WorldWideScience

Sample records for practical considerations related

  1. Relative Binding Free Energy Calculations in Drug Discovery: Recent Advances and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournia, Zoe; Allen, Bryce; Sherman, Woody

    2017-12-26

    Accurate in silico prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities has been a primary objective of structure-based drug design for decades due to the putative value it would bring to the drug discovery process. However, computational methods have historically failed to deliver value in real-world drug discovery applications due to a variety of scientific, technical, and practical challenges. Recently, a family of approaches commonly referred to as relative binding free energy (RBFE) calculations, which rely on physics-based molecular simulations and statistical mechanics, have shown promise in reliably generating accurate predictions in the context of drug discovery projects. This advance arises from accumulating developments in the underlying scientific methods (decades of research on force fields and sampling algorithms) coupled with vast increases in computational resources (graphics processing units and cloud infrastructures). Mounting evidence from retrospective validation studies, blind challenge predictions, and prospective applications suggests that RBFE simulations can now predict the affinity differences for congeneric ligands with sufficient accuracy and throughput to deliver considerable value in hit-to-lead and lead optimization efforts. Here, we present an overview of current RBFE implementations, highlighting recent advances and remaining challenges, along with examples that emphasize practical considerations for obtaining reliable RBFE results. We focus specifically on relative binding free energies because the calculations are less computationally intensive than absolute binding free energy (ABFE) calculations and map directly onto the hit-to-lead and lead optimization processes, where the prediction of relative binding energies between a reference molecule and new ideas (virtual molecules) can be used to prioritize molecules for synthesis. We describe the critical aspects of running RBFE calculations, from both theoretical and applied perspectives

  2. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  3. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z

    2016-04-25

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.

  4. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  5. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  6. Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs.

  7. Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general…

  8. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  9. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  11. Practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J. M.; Kennedy, W. E. Jr.; Swinth, K. L.; Gilbert, R. O.; Soldat, J. K.

    1988-05-01

    Radiological exposures to the public during an accident that releases radioactive materials to the environment occur initially through the air pathway, secondly through a water pathway, and finally, through the food chain. From these exposure pathways, reference levels of radionuclides must be applied to limit public radiation doses. Such reference levels are difficult to develop and apply, particularly if the contaminants are transuranic elements such as plutonium. The reference level must be related to a resultant theoretical dose to the public through generic calculations. However, to permit rapid decisions after an accident, the reference levels need to be related to conditions or media in the environment that can be directly measured. They must also be tied to specific countermeasures such as sheltering, evacuation, or interdiction of drinking water or food supplies. This paper discusses the practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels for transuranic in the environment and the present capability to rapidly detect and quantify their concentrations following accidental contamination events. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Practical Considerations Informing Teachers' Technology Integration Decisions: The Case of Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Tondeur, Jo; Voogt, Joke; Bruggeman, Bram; Mathieu, Griet; van Braak, Johan

    2018-01-01

    The unique characteristics of tablet PCs promise important benefits for education. Yet, little is known about the rationale underlying teachers' decisions concerning their educational uses within the constraints of daily classroom practice. The current multiple case study investigated the practical considerations informing nine secondary school…

  13. Practical considerations in developing an instrument-maintenance plan--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, M.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author develops a general set of considerations to explain how a consistent, well-organized, prioritized, and adequate time-allowance program plan for routine maintenance can be constructed. The analysis is supplemented with experience from the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at US Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). After the preventive maintenance (PM) problem was defined, the instruments on the schedule were selected based on the manufacturer's design specifications, quality-assurance requirements, prior classifications, experiences with the incidence of breakdowns or calibration, and dependencies among instruments. The effects of repair error in PM should be also studied. The HFIR requires three full-time technicians to perform both PM and unscheduled maintenance. A review is presented of concepts from queuing theory to determine anticipated breakdown patterns. In practice, the pneumatic instruments have a much longer lifetime than the electric/electronic instruments on various reactors at ORNL. Some special considerations and risk aversion in choosing a maintenance schedule

  14. "Journal of Space Economics - theoretical and practical considerations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Sommers, J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address theoretical and practical considerations for the emerging field of space economics and propose an editorial policy for a journal of space economics to provide a forum for the discussion of space economics issues. It is anticipated that initially the Journal of Space Economics will operate from two different nodes one offering a European perspective (University of Latvia) and the other a U.S. perspective (University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee). The first edition of the Journal of Space Economics will focus on issues likely to arise during the course of the International Lunar Decade 2020-2030.

  15. Practical Consideration Factors to Design Array Configuration of Direction Finding System for Airborne Signal Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne signal intelligence (SIGINT systems must be capable of locating radio signal sources. Direction finding (DF to support this capability is an important factor. There are some practical considerations to be taken when designing the array configuration of a DF system for airborne SIGINT systems. This paper summarizes the practical factors when designing the array configuration of the DF system for airborne SIGINT. In particular, it focuses on four areas: antenna consideration factors when installing the DF system for airborne SIGINT from a practical point of view, array configuration methods for airborne communications intelligence and electronic intelligence, and a numerical analysis to select the optimum antenna position for airborne SIGINT.

