies for the dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. We used a systematic approach to retrieve and extract data about relevant studies. We identified 2248 citations, of which 21 studies met criteria for inclusion; 20 studies were randomized controlled trials, and 1 was a controlled clinical trial. The following information and communication technologies were evaluated: websites (5 studies), computer software (3 studies), Web-based workshops (2 studies), computerized decision support systems (2 studies), electronic educational game (1 study), email (2 studies), and multifaceted interventions that consisted of at least one information and communication technology component (6 studies). Website studies demonstrated significant improvements in perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, but not for knowledge, reducing barriers, and intention to use clinical practice guidelines. Computer software studies demonstrated significant improvements in perceived usefulness, but not for knowledge and skills. Web-based workshop and email studies demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge, perceived usefulness, and skills. An electronic educational game intervention demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in knowledge after 12 and 24 weeks. Computerized decision support system studies demonstrated variable findings for improvement in skills. Multifaceted interventions demonstrated significant improvements in beliefs about capabilities, perceived usefulness, and intention to use clinical practice guidelines, but

  7. Communication, sensemaking and change as a chord of three strands: Practical implications and a research agenda for communicating organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to propose practical and theoretical consequences of emerging lines of thinking about communication during organizational change. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper suggests several benefits that a sensemaking approach may have in enhancing organizational

  8. Communication of research to practice in library and information science: Closing the gap

    OpenAIRE

    G. Haddow; J. E. Klobas

    2004-01-01

    Reviews the literature in which claims about the gap between research and practice in library and information science, and suggestions for remediation, are made. Provides a classification of the gaps and a model of the process of research-practice communication. Analysis of research results shows only one strategy - researchers publish accounts of their research in practitioner journals - has been demonstrated to effectively close the gap.

  9. A Pathophysiological Model-Driven Communication for Dynamic Distributed Medical Best Practice Guidance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Poliang; Berlin, Richard B; Ren, Shangping; Sha, Lui

    2016-11-01

    There is a great divide between rural and urban areas, particularly in medical emergency care. Although medical best practice guidelines exist and are in hospital handbooks, they are often lengthy and difficult to apply clinically. The challenges are exaggerated for doctors in rural areas and emergency medical technicians (EMT) during patient transport. In this paper, we propose the concept of distributed executable medical best practice guidance systems to assist adherence to best practice from the time that a patient first presents at a rural hospital, through diagnosis and ambulance transfer to arrival and treatment at a regional tertiary hospital center. We codify complex medical knowledge in the form of simplified distributed executable disease automata, from the thin automata at rural hospitals to the rich automata in the regional center hospitals. However, a main challenge is how to efficiently and safely synchronize distributed best practice models as the communication among medical facilities, devices, and professionals generates a large number of messages. This complex problem of patient diagnosis and transport from rural to center facility is also fraught with many uncertainties and changes resulting in a high degree of dynamism. A critically ill patient's medical conditions can change abruptly in addition to changes in the wireless bandwidth during the ambulance transfer. Such dynamics have yet to be addressed in existing literature on telemedicine. To address this situation, we propose a pathophysiological model-driven message exchange communication architecture that ensures the real-time and dynamic requirements of synchronization among distributed emergency best practice models are met in a reliable and safe manner. Taking the signs, symptoms, and progress of stroke patients transported across a geographically distributed healthcare network as the motivating use case, we implement our communication system and apply it to our developed best practice

  10. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version at http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.02.002 This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how familydinner-related communication takes place and how parents’ feeding practices may be associated with children’s preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting dat...

  11. Ephemeral architecture and scenographies of francoist propaganda during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Bernal López-Sanvicente

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Franco’s provisional government established during the war, the Department of Plastic Arts of the National Propaganda Service brought together a small group of plastic artists who had the opportunity of being relieved of military duty in order to create the image of the “New State”. The Architecture Section of this department was in charge of designing the architecture and scenography required for the acts and ceremonies of the government in order to show a city dignified by the new social order. This architecture of propaganda designed during the war was ephemeral and a mere stage setting, but likewise during this period another architecture was built under military initiative, aimed at consolidating the formal stereotype of Franco period propaganda architecture.

  12. Angiosperms, Hydrophytes of five ephemeral lakes of Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the Angiosperm diversity of five ephemeral lakes of ThiruvallurDistrict of Tamil Nadu South India. Qualitative floristic surveys were carried out during 2005-2007. Herbarium specimenswith voucher number, taxonomical and ecological information were deposited to the herbarium, Pachaiyappa’s College(PCH Chennai, Tamilnadu. Forty five species of hydrophytes belonging to 21 families and 34 genera were documented.Most speciose families were Poaceae with 5 species followed by Polygalaceae and Nymphaeaceae (4 Cyperaceae,Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 species each. Mean depth of all five lakes shrinking gradually dueto severe anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of wetlands is the need of the hour to protect the biota as well as quality ofdrinking water.

  13. Exploring the information and communication technology competence and confidence of nursing students and their perception of its relevance to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kenny, Raelene; Van der Riet, Pamela; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley; Bourgeois, Sharon; Luxford, Yoni

    2009-08-01

    This paper profiles a study that explored nursing students' information and communication technology competence and confidence. It presents selected findings that focus on students' attitudes towards information and communication technology as an educational methodology and their perceptions of its relevance to clinical practice. Information and communication technology is integral to contemporary nursing practice. Development of these skills is important to ensure that graduates are 'work ready' and adequately prepared to practice in increasingly technological healthcare environments. This was a mixed methods study. Students (n=971) from three Australian universities were surveyed using an instrument designed specifically for the study, and 24 students participated in focus groups. The focus group data revealed that a number of students were resistant to the use of information and communication technology as an educational methodology and lacked the requisite skills and confidence to engage successfully with this educational approach. Survey results indicated that 26 per cent of students were unsure about the relevance of information and communication technology to clinical practice and only 50 per cent felt 'very confident' using a computer. While the importance of information and communication technology to student's learning and to their preparedness for practice has been established, it is evident that students' motivation is influenced by their level of confidence and competence, and their understanding of the relevance of information and communication technology to their future careers.

  14. The effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course: a real-time assessment of skill acquisition and deliberate practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S

    2014-10-01

    Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  16. Performance Management Practices, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Adoption and Managed Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaari, James R. K.; Munene, John C.; Ntayi, Joseph Mpeera

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for managers of public universities to pay attention to performance management practices and information communication technology (ICT) adoption in order to achieve successful managed performance. Design/methodology/approach: Using a disproportionate stratified purposive approach, a…

  17. Teachers' Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills and Practices of Using ICT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Muukkonen, Hanni; Lipponen, Lasse; Ilomaki, Liisa; Rahikainen, Marjaana; Lehtinen, Erno

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of Finnish elementary and secondary school teachers that analyzed relations between teachers' skills in using the new information and communication technology (ICT), their pedagogical thinking, and their self-reported practices. Topics include technical ICT skills; access to computers; information technology use; and age and…

  18. Understanding and Using the Controller Area Network Communication Protocol Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Di Natale, Marco; Giusto, Paolo; Ghosal, Arkadeb

    2012-01-01

    This is the first book to offer a hands-on guide to designing, analyzing and debugging a communication infrastructure based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus.  Although the CAN bus standard is well established and currently used in most automotive systems, as well as avionics, medical systems and other devices, its features are not fully understood by most developers, who tend to misuse the network. This results in lost opportunities for better efficiency and performance.   This book offers a comprehensive range of architectural solutions and domains of analysis. It also provides formal models and analytical results, with thorough discussion of their applicability, so that it serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and students, as well as practicing engineers.    Offers the first comprehensive guide to bridging the gap between theory and implementation of the widely accepted Controller Area Network (CAN) bus; Provides examples and best practices for design of communication systems, as w...

  19. Integrating communication theory and practice: Successes and challenges in boundary-spanning work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Fallon Lambert, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Science Policy Exchange (SPE) is a consortium of leaders in ecosystem research united to facilitate science from innovation to impact. In our unique model, we catalyze actionable science on pressing environmental issues such as climate change, and undertake comprehensive stakeholder engagement, public communication, and policy outreach. Built on more than 10 years of experience creating programs at the interface of science and policy at Hubbard Brook, Harvard Forest, and other LTER sites, we apply science communication research to practice in various ways depending on the context and problem being addressed. In keeping with the research on co-production and the importance of establishing credibility, salience, and legitimacy, we engage stakeholders from the outset of each project. Stakeholders and scientists collaborate to define the scope of the project, frame questions relevant to society, and define communication products to meet their needs. To promote broader distribution and uptake, we combine message development, storytelling, and media training to craft and deliver relatable stories that tap into news values and human values. Three recent SPE successes include: (1) Wildlands and Woodlands: A regional forest conservation report released in 2010 that generated 137 media stories and influenced land conservation policy, (2) Changes to the Land: A suite of communication products developed in 2013 for a landscape scenarios project in Massachusetts that saturated the state's media markets and have been widely cited by policymakers, and (3) Co-benefits of Carbon Standards: A national air quality report released in 2014 that was cited in 76 media stories and helped reframe the national debate on carbon dioxide emissions standards in terms of their potential local health and environmental benefits. We will describe our successful applications of science communication research and discuss several critical disconnections between research and practice. These include

  20. Instituting Interaction: Normative Transformations in Human Communicative Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Z. Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems. This process might be described as an implicit institutionalization of communicative practices, particularly when conventionalized to the point of overriding alternatives more functionally conducive to the current situation. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step towards institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity.

  1. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for digital radiographic (DR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of digital X-ray imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitions, information modules and a ...

  2. Topographical change caused by moderate and small floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river - a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsari, Eliisa S.; Calle, Mikel; Benito, Gerardo; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri

    2018-03-01

    In ephemeral rivers, channel morphology represents a snapshot at the end of a succession of geomorphic changes caused by floods. In most cases, the channel shape and bedform migration during different phases of a flood hydrograph cannot be identified from field evidence. This paper analyses the timing of riverbed erosion and deposition of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain) during consecutive and moderate- (March 2013) and low-magnitude (May 2013) discharge events, by applying a morphodynamic model (Delft3D) calibrated with pre- and post-event surveys by RTK-GPS points and mobile laser scanning. The study reach is mainly depositional and all bedload sediment supplied from adjacent upstream areas is trapped in the study segment forming gravel lobes. Therefore, estimates of total bedload sediment mass balance can be obtained from pre- and post-field survey for each flood event. The spatially varying grain size data and transport equations were the most important factors for model calibration, in addition to flow discharge. The channel acted as a braided channel during the lower flows of the two discharge events, but when bars were submerged in the high discharges of May 2013, the high fluid forces followed a meandering river planform. The model results showed that erosion and deposition were in total greater during the long-lasting receding phase than during the rising phase of the flood hydrographs. In the case of the moderate-magnitude discharge event, deposition and erosion peaks were predicted to occur at the beginning of the hydrograph, whereas deposition dominated throughout the event. Conversely, the low-magnitude discharge event only experienced the peak of channel changes after the discharge peak. Thus, both type of discharge events highlight the importance of receding phase for this type of gravel bed ephemeral river channel.

  3. Improving together: collaborative learning in science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    Most scientists today recognise that science communication is an important part of the scientific process. Despite this recognition, science writing and communication are generally taught outside the normal academic schedule. If universities offer such courses, they are generally short-term and intensive. On the positive side, such courses rarely fail to motivate. At no fault of their own, the problem with such courses lies in their ephemeral nature. The participants rarely complete a science communication course with an immediate and pressing need to apply these skills. And so the skills fade. We believe that this stalls real progress in the improvement of science communication across the board. Continuity is one of the keys to success! Whilst we wait for the academic system to truly integrate science communication, we can test and develop other approaches. We suggest a new approach that aims to motivate scientists to continue nurturing their communication skills. This approach adopts a collaborative learning framework where scientists form writing groups that meet regularly at different institutes around the world. The members of the groups learn, discuss and improve together. The participants produce short posts, which are published online. In this way, the participants learn and cement basic writing skills. These skills are transferrable, and can be applied to scientific articles as well as other science communication media. In this presentation we reflect on an ongoing project, which applies a collaborative learning framework to help young and early career scientists improve their writing skills. We see that this type of project could be extended to other media such as podcasts, or video shorts.

  4. Communication channels to promote evidence-based practice: a survey of primary care clinicians to determine perceived effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadich, Ann; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan

    2016-08-11

    Research suggests that the channels through which evidence-based practices are communicated to healthcare professionals can shape the ways they engage with, and use, this information. For instance, there is evidence to suggest that information should be communicated via sources that are deemed to be credible, like government departments, professional bodies and peers. This article examines the contention that information should be communicated via credible sources. More specifically, the article examines the different communication channels through which primary care clinicians learnt of resources on evidence-based sexual healthcare - namely, clinical aides and online training programs. Furthermore, the article determines whether these communication channels influenced the perceived impact of the resources. Primary care clinicians in Australia (n = 413), notably General Practitioners (n = 214) and Practice Nurses (n = 217), were surveyed on the GP Project - a suite of resources to promote evidence-based sexual healthcare within primary care. Survey items pertained to the source of information about the resources (or communication channel), perceived usefulness of the resources, frequency of use, subsequent contact with the Sexual Health Infoline and a sexual health clinic, as well as the perceived impact of the resources. To determine the relationships between the different communication channels and the perceived impact of the resources, a one-way ANOVA using Tukey's post-hoc test, an independent sample t-test, a χ(2) test, and a Kruskal-Wallis H test were performed where appropriate. Of the respondents who were aware of the clinical aides (49.9%), the largest proportion became aware of these through an educational event or a colleague. Of those who were aware of the online training programs (36.9%), the largest proportion became aware of these through a professional body or government organisation, either directly or via their website. Although both resource

  5. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  6. Teaching Art and Design: Communicating Creative Practice through Embodied and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    How do artists and designers teaching in universities communicate creative practice as they teach art/design? There is much discussion about the "mystery" of creativity, but little understanding of how teaching occurs in creative contexts. Understanding this topic better will develop greater knowledge within the academy of how art and…

  7. Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Design Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. Measurements An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group—including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Results Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and

  8. Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Holly Jordan; Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group-including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and respectful interaction, whereas practices that

  9. Health professional-patient communication practices in East Asia: An integrative review of an emerging field of research and practice in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack K H; Chan, E Angela; Wang, Sophie; Slade, Diana

    2018-01-31

    To provide an integrative review of literature on health communication in East Asia and detail culturally-specific influences. Using PRISMA model, search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, ERIC and CINAHL databases were conducted for studies between January 2000 and March 2017, using the terms 'clinician/health professional-patient', 'nurse/doctor-patient, 'communication' and 'Asia'. 38 studies were included: Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The existing body of research on clinician patient communication in East Asia can be classified: 1) understanding the roles and expectations of the nurse, clinician, patient, and family in clinician-patient consultations: a) nurse-patient communication; b) doctor-patient communication; c) the role of family member; and 2) factors affecting quality of care: d) cultural attitudes towards death and terminal illnesses; e) communication preferences affecting trust, decision-making and patient satisfaction; f) the extent to which patient centred care is being implemented in practice; and g) communication practices in multilingual/multi-disciplinary environments. The review detailed the complexity and heterogeneity of clinician-patient communication across East Asia. The studies reviewed indicate that research in East Asia is starting to move beyond a preference for Western-based communication practices. There is a need to consider local culture in understanding and interpreting medical encounters in East Asia. The paper highlights the need for a specific culturally-appropriate model of health communication in East Asia which may significantly improve relationships between clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Connecting in distance mentoring: communication practices that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasater, Kathie; Young, Patricia K; Mitchell, Claudia G; Delahoyde, Theresa M; Nick, Jan M; Siktberg, Linda

    2014-04-01

    As nursing and healthcare become more global, supported by technology, the opportunities for distance mentoring increase. Mentorship is critical to nurse educator recruitment and retention. The purpose of this study was to identify communication practices of nurse educators involved in mentoring at a distance. A qualitative design, utilizing in-person or telephone interviews was used. Participants were twenty-three protégés or mentors who were part of a yearlong distance mentoring program. An iterative process of hermeneutic analysis identified three themes; this paper focuses on the theme of connectedness. Participant narratives illuminate practices of connecting at a distance: meeting face-to-face, sharing personal information, experiencing reciprocity, journaling, being vulnerable, establishing one's presence, and appreciating different perspectives. Distance does not appear to limit the connecting potential leading to a meaningful mentoring relationship; rather, it offers possibilities that local mentoring relationships may not. Nurse educators in under-resourced countries, those in small programs without a cadre of senior faculty, and students in distance programs are among those who stand to benefit from distance mentoring relationships. © 2013.

  11. A critical discussion on the applicability of Compound Topographic Index (CTI) for predicting ephemeral gully erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalí, Javier; Chahor, Youssef; Giménez, Rafael; Campo-Bescós, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The so-called Compound Topographic Index (CTI) can be calculated for each grid cell in a DEM and be used to identify potential locations for ephemeral gullies (e. g.) based on land topography (CTI = A.S.PLANC, where A is upstream drainage area, S is local slope and PLANC is planform curvature, a measure of the landscape convergence) (Parker et al., 2007). It can be shown that CTI represents stream power per unit bed area and it considers the major parameters controlling the pattern and intensity of concentrated surface runoff in the field (Parker et al., 2007). However, other key variables controlling e.g. erosion (e. g. e.) such as soil characteristics, land-use and management, are not had into consideration. The critical CTI value (CTIc) "represents the intensity of concentrated overland flow necessary to initiate erosion and channelised flow under a given set of circumstances" (Parker et al., 2007). AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source) pollution model is an important management tool developed by (USDA) and uses CTI to locate potential ephemeral gullies. Then, and depending on rainfall characteristics of the period simulated by AnnAGNPS, potential e. g. can become "actual", and be simulated by the model accordingly. This paper presents preliminary results and a number of considerations after evaluating the CTI tool in Navarre. CTIc values found are similar to those cited by other authors, and the e. g. networks that on average occur in the area have been located reasonably well. After our experience we believe that it is necessary to distinguish between the CTIc corresponding to the location of headcuts whose migrations originate the e. g. (CTIc1); and the CTIc necessary to represent the location of the gully networks in the watershed (CTIc2), where gully headcuts are located in the upstream end of the gullies. Most scientists only consider one CTIc value, although, from our point of view, the two situations are different. CTIc1 would represent the

  12. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  13. Communication skills assessment in the final postgraduate years to established practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Amy E; Morris, Marie C; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Communication breakdown is a factor in the majority of all instances of medical error. Despite the importance, a relative paucity of time is invested in communication skills in postgraduate curricula. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to identify the current tools used to assess communication skills in postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature identifying communication skill assessment tools, for postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, and inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1990 to 15 August 2014. PubMed/CINAHL/ERIC/EMBASE/PsycInfo/Psyc Articles/Cochrane. 222 articles were identified; after review, 34 articles fulfilled criteria for complete evaluation; the majority (26) had a high level of evidence scoring 3 or greater on the Best Evidence Medical Education guide. 22 articles used objective structured clinical examination/standardised patient (SP)-based formats in an assessment or training capacity. Evaluation tools included author-developed questionnaires and validated tools. Nineteen articles demonstrated an educational initiative. The reviewed literature is heterogeneous for objectives and measurement techniques for communication. Observed interactions, with patients or SPs, is the current favoured method of evaluation using author-developed questionnaires. The role of self-evaluation of skill level is questioned. The need for a validated assessment tool for communication skills is highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Emergence of new info-communicational practices between rupture and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PATRASCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The « information society is characterized inter alia by the multimedia convergence. This phenomenon is accompanied by numerous innovations of " techne "and " logos", machinery and practices, systems and services. In this context of multimedia convergence, television also turn to nomadism: it has become "mobile". Our research focuses on the practices of television on the mobile phone in France (in Rennes and Romania (in Timisoara. The aim of this paper is to initiate discussions about a renewal of emerging practices approaches. The approach we propose is centered on the organization of social practices in the public space. The organizational dimension is a major anthropological dimension (Ch. Le Moënne, where, in the context of globalization, multiple forms of rationalization and standardization take place. In the European Economic Area, the technical standards of mobile TV are spread through the market, by the political and legislative framework. At the same time, the anthropological and cultural norms are also changing. Consciously but mostly unconsciously, users categorize and normalize constantly bringing out new social forms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we will examine the link between innovation and anticipation. In the second part, we present our organizational approach of emerging information and communication practices.

  15. Patient, staff, and clinician perspectives on implementing electronic communications in an interdisciplinary rural family health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng; Paramsothy, Thivaher; Roche, Matthew; Gupta, Nishi S

    2017-03-01

    Aim To conduct an environmental scan of a rural primary care clinic to assess the feasibility of implementing an e-communications system between patients and clinic staff. Increasing demands on healthcare require greater efficiencies in communications and services, particularly in rural areas. E-communications may improve clinic efficiency and delivery of healthcare but raises concerns about patient privacy and data security. We conducted an environmental scan at one family health team clinic, a high-volume interdisciplinary primary care practice in rural southwestern Ontario, Canada, to determine the feasibility of implementing an e-communications system between its patients and staff. A total of 28 qualitative interviews were conducted (with six physicians, four phone nurses, four physicians' nurses, five receptionists, one business office attendant, five patients, and three pharmacists who provide care to the clinic's patients) along with quantitative surveys of 131 clinic patients. Findings Patients reported using the internet regularly for multiple purposes. Patients indicated they would use email to communicate with their family doctor for prescription refills (65% of respondents), appointment booking (63%), obtaining lab results (60%), and education (50%). Clinic staff expressed concerns about patient confidentiality and data security, the timeliness, complexity and responsibility of responses, and increased workload. Clinic staff members are willing to use an e-communications system but clear guidelines are needed for successful adoption and to maintain privacy of patient health data. E-communications might improve access to and quality of care in rural primary care practices.