  16. Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Practical Considerations for Emergency Medicine Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frank Peacock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF- related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban—have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.

  17. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  18. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  19. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Physician to investigator: clinical practice to clinical research--ethical, operational, and financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Physicians who participate in clinical research studies gain benefits for themselves, their practice, and their patients. Historically, private practice physicians have chosen to defer to their counterparts in academic medicine when it comes to contributing to scientific advancement through clinical studies. A growing number of private practice physicians are now taking a serious second look and deciding that there are unique benefits for both the practice and the patient. Physicians who decide to participate in clinical research should give serious consideration to the time and resources that are required to meet both federal regulations and industry standards. In addition, ethical and scientific principles for assuring the protection of human research subjects must be a paramount commitment.

  1. Beyond individualism: Is there a place for relational autonomy in clinical practice and research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Kelly, Susan E; Lucivero, Federica; Machirori, Mavis; Dheensa, Sandi; Prainsack, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The dominant, individualistic understanding of autonomy that features in clinical practice and research is underpinned by the idea that people are, in their ideal form, independent, self-interested and rational gain-maximising decision-makers. In recent decades, this paradigm has been challenged from various disciplinary and intellectual directions. Proponents of 'relational autonomy' in particular have argued that people's identities, needs, interests - and indeed autonomy - are always also shaped by their relations to others. Yet, despite the pronounced and nuanced critique directed at an individualistic understanding of autonomy, this critique has had very little effect on ethical and legal instruments in clinical practice and research so far. In this article, we use four case studies to explore to what extent, if at all, relational autonomy can provide solutions to ethical and practical problems in clinical practice and research. We conclude that certain forms of relational autonomy can have a tangible and positive impact on clinical practice and research. These solutions leave the ultimate decision to the person most affected, but encourage and facilitate the consideration of this person's care and responsibility for connected others.

  2. Uniform-related infection control practices of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohani Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yazan Aljohani,1 Mohammed Almutadares,1 Khalid Alfaifi,1 Mona El Madhoun,1 Maysoon H Albahiti,2 Nadia Al-Hazmi3 1Internship Program, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Department of Endodontics, King Abdulaziz University, 3Department of Oral Biology, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim: To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method: A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results: There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion: Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. Keywords: cross-contamination, infection control, dental students, uniforms

  3. UNFAIR CONTRACTUAL TERMS AND PRACTICES IN RELATION BETWEEN PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Chiocaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the main elements of novelty brought by the transposition of the Directive 2011/7/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating late payment in commercial transactions in the Romanian national legislation by Law no. 72/2013 on the measures for combating late payment of a certain amounts of money resulting from the agreements concluded between the professionals and between professionals and contracting authorities. The current analysis is based on the interpretation of the legal previsions of the above mentioned acts as well as on the related secondary legislation. It is important to underline that at the moment of this study there is few court practice on this subject matter at the national level as well as of the European community level. Further more, considering the relatively new presence of the Law no. 72/2013 in the national legislation, albeit this law is adopting certain elements from the existent legislation, there is a lack of substantial doctrine in this respect. Starting form the considerations expressed above, we intend by this article to underline the main measures to be take into consideration by the professionals in the commercial relations established between them as well as in the commercial relations established with contracting authorities.

  4. [Theoretical and practical considerations in rational polytherapy for epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajna, Péter

    2011-11-30

    Author analyses the consideration of rational polytherapy for epilepsy. Among the theoretical aspects he points the different effect of seizure inhibitory drugs on the epilepsy models but didn't find data enough for the basis of any successful combination. Combinations of compounds having different way of action are more promising. Rational polytherapy can serve also the epileptic patients' tailored therapy in the daily routine. There have already been some proved synergisms concerning drug interactions. Based on detailed analysis of side effects a possibility occurs for neutralization of side effects when anticonvulsants with side effects of opposite nature are combined. Considering both the side effect profiles and the different (somatic and psychic) habits of the patients we can create a special list of favourable combinations. Co-morbid states and their treatments play a significant role in the application of rational polytherapy. Combination of anticonvulsants of lower potential but without drug-interactions can be the choice in these cases. The non-epileptic indications of the anticonvulsants can also be utilized in polymorbid patients. Based on the theoretical and practical considerations the author defines the ten-step-cognitive-preparation-process in planning the optimal (poly)therapy. On speculative basis he suggests eight beneficial versions of seizure inhibitory rational polytherapy.