  16. Topographical change caused by moderate and small floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river – a depth-averaged morphodynamic simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Lotsari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In ephemeral rivers, channel morphology represents a snapshot at the end of a succession of geomorphic changes caused by floods. In most cases, the channel shape and bedform migration during different phases of a flood hydrograph cannot be identified from field evidence. This paper analyses the timing of riverbed erosion and deposition of a gravel bed ephemeral river channel (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain during consecutive and moderate- (March 2013 and low-magnitude (May 2013 discharge events, by applying a morphodynamic model (Delft3D calibrated with pre- and post-event surveys by RTK-GPS points and mobile laser scanning. The study reach is mainly depositional and all bedload sediment supplied from adjacent upstream areas is trapped in the study segment forming gravel lobes. Therefore, estimates of total bedload sediment mass balance can be obtained from pre- and post-field survey for each flood event. The spatially varying grain size data and transport equations were the most important factors for model calibration, in addition to flow discharge. The channel acted as a braided channel during the lower flows of the two discharge events, but when bars were submerged in the high discharges of May 2013, the high fluid forces followed a meandering river planform. The model results showed that erosion and deposition were in total greater during the long-lasting receding phase than during the rising phase of the flood hydrographs. In the case of the moderate-magnitude discharge event, deposition and erosion peaks were predicted to occur at the beginning of the hydrograph, whereas deposition dominated throughout the event. Conversely, the low-magnitude discharge event only experienced the peak of channel changes after the discharge peak. Thus, both type of discharge events highlight the importance of receding phase for this type of gravel bed ephemeral river channel.

  17. A practical approach to communicating benefit-risk decisions of medicines to stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLeong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurposeThe importance of a framework for a systematic structured assessment of the benefits and risks has been established, but in addition, it is necessary that the benefit-risk decisions and the processes to derive those decisions are documented and communicated to various stakeholders for accountability. Hence there is now a need to find appropriate tools to enhance communication in a manner that would uphold transparency, consistency and standards. MethodsA retrospective, non-comparative study was conducted to determine the applicability and practicality of a summary template in documenting benefit-risk assessment and communicating benefit-risk balance and conclusions for reviewers to other stakeholders. The benefit-risk (BR Summary Template and its User Manual was evaluated by 12 reviewers within a regulatory agency in Singapore, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA. ResultsThe BR Summary Template was found to be adequate in documenting benefits, risks, relevant summaries and conclusions, while the User Manual was useful in guiding the reviewer in completing the template. The BR Summary Template was also considered a useful tool for communicating benefit-risk decisions to a variety of stakeholders.ConclusionsThe use of a template may be of value for the communicating benefit-risk assessment of medicines to stakeholders.

  18. A practical approach to communicating benefit-risk decisions of medicines to stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, James; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The importance of a framework for a systematic structured assessment of the benefits and risks has been established, but in addition, it is necessary that the benefit-risk decisions and the processes to derive those decisions are documented and communicated to various stakeholders for accountability. Hence there is now a need to find appropriate tools to enhance communication between regulators and other stakeholders, in a manner that would uphold transparency, consistency and standards. A retrospective, non-comparative study was conducted to determine the applicability and practicality of a summary template in documenting benefit-risk assessment and communicating benefit-risk balance and conclusions for reviewers to other stakeholders. The benefit-risk (BR) Summary Template and its User Manual was evaluated by 12 reviewers within a regulatory agency in Singapore, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA). The BR Summary Template was found to be adequate in documenting benefits, risks, relevant summaries and conclusions, while the User Manual was useful in guiding the reviewer in completing the template. The BR Summary Template was also considered a useful tool for communicating benefit-risk decisions to a variety of stakeholders. The use of a template may be of value for the communicating benefit-risk assessment of medicines to stakeholders.

  19. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  20. Communication of Energy Efficiency Information to Remodelers: Lessons From Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-10-01

    The effective communication of energy efficiency and building science information to remodeling contractors is achieved through varying formats, timelines, and modes depending on who is delivering the information, who is intended to receive it, and what technical, intellectual,and time resources the recipients have at their disposal. Determining what type of communication is effective does not lend itself to a clearly quantifiable test but rather a qualitative one. That qualitative judgment can be supported by the research of current practices deemed effective for one or more of the following reasons: it has led to the successful completion of a certifying test or other evaluation, it has been widely used for the remodeling industry, it has been considered effective by a sampling of remodeling contractors, and/or it has proven effective in the field for the BARA team. These criteria were used to create a select list of communications to be further analyzed to determine why they are effective and how less successful formats or strategies can be revised for greater effectiveness.

  1. Management Communication in Non-U.S. MBA Programs: Current Trends and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    A study of top-ranked, full-time, global MBA programs suggests that management communication is indeed both an important focus and component in the curriculum. The methods of delivery, however, do not seem to follow any particular model, such as the common U.S. practice of a separate program or department. Required courses are found at 10 of the…

  2. Delta-Sigma AD-Converters Practical Design for Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggl, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis of this book is on practical design aspects for broadband A/D converters for communication systems. The embedded designs are employed for transceivers in the field of ADSL solutions and WLAN applications. An area- and power-efficient realization of a converter is mandatory to remain competitive in the market. The right choice for the converter topology and architecture needs to be done very carefully to result in a competitive FOM. The book begins with a brief overview of basic concepts about ADSL and WLAN to understand the ADC requirements. At architectural level, issues on different modulator topologies are discussed employing the provided technology node. The design issues are pointed out in detail for modern digital CMOS technologies, beginning with 180nm followed by 130nm and going down to 65nm feature size. Beside practical aspects, challenges to mixed-signal design level are addressed to optimize the converters in terms of consumed chip area, power consumption and design for high yield in ...

  3. The Long Way of Organizational Communication in Tourism: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STATE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational communication has become a topic on which increasingly more specialists express their views. Very few succed, however, to move from theory to practice, so that their attempt to be beneficial to it. Moreover, as a proverb (anonymously very well reveals, "... we communicate increasingly more, but we understand increasingly less" ... In this context, based on available statistics (which surprised and confused us in equal measure I aimed to analyze the extent to which beneficiaries of tourism units’ services are satisfied with the correspondence between their offer and the reality on the ground. Methodological, I turned in a first step to crowdsourcing. This is an alternative to get, as a result of outsourcing, required services and/or ideas by seeking contributions from large groups of people and/or communities turning to online resources and not to traditional employees or suppliers. This is the context in which I launched through a website accessible to all willing to participate in our research, a questionnaire aiming to evaluate the quality of organizational communication from tourism facilities. In a second step, I proceeded to the interpretation of the received responses checking, econometrically, through analysis of variance (ANOVA, the research hypotheses. Basically, I investigated the existing biunivocal relationship between the tourism facilities and the beneficiaries of their services, in order to identify and improve some external organizational communication trends, potentially generating performance effects as a direct result of improving customer relationship management. At the end of the work I formulated two proposals designed to reveal how and in what way can be reduced the distance (still huge that separates managerial theory from the practice of customer relationship in the tourism, hospitality and leisure industry.

  4. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  5. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  6. Online Identity and Communication as Narrative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    Digital technologies have offered not only new possibilities for communicating but also new challenges for the way we express and represent ourselves and our lives through this communication. This paper explores the forms of communication and self-expression observable online, and especially stud...... and literary studies in the study of online identity and communication can lead to new insights into the way social media influence our ways of representing and understanding ourselves.......Digital technologies have offered not only new possibilities for communicating but also new challenges for the way we express and represent ourselves and our lives through this communication. This paper explores the forms of communication and self-expression observable online, and especially...... studies the construction of identities through the narratives that emerge from the mediated communication through examples of user-created narrative texts on the Internet drawn from a case study on an online community of World of Warcraft players. Inspired by Paul Ricoeur’s thoughts on identity...

  7. Practical low-cost visual communication using binary images for deaf sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoranjan, M D; Robinson, J A

    2000-03-01

    Deaf sign language transmitted by video requires a temporal resolution of 8 to 10 frames/s for effective communication. Conventional videoconferencing applications, when operated over low bandwidth telephone lines, provide very low temporal resolution of pictures, of the order of less than a frame per second, resulting in jerky movement of objects. This paper presents a practical solution for sign language communication, offering adequate temporal resolution of images using moving binary sketches or cartoons, implemented on standard personal computer hardware with low-cost cameras and communicating over telephone lines. To extract cartoon points an efficient feature extraction algorithm adaptive to the global statistics of the image is proposed. To improve the subjective quality of the binary images, irreversible preprocessing techniques, such as isolated point removal and predictive filtering, are used. A simple, efficient and fast recursive temporal prefiltering scheme, using histograms of successive frames, reduces the additive and multiplicative noise from low-cost cameras. An efficient three-dimensional (3-D) compression scheme codes the binary sketches. Subjective tests performed on the system confirm that it can be used for sign language communication over telephone lines.

  8. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...... communication theories that ask, in addition, what communication ought to be, and what it could be, taking the relationship between communication and justice as a case in point. The final section returns to empirical conceptualizations of different institutions, practices and discourses of communication...

  9. Research in communication skills training translated into practice in a large organization: a proactive use of the RE-AIM framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2011-01-01

    To describe how a specific communication course for health professionals has been evaluated and implemented in clinical practice and how it will be transferred and evaluated at the entire hospital.......To describe how a specific communication course for health professionals has been evaluated and implemented in clinical practice and how it will be transferred and evaluated at the entire hospital....

  10. Establishing a communications link between two different, incompatible, personal computers: with practical examples and illustrations and program code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R W

    1985-01-01

    The increasing need to communicate to exchange data can be handled by personal microcomputers. The necessity for the transference of information stored in one type of personal computer to another type of personal computer is often encountered in the process of integrating multiple sources of information stored in different and incompatible computers in Medical Research and Practice. A practical example is demonstrated with two relatively inexpensive commonly used computers, the IBM PC jr. and the Apple IIe. The basic input/output (I/O) interface chip for serial communication for each computer are joined together using a Null connector and cable to form a communications link. Using BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Computer Language and the Disk Operating System (DOS) the communications handshaking protocol and file transfer is established between the two computers. The BASIC programming languages used are Applesoft (Apple Personal Computer) and PC BASIC (IBM Personal computer).

  11. Differential effects of ephemeral colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Cuscuta species with different ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdarvandi, Behrang; Guinel, Frédérique C; Costea, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    Seedlings of parasitic Cuscuta species are autotrophic but can survive only a short period of time, during which they must locate and attach to a suitable host. They have an ephemeral root-like organ considered not a "true" root by most studies. In the present study, two species with contrasting ecology were examined: Cuscuta gronovii, a North American riparian species, and Cuscuta campestris, an invasive dodder that thrives in disturbed habitats. The morphology, structure, and absorptive capability of their root-like organ were compared, their potential for colonization by two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed, and the effect of the AMF on seedling growth and survival was determined. The root of both species absorbed water and interacted with AMF, but the two species exhibited dissimilar growth and survival patterns depending on the colonization level of their seedlings. The extensively colonized seedlings of C. gronovii grew more and survived longer than non-colonized seedlings. In contrast, the scarce colonization of C. campestris seedlings did not increase their growth or longevity. The differential growth responses of the AMF-colonized and non-colonized Cuscuta species suggest a mycorrhizal relationship and reflect their ecology. While C. gronovii roots have retained a higher ability to interact with AMF and are likely to take advantage of fungal communities in riparian habitats, the invasive C. campestris has largely lost this ability possibly as an adaptation to disturbed ecosystems. These results indicate that dodders have a true root, even if much reduced and ephemeral, that can interact with AMF.

  12. Debunking the Myth of the Nintendo Generation: How Doctoral Students Introduce New Electronic Communication Practices into University Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covi, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides empirical evidence of how doctoral students and their faculty advisors use electronic communication technologies. Examines work patterns of doctoral students and data on recent introduction of new electronic communication practices, offering an alternative explanation to the Nintendo Generation Myth that claims electronic communication…

  13. Five challenges to ethical communication for interprofessional paediatric practice: A social work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Clare; Richards, Angela; Stewart, Helen; Kosta, Lauren

    2017-07-01

    In paediatric clinical care, what is said to a parent or carer as well as when, where, and how it is said, directly advances or diminishes parents' capacities to understand available options and to contribute to decisions about treatment for their child. This makes interprofessional and patient communication an ethical endeavour. Social workers are uniquely situated to observe, participate in, and provide an active link in the communication between families and other health team members. This article reports phenomenological research exploring ethical issues encountered by social workers in their everyday practice communicating with families and other health professionals in a paediatric hospital context in Australia. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with nine social workers and analysed thematically. Participants described two main communication-based roles: to support families through information provision and to contribute collaboratively to the interprofessional team involved in caring for a child and family. We grouped participants' descriptions of conflict between these roles into five main "communication challenges": (1) holding troublesome knowledge; (2) the need for diplomacy; (3) conciliation; (4) every man and his dog in family meetings; and (5) systems and processes presenting a brick wall. The five communication challenges provide empirically derived examples of how communication occurring within interprofessional health teams and between individual clinicians and parents can act to diminish or enhance parents' experience of care for their hospitalised child. Identifying these challenges may help to inform how communication within interprofessional teams and between clinicians and patients can benefit children and their parents.

  14. RE-COMMUNICATE: Communication Best-Practices for Renewable Energies. Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, Richard; Leopold, Aaron [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Geneva (Switzerland); Collings, Jonathan [Collings and Monney, London (United Kingdom); Cottrell, Jacqueline [Green Budget Germany- Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft; Germany

    2013-04-15

    An identified barrier to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies (RET) is the (mis-) perception in the public, at a political level and within the industry sector about the benefits, opportunities and capabilities of RET. One reason is that the communication of the RE sector may not be convincing enough. In November 2011 IEA-RETD organised a workshop in Berlin that discussed the topics of 'sending clear messages', and 'getting the RE cost perception right'. One of the conclusions was that renewables need a better positioning, which could be achieved through improved communication. Therefore, IEA-RETD commissioned a scoping study with the objective to provide ideas, techniques and case studies on how the benefits of renewable energies can be better communicated to and by policy makers, decision makers and other stakeholders. The study concluded that more targeted, effective renewable energy communications campaigns can be achieved through the use of more consistent, holistic and rigorous approaches to pre- and post-campaign development.

  15. RE-COMMUNICATE: Communication Best-Practices for Renewable Energies. Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, Richard; Leopold, Aaron [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Geneva (Switzerland); Collings, Jonathan [Collings and Monney, London (United Kingdom); Cottrell, Jacqueline [Green Budget Germany- Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft] [Germany])

    2013-04-15

    An identified barrier to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies (RET) is the (mis-) perception in the public, at a political level and within the industry sector about the benefits, opportunities and capabilities of RET. One reason is that the communication of the RE sector may not be convincing enough. In November 2011 IEA-RETD organised a workshop in Berlin that discussed the topics of 'sending clear messages', and 'getting the RE cost perception right'. One of the conclusions was that renewables need a better positioning, which could be achieved through improved communication. Therefore, IEA-RETD commissioned a scoping study with the objective to provide ideas, techniques and case studies on how the benefits of renewable energies can be better communicated to and by policy makers, decision makers and other stakeholders. The study concluded that more targeted, effective renewable energy communications campaigns can be achieved through the use of more consistent, holistic and rigorous approaches to pre- and post-campaign development.

  16. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitio...

  17. When Cultures Meet in Medical Practice: Improvement in intercultural communication evaluated

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, Hans

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Working in an urban general practice in a deprived neighborhood for 23 years it was clear from the beginning that contacts with patients from an ethnic minority were sometimes problematic. Although this did not really manifest itself at the level of the personal relationship, there were indeed some barriers in communication. In general, ethnic minority patients were loyal and polite and on the one hand had the same worries and questions as Dutch patients, on the o...

  18. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  19. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2017-11-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  20. The integration of Information and Communication Technology into medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Torrent, Joan; Ficapal, Pilar

    2010-07-01

    To identify doctors' utilization of ICT; to develop and characterise a typology of doctors' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies within medical practice. An online survey of the 16,531 members of the Physicians Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit model were undertaken. Multivariate statistics analysis of the 2199 responses obtained revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (38.61% of respondents) represents those doctors who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is thus referred to as 'integrated doctors'. The second profile (61.39% of respondents) represents those doctors who make less use of ICT so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated doctors'. From the statistical modelling, it was observed that an emphasis on international information; emphasis on ICT for research and medical practice; emphasis on information systems to consult and prescribe; undertaking teaching/research activities; a belief that the use of the Internet improved communication with patients and practice in both public and private health organizations play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated doctor'. The integration of ICT within medical practice cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how doctors are making use of ICT within their own practice, organizational contexts and the opportunities and constraints afforded by institutional, professional and patient expectations and demands. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data communications and computer communications network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Gwon; Gu, Chang Hoe

    2005-03-01

    This textbook is composed of twelve chapters, which are communication network introduction, foundation of data communication, data link control, circuit switching system, packet switching system, multiple access communication system, protocol and architecture, LAN, MAN communication network, integrated service digital network, internet and Asymmetric digital subscriber Line and Wireless Local Loop. Each chapter has the introduction of the technique, structure, function and practice problems. It also has the appendix on electricity and communication standards organization, characteristic table and glossary.

  2. Scientific Strategies and practices in Latin American Scientific Communication Reviews. An approach to their structural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gustavo A. León Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production of the magazines here analyzed emphasizes the existence of a specializing and dominant perspective of study in the field of the Latin-American research in communication in the last years. This perspective of study has clearly two trends of practical boarding. A trend is the one that is debated in the research applied to the communication in means, where there exists the predominance of two particular lines of study and today probably turned into both principal slopes of study inside the Latin-American research of the communication. On the other hand, there is emphasized the research of the properly academic communication, where, in general lines, his idea of construction it develops from a particular perspective of study of the communication that no doubt is analogous to what they raise and demand separately and with different shades two of the principal institutional initiatives and collective academic that generate nowadays the Latin-American Thought of the Communication (PLC: The called Latin-American School of the Communication (ELACOM and the Researcher Latin-American Association of the Communication (ALAIC.

  3. Impact of a faculty development programme for teaching communication skills on participants' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Cullati, Stephane; Hudelson, Patricia; Nendaz, Mathieu; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2014-05-01

    A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the programme on their subsequent teaching and communication practice. 28 clinical supervisors at the Geneva University Hospitals, from either inpatient or outpatient settings (general internists or primary care specialists), undertook a six-session faculty development programme, between 2009 and 2011, and each completed a short questionnaire before and 1 month after the course. Between 3 and 6 months after the course, the participants were interviewed about their views on the impact of the course on their practice using a semistructured interview. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The percentage of participants who reported teaching CS at least once a week had increased from 5/26 (19%) to 8/26 (30%), p=0.07. Participants reported using teaching skills, especially giving structured feedback. Use of newly acquired teaching skills was more likely when participants had protected time for teaching or were involved in formal teaching activities. Even participants who reported minimal teaching activity found the newly acquired CS to be useful, both with their own patients and in other professional situations. The few participants who explicitly reported teaching regularly CS in practice had generally become formal teachers in CS training. A faculty development programme on how to teach CS is perceived to be useful by clinical supervisors to acquire new skills, but using them in the workplace appears to depend on creation of a supportive environment with protected time for teaching. Involving supervisors in formal communication teaching may be one way to ensure continued use of newly learned teaching skills.

  4. Mobile technologies and communication strategies in an urban Midwifery Group Practice setting. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Amanda; Stapleton, Helen; Kildea, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Around-the-clock access to a known midwife is a distinct feature of Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and caseload midwifery settings; although the literature suggests this aspect of working life may hinder recruitment and retention to this model of care. Mobile technologies, known as mHealth where they are used in health care, facilitate access and hence communication, however little is known about this area of midwifery practice. Which communication modalities are used, and most frequently, by MGP midwives and clients? A prospective, cross sectional design included a purposive sample of MGP midwives from an Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Data on modes of midwife-client contact were collected 24h/day, for two consecutive weeks, and included: visits, phone-calls, texts and emails. Demographic data were also collected. Details about 1442 midwife-client contacts were obtained. The majority of contact was via text, between the hours of 07:00 and 14:59, with primiparous women, when the primary midwife was on-call. An average of 96 contacts per fortnight occurred. The majority of contact was between the midwife and their primary clients, reiterating a key tenet of caseload models and confirming mobile technologies as a significant and evolving aspect of practice. The pattern of contact within social (or daytime) hours is reassuring for midwives considering caseload midwifery, who are concerned about the on-call burden. The use of text as the preferred communication modality raises issues regarding data security and retrieval, accountability, confidentiality and text management during off-duty periods. The development of Australian-wide guidelines to inform local policies and best practice is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Towards a new analytical approach to the challenges of communication difficulties and aquired brain damage in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    part of where the participants mainly are persons with acquired brain damage and occupational therapists. I will discuss how a new approach to sense-making practice may be designed in order to study more closely a participants’ perspective in unique situations as they arise. I am interested......The approach of language psychology is grounded in the persons communicating; where as the approach of discursive psychology is grounded in social interaction. There is a lack of scientific knowledge on the social/communicative/interactional challenges of communication difficulties and brain injury...... in everyday life. A sense-making-in-practice approach may help form a new discourse. How may a new analytical approach be designed? May ‘communication’ be described as ‘participation abilities’, using the framework from language psychology combined with discursive psychology and the conventions...

  7. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  8. Hydraulic Geometry, GIS and Remote Sensing, Techniques against Rainfall-Runoff Models for Estimating Flood Magnitude in Ephemeral Fluvial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garcia-Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the combined use of remotely sensed data and hydraulic geometry methods as an alternative to rainfall-runoff models. Hydraulic geometric data and boolean images of water sheets obtained from satellite images after storm events were integrated in a Geographical Information System. Channel cross-sections were extracted from a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM and superimposed on the image cover to estimate the peak flow using HEC-RAS. The proposed methodology has been tested in ephemeral channels (ramblas on the coastal zone in south-eastern Spain. These fluvial systems constitute an important natural hazard due to their high discharges and sediment loads. In particular, different areas affected by floods during the period 1997 to 2009 were delimited through HEC-GeoRAs from hydraulic geometry data and Landsat images of these floods (Landsat‑TM5 and Landsat-ETM+7. Such an approach has been validated against rainfall-surface runoff models (SCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph, SCSD, Témez gamma HU Tγ and the Modified Rational method, MRM comparing their results with flood hydrographs of the Automatic Hydrologic Information System (AHIS in several ephemeral channels in the Murcia Region. The results obtained from the method providing a better fit were used to calculate different hydraulic geometry parameters, especially in residual flood areas.

  9. Teaching communication skills: beyond wishful thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review.

  10. Potential impacts of global climate change on the hydrology and ecology of ephemeral freshwater systems of the forests of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks

    2009-01-01

    Global, national, and regional assessments of the potential effects of Global Climate Change (GCC) have been recently released, but not one of these assessments has specifically addressed the critical issue of the potential impacts of GCC on ephemeral freshwater systems (EFS). I suggest that this is a major oversight as EFS occur in various forms across the globe. In...

  11. Successful and Practical Intercultural Communication Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Cynthia H.

    Techniques for teaching students to use a variety of language and communication skills to improve participation and success in cross-cultural situations are outlined. The approach evolved in the context of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California, in which foreign military officers must learn strategies for effective communication in…

  12. Situating digital storytelling within African communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitmaier, T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available their identity and not threaten social structures in the way that elders attribute to American movies. Our insights into their communication practice and technology-access suggested the suitability of cell-phones to record and share stories using audio... 1) to link our more ephemeral experience of participants? worlds, through their photos and stories, to concrete interactions with technology; and, generate usage scenarios and less palpable ideas, such as integrating features and the general feel...

  13. Evaluating Surgical Residents' Patient-Centered Communication Skills: Practical Alternatives to the "Apprenticeship Model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan

    2017-10-06

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  14. Communicating with children and families about obesity and weight-related topics: a scoping review of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, A C; Hamilton, J; Kingsnorth, S; Knibbe, T J; Peters, M; Swift, J A; Krog, K; Chen, L; Steinberg, A; Ball, G D C

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare professionals have called for direction on how best to communicate about weight-related topics with children and families. Established scoping review methodology was used to answer the question: 'How can healthcare professionals best communicate with children and their families about obesity and weight-related topics?' We searched four scientific databases, two grey literature repositories and 14 key journals (2005-2016). Inclusion criteria were (i) children up to and including 18 years of age and/or their parents; (ii) communication about healthy weight, overweight, obesity or healthy/active living; and (iii) healthcare setting. Thirty-two articles were included. Evidence-based best practices were largely absent from the literature, although the following guiding principles were identified: (i) include all stakeholders in discussions; (ii) raise the topic of weight and health early and regularly; (iii) use strengths-based language emphasizing health over weight; (iv) use collaborative goal-setting to engage children and parents and (v) augment discussions with appropriate tools and resources. Guidance on how to implement these principles and how to negotiate relevant contextual factors (e.g. age, culture and disability) is still needed. Despite agreement on a number of guiding principles, evidence-based weight-related communication best practices are lacking. Rigorous, empirical evaluations of communication approaches are urgently required, especially those that include children's perspectives. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. The role of NGO in nuclear public communication and the practices of the Chinese Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L., E-mail: shenlx@cnnc.com.cn [Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' Public acceptance is becoming an outstanding issue in China's nuclear power development. All the related stakeholders have been working hard to improve their work on public communication. This paper started with a general view of the nuclear power in China and then presented the situation on nuclear public acceptance, the related laws and regulations in China. After that, the paper discussed the four advantages of NGOs such as nuclear societies in this course. The paper presented more on the practices of Chinese Nuclear Society in public communication and nuclear science popularization.It is concluded with some suggestions for public communication. (author)

  16. The role of NGO in nuclear public communication and the practices of the Chinese Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' Public acceptance is becoming an outstanding issue in China's nuclear power development. All the related stakeholders have been working hard to improve their work on public communication. This paper started with a general view of the nuclear power in China and then presented the situation on nuclear public acceptance, the related laws and regulations in China. After that, the paper discussed the four advantages of NGOs such as nuclear societies in this course. The paper presented more on the practices of Chinese Nuclear Society in public communication and nuclear science popularization.It is concluded with some suggestions for public communication. (author)

  17. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article

  18. The effect of family and peer communication on college students' communication with dating partners about HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather L; Segrin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    As family and peers are primary socializing agents in the lives of young adults, a social learning based model of communication about HIV/AIDS among dating partners was developed and tested, examining the role of interactions with family and peers in this type of communication. Specifically, the model describes relationships between general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with parents, peers, and dating partners. Participants were 153 young adult couples who completed measures of their communication practices, as well as their communication with family and peers. Communication practices in the family of origin appear to influence both general communication and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Communication practices with peers influenced general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Participants and their dating partners exhibited relative agreement about their general communication practices and their communication about HIV/AIDS, but showed less agreement in reports of their communication about sexuality. Implications for understanding the role of family and peer interactions in communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners are discussed.

  19. Utilisation of strategic communication to create willingness to change work practices among primary care staff: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morténius, Helena; Fridlund, Bengt; Marklund, Bertil; Palm, Lars; Baigi, Amir

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term utilisation of strategic communication as a factor of importance when changing work practices among primary care staff. In many health care organisations, there is a gap between theory and practice. This gap hinders the provision of optimal evidence-based practice and, in the long term, is unfavourable for patient care. One way of overcoming this barrier is systematically structured communication between the scientific theoretical platform and clinical practice. This longitudinal evaluative study was conducted among a primary care staff cohort. Strategic communication was considered to be the intervention platform and included a network of ambassadors who acted as a component of the implementation. Measurements occurred 7 and 12 years after formation of the cohort. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from participants. In total, 846 employees (70%) agreed to take part in the study. After 12 years, the 352 individuals (60%) who had remained in the organisation were identified and followed up. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were used to analyse the data. Continuous information contributed to significant improvements over time with respect to new ideas and the intention to change work practices. There was a statistically significant synergistic effect on the new way of thinking, that is, willingness to change work practices. During the final two years, the network of ambassadors had created a distinctive image for itself in the sense that primary care staff members were aware of it and its activities. This awareness was associated with a positive change with regard to new ways of thinking. More years of practice was inversely associated with willingness to change work practices. Strategic communication may lead to a scientific platform that promotes high-quality patient care by means of new methods and research findings.

  20. Innovative curriculum for second-year Harvard-MIT medical students: practicing communication skills with volunteer patients giving immediate feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali NB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nadaa B Ali,1 Stephen R Pelletier,2 Helen M Shields1 1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Center for Evaluation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: Medical students are expected to develop excellent communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create an innovative communication skills exercise using real volunteer patients and physician co-teachers for students to practice communication skills while receiving immediate feedback.Method: This is a mixed methods study where second-year medical students participated in the communication skills exercise with real patients and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback. Clinical scenarios reflected the patients’ actual experiences. Students acted out roles as physicians. Physicians co-taught with the patients and gave immediate feedback to students. Students completed an anonymous written survey at the end of the exercise. Qualitative and quantitative responses were recorded. Student feedback from the 2014 surveys was used to modify the teaching designs to increase active role play opportunities by having only two students in each group and doubling the number of stations with real patients.Results: Students rated the overall exercise and the utility of patient volunteers in learning how to communicate on a Likert scale of 1–5, where in this medical school traditionally 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. In 2014, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.47 (SD 0.621. In 2015, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.03 (SD 0.62. In 2016, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.27 (SD 0.52. ANOVA analysis (p=0.002 and Bonferroni corrections indicate a statistically significant difference between combined mean scores of the exercise in 2014 and 2015 (p=0.001. No difference was shown between 2014 and 2016 or 2015 and 2016.Conclusions: Medical students rated practicing communication skills with real patient volunteers and physician co

  1. Narrative in interprofessional education and practice: implications for professional identity, provider-patient communication and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2014-01-01

    Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered.

  2. Augmentative and alternative communication: from qualification to speech, language and hearing science clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ciceri Cesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the qualification of the speech language and hearing therapists and their clinical performance with Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Methods: a descriptive, transversal, individual and contemporary study. Data were collected through a questionnaire, filled by twenty-four speech therapists, selected by a convenience sample. Content analysis was chosen for data study. Results: regarding access to the information media, all speech therapists in the sample presented the initiative to supply the absence of language training with Augmentative and Alternative Communication by different means. Regarding the dual focus on intervention, all speech therapists were favorable to this practice. However, according to experience, they reported resistance from the family, school and other therapists. The results showed two different types of introduction implementation and use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication, predominantly formed by strategies contemplating the pragmatic use of language through the contextualization of significant activities for the user. The other way used the Picture Exchange Communication System. Conclusion: the speech-language and hearing therapists in the present study inserted different interlocutors in the intervention, guided by implicit or explicit linguistic principles, by theoretical frameworks specific to the area of Augmentative and Alternative Communication knowledge, by global neuromotor elements and, finally, by principles of functionality and general wellness.

  3. Incorporating Interprofessional Teamwork and Communication into a Concept-Based Curriculum to Promote Transition to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork and communication are essential concepts for new graduate registered nurses working as members of the interprofessional team. Studies have shown the efficacy of applying these interprofessional education concepts by allowing student nurses to round with health teams before graduation. The innovative practice of rounding significantly…

  4. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  5. A review of countries' pharmacist-patient communication legal requirements on prescription medications and alignment with practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensberg, Karin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Björnsdottir, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacist-patient communication around prescription medications can optimize treatment outcomes. Society's expectations of pharmacist-patient communication around medications can be expressed in legislation, economic incentives, and authority control. In this study, the Nordic...... countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden provide the legislative examples and can be used as a platform to discuss how society's expectations, professional visions, and practice are aligning. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study was to describe society's expectations of pharmacist......-patient communication around medications as expressed by the state in Nordic legislation, economic incentives and authority control. Additionally, this study describes how the states govern Nordic pharmacists in different pharmacy systems. METHOD: A legal review was performed using online legislative databases...

  6. Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor); Sato, Yuko (Editor); Barclay, Rebecca O. (Editor); Kennedy, John M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: (1) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; (2) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; (3) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  8. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  9. Longitudinal tests of competing factor structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: traits, ephemeral artifacts, and stable response styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Self-esteem, typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychology. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that a simple unidimensional factor model, consistent with the original design and typical application in applied research, does not provide an adequate explanation of RSE responses. However, there is no clear agreement about what alternative model is most appropriate-or even a clear rationale for how to test competing interpretations. Three alternative interpretations exist: (a) 2 substantively important trait factors (positive and negative self-esteem), (b) 1 trait factor and ephemeral method artifacts associated with positively or negatively worded items, or (c) 1 trait factor and stable response-style method factors associated with item wording. We have posited 8 alternative models and structural equation model tests based on longitudinal data (4 waves of data across 8 years with a large, representative sample of adolescents). Longitudinal models provide no support for the unidimensional model, undermine support for the 2-factor model, and clearly refute claims that wording effects are ephemeral, but they provide good support for models positing 1 substantive (self-esteem) factor and response-style method factors that are stable over time. This longitudinal methodological approach has not only resolved these long-standing issues in self-esteem research but also has broad applicability to most psychological assessments based on self-reports with a mix of positively and negatively worded items.

  10. Observation and modeling of the evolution of an ephemeral storm-induced inlet: Pea Island Breach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez Montoya, Liliana; Sciaudone, Elizabeth J.; Mitasova, Helena; Overton, Margery F.

    2018-03-01

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina is a wave-dominated barrier island system that has experienced the opening and closure of numerous inlets in the last four centuries. The most recent of those inlets formed after the breaching of Pea Island during Hurricane Irene in 2011. The Pea Island Breach experienced a rapid evolution including episodic curvature of the main channel, rotation of the ebb channel, shoaling, widening by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and finally closing before the summer of 2013. Studying the life cycle of Pea Island Breach contributes to understanding the behavior of ephemeral inlets in breaching-prone regions. This topic has gained relevance due to rising sea levels, a phenomenon that increases the chances of ephemeral inlet formation during extreme events. This study explores the spatiotemporal effects of tides, waves, and storms on flow velocities and morphology of the breach by means of remotely sensed data, geospatial metrics, and a numerical model. The combined use of observations and results from modeling experiments allowed building a conceptual model to explain the life cycle of Pea Island Breach. Wave seasonality dominated the morphological evolution of the inlet by controlling the magnitude and direction of the longshore current that continuously built transient spits at both sides of the breach. Sensitivity analysis to external forcings indicates that ocean waves can modify water levels and velocities in the back barrier. Sound-side storm surge regulates overall growth rate, duration, and decay of peak water levels entering the inlet during extreme events.

  11. The relevance of western crisis communication theories to authoritarian Chinese practices : a study on the SARS epidemic and the Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Renna

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical field of crisis management has just been established and developed since 1970s and in the past three decades, most of such theories were western-oriented and US-dominated. Inspired by Huang, Lin and Su (Taiwan) and Lee (Hong Kong)‘s explorations of cultural context in crisis communication, this thesis applied crisis communication theories to governmental practices in the mainland China examining the relevancy between theory and practice in a non-western context. The thesis spe...

  12. Social Robotic Experience and Media Communication Practices: An Exploration on the Emotional and Ritualized Human-technology-relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Linke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technology-relations, theoretical ideas of a mediatization of communication and of a ritual interaction order are applied. Ritual theory is particularly used to enable a focus on emotion as a significant dimension in analyzing social technologies. This explorative article refers to empirical findings regarding media communication practices in close relationships. It argues that following the developed approach regarding mediatized and ritualized relational practices, useful insights for a conceptualization of the human-social robot relation can be achieved. The article concludes with remarks regarding the challenge of an empirical approach to human-social robot-relations.

  13. Promising Practices in Higher Education: Art Education and Human Rights Using Information, Communication Technologies (ICT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna; Cap, Orest

    2014-01-01

    Promising pedagogical practices is described in relation to incorporating ICT (Information, Communication and Technologies) with the study of Human Rights issues in Visual Arts Education for teacher candidates. As part of a course, "Senior Years Art," students at the Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba during 2013-2014…

  14. Mutual understanding: a communication model for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantho, Arne; Jensen, Lena; Malterud, Kirsti

    2002-12-01

    To present our pursuits towards development of a simple model for clinical communication intended for application by the practitioner as a tool for enhancing mutual understanding. Inspired by theories about patient-centredness and interactive modes of understanding, and supported by the perspectives of the Danish philosopher Niels Thomassen, we reviewed audiotapes from our own consultations. Recognising four dimensions assumed to be essential for mutual understanding in the transcripts, we explored these dimensions further. We present a communication model consisting of the following dimensions: The Framework, within which the communication takes place; The Subject, about which the communication takes place; The Persons, between whom the communication takes place; and The Action, verbally and non-verbally, through which communication takes place. We describe these dimensions in detail. The nature of the dimensions indicates that there is an interrelationship between them, implying that the character of the communication may change if one of the factors is changed. Analysis of an ongoing or recent consultation completed in accordance with these four dimensions allows the doctor to refocus the communication, thus leading to a more extensive mutual understanding and perhaps enhanced freedom of action.

  15. Practical Ways of Implementation of the Integrated Approach to Training Professionals in the Field of Professional Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Zotova-Sadylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline the ways of practical implementation of the integrated approach to the training of future specialists, in particular, in the aspect of effective professional communication in native and foreign languages. The analysis of scientific research convincingly proves that the perspective of training specialists, in particular, in the aspect of intercultural business communication, is the direction of integration of the humanitarian knowledge into a professional plane, which gives the opportunity to respond adequately to the challenges of the modern labour market and students’ needs. The article has a practical orientation, therefore theoretical aspects of the research are accompanied by the author’s methodical developments, the content of which is universal and can be used in the process of teaching students of different specialties in both the native and foreign (English languages. Their aim is to help students to acquire sufficient and high levels of theoretical knowledge and practical skills and skills of professional business communication / intercultural business communication. That is what makes it possible to determine the trends of teacher’s pedagogical activity, in particular, the use of modern interactive pedagogical technologies that combine individual and collective forms of work, for example, mixed learning technology, “flip-class”, and personally oriented interaction with students. The newest technologies make students face such tasks, which are not always possible to solve in the lecture-room, sometimes they are designed for consistent co-operation with lecturers of narrow-professional subjects, business organizations and individual non-tutor work. Approbation has confirmed the expediency of the proposed methods in high school and their perspective in the preparation of a competitive specialist.

  16. Not Your Typical Simulation Workshop: Using LEGOs to Train Medical Students on the Practice of Effective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao Chi C; Rudner, Joshua

    2018-01-21

    As students in the health professions transition from the classroom into the clinical environment, they will be expected to effectively communicate with their team members and their patients. Effective communication skills are essential to their ability to effectively contribute to their clinical team and the patient care they deliver. The authors propose an interactive workshop that can support students' deliberate practice of communication skills. The authors designed a simulation workshop that affords students the opportunity to practice their communication and peer-to-peer coaching skills. Using LEGOs, a one-hour workshop was conducted with medical students. Students were divided into groups of two. Each student took on a different role: teacher or builder. Teachers were tasked with instructing builders on how to construct a pre-made LEGO structure, not allowing builders to look at the structure. A group debriefing followed to evaluate the activity and explore the themes that emerged. Twenty first-year medical students and 25 fourth-year medical students participated in this activity. Most groups were successful in reproducing the pre-made structure. Groups that pre-briefed before building were most successful. Unsuccessful groups did not define orientation or direction in mutually understood terms, resulting in the creation of an incorrect mirror image of the structure - a common phenomenon seen during the teaching of procedures in the clinical learning environment. The workshop was well received. Students made requests to have similar sessions throughout their training to better support the development of effective communication skills. The workshop can easily be applied to other specialties to assist with procedural skills instruction or in workshops focusing on effective communication.

  17. Not Your Typical Simulation Workshop: Using LEGOs to Train Medical Students on the Practice of Effective Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao Chi C; Rudner, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    As students in the health professions transition from the classroom into the clinical environment, they will be expected to effectively communicate with their team members and their patients. Effective communication skills are essential to their ability to effectively contribute to their clinical team and the patient care they deliver. The authors propose an interactive workshop that can support students’ deliberate practice of communication skills. The authors designed a simulation workshop that affords students the opportunity to practice their communication and peer-to-peer coaching skills. Using LEGOs, a one-hour workshop was conducted with medical students. Students were divided into groups of two. Each student took on a different role: teacher or builder. Teachers were tasked with instructing builders on how to construct a pre-made LEGO structure, not allowing builders to look at the structure. A group debriefing followed to evaluate the activity and explore the themes that emerged. Twenty first-year medical students and 25 fourth-year medical students participated in this activity. Most groups were successful in reproducing the pre-made structure. Groups that pre-briefed before building were most successful. Unsuccessful groups did not define orientation or direction in mutually understood terms, resulting in the creation of an incorrect mirror image of the structure – a common phenomenon seen during the teaching of procedures in the clinical learning environment. The workshop was well received. Students made requests to have similar sessions throughout their training to better support the development of effective communication skills. The workshop can easily be applied to other specialties to assist with procedural skills instruction or in workshops focusing on effective communication. PMID:29568715

  18. Project Management Communication 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Line; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    How can we understand project management communication practices for developing effective practices in professional and technical communication? In this article we explore an approach to project management that focuses on projects as having a technical documentation structure with content...... that is developed through social or interpersonal communication practices. Looking at the broader picture of project management which besides the implementation phase also includes conception, planning and closure, we see a project management framework that brings together both technical and social aspects...... of project communication. To understand how this works, we interviewed project managers about their understanding and strategy in communicating about the projects they lead. Findings demonstrate that more experienced project managers have a more nuanced understanding of project communication as both...

  19. Improving Communicative Competence through Synchronous Communication in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC): real-time communication that takes place between human beings…

  20. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship.

  1. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  3. Vocational trainees' views and experiences regarding the learning and teaching of communication skills in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Marc; Thijs, Gabie; Van Royen, Paul; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goedhuys, Jo

    2010-01-01

    To explore the views and experiences of general practice (GP) vocational trainees regarding communication skills (CS) and the teaching and learning of these skills. A purposive sample of second and third (final) year GP trainees took part in six focus group (FG) discussions. Transcripts were coded and analysed in accordance with a grounded theory approach by two investigators using Alas-ti software. Finally results were triangulated by means of semi-structured telephone interviews. The analysis led to three thematic clusters: (1) trainees acknowledge the essential importance of communication skills and identified contextual factors influencing the learning and application of these skills; (2) trainees identified preferences for learning and receiving feedback on their communication skills; and (3) trainees perceived that the assessment of communication skills is subjective. These themes are organised into a framework for a better understanding of trainees' communication skills as part of their vocational training. The framework helps in leading to a better understanding of the way in which trainees learn and apply communication skills. The unique context of vocational training should be taken into account when trainees' communication skills are assessed. The teaching and learning should be guided by a learner-centred approach. The framework is valuable for informing curricular reform and future research.

  4. Best Practice: Integrated Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Don; Macdonald, Emma K.; Baines, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated marketing communications can substantially improve target audience reception, message resonance, and positive behavioural response but, to reach its true potential, the process requires a strong focus on data integration/customer insight.

  5. An evaluation of communication barriers and facilitators at the time of a mental health diagnosis: a survey of health professional practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, A C; Mullan, B; MacCann, C; Hunt, C

    2017-01-24

    To examine health professionals' views and practices relating to the specific barriers to communication that arise at the time of mental health diagnosis, and the strategies used to support individuals throughout this process. An online survey of the beliefs and practices of 131 mental health clinicians working in different clinical settings across Australia was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis of the items relating to barriers to communication resulted in three latent factors ('stigma, diagnosis and risk'; 'service structure'; and 'individual circumstances' such as the person receiving the diagnosis being young, having a culturally and linguistically diverse background or being unwell at the time of conversation). Using linear regression it was found that variance in 'stigma, diagnosis and risk' was significantly explained by whether participating clinicians had medical training, their experience working with serious mental health problems, their confidence handling distress and attitude towards diagnosis. Variance in 'individual circumstances' was significantly explained by participating clinicians' confidence handling distress. The most frequently used strategies to support diagnostic discussions centred on the health professionals' communication skills, gauging the individual's perception of their circumstances, responding with empathy, following-up after discussion, addressing stigma concerns, using collaborative practice and setting up for the conversation. Three main areas for health professionals to reflect on, plan for and ultimately address when discussing news with the individual concerned emerged ('stigma, diagnosis and risk'; 'service structure'; and 'individual circumstances'). Variations in practice indicate that practitioners should be cognisant of their own beliefs and background and how this impacts their communication practice.

  6. Communication practices that encourage and constrain shared decision making in health-care encounters: Systematic review of conversation analytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Victoria; Parry, Ruth; Seymour, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is generally treated as good practice in health-care interactions. Conversation analytic research has yielded detailed findings about decision making in health-care encounters. To map decision making communication practices relevant to health-care outcomes in face-to-face interactions yielded by prior conversation analyses, and to examine their function in relation to SDM. We searched nine electronic databases (last search November 2016) and our own and other academics' collections. Published conversation analyses (no restriction on publication dates) using recordings of health-care encounters in English where the patient (and/or companion) was present and where the data and analysis focused on health/illness-related decision making. We extracted study characteristics, aims, findings relating to communication practices, how these functioned in relation to SDM, and internal/external validity issues. We synthesised findings aggregatively. Twenty-eight publications met the inclusion criteria. We sorted findings into 13 types of communication practices and organized these in relation to four elements of decision-making sequences: (i) broaching decision making; (ii) putting forward a course of action; (iii) committing or not (to the action put forward); and (iv) HCPs' responses to patients' resistance or withholding of commitment. Patients have limited opportunities to influence decision making. HCPs' practices may constrain or encourage this participation. Patients, companions and HCPs together treat and undertake decision making as shared, though to varying degrees. Even for non-negotiable treatment trajectories, the spirit of SDM can be invoked through practices that encourage participation (eg by bringing the patient towards shared understanding of the decision's rationale). © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The bricoleur’s figure in artistic practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Resende Côrrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Art as process and reflection of the lived moment deals many times with issues that refers to its context and with the available materials in the current scenario. In a society marked by consumption and ephemerality, this article promotes a reflection on the use of disposed and collected products in works of visual artists. The bricoleur appears in this context as a central figure for the understanding and the analysis of some of the many artistic practices realized recently. By bricolage, artists like Joseph Cornell, Farnese de Andrade, Amanda Mei and Courtney Smith performed works with hybrid content that reflect the lived moment and issues contained in the materials available in the current scenario.

  8. A Comparison Study of Communication Skills between General Surgery and General Practice Residents on First-time Patient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Ansari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is little published research about differences in doctor-patient communication of different specialties. Accordingly, we compared doctor-patient communication skills in two different specialties, general surgery (GS and general practice (GP. Methods: Twenty residents training at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital (10 men and 10 women; mean age 28 years; 10 GS and 10 GP participated in 200 patient first visit consultations. The consultations were video-recorded and analysed by four trained observers using the MAAS Global scale. Results: 1 Internal consistency reliability of the MAAS Global (> 0.91 and Ep2 = 0.84 for raters was high, 2 GP residents spent more time (12 minutes than GS residents (7 minutes, in the visits, 3 There were several differences on the MAAS Global items between GP and GS residents (GS > GP, p GS, p < 0.05 on information giving, and 4 The present participants performed well compared to normative samples as well as to criterion-referenced cut-off scores. The general level of communication skills in both specialties, however, was ‘unsatisfactory’ and ‘doubtful’, as it is for normative samples. Conclusion: Excellent doctor-patient communication is essential but does not appear to receive the amount of attention that it deserves in practice settings. There are some differences between specialties as well as unsatisfactory communication skills for both specialties, since residents from both programs spent less time than recommended on each consultation. Our findings emphasize the need to improve the communication skills of physicians in general and for surgeons in particular.

  9. Faculty Use and Perception of Mobile Information and Communication Technology (m-ICT) for Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Chung, Chung Joo; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider faculty use and perception of mobile information and communication technology (m-ICT) for teaching practices. The researchers examined qualitative responses about specific m-ICT use and efficiency amongst Korean and US faculty (n = 59) at three different institutions. Findings from multi-level textual…

  10. Communicative Interactions in Everyday and College-Assessed Digital Literacy Practices: Transcribing and Analysing Multimodal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores integrating a range of digital media into classroom practice to establish the effectiveness of the media and its encompassing modes as a pedagogical tool with a focus on assessment. Directing attention on a communication skills module, research indicated that bringing a range of digital media into the classroom motivated and…

  11. The World Wide Web and its potential for corporate environmental communication : a study into present practices in the Australian minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lodhia, Sumit K.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers the use of the web for corporate environmental communication, which involves engagement with stakeholders in addiction to environmental disclosure. It is highlighted that the web provides numerous benefits for communication of environmental information. These benefits have been conceptualised througth Media Richness Theory and operationalised through a study into de web based environmental communication practice of companies in an environmentally sensitive industry, the A...

  12. Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Communication is at the heart of medical practice management. Yet there are many barriers to effective communication that can interfere with the smooth running of the practice. This article describes the 10 most common barriers to effective medical practice team communication and offers six steps the practice manager can take to break them down. This article also suggests that the practice develop a team communication strategy. It suggests 10 communication principles readers can share directly with their teams and describes three hallmarks of effective team communication. Finally, this article provides a list of 25 practical questions practice managers can use to improve their team's communication.

  13. Creation of an active learning healthcare communications course using simulations relevant to pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Izabela A; Baker, David M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and develop a health care communications course built around practice-like simulations and active learning in the first year of a professional pharmacy program. A three-credit health care communications course was divided into one didactic (two hours per week) and three simulation components (one hour per week). The simulation components consisted of one written patient education pamphlet, three group presentations, and three one-on-one patient counseling sessions. This was accomplished by breaking the class of approximately 75 students into eight separate sections, each consisting of 8-10 students and one instructor. Each week four sections were devoted to counseling role-plays: half in the role of pharmacists and half as patients. The other four sections were devoted to hour-long professional group presentations-half in the presenting group and half as audience. The students' performance in the simulated counseling sessions and group presentations has been tracked and analyzed to determine if the simulated exercises had a positive impact on the students' active communications skills. Consistently, over the first four years of the implementation of the course, students' communications skills, as measured by faculty assessments, in both professional group presentations and one-on-one counseling sessions significantly improved. Incorporation of active-learning simulation exercises into a healthcare communications course has a positive impact on the development of students' communications skills. This creates a foundation upon which students can build over the remainder of the professional program and into their future careers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting. As communic......Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting....... As communication inevitably makes use of a sensuous medium, such as light or sound, all communication has an aesthetic dimension. In the 19th Century, an important distinction was made between pure and applied art, following Immanuel Kant's separation of theory of knowledge, moral theory and aesthetic theory....... Whereas pure art is produced in order to be observed, applied art has to fulfill practical purposes as well. Modern organizations, defined as systems of communication, may use art works to embellish and define themselves. But they inevitably use applied art as a practical tool in their normal...

  15. Taking care: practice and philosophy of communication in a critical care follow-up clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Anthony; Harris, Wendy; Howell, David

    2013-06-01

    communication of social contexts. With his theory of communicative action, from within the perspective of critical theory, Habermas restores the influence of rational critique in the practice of communication, but also as an ethical regulator, especially through the notions of dignity, vulnerability and needfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  17. Organizational Communication: Research and Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In colleges and universities business students learn about organizational communication in order to function well in the business environment of which they will become a part. Although the organizational environment or culture is inextricably interwoven with the academic discipline of speech communication, the field of organizational communication…

  18. Improving Communicative Competence through Synchronous Communication in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Huang

    2018-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC): real-time communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers in forms of text, audio and video communication, such as live chat and chatrooms as socially-oriented meaning c...

  19. Ephemeral wetland communities of Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea class – new data from south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data (70 relevés of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group. Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.

  20. Critical Reflexive Practice in Teaching Management Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Prue; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Motion, Judith; Zorn, Theodore E.; Roper, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    Critical theory has been a distinguishing feature of the communication research program at the Waikato Management School, but significant reflection is required to translate the theory into meaningful classroom experiences. The need for reflection comes from two key tensions in teaching management communication: One is the tension between teaching…

  1. Intercultural Communication and Disabilities from a Communication Complex Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Джон Пэрриш-Спраул

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication presents a number of challenges that are less of an issue in same-culture interactions. This is important because travel and technological capability enable more and more immigrants, business people, tourists, etc. to engage in such interactions. One group of people that comprises 10% of the world population, the disabled, is increasingly being mainstreamed within cultures as well as traveling to other countries. Research finds that the disabled are often marginalized and discriminated against within their own country. When the abled enter an intercultural interaction with the disabled the communication challenges are even greater. Communication Complex, a metatheoretical perspective on communication that embraces a constitutive definition of communication combined with a neuroscience understanding of interaction, offers a deeper, yet highly practical explanation of the level of complexity that such an encounter entails. This article offers a brief introduction to this way of understanding intercultural communication, along with the suggestion that future studies and practical guides should take disabilities into account when analyzing or building skills.

  2. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  3. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  4. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J

    1983-01-01

    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  5. Interpretation of massive sandstones in ephemeral fluvial settings: A case study from the Upper Candelária Sequence (Upper Triassic, Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Goldberg, Karin; Schultz, Cesar Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers display a wide range of upper- and lower-flow regime structures due to great flow-velocity changes during the floods. The development of flow structures in these setting is yet to be understood, especially in the formation of thick, massive sandstones. The Upper Triassic of Southern Gondwana was marked by a climate with great seasonal changes, yet there is no description of river systems with seasonal characteristics in Southern Gondwana. This work aims to characterize a ephemeral alluvial system of the Upper Triassic of the Paraná Basin. The characteristics of the deposits are discussed in terms of depositional processes through comparison with similar deposits from literature, flow characteristics and depositional signatures compared to flume experiments. The alluvial system is divided in four facies associations: (1) channels with wanning fill, characterized by low width/thickness ratio, tabular bodies, scour-and-fill structures with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms; (2) channels with massive fill, characterized by low w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies, scour-and-fill structures with massive sandstones; (3) proximal sheetfloods, characterized by moderate w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms and (4) distal sheetfloods, characterized by high w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with lower-flow regime bedforms. Evidence for the seasonal reactivation of the riverine system includes the scarcity of well-developed macroforms and presence of in-channel mudstones, thick intraformational conglomerates, and the occurrence of well- and poorly-preserved vertebrate bones in the same beds. The predominantly massive sandstones indicate deposition from a hyperconcentrated flow during abrupt changes in flow speed, caused by de-confinement or channel avulsion, whereas turbulent portions of the flow formed the upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms after the deposition of the massive layers. The upper portion of the Candelária Sequence

  6. Exploring patients' health information communication practices with social network members as a foundation for consumer health IT design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to ensure that the growing number of consumer health information technologies designed to support patient engagement account for the larger social context in which health is managed. Basic research on how patients engage this larger social context is needed as a precursor to the development of patient-centered consumer health information technology (IT) solutions. The purpose of this study was to inform the broader design of consumer health IT by characterizing patients' existing health information communication practices with their social network members. This qualitative study took place between 2010 and 2012 in a Midwestern city. Eighteen patients with chronic conditions participated in a semi-structured interview that was analyzed using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Emphasis was placed on recruiting a sample representing diverse cultural groups and including participants of low socioeconomic status. Participants' social networks included a wide range of individuals, spanning biological relatives, divinities, and second-degree relationships. Participants' rationales for health information communication reflected seven themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the message, (5) orientation of the goal, (6) dimensions of the context, and (7) adaptive practices. This study demonstrates that patients' health information communication practices are multidimensional, engaging individuals beyond formal and informal caregivers and driven by characteristics of their personal lives and larger social contexts in addition to their health problem. New models of consumer health IT must be created to better align with the realities of patients' communication routines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Management Practices of Malaysian Smart Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Muhammad Z. M.; Atan, Hanafi; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the management practices in the Malaysian Smart Schools was investigated. The analysis revealed that the impact has resulted in changes that include the enrichment of the ICT culture among students and teachers, more efficient student and teacher administration, better accessibility…

  8. The Practice and Products of Communication Inquiry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Clay

    1982-01-01

    The ability to communicate effectively is fundamental to communication education. For internal validity, communication educators need to concentrate on knowledge-building (competence) and skills training (performance). For external validity, the speech communication discipline must establish a common understanding of its work and send clear…

  9. Social communication in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2018-05-15

    Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories. However, while the study of communication in bats is rapidly growing, it still lags behind other taxa. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of communication in bats, from the reasons why they communicate to the diversity and application of different signal modalities. The most widespread form of communication is the transmission of a signaller's characteristics, such as species identity, sex, individual identity, group membership, social status and body condition, and because many species of bats can rely little on vision due to their nocturnal lifestyles, it is assumed that sound and olfaction are particularly important signalling modes. For example, research suggests that secretions from specialized glands, often in combination with urine and saliva, are responsible for species recognition in several species. These olfactory signals may also convey information about sex and colony membership. Olfaction may be used in combination with sound, particularly in species that emit constant frequency (CF) echolocation calls, to recognize conspecifics from heterospecifics, yet their simple structure and high frequency do not allow much information of individual identity to be conveyed over long distances. By contrast, social calls may encode a larger number of cues of individual identity, and their lower frequencies increase their range of detection. Social

  10. Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eleanor Charlotte; Taft, Rachel; Geary, Katie; Ciotti, Massimo; Suk, Jonathan E

    2016-04-28

    The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. Searches were performed across biomedical and grey literature databases, supplemented by reference harvesting and citation tracking. Studies were selected using transparent inclusion criteria and underwent quality appraisal using a bespoke checklist based on the AGREE II criteria. Seventeen studies were included in the review, covering five methodologies. A narrative analysis of the selected studies suggests that no single methodology was superior. However, many of the methods shared common components, around which a 'best-practice' framework was formulated. This approach is intended to help inform decision makers' choice of an appropriate risk-ranking study design.

  11. Confessions of a Communications Junkie: Cliff Notes From the Science-Practice Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    Graduate education in the sciences is - among other things - about learning a foreign language. Proficiency in disciplinary jargon and a strange sort of eloquence in speaking English without being understood by anyone outside one's small 'country of expertise' are among the requirements for entry into academe. Until very recently, the ability to translate one's quirky knowledge back into common language was not part of entraining scientists. Yet, increasingly, the interested public, policy-makers and resource managers, not to speak of science funders, demand that scientists illustrate that their science has societal relevance. Moreover, the urgency of several complex societal and environmental problems puts the onus on scientists to work with experts in other disciplines. This means that the ability to communicate effectively with those outside one's own disciplinary home is rapidly becoming an essential qualification of a 'good' scientist. My own journey from a disciplinary boundary crosser, to hobby communicator, to professional translator of science into English, to alumnae of various media trainings and Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow, to researcher of the science-practice interface and expert in communication for social change will form the basis of this talk. It weaves together personal experience with scientific insights on why scientists should, why many don't, and how they could interact more effectively with members of a 'different tribe.'

  12. 13. Project Management Documentation and Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between documentation and communication practices in organizational contexts.......This chapter discusses the relationship between documentation and communication practices in organizational contexts....

  13. When Age Matters: Patterns of Participative and Communicative Practices in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Macková Alena; Macháčková Hana; Macek Jakub; Šerek Jan

    2016-01-01

    After a long history, research on the relation between participative and communicative practices was revived in the late 1990s because of the proliferation of new media. New studies have taken into account both online and offline participation and the ability of new media to provide citizens with easier access to information and a broader repertoire of actions. In this article, which is based on a representative survey of the adult Czech population and a survey of Czech adolescents, we addres...

  14. How to communicate climate change 'impact and solutions' to vulnerable population of Indian Sundarbans? From theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhiroop; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Global consciousness on climate change problems and adaptation revolves around the disparity of information sharing and communication gap between theoretical scientific knowledge at academic end and practical implications of these at the vulnerable populations' end. Coastal communities facing socio-economic stress, like densely populated Sundarbans, are the most affected part of the world, exposed to climate change problems and uncertainties. This article explores the successes of a socio-environmental project implemented at Indian Sundarbans targeted towards economic improvement and aims at communicating environmental conservation through organized community participation. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and the wealth rank tool (WRT) were used to form a "group based organization" with 2100 vulnerable families to give them knowledge about capacity building, disaster management, resource conservation and sustainable agriculture practices. Training was conducted with the selected group members on resource conservation, institution building, alternative income generation activities (AIGA) like, Poultry, Small business, Tricycle van, Organic farming and disaster management in a participatory mode. The climate change 'problems-solutions' were communicated to this socio-economically marginalized and ostracized community through participatory educational theater (PET). WRT revealed that 45 % of the population was under economic stress. Out of 2100 beneficiaries', 1015 beneficiaries' started organic farming, 133 beneficiaries' adopted poultry instead of resource exploitive livelihood and 71 beneficiaries' engaged themselves with small business, which was the success stories of this project. To mitigate disaster, 10-committees were formed and the endemic knowledge about climate change was recorded by participatory method validated through survey by structured questionnaire. As a part of this project 87 ha of naked deforested mudflat was reclaimed with endangered

  15. Molecular communications and nanonetworks from nature to practical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atakan, Barış

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the concepts of molecular communications and nanonetworks are introduced. Throughout the book, the existing molecular communication paradigms are categorized into two main groups. The first group includes the Passive Molecular Communication (PMC) paradigms in which molecules freely diffuse to transfer information from a transmitter to a receiver. The second group includes the Active Molecular Communication (AMC) paradigms in which molecules are carried or guided by some mediators such as molecular motors, gap junction channels and bacteria. In the book, after briefly discussing why molecular communication is needed for the sophisticated nano and biotechnology applications, the existing molecular communication systems are first presented. Then, the principles of diffusion phenomena and molecular reception with absorbers and the ligand-receptor binding mechanism are introduced. Based on these principles, the communication theories and techniques are given for the PMC. Then, the physical dynamics o...

  16. [Poor promotional practices in pharmaceutical communication: the anti- medical visit, International experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pérez, P

    1993-05-01

    We start with a short introduction about the concept of "bad promotional practices" within the Pharmaceutical Industry's (PHI) communication, giving rise to the birth of so-called "un-representatives" (un'rep). Taking the self-control model from the "Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry" (ABPI), based upon the "code of practice" as a paradigma, we comment about those who notify presumed code's breaches besides the assessment process and penalties that are usually imposed. We also considered the possibility that sometimes the physician instead of being a prosecutor is accused, by the PHI, of supposed "Medical Deonthological Code's" Infringement. The several modalities of malpraxis during the un-rep visit are classified into four categories: product un-information; unloyal competition; echonomical temptations addressed toward physicians; and disregarding stablished visit planning. We devote most of the text to exemplarize five common and very well documented situations; promotion of non-registered indications; influence of prescriptions through prebends to doctors; doubtful payments to compensate clinical trials and drug surveillance studies; the use of exagerated claims; and the abuse of the qualification "drug of choice". We end with a self-critism, from the phi's outlook on the prudence that a "good pharmaceutical communicator" must respect. As an excellent model of wisdom, we propose doctors, Because they follow the classical good-sense picture that illustrates the process of adoption of a new drug. We emphasize the fact that product over-estimation, creating false expectatives, is--together with the lak of informative liability--one of major reasons for a drug innovation to fail.

  17. Diagnosing Communication Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carol J.

    This paper addresses the concept of the communication audit, i.e., a fact-finding analysis, interpretation, and reporting process that studies the communication philosophy, structure, flow, and practice of the organization. Reasons for doing a communication audit are identified: (1) to uncover information blockages and organizational hindrances;…

  18. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    , and they indicate the importance of this story to be preserved. The professionals, who cooperate on the preservation efforts for the cultural environments today, all emphasizes the communication of the story, but using different approaches towards the processes of reading, interpreting and communicating. The role...... planning? In this paper I will focus on the communication of the architects working with building preservation and planning, how they communicate the building, the interventions and the storytelling in practice. The methods used by the architects are based on a practice, where some skills are learned...... through education, such as documentation of buildings and the restoration as a way of communicating the architect's intervention on the building, meanwhile the communication of the buildings history is seen as a "natural" skill and the methods are not questioned in the practice. The storytelling has today...

  19. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  20. Emotions in communication skills training - experiences from general practice to Porsche maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeby, Tonje; Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Lundeby, Paul Andreas; Loge, Jon Håvard

    2017-11-01

    The emphasis on skills in communication training of physicians has gained momentum over the last 30 years. Furthermore, a specific focus on skills to address emotions has been suggested and more recently supported by empirical studies. In this paper we use the Expanded Four Habits Model to illustrate how a structured consultation model supplemented with specific skills to address emotions is considered useful in medical and non-medical settings. The primacy of emotions in different types of professional encounters is discussed in relation to education and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  2. Nuclear post-accident communication: reflections of CODIR-PA's 'Communication' work group (GT8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document briefly presents the approach adopted in France to define a communication doctrine to be applied in a post-accident situation, to make practical recommendations to actors, and to develop practical tools (speech elements). It evokes the main themes dealt with (such as safety culture, communication, etc.) by a specific work group

  3. Assessing the seasonal variability of ephemeral gully erosion using high-frequency monitoring: case study in a fully cultivated catchment (The Pommeroye, Northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patault, E.; Alary, C.; Franke, C.; Gauthier, A.; Abriak, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Gully erosion results in on-site and off-site problems including the loss of cultivated soils, the silting of riverbeds and dams as well as infrastructure and property damage by muddy floods. Regions of intensive agricultural production situated on the European loess belt are particularly affected. Recently a growing interest has focused on ephemeral gullies since there have been recognized as a major contributor to the sediment yield in small agricultural catchment in this area. The aims of this case study are (i) to quantify the sediment yield transported by ephemeral gullies, (ii) to identify parameters that control the function of the hydro-sedimentary response and (iii) to evaluate the influence of seasonal variability on the ephemeral gully erosion. For this study a high-frequency monitoring station was implemented. For each flood event, 8 variables related to hydro-sedimentary and rainfall dynamics are calculated and the relationships between these variables are analyzed using the Pearson correlation matrix and Principal Component Analysis. During the first year of monitoring (03/2016-03/2017), 22 flood events were recorded of which 75% occurred in spring and winter. The specific sediment yield was evaluated to 30 t km-2 yr-1 which is conventional for the study region but the results show a highly variable seasonal distribution; 90% of the sedimentary transfer occurred in winter and autumn. The main reasons were a high cumulative rainfall and a long duration for the events. The maximum suspended sediment concentration at the catchment outlet was observed in spring, likely due to maximum rainfall intensities in that season. Also, a huge variability between the events is observed; e.g. one exceptional rain storm in 11/2016 represents 45% of the total sediment yield of the study period. For the monitored 22 events, 2 different types of hysteresis behavior were observed: (i) clockwise and (ii) complex. In winter, only clockwise hysteresis was observed. These

  4. The challenge of tetradic relationships in medically interpreted pediatric primary care visits: A descriptive study of communication practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A; Escobar-Gomez, M; Davis, B H; Roberts, J R; O'Brien, E S; Hinton, E; Darden, P M

    2016-04-01

    To examine spoken interactions between pediatricians and community-based interpreters speaking with adolescents and parents with Limited English proficiency (LEP) in primary care to identify the challenges of interpreting in a four-person or tetradic visit, its sources of co-constructed errors, and specific practices for educational intervention. As part of a larger study of vaccine decision-making at six clinical sites in two states, this descriptive study used discourse analysis to examine 20 routine primary care visits in a Latino Clinic in interactions between adolescents, parents, community-based interpreters, and pediatricians. Specific patterns of communication practices were identified that contributed to inaccuracies in medical interpretation Practices needing improvement were tallied for simple frequencies and included: omissions; false fluency; substitutions; editorializing; added clarification, information, or questions; medical terminology; extra explanation to mother; and, cultural additions. Of these speaking practices, omissions were the most common (123 out of 292 total) and the most affected by pediatricians. The dynamics of both pediatricians and interpreters contributed to identification of areas for improvement, with more adolescent participation in bilingual than monolingual visits. These observations provide opportunities for mapping a communication skills training intervention based on observations for future testing of an evidence-based curriculum. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Online Education for Improving Communication and Documentation of Dietary Supplements Among Health Professionals Practicing in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C; Kabbara, Karim; Lin, Steven C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kemper, Kathi

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the feasibility of online education in improving communication and documentation of dietary supplements (DS) among clinicians. This prospective educational study included clinicians at an urban teaching hospital. The curriculum included video streams, didactics, and interactive case presentations to discuss (1) DS safety and effectiveness, (2) cultural competency, (3) managing DS in a hospital setting, and (4) DS adverse events. Participants were surveyed, at baseline and after training, about DS knowledge, confidence, communication, and documentation practices. Thirty-nine of 61 (64%) recruited clinicians completed all four patient cases and post-tests. Most (82%) were women and 59% were physicians. The mean DS knowledge test score increased after the curriculum (p online curriculum is an effective tool for presenting DS education to clinicians with the goal of improving clinicians' knowledge, confidence, and documentation practices about DS.

  6. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  7. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... is presented as a postcultural prism composed by practice theory (Schatzki 1996, Reckwitz 2002, Nicolini 2012, Kemmis 2012), Intersectionality (Brah, Phoenix, Collins Rahsack) and positioning theory (Harre & Langenhove 1998)....

  8. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  9. Speech pathologists' current practice with cognitive-communication assessment during post-traumatic amnesia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    To investigate speech pathologists' current practice with adults who are in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Speech pathologists with experience of adults in PTA were invited to take part in an online survey through Australian professional email/internet-based interest groups. Forty-five speech pathologists responded to the online survey. The majority of respondents (78%) reported using informal, observational assessment methods commencing at initial contact with people in PTA or when patients' level of alertness allowed and initiating formal assessment on emergence from PTA. Seven respondents (19%) reported undertaking no assessment during PTA. Clinicians described using a range of techniques to monitor cognitive-communication during PTA, including static, dynamic, functional and impairment-based methods. The study confirmed that speech pathologists have a key role in the multidisciplinary team caring for the person in PTA, especially with family education and facilitating interactions with the rehabilitation team and family. Decision-making around timing and means of assessment of cognitive-communication during PTA appeared primarily reliant on speech pathologists' professional experience and the culture of their workplace. The findings support the need for further research into the nature of cognitive-communication disorder and resolution over this period.

  10. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  11. Off-label drug promotion and the ephemeral line between marketing and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Joan H

    2015-11-01

    Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al. would exacerbate them. The Model would limit FDA authority to core communications proposing immediate commercial transactions, giving manufacturers unfettered discretion over scientific exchanges and nearly free rein over truthful quasi-commercial communications. Most problematically, the New Model relies on the longstanding assumption that truly educational and scientific activities can be distinguished from simple product promotion - a dichotomy that exists not only in federal law and professional association codes, but also underlies the jurisdiction of the federal agencies overseeing the pharmaceutical sector. Experience invites skepticism that these activities can be cleanly separated, suggesting that the New Model may simply perpetuate abusive behaviors without offering concomitant benefits to physicians or patients.

  12. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  13. Teaching Intercultural Communication in a Basic Technical Writing Course: A Survey of Our Current Practices and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    This research article reports the results of an online survey distributed among technical writing instructors in 2006. The survey aimed to examine how we teach intercultural communication in basic technical writing courses: our current practices and methods. The article discusses three major challenges that instructors may face when teaching about…

  14. High-resolution melting (HRM) for genotyping bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Stram, Rotem; Menasherow, Shopia; Rubistein-Giuni, Marisol; Sharir, Binyamin; Kchinich, Evgeni; Stram, Yehuda

    2017-02-02

    In recent years there have been several major outbreaks of bovine ephemeral disease in the Middle East, including Israel. Such occurrences raise the need for quick identification of the viruses responsible for the outbreaks, in order to rapidly identify the entry of viruses that do not belong to the Middle-East BEFV lineage. This challenge was met by the development of a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay. The assay is based on the viral G gene sequence and generation of an algorithm that calculates and evaluates the GC content of various fragments. The algorithm was designed to scan 50- to 200-base-long segments in a sliding-window manner, compare and rank them using an Order of Technique of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution technique, according to the differences in GC content of homologous fragments. Two fragments were selected, based on a match to the analysis criteria, in terms of size and GC content. These fragments were successfully used in the analysis to differentiate between different virus lineages, thus facilitating assignment of the viruses' geographical origins. Moreover, the assay could be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animales (DIVA). The new algorithm may therefore be useful for development of improved genotyping studies for other viruses and possibly other microorganisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Risk communications in nuclear energy as science and technology. Arrangement and analysis of academic findings and practical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Problems in communication among the government, enterprise, experts and so on and the society and people, now confront us in several areas of science and technology. In order to be accepted by the society, each area of science and technology has experienced common processes such as beginnings, business, society introduction, problem renovation and maturity. Each area can be positioned based on the degree of maturity, which helps to find solutions of the problems. Arrangement and analysis of academic findings and practical cases on risk communications in nuclear energy are described. (T. Tanaka)

  16. A review of countries' pharmacist-patient communication legal requirements on prescription medications and alignment with practice: Comparison of Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensberg, Karin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Björnsdottir, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacist-patient communication around prescription medications can optimize treatment outcomes. Society's expectations of pharmacist-patient communication around medications can be expressed in legislation, economic incentives, and authority control. In this study, the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden provide the legislative examples and can be used as a platform to discuss how society's expectations, professional visions, and practice are aligning. The overall aim of this study was to describe society's expectations of pharmacist-patient communication around medications as expressed by the state in Nordic legislation, economic incentives and authority control. Additionally, this study describes how the states govern Nordic pharmacists in different pharmacy systems. A legal review was performed using online legislative databases. Regulating authorities were contacted to gather supplementary information. Thereafter, a qualitative document analysis was conducted. The Nordic countries regulate staff-patient communication by using broad laws. The legislation's main focus during dispensing is information on the use of medications, but also generic substitution and pricing. Pharmacies should have internal routines for this in place. Pharmacists' obligation to keep a journal on advice given during dispensing is ambiguously regulated. The economic incentives for communication on prescription medication during dispensing are included in the general pharmacy mark-up. Today's authority control focuses on the pharmacy management and appears to primarily evaluate structure indicators of communication, for example, if there is a routine method of counseling available. Various countries throughout the world differ in their requirements for pharmacy staff to communicate on the use of medicines during dispensing. The Nordic countries all require such communication, which aligns with professional visions. Regardless of the pharmacy system, the

  17. MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN PRACTICAL ACTIVITY OF THE LIBRARY OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE «UKRANIAN MEDICIAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Боровик

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The global computer network Internet replaces the classical library model. The destiny of libraries depends largely on the production of carefully crafted and long-term survival strategies and the creation of a detailed crisis plan of the library in the new environment. To prove their importance to society, libraries must use the full range of modern communication marketing technologies. The main goal, which is implemented by means of marketing communications is the formation of a prestigious library image. The present day library has various tools of marketing communications: print, outdoor and online advertising, public relations, public events. The article describes the practical implementation of marketing communication activities in the library of the Higher State Educational Establishment «UkrainianMedicalStomatologicalAcademy». Namely: wall painting, migrating literature cart, book exhibitions, posters and banners, social and cultural activities and main communication channel website of the library of the Academy – the library blog.

  18. "Fat is really a four-letter word": Exploring weight-related communication best practices in children with and without disabilities and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, A C; Knibbe, T J; Oake, M; Swift, J A; Browne, N; Ball, G D C; Hamilton, J

    2018-05-15

    Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area. The objectives were to present the findings of a recent scoping review to children with and without disabilities and their caregivers for their reactions; and to explore the experiences and perceptions of the children and their caregivers regarding weight-related communication best practices. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with 7-18-year olds with and without disabilities and their caregivers. The interview guide was created using findings from a recent scoping review of weight-related communication best practices. Inductive thematic analysis was employed. Eighteen children (9 boys; 7 children with disabilities) and 21 caregivers (17 mothers, 1 step-father, 3 other caregivers) participated in 8 focus group and 7 individual interviews. Preferred communication strategies were similar across those with and without disabilities, although caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder endorsed more concrete approaches. Discussions emphasizing growth and health were preferred over weight and size. Strengths-based, solution-focused approaches for weight conversations were endorsed, although had not been widely experienced. Perceptions of weight-related communication were similar across stakeholder groups, regardless of children's disability or weight status. Participants generally agreed with the scoping review recommendations, suggesting that they apply broadly across different settings and populations; however, tailoring them to specific circumstances

  19. Using a communication audit to improve communication on clinical placement in pre-registration nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; Ellis, Jackie; Barker, Chris

    2005-02-01

    This article describes a novel communication audit conducted with those concerned with the practice placements of pre-registration Nursing students. The study, uniquely, addressed all who were involved in communication concerning placement in what is described as an organisational analysis. The aim of the audit was to identify levels of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with present communication processes and to identify points for improvement. The audit used the Hogard-Barker Communication Audit of Practice a customized version of a well established tool, devised to cover issues relevant to practice placements. A key feature of the tool is the opportunity for participants to identify the amount of communication they are receiving on particular topics and issues against the amount they would like to receive. Participants in the audit included students, assessor mentors, ward managers, clinical facilitators and link tutors. Overall there was considerable dissatisfaction with what was perceived to be the insufficient amount of communication received on a number of topics including allocations, the curriculum, students' learning outcomes and commitments in terms of college work. In addition to identifying points for improvement the audit provides a baseline against which progress can be assessed through a future audit.

  20. Assessment and Management of the Communication Difficulties of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A UK Survey of SLT Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rose Mary; Pennington, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Communication difficulties are common in cerebral palsy (CP) and are frequently associated with motor, intellectual and sensory impairments. Speech and language therapy research comprises single-case experimental design and small group studies, limiting evidence-based intervention and possibly exacerbating variation in practice. Aims:…

  1. Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2013-01-09

    Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

  2. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Background: Continuing professional education may be

  4. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. BACKGROUND: Continuing professional education may be

  5. The Impact of Teaching Communication Strategies on EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarshahr, Abulfazl; Abdollahzadeh, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    One of the pedagogical implications of the research on the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) might be to propose practical ways of making language learners more willing to communicate in the classroom. This study investigated the impact of teaching communication strategies (CSs) on Iranian EFL learners' WTC. To this end, 8 intact classes were…

  6. Promoting practical clinical management learning: the current situation about Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Marian

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about work-based learning in information management for student nurses. It seeks, through a literature review, to make a case for and promote Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses within their clinical environment. The profession of nursing, like many other jobs, is facing the increasing usage of information technology in day-to-day operations. Admission and discharges of patients have been held on computer databases since at least the 1980s. With the new Labour Government in 1997, increasing focus was placed on the effectiveness of the National Health Service and using computers as one way to assist in achieving greater effectiveness. Nurse education therefore needed to reflect this need and support trainee nurses to acquire skills in Information and Communications Technology. This paper is part of an ongoing professional doctorate inquiry into Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses. A literature search was conducted on teaching information and technology skills via Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Most of the available studies were neither based on the UK nor were they about student nurses. As there is a dearth of published work in this specific area, relevant, related and tangential literature was reviewed. It is argued that current practice and published work on Information and Communications Technology capability development by student nurses hardly exists. The literature confirmed that success in this area requires sound change management, an understanding of National Health Service culture, and effective people leadership skills. Nurse educators and managers need to pay more attention to understand how organizations work, particularly organizations where student nurses carry out their work. As the search revealed a significant gap in the literature in this area, a practical conceptual framework to fully analyse, develop and

  7. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Analysis of MoDOT communication and outreach effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Personal interviews were held with MoDOT personnel to assess MoDOTs current communication practices and existing customer segmentation practices. Focus groups were then held to help gauge the effectiveness of existing communication practices and t...

  9. Bacterial succession within an ephemeral hypereutrophic mojave desert playa lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J.B.; Moser, D.P.; Flores, A.; Ross, C.; Rosen, Michael R.; Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Hedlund, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Ephemerally wet playas are conspicuous features of arid landscapes worldwide; however, they have not been well studied as habitats for microorganisms. We tracked the geochemistry and microbial community in Silver Lake playa, California, over one flooding/desiccation cycle following the unusually wet winter of 2004-2005. Over the course of the study, total dissolved solids increased by 10-fold and pH increased by nearly one unit. As the lake contracted and temperatures increased over the summer, a moderately dense planktonic population of 1 ?????106 cells ml-1 of culturable heterotrophs was replaced by a dense population of more than 1????????109 cells ml-1, which appears to be the highest concentration of culturable planktonic heterotrophs reported in any natural aquatic ecosystem. This correlated with a dramatic depletion of nitrate as well as changes in the microbial community, as assessed by small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of bacterial isolates and uncultivated clones. Isolates from the early-phase flooded playa were primarily Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, yet clone libraries were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and yet uncultivated Actinobacteria. Isolates from the late-flooded phase ecosystem were predominantly Proteobacteria, particularly alkalitolerant isolates of Rhodobaca, Porphyrobacter, Hydrogenophaga, Alishwenella, and relatives of Thauera; however, clone libraries were composed almost entirely of Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria). A sample taken after the playa surface was completely desiccated contained diverse culturable Actinobacteria typically isolated from soils. In total, 205 isolates and 166 clones represented 82 and 44 species-level groups, respectively, including a wide diversity of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Intercultural doctor-patient communication in daily outpatient care: relevant communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.

  11. Rational accountability and rational autonomy in academic practice: An extended case study of the communicative ethic of interdisciplinary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan Margaret

    The dissertation investigates the interaction of rational accountability and rational autonomy in interdisciplinary science within the lifeworld of the university. It focuses on the cultural, social and motivational forces that university researchers draw on, and develop, to constitute and regulate interdisciplinary science. Findings are analyzed within an applied critical social theory framework that attends to the interaction of instrumental and communicative rational action within the public spaces that constitute the lifeworld of the university as a public sphere in society. The research raises questions of how academics practice interdisciplinary science and how these practices relate to the reproduction of the regulative ideal of the university as a community that practices public reason. The conceptual framework informing the research is Habermas' (1984) theory of communicative action. Using Burawoy's (1991) extended case study method as an operational strategy, two modes of constituting and regulating interdisciplinary science were found. Instrumental rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where consensus on the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action were pre-existing and pre-supposed by participants. Communicative rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action entered a contested domain. Endorsements for interdisciplinary science policies are coinciding with demands for increased accountability and relevance of Canada's university system. At the same time that the university system must respond to external demands, it must reproduce itself as a public institution open to the discursive redemption of factual and normative validity claims. The study found that academics participate in, but also contest the instrumental regulation of academic inquiry and conduct by using their constitutional autonomy and freedom to

  12. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  13. Family-centered services for children with complex communication needs: the practices and beliefs of school-based speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandak, Kelsey; Light, Janice

    2018-06-01

    This study used an online focus group to examine the beliefs and practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who served children with complex communication needs regarding their provision of family-centered services. Participants revealed that despite their desire for family involvement and reported beliefs in the importance of family-centered services, there were barriers in place that often limited family-centered service provision. Across the SLPs, many were dissatisfied with their current provision of family-centered services. The SLPs varied in their reported practices, with some reporting family-centered services and others, professional-centered services. Future research is recommended in order to investigate which factors contribute to the variation among SLPs and how the variation impacts children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and their families. Potential clinical implications for in-service and pre-service SLPs are discussed to improve future family-centered AAC services.

  14. Barriers against psychosocial communication: oncologists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind, Hanna; Kettis, Åsa; Glimelius, Bengt; Ring, Lena

    2013-10-20

    To explore oncologists' psychosocial attitudes and beliefs and their perceptions regarding barriers against psychosocial communication. A questionnaire was distributed to oncologists in Sweden (n = 537). Questions covered demography, the Physician Psychosocial Beliefs Scale (PPBS), and barriers against psychosocial communication. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine what factors contribute the most to the PPBS score and the total number of barriers and barriers affecting clinical practice, respectively. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to determine correlation between PPBS score and number of barriers. Questionnaire response rate was 64%. Mean PPBS value was 85.5 (range, 49 to 123; SD, 13.0). Most oncologists (93%) perceived one or more barriers in communicating psychosocial aspects with patients. On average, five different communication barriers were perceived, of which most were perceived to affect clinical practice. These barriers included insufficient consultation time, lack of resources for taking care of problems discovered, and lack of methods to evaluate patients' psychosocial health in clinical practice. There was a positive correlation (rs = 0.490; P barriers (ie, less psychosocially oriented oncologists perceived more barriers). Oncologists with supplementary education with a psychosocial focus perceived fewer barriers/barriers affecting clinical practice (P barriers affecting psychosocial communication in clinical practice. Interventions aiming to improve psychosocial communication must therefore be multifaceted and individualized to clinics and individual oncologists. It is important to minimize barriers to facilitate optimal care and treatment of patients with cancer.

  15. Visual Communication Design as a Form of Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies visual communication design as a form of public pedagogy. Communication design practices aim to achieve the successful transmission of a message to a recipient in a visual mode. Understanding the theories and practices of visual communication design can assist in enhancing the reception of the communication, as these…

  16. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Yargıçoğlu, Erin N; Cardace, Dawn; Shock, Everett L; Güleçal-Pektas, Yasemin; Temel, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite). Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ(13)C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (-25 to -28‰) relative to the carbonates (-11 to -20‰). We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ(15)N ratios ~3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and subsurface-surface interactions.

  17. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimaera, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arcy Renee Meyer-Dombard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas seeps emanating from ophiolites at Yanartaş (Chimaera, Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite. Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ13C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (−25 to −28 ‰ relative to the carbonates (−11 to −20‰. We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ15N ratios ~ 3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and

  18. Electronic communication and collaboration in a health care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, C; Jones, P C; Rind, D; Bush, B; Cytryn, K N; Patel, V L

    1998-02-01

    Using cognitive evaluation techniques, this study examines the effects of an electronic patient record and electronic mail on the interactions of health care providers. We find that the least structured communication methods are also the most heavily used: face-to-face, telephone, and electronic mail. Positive benefits of electronically-mediated interactions include improving communication, collaboration, and access to information to support decision-making. Negative factors include the potential for overloading clinicians with unwanted or unnecessary communications.

  19. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  1. Risk communication in the case of the Fukushima accident: Impact of communication and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2016-10-01

    Risk communication about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011 was often not transparent, timely, clear, nor factually correct. However, lessons related to risk communication have been identified and some of them are already addressed in national and international communication programmes and strategies. The Fukushima accident may be seen as a practice scenario for risk communication with important lessons to be learned. As a result of risk communication failures during the accident, the world is now better prepared for communication related to nuclear emergencies than it was 5 years ago The present study discusses the impact of communication, as applied during the Fukushima accident, and the main lessons learned. It then identifies pathways for transparent, timely, clear and factually correct communication to be developed, practiced and applied in nuclear emergency communication before, during, and after nuclear accidents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:683-686. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles.

  3. The Effect of Personality Value Practice of Principals toward Attitude, Discipline, Qualities and Communications of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of personality value practice of principals toward work attitude, work discipline, work quality and work communication of teachers in senior high schools such as public senior high schools (SMA, vocational senior high schools (SMK, religion senior high schools (MAN in Makassar city, South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The sample consisted of 295 teachers. It used random sampling method. The study used a questionnaire to collect data. Data were analyzed by the statistical inference of linear regression to test the hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire is 0.879. The results showed a strong effect of personality values of principals toward work attitude, work quality and work communication of teachers at schools. While, personality value of principals have moderate influence on teachers’ work discipline.

  4. Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM). A practical introduction and survival guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianykh, O.S.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) book to introduce this complex imaging standard from a very practical point of view. It is aimed at a broad audience of radiologists, clinical administrators, information technologists, and digital medicine practitioners. It provides a gradual, down-to-earth introduction to DICOM and is accompanied by an analysis of the most common pitfalls and problems associated with its implementation. Whether you are running a teleradiology project or writing DICOM software, this book is for you; it will prepare you for any DICOM project or problem solving and will help you to take full advantage of this powerful tool. (orig.)

  5. Succession of Ephemeral Secondary Forests and Their Limited Role for the Conservation of Floristic Diversity in a Human-Modified Tropical Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found...... niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees....... This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes....

  6. Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Annemiek J; van Weert, Julia Cm; Schouten, Barbara C; Smit, Edith G; van Bodegraven, Ad A; van Dijk, Liset

    2012-01-01

    The barriers to patients' successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1) to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2) to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior. Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology) was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers) or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers). The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients' barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores. The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was found between nurses who encouraged question-asking behavior and memory barriers (r = -0.228, P = 0.042) and between nurses who summarized information (r = -0.254, P = 0.023) or used cartoons or pictures (r = -0.249, P = 0.026) and concern barriers. Moreover, a significant relationship between patients' emotional cues about side effects and perceived concern barriers (r = 0.244, P = 0.029) was found as well

  7. Building a Context of Experience: Communication Audits to Teach Communication Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Robert L.; Helmer, James E.

    The research audit is an effective means for providing undergraduate students with relevant organizational experience through which they can integrate theory and practice. A course was designed to teach students to apply basic concepts in the field of organizational communication to "real life" communication problems in organizations.…

  8. Organizations as real and ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2017-01-01

    . On the other hand, another contemporary movement may be observed within organization studies, which is to defend the use of general theories of the social sciences. This latter trend is represented through the language of organizations as processes and practices, sometimes termed the ‘process-’ and ‘practice......-turn’. Although I tend to subscribe to the latter position, I aim to illustrate the value of bridging the dilemma of a canon of history and tradition and the inclusion of more general social science theories within organization studies. I also argue that it is beneficial to hold the eye both on organizations...

  9. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  10. Communication Tools for the Modern Doctor Bag. Physician Patient Communication Part 1: Beginning of a medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Sapna Patel

    2011-01-01

    Effective physician patient communication is essential to best practice in medicine. Good communication with patients is critical in making the right diagnosis, improving compliance and overall outcomes for our patients (as well as improving physician satisfaction.) Communication skills can be learned and need to be taught, practiced and given the same emphasis as other core competencies in medicine. The focus of this article is on the Calgary-Cambridge Model for physician patient communication in the context of a medical interview. The beginning of a patient encounter is discussed, with emphasis on appropriate introductions and attentive active listening.

  11. Vocational trainees’ views and experiences regarding the learning and teaching of communication skills in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nuland, Marc; Thijs, Gaby; Van Royen, Paul; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goedhuys, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the views and experiences of general practice (GP) vocational trainees regarding communication skills (CS) and the teaching and learning of these skills. METHODS: A purposive sample of second and third (final) year GP trainees took part in six focus group (FG) discussions. Transcripts were coded and analysed in accordance with a grounded theory approach by two investigators using Alas-ti software. Finally results were triangulated by means of semi-structured telephone in...

  12. practice managers in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hanna

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion Practice managers are likely to play a central role in the introduction of new consultation/ communication technologies within general practice. They hold varying views on the appropriateness of these technologies, influenced by a complex mix of contextual characteristics.Managers from areas in which the ethos of the practice prioritises personalised care in service delivery are less enthusiastic about the adoption of remote consultation/ communication technologies.

  13. Managers' duty to maintain good workplace communications skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2011-06-01

    Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.

  14. Augmentative and alternative communication in daily clinical practice: strategies and tools for management of severe communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankoff, Denise J; Hatfield, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches can be used effectively by patients and their caregivers to improve communication skills. This article highlights strategies and tools for re-establishing communication competence by considering the complexity and diversity of communication interactions in an effort to maximize natural speech and language skills via a range of technologies that are implemented across the continuum of care rather than as a last resort.

  15. Communicating forest management science and practices through visualized and animated media approaches to community presentations: An exploration and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Jane Kapler Smith; Garrett J. O' Keefe

    2006-01-01

    Natural-resource managers have used a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to diverse publics. We explored the effects of visualizing and animating predictions from mathematical models in computerized presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change through time), fire behavior, and management options...

  16. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  17. Protocol for a national, mixed-methods knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; Amgalan, Gombodorj

    2011-01-01

    Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor...... Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs).This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate...

  18. Improving Communicative Competence through Synchronous Communication in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC: real-time communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers in forms of text, audio and video communication, such as live chat and chatrooms as socially-oriented meaning construction. This review begins by considering the adoption of social interactionist views to identify key paradigms and supportive principles of computer-supported collaborative learning. A special focus on two components of communicative competence is then presented to explore interactional variables in synchronous computer-mediated communication along with a review of research. There follows a discussion on a synthesis of interactional variables in negotiated interaction and co-construction of knowledge from psycholinguistic and social cohesion perspectives. This review reveals both possibilities and disparities of language socialization in promoting intersubjective learning and diversifying the salient use of interactively creative language in computer-supported collaborative learning environments in service of communicative competence.

  19. Talking about psychosocial problems: an observational study on changes in doctor–patient communication in general practice between 1977 and 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butalid, L.; Bensing, J.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether GPs’ communication styles have changed since the introduction and implementation of clinical guidelines for psychosocial problems in Dutch general practice in the 1990s. Methods: From a database of 5184 consultations videotaped between 1977 and 2008, 512 consultations

  20. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  1. Lessons Learned about Best Practices for Communicating Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning to Non-Scientific Publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnow, D. D.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake scientists are without doubt experts in understanding earthquake probabilities, magnitudes, and intensities, as well as the potential consequences of them to community infrastructures and inhabitants. One critical challenge these scientific experts face, however, rests with communicating what they know to the people they want to help. Helping scientists translate scientific information to non-scientists is something Drs. Tim and Deanna Sellnow have been committed to for decades. As such, they have compiled a host of data-driven best practices for communicating effectively to non-scientific publics about earthquake forecasting, probabilities, and warnings. In this session, they will summarize what they have learned as it may help earthquake scientists, emergency managers, and other key spokespersons share these important messages to disparate publics in ways that result in positive outcomes, the most important of which is saving lives.

  2. [Communication Test for Foreign Physicians in Germany: The Patient Communication Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, N; Leonhart, R; Puffe, L; Boeker, M; Wirsching, M

    2016-04-01

    The number of foreign doctors in Germany has increased steadily in recent years. To obtain the German medical license, sufficient language competence is mandatory. Nevertheless, in practice, foreign doctors have considerable difficulties in their communication with patients, medical colleagues and other health professionals. This can lead to misunderstandings and thus impair patient safety. To overcome this problem, the "patient communication test" was developed and piloted as an additional requirement to be granted license to practice medicine in Germany. The aim of this study is to present our results in the development and piloting of this test. 3 OSCE stations (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) were designed, which evaluate communication skills in 3 medical competences: history taking, case presentation and explaining to patients before obtaining informed consent. After extensive instruction of actors as patients and raters on the basis of the evaluation criteria, the communication test was subjected to pilot studies in 6 different cities (Freiburg, Jena, Mainz, Mannheim, Tübingen, and Ulm). In 2013, 639 foreign doctors participated in the test; 461 (72.14%) of these doctors passed the test on their first try, 51 (7.98%) on their second attempt and 6 (0.93%) on their third try. The patient communication test evaluates the communication skills of foreign doctors in OSCE-setting using standardized actor-patients. This improves the communication skills and enhances patient safety in the German health care system by smooth inter-professional and patient-centered communication. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Communication management between architects and clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hala; Ismail, Syuhaida; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.

    2017-10-01

    Architectural projects are initiated with the designing phase, that tends to translate and materialize the client's requirements and needs. This phase is highly and directly affected by the exchanged information and communication between architects with their clients. Nevertheless, despite of its importance, studies have proven that communication management, being a significant field of project management, is distinctly overlooked by architects in the architectural industry. Thus, this paper highlights the current practices and attributes of communication management in the context of architectural design phase. It outlines the different aspects' definitions of communication, as well as communication management standards and practices. By the end of this paper, the findings are expected to increase the communication management knowledge amongst architects to achieve success in projects by promoting the relationships between them and their clients. Finally, this paper uncover the architects' need for significant improvement of communication management as an insistent matter to ultimately fulfill project success.

  4. Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication practices of SMEs in South Africa. ... no significant difference in the marketing communication tools adopted by SMEs on the basis of gender ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. [Communication in medicine: a new and much needed curricular alternative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Eduardo; Quiroga, Daniel; Olmas, Josè M; Trucchia, Silvina M

    2016-01-01

    Medical education must emphasize communication practices mostly for undergraduate medical students. To introduce an approach for teaching and learning communication in medicine. An approach for developing communicational practices for both undergraduate and post graduate students is presented. Medical communication is not taught adequately in modern medical schools and is allotted a brief curricular space.. This curricular time must be widened in order to support communication's central role.

  6. Developing Evaluation and Communication Capacity in Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will result in a trained cadre of regional mentors who are able to facilitate advanced methodologies in both evaluation and communications. Participating flagship project teams will develop their evaluation and communication skills, and gain opportunities for policy and practice change. More will be learned about practical ...

  7. Facing Violence and Conflict with Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    the negative forces such as aggression, desperation, violence and conflicts. Particularly, I explore the power of storytelling as a communicative strategy. I focus on the principles of empathy, dialogue and diversity inherent in the communication model that anchors storytelling methodology. I argue......In this essay the focus is around the material conditions of poverty, anxiety, social instability and insecurity faced by many around the globe. I articulate a communication theory and practical model that can address the aggression and desperation, which are embedded in violent practices...... and conflicts. My assertion is that many communicative disconnects lie in between the constructs of anxiety, insecurity and instability faced by many individuals in the world today and the inadequate way in which governments and other authorities communicate with their publics. My claim...

  8. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Communicating Your Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective science communication can open doors, accelerate your career and even make you a better scientist. Part of being an effective and productive scientist means being an effective science communicator. The scientist must communicate their work in talks, posters, peer-reviewed papers, internal reports, proposals as well as to the broader public (including law makers). Despite the importance of communication, it has traditionally not been part of our core training as scientists. Today's science students are beginning to have more opportunities to formally develop their science communication skills. Fortunately, new and even more established scientists have a range of tools and resources at their disposal. In this presentation, we will share some of these resources, share our own experiences utilizing them, and provide some practical tools to improve your own science communication skills.

  10. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Continuing professional education may be necessary to refresh and reflect on the communication and motivational interviewing skills of experienced primary care practice nurses. A video-feedback method was designed to improve these skills. Pre-test/posttest control group design. Seventeen Dutch practice nurses and 325 patients participated between June 2010-June 2011. Nurse-patient consultations were videotaped at two moments (T0 and T1), with an interval of 3-6 months. The videotaped consultations were rated using two protocols: the Maastrichtse Anamnese en Advies Scorelijst met globale items (MAAS-global) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Before the recordings, nurses were allocated to a control or video-feedback group. Nurses allocated to the video-feedback group received video-feedback between T0 and T1. Data were analysed using multilevel linear or logistic regression. Nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay significantly more attention to patients' request for help, their physical examination and gave significantly more understandable information. With respect to motivational interviewing, nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay more attention to 'agenda setting and permission seeking' during their consultations. Video-feedback is a potentially effective method to improve practice nurses' generic communication skills. Although a single video-feedback session does not seem sufficient to increase all motivational interviewing skills, significant improvement in some specific skills was found. Nurses' clinical competences were not altered after feedback due to already high standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High-Frequency Nitrous Oxide Dynamics in an Ephemeral Agricultural Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, N.; Hall, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and major contributor to climate change, and soil microbes are the largest source of N2O globally. Top-down measurements of N2O do not agree with scaled up estimations using local measurements, suggesting missing sources of N2O. Hot-spots and hot-moments are often invoked to explain missing emissions, but we lack a conceptual framework to predict when and where they will occur. We hypothesize that intensively farmed ephemeral wetlands with temporally variable moisture, which drives fluctuations in redox potential, provide ideal conditions for N2O production that may have been overlooked in previous field-scale research. Using high-frequency automated chamber measurements across a topographical gradient in a Midwestern agricultural field (in the southern Prairie Pothole region, Iowa), we have observed both spatial and temporal hotspots. After approximately five months of observation, the wetland soils had cumulative N2O emissions 71% higher than surrounding uplands. We also find strong evidence for the importance of hot moments, in that measurements representing the highest 20% of emissions make up 67% of the total N2O flux. These values correspond to heightened emissions in the days following spring thaw or fertilization and the 8 hours following rain events, after which N2O emissions typically returned to baseline levels. In addition to N2O emissions, we have also measured a suite of potential microbial drivers to inform a predictive framework for hotspots and moments in the context of topographic complexity and hydric soils. Our preliminary findings suggest that farmed wetlands representing 10% of the study region may contribute disproportionately to N2O emissions and could contribute to discrepancies in top-down and bottom-up budgets.

  12. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  13. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    , and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....

  14. Towards inclusion? Developing teacher skills for communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main finding is that trainees have an opportunity to develop skills for communication with children who are deaf or hard of hearing from practical activities undertaken in the classroom and during teaching practice. However, these provisions are not sufficient to enable trainees develop skills for communication with that ...

  15. Preschool + School + Communication = What for Educator Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Communication between educators in preschool and school settings has been promoted consistently in research literature and policy as a practice to enhance children's transition to school. Underlying the practice are the assumptions that communication between educators is (a) a way of building on children's learning and responding to their diverse…

  16. Desobedient and Walking Practices as a Form of Independent Public Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Casado da Rocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available By pointing to the origin of some disobedient and walking practices in the life and works of Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862, this paper describes its development in contemporary culture by means of a comparison with independent public art (street art and walking experiences understood as mobile happenings in private spaces. Those forms of art are ephemeral and subjected to prosecution, since they often involve trespassing, which is used as the starting point of action-research in which the artist requires and is open to public attention. Looking at his experiment in Walden as a form of performance, Thoreau gave up artworks in the usual sense and instead called for an appropriation of landscape by means of a reconnection between ethics and aesthetics.

  17. Longitudinal distribution and parameters of large wood in a Mediterranean ephemeral stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, T.; Škarpich, V.; Tichavský, R.; Vardakas, L.; Šilhán, K.

    2018-06-01

    Although large wood (LW) has been intensively studied in forested basins of humid temperate climates, data on LW patterns in different fluvial environments are rather scarce. Therefore, we investigated the dimensions, characteristics, longitudinal distribution, and dynamics of LW along a 4.05-km-long reach of an ephemeral channel typical of European Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Sfakiano Gorge, Crete, Greece). We analysed a total of 795 LW pieces, and the mean observed abundance of LW was generally lower (14.3 m3/ha of active valley floor or 19.6 LW pieces/100 m of stream length) than is usually documented for more humid environments. The number of LW pieces was primarily controlled by trees growing on the valley floor. These living trees acted as important LW supply agents (by tree throws or the supply of individual branches with sufficient LW dimensions) and flow obstructions during large flood events, causing storage of transported LW pieces in jams. However, the downstream transport of LW is probably episodic, and large jams are likely formed only during major floods; after >15 years, we still observed significant imprints of the last major flood event on the present distribution of LW. The geomorphic function of LW in the studied stream can only be perceived to be a spatially limited stabilising element for sediments, which was documented by a few accumulations of coarse clastic material by LW steps and jams.

  18. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  19. Climate adaptation policy, science and practice - Lessons for communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    In climate change adaptation research, policy, and practice, institutional culture produces distinct conceptualizations of adaptation, which in turn affect how adaptation work is undertaken. This study examines institutional culture as the four domains of norms, values, knowledge, and beliefs that are held by adaptation scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners in Western Canada. Based on 31 semi-structured interviews, this article traces the ways in which these four domains interact, intersect, converge, and diverge among scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners. By exploring the knowledge, backgrounds, goals, approaches, assumptions, and behaviours of people working in adaptation, these interviews map the ways in which institutional culture shapes adaptation work being carried out by local, provincial, and federal governments, nongovernmental organizations, and an international community of scientists (including Canadian scientists). Findings suggest that institutional culture both limits and enables adaptation actions for these actors in important ways, significantly influencing how climate change adaptation is being planned for, and carried out on the ground. As a result, this paper asserts that there is an urgent need to better understand the role that institutional culture plays in order to advance climate change adaptation, both now and in the future. Important lessons for communicating about climate science, climate impacts and adaptation will be presented.

  20. EFL Oral Communication Teaching Practices: A Close Look at University Teachers and A2 Students' Perspectives in Thailand and a Critical Eye from Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David Allen; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong; Radic-Bojanic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine current EFL oral communication teaching practices from the perspectives of teachers and A2 students at two universities, namely Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Thailand and University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia. The main objectives were: (1) to analyze current practices from the perspectives of teachers and…

  1. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  2. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  3. Student-Teachers' Verbal Communication Patterns during Their Teaching Practice in "Studies for the Environment" Subject in Early Greek Primary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrakis, George; Karagianni, Aggeliki; Pani, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the quality of student-teachers' (STs') verbal communication during their teaching practice on the "Studies for the Environment" subject, and identifies potential factors affecting it. Forty-one teaching sessions were analysed revealing that STs dominate classroom talking by having almost an equal number of utterances…

  4. Dialogue on dialogues Multi-voiced dialogues (dialogism) as means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The article elaborates on a theoretical understanding of dialogue as a means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices through ongoing research collaboration that involves leaders, researchers and master students at Aalborg University. Dialogue is viewed from...

  5. Clinical supervisors' perceived needs for teaching communication skills in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, N Junod; Sommer, J; Hudelson, P; Demaurex, F; Luthy, C; Louis-Simonet, M; Nendaz, M; De Grave, W; Dolmans, D; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2009-07-01

    Lack of faculty training is often cited as the main obstacle to post-graduate teaching in communication skills. To explore clinical supervisors' needs and perceptions regarding their role as communication skills trainers. Four focus group discussions were conducted with clinical supervisors from two in-patient and one out-patient medical services from the Geneva University Hospitals. Focus groups were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in a thematic way using Maxqda software for qualitative data analysis. Clinical supervisors said that they frequently addressed communication issues with residents but tended to intervene as rescuers, clinicians or coaches rather than as formal instructors. They felt their own training did not prepare them to teach communication skills. Other barriers to teach communication skills include lack of time, competing demands, lack of interest and experience on the part of residents, and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. Respondents expressed a desire for experiential and reflective training in a work-based setting and emphasised the need for a non-judgmental learning atmosphere. Results suggest that organisational priorities, culture and climate strongly influence the degree to which clinical supervisors may feel comfortable to teach communication skills to residents. Attention must be given to these contextual factors in the development of an effective communication skills teaching program for clinical supervisors.

  6. Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra A; Velasco, Elizabeth; Ilasi, Nicholas T

    2010-12-01

    Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy.

  7. Human Emotion and Response in Surgery (HEARS): a simulation-based curriculum for communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism in surgical residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anne C; Cahan, Mitchell A; Whalen, Giles; Hatem, David; Starr, Susan; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Litwin, Demetrius; Sullivan, Kate; Quirk, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the development and implementation of a pilot human factors curriculum during a 2-year period. It is one component of a comprehensive 5-year human factors curriculum spanning core competencies of interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism and using low-and high-fidelity simulation techniques. Members of the Department of Surgery and the Center for Clinical Communication and Performance Outcomes jointly constructed a curriculum for PGY1 and PGY2 residents on topics ranging from challenging communication to time and stress management. Video demonstrations, triggers, and simulated scenarios involving acting patients were created by surgeons and medical educators. Pre- and postintervention measures were obtained for communication skills, perceived stress level, and teamwork. Communication skills were evaluated using a series of video vignettes. The validated Perceived Stress Scale and Teamwork and Patient Safety Attitudes survey were used. Residents' perceptions of the program were also measured. Twenty-seven PGY1 residents and 15 PGY2 residents participated during 2 years. Analyses of video vignette tests indicated significant improvement in empathic communication for PGY1 (t = 3.62, p = 0.001) and PGY2 (t = 5.00, p = 0.004). There were no significant changes to teamwork attitudes. Perceived levels of stress became considerably higher. PGY1 residents reported trying 1 to 3 strategies taught in the time management session, with 60% to 75% reporting improvement post-training. This unique and comprehensive human factors curriculum is shown to be effective in building communication competency for junior-level residents in the human and emotional aspects of surgical training and practice. Continued refinement and ongoing data acquisition and analyses are underway. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 10169 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Location Accuracy, Network Security Best Practices, DNSSEC Implementation Practices for ISPs, Secure BGP... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications Security... persons that the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Communications Security, Reliability, and...

  9. Consumer responses to communication about food risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Houghton, J.R.; Kleef, van E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent emphasis within policy circles has been on transparent communication with consumers about food risk management decisions and practices. As a consequence, it is important to develop best practice regarding communication with the public about how food risks are managed. In the current study,

  10. Self-help and help-seeking for communication disability in Ghana: implications for the development of communication disability rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Amponsah, Clement; Bampoe, Josephine Ohenewa

    2017-12-29

    In low and middle-income countries, such as Ghana, communication disability is poorly recognised and rehabilitation services for people with communication disability are limited. As rehabilitation services for communication disability develop, and the profession of speech-language pathology grows, it is important to consider how services can most appropriately respond to the needs and preferences of the community. Understanding the ways in which people currently self-help and seek help for communication disability is central to developing services that build on existing local practices and are relevant to the community. A qualitative descriptive survey was used to explore likely self-help and help-seeking behaviours for communication disability, in Accra, Ghana. The survey required participants to describe responses to hypothetical scenarios related to communication disability. A mix of theoretical sampling and convenience sampling was used. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data and develop categories and subcategories of reported self-help behaviours and sources of help and advice for communication disability. One hundred and thirty-six participants completed the survey. Results indicated that community members would be likely to engage in a variety self-help strategies in response to communication disability. These included working directly with a person with a communication disability to attempt to remediate a communication impairment, altering physical and communication environments, changing attitudes or care practices, educating themselves about the communication disability, providing resources, and responding in spiritual ways. Participants indicated that they would seek help for communication disability across a range of sectors - including the Western healthcare, religious, and traditional sectors. Understanding existing community actions to self-help and help-seek may allow emerging communication rehabilitation services, including the

  11. Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn AJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Annemiek J Linn,1 Julia CM van Weert,1 Barbara C Schouten,1 Edith G Smit,1 Ad A van Bodegraven,2 Liset van Dijk31Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The barriers to patients’ successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1 to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2 to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior.Patients and methods: Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers. The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients’ barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores.Results: The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was

  12. Marketing communication through fashion blog

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdová, Natália

    2017-01-01

    The bachelor thesis studies the usage of fashion blogs in the marketing communication. It brings the view of the fact how fashion blogs are perceived by their readers and how readers are influenced by fashion blogs. The theoretical part of the thesis describes marketing communication, communication process, communication mix and online marketing. It is followed by characteristics of blogs and social networks. The practical part is dealt with the description of how my own fashion blog works an...

  13. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Providers' perceptions of communication with patients in primary healthcare in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Cotton, Philip; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Kallestrup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of effective healthcare is contingent on the quality of communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. Little is known about primary healthcare providers' perceptions of communication with patients in Rwanda. To explore providers' perceptions of patient-provider communication (PPC) and analyse the ways in which providers present and reflect on communication practice and problems. Qualitative, in-depth, semi structured interviews with nine primary health care providers. An abductive analysis supplemented by the framework method was applied. A narrative approach allowed the emergence of archetypical narratives on PPC. Providers shared rich reflections on the importance of proper communication with patients and appeared committed to making their interaction work optimally. Still, providers had difficulty critically analysing limitations of their communication in practice. Reported communication issues included lack of communication training as well as time and workload issues. Two archetypes of narratives on PPC issues and practice emerged and are discussed. While providers' narratives put patients at the centre of care, there were indications that patient-provider communication training and practice need further development. In-depth exploration of highlighted issues and adapted strategies to tackle communication drawbacks are prerequisites to improvement. This study contributes to the advancement of knowledge related to communication between the patient and the provider in a resource-limited setting.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  16. NURSES’ PERCEPTIONS OF COMMUNICATION TRAINING IN THE ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jill V.; Tate, Judith A.; Happ, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To describe the experience and perceptions of nurse study participants regarding a communication intervention (training and communication tools) for use with nonspeaking, critically-ill patients. Research Methodology/Design Small focus groups and an individual interview were conducted with six critical care nurses. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis and constant comparison. Setting Two ICUs within a large, metropolitan medical centre in western Pennsylvania, United States of America. Main Outcome Measures Critical care nurses’ evaluations of (1) a basic communication skills training program (BCST) and (2) augmentative and alternative communication strategies (AAC) introduced during their study participation. Results Six main categories were identified in the data: 1) communication value/perceived competence; 2) communication intention; 3) benefits of training; 4) barriers to implementation; 5) preferences/utilization of strategies; and 6) leading-following. Perceived value of and individual competence in communication with nonspeaking patients varied. Nurses prioritized communication about physical needs, but recognized complexity of other intended patient messages. Nurses evaluated the BCST as helpful in reinforcing basic communication strategies and found several new strategies effective. Advanced strategies received mixed reviews. Primary barriers to practice integration included patients’ mental status, time constraints, and the small proportion of nurses trained or knowledgeable about best patient communication practices in the ICU. Conclusions The results suggest that the communication skills training program could be valuable in reinforcing basic/intuitive communication strategies, assisting in the acquisition of new skills, and ensuring communication supply availability. Practice integration will likely require unit-wide interdisciplinary dissemination, expert modelling and reinforcement. PMID:22172745

  17. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  18. 當代傳播思潮中的數位素養: 評介Digital Literacy for Technical Com Digital Literacy in Contemporary Communication: A Review of Digital Literacy for Technical Communication: 21st Century Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Sheng, Deng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever-advancing technology has reformed our work environment and also redefined our life styles. The advancement of computer and cyber technology has allowed “digital” jobs and products to infiltrate different aspects of our society, influencing the ways of modern communication as well as the future course of education practices. Comparing with conventional literacy concepts about “reading, writing, listening, and speaking”, “digital literacy” lays more emphasis on the effects and changes caused by a digital context. Based on the standpoints of social constructivism and with experts in communication studies and educators as subjects, this paper reviews the book Digital Literacy for Technical communication: 21st Century Theory and Practice to analyze and discuss key knowledge and abilities required for the future and possible development of related research. Based on the compilation of the book, this review is divided into four parts. The first raises questions about the ontology of “digital literacy”, identifies the scope and meaning of “digital literacy” as defined by Spilkaet al., and confirms the discourse of this review. The second introduces the evolvement of a digital context and describes its three characteristics –authoring, publishing, and management technology – as the preconditions for developing digital literacy. The third discusses the “ fundamental knowledge” for the practice of “digital literacy” and introduces “shaping tools, information design, and content management” as references for communication and education works. The last part concludes the cultural, crosscultural, audience, and ethical perspectives introduced in this book and discusses how to connect “human and technology” for the future development of communication studies and education.

  19. Communication access to businesses and organizations for people with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Barbara; Blackstone, Sarah W; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Human rights legislation and anti-discrimination and accessibility laws exist in many countries and through international conventions and treaties. To varying degrees, these laws protect the rights of people with disabilities to full and equal access to goods and services. Yet, the accessibility requirements of people with complex communication needs (CCN) are not well represented in the existing accessibility literature. This article describes the results of surveys completed by disability service providers and individuals with CCN due to cerebral palsy, developmental delay, and acquired disabilities. It identifies accessibility requirements for people with CCN for face-to-face communication; comprehension of spoken language; telephone communication; text and print-based communication; Internet, email, and social media interactions; and written communication. Recommendations are made for communication accessibility accommodations in regulations, guidelines, and practices.

  20. Designing for Networked Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon– social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms...... of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent...... and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies...

  1. Communication management in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a study of the daily practice of persons working in Dutch public relations, nowadays often called "communication management." Two research projects were analyzed, focusing on the tasks and position of the communication management departments in (Dutch) companies, including the

  2. Interprofessional communication supporting clinical handover in emergency departments: An observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Bernice; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Bucknall, Tracey

    2017-08-01

    Poor interprofessional communication poses a risk to patient safety at change-of-shift in emergency departments (EDs). The purpose of this study was to identify and describe patterns and processes of interprofessional communication impacting quality of ED change-of-shift handovers. Observation of 66 change-of-shift handovers at two acute hospital EDs in Victoria, Australia. Focus groups with 34 nurse participants complemented the observations. Qualitative data analysis involved content and thematic methods. Four structural components of ED handover processes emerged represented by (ABCD): (1) Antecedents; (2) Behaviours and interactions; (3) Content; and (4) Delegation of ongoing care. Infrequent and ad hoc interprofessional communication and discipline-specific handover content and processes emerged as specific risks to patient safety at change-of-shift handovers. Three themes related to risky and effective practices to support interprofessional communications across the four stages of ED handovers emerged: 1) standard processes and practices, 2) teamwork and interactions and 3) communication activities and practices. Unreliable interprofessional communication can impact the quality of change-of-shift handovers in EDs and poses risk to patient safety. Structured reflective analysis of existing practices can identify opportunities for standardisation, enhanced team practices and effective communication across four stages of the handover process to support clinicians to enhance local handover practices. Future research should test and refine models to support analysis of practice, and identify and test strategies to enhance ED interprofessional communication to support clinical handovers. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Communication and Pragmatic Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olda Xhepa BALLIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the importance and the relationship between communication and pragmatic skills in foreign language classes. Philosophers and linguists have dealt with language, analyzing it from the psychological viewpoint. Communication in L1 or L2 is related and it depends on the science of pragmatics. While communicating, interlocutors interact impacted by the context, the situation, the receiver, the sender, by using the formal or the informal language according to the circumstances. For this reason, we try, in this paper, to make a thorough description of the relationship between communication and pragmatics. Students need to master pragmatic skills in order to communicate. If Italian students or foreign language students have developed pragmatic skills in the native language, this will help them learning a foreign language. The goal of the foreign language teacher is to help students achieve communication skills. The pragmatic and communication skills can be practiced through communication activities like in L1 for speech acts are practiced in communication.

  4. Piloting a Structured Practice Audit to Assess ACGME Milestones in Written Handoff Communication in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shannon K; Farnan, Jeanne M; McConville, John F; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-06-01

    Written communication skills are integral to patient care handoffs. Residency programs require feasible assessment tools that provide timely formative and summative feedback, ideally linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones. We describe the use of 1 such tool-UPDATED-to assess written handoff communication skills in internal medicine interns. During 2012-2013, the authors piloted a structured practice audit at 1 academic institution to audit written sign-outs completed by 45 interns, using the UPDATED tool, which scores 7 aspects of sign-out communication linked to milestones. Intern sign-outs were audited by trained faculty members throughout the year. Results were incorporated into intern performance reviews and Clinical Competency Committees. A total of 136 sign-outs were audited (averaging 3.1 audits per intern). In the first trimester, 14 interns (31%) had satisfactory audit results. Five interns (11%) had critical deficiencies and received immediate feedback, and the remaining 26 (58%) were assigned future audits due to missing audits or unsatisfactory scores. In the second trimester, 21 interns (68%) had satisfactory results, 1 had critical deficiencies, and 9 (29%) required future audits. Nine of the 10 remaining interns in the final trimester had satisfactory audits. Faculty time was estimated at 10 to 15 minutes per sign-out audited. The UPDATED audit is a milestone-based tool that can be used to assess written sign-out communication skills in internal medicine residency programs. Future work is planned to adapt the tool for use by senior supervisory residents to appraise sign-outs in real time.

  5. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  6. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  7. 16 CFR 1031.15 - Communication criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nature and a report of each oral communication of a substantive nature between a Commission official or... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication criteria. 1031.15 Section 1031... Communication criteria. (a) Commission officials and employees, who are not in the positions listed in § 1031.12...

  8. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  9. Music Therapy for children with special needs - clinical practice and assessment in the light of developmental psychology and communicative musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    continues with practices on basic improvisational techniques related to time, form and emotions: synchronization, turn-taking, theme-with-variations, matching/attunement, vitality forms, simple musical playing rules, etc. The techniques are connected to macro- and micro-regulation of arousal and emotions......). Turn-taking in music therapy with children with communication disorders. British Journal of Music Therapy, 18(2), 45-53. Malloch, S. & Trevarthen, C. (Eds) (2009). Communicative Musicality. Exploring the basis of human companionship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stern, D. N. (2010). Forms...... of Vitality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wigram, T. (2004). Improvisation. Methods and Techniques for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers....

  10. Communicating Geomorphology. JGHE Annual Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Communication strategies emphasize concerns for "content" (what is said) and "process" (the way things are said). Scientists have a responsibility to communicate the findings of their research, enhancing prospects that their insights can meaningfully inform management practice. When used effectively, principles from geomorphology provide critical…

  11. Intercultural Training in Business Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Neznajová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis on Intercultural Training in Business Practice deals with the intercultural communication, opportunities for its improvement through intercultural training and actual practices in czech companies when using it. The theoretical part defines the concepts of culture, intercultural communication and intercultural training. The practical part includes research in firms in the czech market through a survey and case study in a chosen company. Based on the findings, the last part of t...

  12. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; de Boer, Wout E L; van der Beek, Allard J

    2011-06-03

    Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication

  13. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    practical relevance of the communication skills training course that was developed seem promising. Such a course may be relevant for physicians in many countries who perform work disability assessments. The development of the first training course of this type represents an important advancement in this field. PMID:21639871

  14. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2011-06-01

    . Conclusions The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication skills training course that was developed seem promising. Such a course may be relevant for physicians in many countries who perform work disability assessments. The development of the first training course of this type represents an important advancement in this field.

  15. Cross-cultural communication: Tools for working with families and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, Tehseen; Zubairi, Mohammad; Hunter, Andrea; Audcent, Tobey; Johnstone, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The ability to communicate effectively with patients and families is paramount for good patient care. This practice point reviews the importance of communicating effectively in cross-cultural encounters. The concept of cultural competence is introduced, along with the LEARN (Listen, Explain, Acknowledge, Recommend, Negotiate) model for cross-cultural communication. Three vignettes, one each in Indigenous, global, and newcomer child health, are used to illustrate challenges in cross-cultural communication and effective application of the LEARN model. Practical tips are provided for communicating across cultures.

  16. Selected aspects of a professional doctor-patient communication--education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2013-01-01

    In the work of a physician, not only knowledge, and professional skills (technical/hard) are important, but also psychosocial skills (relational/soft). The primary goal of the presented research was evaluation of the level (study of the state) of communication competences of physicians and determination of the factors on which this level depends. An additional goal was analysis of the needs and educational possibilities within the existing models of education in the area of interpersonal communication provided in Medical Universities in Poland. Information about educational curricula available on the websites of 12 Medical Universities in Poland were compared. The self-designed questionnaire and adjective check list were subject to standardization from the aspect of reliability and validity. The study groups included 1) occupationally-active physicians (185 respondents) employed in outpatient departments and hospitals, who were covered by a pre-graduate standard educational programme and not trained in interpersonal communication skills as part of their continuing education; 2) medical students covered by a standard educational programme (246 respondents). The conducted analysis of the educational curricula showed a very narrow scope of problems concerning professional medical communication. The results indicating the general state of respondents' communication competences within all aspects (motivation, skills, knowledge) were relatively low. That clearly indicated an inadequate educational model (students), and lack of post-graduate training in the area of professional medical communication (physicians). The education of students of medicine should cover selected classes within the scope of professional communication competences. These classes should be based on the systemically designed training of skills. The patterning by students of the relations attitudes observed in practising physicians is insufficient. It is necessary to apply a methodical evaluation of

  17. Use of communication techniques by Maryland dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Catherine; Horowitz, Alice M; Wang, Min Qi; Kleinman, Dushanka V

    2013-12-01

    Health care providers' use of recommended communication techniques can increase patients' adherence to prevention and treatment regimens and improve patient health outcomes. The authors conducted a survey of Maryland dentists to determine the number and type of communication techniques they use on a routine basis. The authors mailed a 30-item questionnaire to a random sample of 1,393 general practice dentists and all 169 members of the Maryland chapter of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. The overall response rate was 38.4 percent. Analysis included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and ordinary least squares regression analysis to examine the association of dentists' characteristics with the number of communication techniques used. They set the significance level at P communication techniques and 3.6 of the seven basic techniques, whereas pediatric dentists reported using a mean of 8.4 and 3.8 of those techniques, respectively. General dentists who had taken a communication course outside of dental school were more likely than those who had not to use the 18 techniques (P communication course outside of dental school were more likely than those who had not to use the 18 techniques (P communication techniques that dentists used routinely varied across the 18 techniques and was low for most techniques. Practical Implications. Professional education is needed both in dental school curricula and continuing education courses to increase use of recommended communication techniques. Specifically, dentists and their team members should consider taking communication skills courses and conducting an overall evaluation of their practices for user friendliness.

  18. Our Own Stories: Cross-Cultural Communication Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Norine

    The textbook for students of intermediate English as a Second Language (ESL) is based on cross-cultural communication misunderstandings described in essays written by university students. It consists of 20 instructional units, each beginning with a real student's dilemma caused by cultural differences and each dealing with one particular custom.…

  19. Constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Richard Ellis is a consultant in communications and the successful author of 'Communication for Engineers'. In each chapter he highlights key points and situations, and provides exercises to consolidate what has already been learnt. The book ends with a 'toolbox' of useful information on subjects such as writing letters, spelling, punctuation, using abbreviations, studying for exams, using libraries and training.Written in clear, informative English, with the emphasis on the practical, this book is essential reading for both students and professionals in the con

  20. The efficiency of bees in pollinating ephemeral flowers of Jacquemontia bracteosa (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia K. D. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The family Convolvulaceae is widely distributed in tropical regions, mainly in open areas. Convolvulaceae flowers are characterized mainly by being beautiful and ephemeral, attracting many flower visitors that belong to different taxonomic groups. This work aimed to investigate the interactions between insects and flowers of Jacquemontia bracteosa (Convolvulaceae, focusing on the pollination efficiency, in an area in the Brazilian semiarid. From November 2011 to October 2012, floral biology of J. bracteosa was investigated as well as the flower visit frequency, behavior, and morphology of floral visitors. The flowers of J. bracteosa are white, showy and open early in the morning, lasting less than 12 hours, with fruiting occurring both by selfing and outcrossing fecundation. A total of 337 specimens insects were collected on J. bracteosa flowers during the field observations. The Neotropical bee, Ancyloscelis apiformis, was considered the most efficient pollinator of J. bracteosa. This bee showed appropriate behavior, high frequency (64% of the total sample, and was constant on the flowers. Furthermore, they arrived soon when the flowers began to open and presented 90% of efficiency in tests of flower pollination of J. bracteosa. Other native bee species also visited the flowers of J. bracteosa and may be considered potential pollinators because they presented behavior and morphology compatible with the flowers. This study suggests that maintenance of weeds or ruderal plants, especially those that also have ornamental potential in anthropic area, may be an option for the preservation of local native pollinators, which are threatened by environmental degradation.

  1. A Design-Based Research Capturing Science Teachers' Practices of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) Integration Using the New Literacy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Technology integration in K-12 classrooms is usually teacher-centered and has insufficient impact on students' learning. The purpose of this project is to facilitate science teachers' use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as cognitive tools to shift their practices from teacher-centered methods to constructivist,…

  2. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  3. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 64: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: 1.) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; 2.) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; 3.) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of bankers in Lagos Island local government area regarding healthy lifestyle in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Adelowo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Non - communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developed and developing countries. Nigeria is experiencing an epidemiological transition with a double burden of communicable and non communicable diseases. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of bankers in Lagos Island Local Government Area on healthy lifestyle in relation to the prevention and control of NCDs. Material and Methods: Cross sectional descriptive design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect information from 260 consenting bankers using pretested, interviewer administered questionnaires. The questionnaire collected information on biodata, knowledge, attitude and practice. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 Results: The mean age of 260 the respondents was 33.5 ± 5.7 years. Only 26.9% had good knowledge of healthy lifestyle while 87.3% had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle. Only 9.7% consumed healthy diet, while majority 88.0% and 72.7% had good practice regarding tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption respectively. Gender was a significant predictor of alcohol use, 55.8% of the study population engaged in adequate physical activity, while very few (3.8% of the respondents engaged in healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: Although the bankers had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle, their knowledge and practice of healthy living was poor. The management of every bank should invest in periodic health promotion and wellness programs that will promote all the components of healthy living for their employees.

  6. Exploring the Pattern of Internal Communication in Total Quality Management Implementation in Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudin Sharina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is an important aspect of organizational dynamic process and it is irrefutable one of the critical success factors of the Total Quality Management (TQM implementation. Although there are increasing awareness concerning the importance of internal organizational communication, knowledge appears to have rarely translated into practice or there is lack of guidance to effectively practicing it. Therefore, a study was proposed to investigate the pattern of internal communication practice in TQM implementation. This paper concerns on focusing into internal communication practices in TQM implementation factors and the communication patterns in terms of message forms and mediums of communication to convey TQM messages. Reliability and Factor analysis were carried out to confirm items that form each factor in internal communication in TQM implementation. Based on the analysis of survey questionnaires distributed to 104 large manufacturing companies implementing TQM in Malaysia, it was found that there are certain communication patterns practice by the management when conveying and disseminating TQM messages, but they have no specific guidelines. Therefore, the internal communication practices are not well planned. Finally, it is suggested that further research should be carried out to explain clearly the role and strategy of communication on this issue in order to boost the success of TQM implementation particularly in manufacturing company.

  7. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  8. Radio communication for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC): A tutorial and survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    communication technology used. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi, despite being originally developed for stationary users within a limited area, has prevailed as the de-facto radio technology for CBTC. Unfortunately, very limited literature is publicly available on this topic due to the highly competitive nature of the railway...... of the communication technologies used for modern railway signalling is presented. The benefits and drawbacks of using a radio communication technology, particularly Wi-Fi, and the challenges it introduces, are discussed. Best practices in the design of a CBTC radio network and the measures to optimize its...

  9. Communication Matters: Exploring the Intersection of Family and Practitioner End of Life Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Omilion-Hodges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After establishing a baseline understanding of some of the factors that influence and shape family end of life communication, empirical research centered on the communication tendencies of nationally-recognized palliative care clinicians is presented. Because death is no longer confined to the bedroom and individuals are increasingly turning to hospitals and health care institutes to assist with end of life, the role of palliative care practitioners is vital. To that end, common communication-rooted issues that may transpire among various medical personnel are explored. Focus on a shared underlying tension—care vs. cure—links the findings between family and palliative care clinician communication regarding end of life. Practical communication solutions and suggestions are offered to facilitate productive and mindful end of life communication between and among family members and health care practitioners.

  10. Bridging Corporate and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2011-01-01

    organizational communication as well. We provide a formative and critical review of research on corporate communication as a platform for highlighting crucial intersections with select research traditions in organizational communication to argue for a greater integration between these two areas of research....... Following this review, we relax the assumptions underlying traditional corporate communication research and show how these dimensions interact in organizational and communication analysis, thus, demonstrating the potential for a greater cross-fertilization between the two areas of research. This cross......The theory and practice of corporate communication is usually driven by other disciplinary concerns than the field of organizational communication. However, its particular mind-set focusing on wholeness and consistency in corporate messages increasingly influence the domain of contemporary...

  11. Auditing Management Practices in Schools: Recurring Communication Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijze-Koning, Karen H.; de Jong, Menno D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past ten years, most Dutch high schools have been confronted with mergers, curriculum reforms, and managerial changes. As a result, the pressure on the schools' communication systems has increased and several problems have emerged. This paper aims to examine recurring clusters of communication problems in high schools.…

  12. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2004-02-10

    This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

  13. Nurse-physician communication - An integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tit-Chai; Zhou, Huaqiong; Kelly, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    To present a comprehensive review of current evidence on the factors which impact on nurse-physician communication and interventions developed to improve nurse-physician communication. The challenges in nurse-physician communication persist since the term 'nurse-doctor game' was first used in 1967, leading to poor patient outcomes such as treatment delays and potential patient harm. Inconsistent evidence was found on the factors and interventions which foster or impair effective nurse-physician communication. An integrative review was conducted following a five-stage process: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis and presentation. Five electronic databases were searched from 2005 to April 2016 using key search terms: "improve*," "nurse-physician," "nurse," "physician" and "communication" in five electronic databases including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. A total of 22 studies were included in the review. Four themes emerged from the data synthesis, namely communication styles; factors that facilitate nurse-physician communication; barriers to effective nurse-physician communication; and interventions to improve nurse-physician communication. This integrative review suggests that nurse-physician communication still remains ineffective. Current interventions only address information needs of nurses and physicians in limited situations and specific settings but cannot adequately address the interprofessional communication skills that are lacking in practice. The disparate views of nurses and physicians on communication due to differing training backgrounds confound the effectiveness of current interventions or strategies. Cross-training and interprofessional educational from undergraduate to postgraduate programmes will better align the training of nurses and physicians to communicate effectively. Further research is needed to determine the

  14. Meaningful modalities : Stimulating the use of tactile-bodily interaction and communication in everyday situations with persons who are congenitally deafblind and their communication partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskens, Hermelinde

    2015-01-01

    The dual sensory impairment that characterizes congenital deafblindness, confronts communication partners of persons who are congenitally deafblind with serious challenges regarding interaction and communication. In order to create interaction and communication in everyday practice, communication

  15. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  16. Digital Communication and Records in Service Provision and Supervision: Regulation and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalari, Rachel N S; Gillis, Jennifer M; Kruser, Nathan; Romanczyk, Raymond G

    2015-10-01

    While the use of computer-based communication, video recordings, and other "electronic" records is commonplace in clinical service settings and research, management of digital records can become a great burden from both practical and regulatory perspectives. Three types of challenges commonly present themselves: regulatory requirements; storage, transmission, and access; and analysis for clinical and research decision-making. Unfortunately, few practitioners and organizations are well enough informed to set necessary policies and procedures in an effective, comprehensive manner. The three challenges are addressed using a demonstrative example of policies and procedural guidelines from an applied perspective, maintaining the unique emphasis behavior analysts place upon quantitative analysis. Specifically, we provide a brief review of federal requirements relevant to the use of video and electronic records in the USA; non-jargon pragmatic solutions to managing and storing video and electronic records; and last, specific methodologies to facilitate extraction of quantitative information in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Presenting practice financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.

  18. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Facilitators of interprofessional transplant communication included appreciation of its importance to good practice and cohesive individual transplant teams. Barriers to interprofessional communication were observed when individual teams had to come together in a multi-team, interdisciplinary environment, when ...

  19. INDIRECT COMMUNICATION AND FACE-SAVING FACTOR: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROZINA GUNTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses silence as a non-linguistic resource for conveying indirect communicative acts. Applied linguists assert that the use of silence for communicative purposes might be determined by several categories of factors, the face-saving factor being one of them. So far, much research has been done to determine how the speakers of different languages use silence; however, only limited research on silence as a strategy for face saving can be identified. Thus, the current investigation was undertaken to explore the relationship between the face-saving factor and non-verbal communication where silence as a strategy for indirect interaction was applied. Within this framework, the study dealt with the analysis of silence as a workable strategy that is often adopted in non-native speakers’ communication in English. With this purpose, four focus groups of non-native speakers (NNSs of English in Latvia were selected. The investigation was approached from the perspective of qualitative research, and it applied a case study as the research method. The study has acquired two types of findings. First, when the target language is applied for interactional purposes, NNSs of the English language are influenced by cognitive and pragma-social factors. Second, when NNSs adopt both aspects of language, i.e., verbal and non-verbal, for interaction, the strategy depends on numerous factors, silence being one of them. The study has demonstrated that silence is often applied to communicate information indirectly, and it is frequently used as a face-saving strategy in interaction in the target language. The use of silence as a communicative strategy depends on numerous factors in different non-native language users’ settings and varies according to the focus of interactional purposes.

  20. Practical marketing for dentistry. 9. Marketing communication tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R

    1996-09-21

    There are many communication tools available at a wide range of different costs. This article discusses a selection of the tools available and also examines the most important first step-identifying your target audience.

  1. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2015-02-01

    Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek

  2. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  3. The art of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Effective communication is an essential skill in general practice consultations. The art of communication is the development of effective skills and finding a style of communication that suits the clinician and produces benefits for both patient and doctor. This paper outlines the essential skills required for effective communication with a patient and suggests that clinicians consider this communication as an art that can be developed throughout a medical career. Good communication can improve outcomes for patients and doctors, and deserves equal importance as developing clinical knowledge and procedural skill. The importance of good communication is so critical that Australian guidelines list effective communication as part of the required conduct for all doctors. A therapeutic patient-doctor relationship uses the clinician as a therapeutic intervention and is part of the art of communication. Despite all the technological advances of recent decades, caring, compassionate, healing doctors remain the best therapeutic tool in medicine. The ability of a doctor to provide comfort through their presence and their words is a fundamental component of good medical care.

  4. An evaluation on the analysis of communication faculties and education system compliance with new communication technologies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulunmaz Barış

    2016-01-01

    One of the disciplines covered in the social sciences is communication sciences. Communication; when considered from an overall and simple perspective, is defined as the transfer of messages between sender and receiver. As every kind of innovation is integrated into social life over time, increasing human-based practices and significant importance of communication emerge both scientifically and socially; communication has been more institutionalized and gained its current structure. Communica...

  5. Language and Communicative Practices: An Approach from the Ethnography of Speech at Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Romero

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Language regulates and facilitates social practices; that lends it a particular character, given that it is not presented in an isolated way, but rather utilized real and concretely by the individuals that constitute a determined society of discourse. That way, language is action, strength; it creates and is the vehicle through which beliefs are transmittedand the inherently symbolic world of a determined society or group is interpreted. This article, from a specific point of view based on the ethnography of speech, presents the results of a preliminary study about forms of communications and the way in which these form animate the construction of meaning within a particular spiritual community ofOriental origin. In this way, the article discusses how particular linguistic forms framed by specific communicative events bring about the structurizing of the symbolic world of the Brahma Kumaris language community, distinguish it from other spiritual communities, constitute its identity and establish a complex network of interpersonal relationships.

  6. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...... symbolic power and this is reflected in the linguistic ecosystem of the various work settings. In this chapter, we discuss issues around language use, language policy and language ideology in the workplace as well as gatekeeping. We draw on our recently completed and ongoing work as well as illustrative...

  7. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  8. Communication Practice vs. Pattern Practice "or a Live Teacher Is Absolutely Necessary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    A language course has two components: (1) the course content; and (2) the presentation of that content. This article deals with the presentation component. Its main thesis is this: Since the ultimate goal of language learning is communication, classroom presentation should, from the outset, be directed toward the development of communication…

  9. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  10. Mediated awareness for intra-family communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the current communication practices of family members to stay in touch with each other. Based on this investigation it elicits requirements for new pervasive communication systems, called awareness

  11. Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecky, Fabien

    2017-09-22

    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This paper presents an overview of issues related to epistemic justice for science communication, and argues that there are two quite distinct ways in which science communicators can be just (or unjust) in the way they distribute knowledge. Both of these paths will be considered before concluding that, at least on one of these accounts, science communication as a field and as a practice is fundamentally epistemically unjust. Possible ways to redress this injustice are suggested.

  12. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2013-12-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives and teaching methods for the attainment of professional expertise in patient education. Firstly, we propose to use functional learning objectives derived from the goals and strategies of clinical communication. Secondly, we recommend using teaching and assessment methods which: (1) contain stimulating learning tasks with opportunities for immediate feedback, reflection and corrections, and (2) give ample opportunity for repetition, gradual refinements and practice in challenging situations. Video-on-the-job fits these requirements and can be used to improve the competency in patient education of residents and medical staff in clinical practice. However, video-on-the-job can only be successful if the working environment supports the teaching and learning of communication and if medical staff which supervises the residents, is motivated to improve their own communication and didactic skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study of Digital Communications between Universities and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Perry D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the digital and social media communication practices of nine urban universities including UMSL and compared those to known corporate best practices. The purpose of this study was to (1) research how these universities are using social/digital communications to engage with students and prospective students; (2) compare the…

  14. Showing/Sharing: Analysing Visual Communication from a Praxeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schreiber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a methodological framework for empirical research into visual practices on social media. The framework identifies practices, pictures and platforms as relevant dimensions of analysis. It is mainly developed within, and is compatible with qualitative, interpretive approaches which focus on visual communication as part of everyday personal communicative practices. Two screenshots from Instagram and Facebook are introduced as empirical examples to investigate collaborative practices of meaning-making relating to pictures on social media. While social media seems to augment reflexive, processual practices of negotiating identities, visual media, in particular, amps up aesthetic, ambivalent and embodied dimensions within these practices.

  15. Multichannel pension communication : An integrated perspective on policies, practices, and literacy demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The design of pension communication environments often leaves to be desired. This is partly due to pension communication legislation, which communication professionals often find difficult to interpret and to comply with. Out of discontent with the legally required media, many pension organizations

  16. Resisting Best-Practice in Australian Practice-Based Jazz Doctorates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Christopher; Webb, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on practice-based doctorates in Australia has revealed an institutional preference for "theorised" research approaches aimed at situating studies of practice within established academic paradigms. In this article we examine how the aim of communicating with artistic peers steers the research design and the production of…

  17. Internet Discourse: Metalanguage Models of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Arkadyevich Barkovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the identification and systematization of generalized prototypical traits of online communication in linguistic context. The identification of these traits and their presentation in the form of models is an important issue of objective metadescription of modern speech practice. The involvement of discursive paradigm for the characterization of speech practice is relevant in the context of dynamic development of communication: discourse is speech activity, extended in time and space, and is due to wide extra-linguistic context and communicational specifics. Paradigmatic flexibility of discourse is in demand in different methodological perspectives: humanistic, cognitive-semiotic, metalinguistic, phenomenological, etc. Internet as a phenomenon of communication is a modern representative object of interdisciplinary scientific development. The key concept in this regard is the Internet-discourse – speech practice in the field of computer-mediated communication that is due to the format of the Internet. In the context of metalanguage modeling of Internet discourse phenomenological, structural and functional types of models can be highlighted; the typology of, for example, phenomenological models suggests differentiation of their pragmatic, social, and personal integrities. Characteristics of metalanguage models, including Internet surfing, trolling, liking, etc., meets the challenges of modeling of speech practice of the Internet, expounds scientific knowledge about peculiarities and regularities of communication and extends the object base of language research.

  18. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  19. 75 FR 16337 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline business practices and electronic communications to incorporate by reference into its regulations... enumerated exceptions. This rule upgrades the Commission's current business practice and communication... business practices and electronic communications) \\1\\ to incorporate by reference the most recent version...

  20. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  1. Geritalk: Communication Skills Training for Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amy S.; Back, Anthony L.; Arnold, Robert M.; Goldberg, Gabrielle R.; Lim, Betty B.; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B.; O’Neill, Lynn B.

    2011-01-01

    Expert communication is essential to high quality care for older patients with serious illness. While the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. We drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method, to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges faced by geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques prior to the course. Geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n=18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on 5-point scale). Compared to before the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, pcommunication skills program, tailored to the specific needs of geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows’ self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. PMID:22211768

  2. Communication of carrier status information following universal newborn screening for sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of experience and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, J; Ulph, F; Cullinan, T; Qureshi, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe and explore current practice, methods and experience of communicating carrier status information following newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell (SC) disorders, to inform practice and further research. Three linked qualitative studies. All nine health regions in England. Child health screening coordinators in all English health regions, health professionals communicating results to parents and parents of newborn carriers. A preliminary phase of semi-structured telephone interviews with child health screening coordinators in all nine English health regions, and thematic analysis of data; semi-structured face-to-face interviews with purposeful samples of 67 family members of 51 infants identified by universal newborn screening as carriers of CF or SC with data analysis by constant comparison; and semi-structured telephone interviews, and focus groups, with a key informant sample of 16 differing health professionals currently tasked with communicating results to parents in a range of ways, with thematic analysis of data. Methods for and respondents' experiences of communication of carrier results varied considerably within and between regions, and within and between SC and CF contexts. Approaches ranged from letter or telephone call alone, to in-person communication in the clinic or at home, with health professionals from haemoglobinopathy, CF, screening and genetics backgrounds, or from community and primary care, such as health visitors with SC carrier results. Health professionals identified pros and cons of different methods, preferring opportunity for face-to-face communication with parents where possible, particularly for CF carrier results. They were concerned by regional variations in protocols, the lack of availability of translated information on SC carrier results, and the feasibility of sustaining more 'specialist' involvement at current levels, particularly for SC carriers. Parents were often poorly prepared for the

  3. Assessment of the effectiveness of the communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Dmitrii Anatolevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the theoretical justification for the means and methods of communication effectiveness of advertising, which are used in research and the real practice of communications companies. In this paper, advertising is seen as part of the communication process.

  4. English 7-8: Modern Media of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Madelon

    This grade 7-8 level course guide covers aspects of media communication such as verbal and nonverbal communication theory, forms of modern media (newspapers, feature films, artistic films, music, advertising, etc.), and practice for the student in the various aspects of communication media. The guide is designed for a one-year course and enhances…

  5. Assessing Patient-Centered Communication in Cancer Care: Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Gaglio, Bridget; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Alexander, Gwen L.; Stark, Azadeh; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Walsh, Kathleen; Boggs, Jennifer; Lemay, Celeste A.; Firneno, Cassandra; Biggins, Colleen; Blosky, Mary Ann; Arora, Neeraj K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Patient-centered communication is critical to quality cancer care. Effective communication can help patients and family members cope with cancer, make informed decisions, and effectively manage their care; suboptimal communication can contribute to care breakdowns and undermine clinician-patient relationships. The study purpose was to explore stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of collecting self-reported patient and family perceptions of communication experiences while receiving cancer care. The results were intended to inform the design, development, and implementation of a structured and generalizable patient-level reporting system. Methods: This was a formative, qualitative study that used semistructured interviews with cancer patients, family members, clinicians, and leaders of health care organizations. The constant comparative method was used to identify major themes in the interview transcripts. Results: A total of 106 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic saturation was achieved. All stakeholders recognized the importance of communication and endorsed efforts to improve communication during cancer care. Patients, clinicians, and leaders expressed concerns about the potential consequences of reports of suboptimal communication experiences, such as damage to the clinician-patient relationship, and the need for effective improvement strategies. Patients and family members would report good communication experiences in order to encourage such practices. Practical and logistic issues were identified. Conclusion: Patient reports of their communication experiences during cancer care could increase understanding of the communication process, stimulate improvements, inform interventions, and provide a basis for evaluating changes in communication practices. This qualitative study provides a foundation for the design and pilot testing of such a patient reporting system. PMID:23943884

  6. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  7. Teaching Prelinguistic Communication. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Long before children learn language, they communicate with gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions, and body language. This is known as prelinguistic (prior to language) communication. Most children learn this type of communication without formal teaching, but children who are deaf-blind may need guidance to learn it. This publication…

  8. Communication during Physical Activity for Youth Who Are Deafblind: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Pucci, Gina

    2004-01-01

    Communication is a barrier to accessing physical activity and recreation for many people who are deafblind (Lieberman & MacVicar, 2003; Lieberman & Stuart, 2002). The purpose of this study was to observe effective communication strategies used during four physical activities for youth who are deafblind. Communication during physical activity was…

  9. Storytelling Practices in Project Management : Exploratory study in new business process implementation in Information and Communication Technology projects

    OpenAIRE

    Abdubaliev, Ulukbek; Akysheva, Aizhan

    2017-01-01

    Stories have always been present in the life of people as a part of their culture, it is a rather ancient narrative technique. The message delivered in a form of a story is specifically appealing to listeners, which makes it a powerful communication tool. The thesis explores storytelling practices in project management by answering the question: “How project managers use storytelling in new business process implementation in ICT projects?” The choice of the topic was driven by the gap in the ...

  10. Geritalk: communication skills training for geriatric and palliative medicine fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amy S; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B; O'Neill, Lynn B

    2012-02-01

    Expert communication is essential to high-quality care for older patients with serious illness. Although the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatric and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. The current study drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges that geriatric and palliative medicine fellows face. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques before the course. Geriatric and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n = 18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on a 5-point scale). After the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, P communication skills program, customized for the specific needs of geriatric and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows' self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Design of Concept of Sustainable Marketing Communication Strategy for a Ideal Industrial Enterprise and Practical Applications of this Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šujaková, Monika; Golejová, Simona; Sakál, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the contribution the authors deal with the design and use of a sustainable marketing communication strategy of an ideal industrial enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The concept of an ideal enterprise is designed to increase the enterprise's sustainable competitiveness through the formation of a corporate image. In the framework of the research, the practical application of the draft concept was realized through a semi-structured interview in the form of propositional logic.

  12. "How do I say that?": Using communication principles to enhance medication therapy management instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Paul M; Cardone, Katie E; Parker, Wendy M; Cerulli, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Medication therapy management (MTM) is a comprehensive, patient-centered approach to improving medication use, reducing the risk of adverse events and improving medication adherence. Given the service delivery model and required outputs of MTM services, communication skills are of utmost importance. The objectives of this study were to identify and describe communication principles and instructional practices to enhance MTM training. Drawing on formative assessment data from interviews of both pharmacy educators and alumni, this article identifies and describes communication principles and instructional practices that pharmacy educators can use to enhance MTM training initiatives to develop student communication strategies. Analysis revealed five key communication challenges of MTM service delivery, two communication principles that pharmacy teachers and learners can use to address those challenges, and a range of specific strategies, derived from communication principles, that students can use when challenges emerge. Implications of the analysis for pharmacy educators and researchers are described. Proactive communication training provided during MTM advanced pharmacy practice experiences enabled students to apply the principles and instructional strategies to specific patient interactions during the advanced pharmacy practice experiences and in their post-graduation practice settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to digital communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wesolowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Combining theoretical knowledge and practical applications, this advanced-level textbook covers the most important aspects of contemporary digital communication systems. Introduction to Digital Communication Systems focuses on the rules of functioning digital communication system blocks, starting with the performance limits set by the information theory. Drawing on information relating to turbo codes and LDPC codes, the text presents the basic methods of error correction and detection, followed by baseband transmission methods, and single- and multi-carrier digital modulations. The basi

  14. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  15. Transcending behaviorism in communication education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartrick, G

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, nursing education has been engaged in a curriculum revolution. Although this ongoing revolution has led to profound changes in nursing curricula, one area that requires further scrutiny is communication education. This article addresses the limitations of behavioral communication curricula and suggests a pedagogical process responsive to the complexity of human caring relationships and the intricacies of relational practice. The discussion includes a description of a nursing communication course developed according to the principles of transformational learning theory.

  16. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  17. The Critical Care Communication project: improving fellows' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert M; Back, Anthony L; Barnato, Amber E; Prendergast, Thomas J; Emlet, Lillian L; Karpov, Irina; White, Patrick H; Nelson, Judith E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based communication skills training workshop to improve the communication skills of critical care fellows. Pulmonary and critical care fellows (N = 38) participated in a 3-day communication skills workshop between 2008 and 2010 involving brief didactic talks, faculty demonstration of skills, and faculty-supervised small group skills practice sessions with simulated families. Skills included the following: giving bad news, achieving consensus on goals of therapy, and discussing the limitations of life-sustaining treatment. Participants rated their skill levels in a pre-post survey in 11 core communication tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 38 fellows, 36 (95%) completed all 3 days of the workshop. We compared pre and post scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall, self-rated skills increased for all 11 tasks. In analyses by participant, 95% reported improvement in at least 1 skill; with improvement in a median of 10 of 11 skills. Ninety-two percent rated the course as either very good/excellent, and 80% recommended that it be mandatory for future fellows. This 3-day communication skills training program increased critical care fellows' self-reported family meeting communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Patient Safety: Improving Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Fagan, Heather; Davis, Joshua; Savoy, Margot

    2017-12-01

    Communication among physicians, staff, and patients is a critical element in patient safety. Effective communication skills can be taught and improved through training and awareness. The practice of family medicine allows for long-term relationships with patients, which affords opportunities for ongoing, high-quality communication. There are many barriers to effective communication, including patient factors, clinician factors, and system factors, but tools and strategies exist to address these barriers, improve communication, and engage patients in their care. Use of universal precautions for health literacy, appropriate medical interpreters, and shared decision-making are evidence-based tools that improve communication and increase patient safety. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Mixed Media Richness and Computer-Mediated Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Anthony B.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed richness communications occur when a participant in a conversation receives a different media or combination of media than they transmit. Mixed richness communications occur in the workplace when technical, physiological or practical limitations prevent the use of the same media on both ends of a conversation. Prior research in CMC has focused on same-richness communications, and the design guidelines that are available for same-richness communications may not be applicable to mixed-r...

  20. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.