  5. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Ainhoa; Thérivel, Riki; Fry, John; Foley, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary

  6. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: agonzal@tcd.ie [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: levett-therivel@phonecoop.coop [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: john.fry@ucd.ie [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: walterfoley@gmail.com [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  7. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness.

  8. Korean older intimate partner violence survivors in North America: cultural considerations and practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woochan S; Nelson-Becker, Holly

    2009-01-01

    While literature on elder abuse has expanded, elder abuse by intimate partners has been less investigated. Even less is known about intimate partner violence among older Koreans living in North America. This article identifies important cultural considerations for individuals helping the Korean older adult community, beginning with the definition of intimate partner violence in this community and barriers to leaving that include traditional views of the East Asian self. Current practice interventions are discussed and recommendations for future practice such as healing han, the accumulated suffering from years of abuse, are suggested. The ultimate goal of this paper is to expand awareness in order to develop the best culturally competent prevention and intervention practice for Korean older intimate partner violence survivors in North America.

  9. Emission certificates. Legal, tax-related and practical aspects; Emissionszertifikate. Rechtliche, steuerliche und praktische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Christoph; Bartholl, Carsten; Hartmann, Astrid (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book discusses the issue of emission certificates from the view of public law, civil law and tax law, in consideration of practical experience with emission reduction projects. The subjects discussed range from emission trading from the view of public law to the civil law and regulatory law aspects of emission trading and taxation law. The legal situation in Germany is covered from the view of public and private law. The state of legislation on emission reduction in the USA is gone into, and practical experience relating to the Clean Development Mechanism is presented. (orig./RHM)

  10. Action Learning as Relational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom; Blantern, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose that all knowledge is made through social processes and is political (of the people involved). If one invests in a relational or historical ontology (a philosophical choice) there are implications for the way action learning is practiced. We illuminate some of these "relational practices". We purport that action learning…

  11. Financial remuneration for clinical and behavioral research participation: ethical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Borenstein, Amy R

    2009-04-01

    Although the practice of providing payment to clinical research participants has been ongoing for more than a century, it remains an ethically controversial topic among members of the research community. The aims of this commentary are to summarize ethical and practical considerations regarding financial remuneration of research participants and to make recommendations for researchers contemplating this practice. A PubMed search was conducted to explore the ethical implications surrounding financial remuneration and review the body of empiric data on this topic. Financial remuneration is perceived to be ethically acceptable by many researchers and research participants and can be helpful in the recruitment process. It is recommended that when investigators are contemplating whether to offer payment to research participants, they should consider the nature of the study and the potential benefits and risks to the participants, institutional or organizational guidelines, and cultural and societal norms specific to the population being studied. Financial remuneration has the ability to serve as a sign of appreciation for the contributions of research participants and a way to facilitate clinical and behavioral research.

  12. Considerations for use of dental photography and electronic media in dental education and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieber, Jane C; Nelson, Travis; Huebner, Colleen E

    2015-04-01

    Photography and electronic media are indispensable tools for dental education and clinical practice. Although previous research has focused on privacy issues and general strategies to protect patient privacy when sharing clinical photographs for educational purposes, there are no published recommendations for developing a functional, privacy-compliant institutional framework for the capture, storage, transfer, and use of clinical photographs and other electronic media. The aims of this study were to research patient rights relating to electronic media and propose a framework for the use of patient media in education and clinical care. After a review of the relevant literature and consultation with the University of Washington's director of privacy and compliance and assistant attorney general, the researchers developed a privacy-compliant framework to ensure appropriate capture, storage, transfer, and use of clinical photography and electronic media. A four-part framework was created to guide the use of patient media that reflects considerations of patient autonomy and privacy, informed consent, capture and storage of media, and its transfer, use, and display. The best practices proposed for capture, storage, transfer, and use of clinical photographs and electronic media adhere to the health care code of ethics (based on patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity), which is most effectively upheld by a practical framework designed to protect patients and limit institutional liability. Educators have the opportunity and duty to convey these principles to students who will become the next generation of dentists, researchers, and educators.

  13. Specialty Practice and Cost Considerations in the Management of Uveitis Associated With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestine, Alan G; Singh, Jasleen K; Kolfenbach, Jason R; Ozzello, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether cost, prior insurance authorization concerns, and subspecialty practice influence therapeutic decisions in the treatment of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A total of 2,965 pediatric ophthalmologists, uveitis specialists, retina specialists, and rheumatologists across the United States were surveyed via e-mail regarding their choice in long-term therapy for a hypothetical patient with uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Outcomes of interest were differences in therapy choice based on cost/prior authorization and specialty practice. There were significant differences in the use of methotrexate and biologics among specialists, both with and without consideration for cost and prior authorization. Physicians in four different specialties who treat uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis agree on methotrexate as a first-line treatment choice and a biologic immunosuppressive medication as a second choice, but there are significant differences between the specialties in their use of these medications. Cost and insurance considerations did not affect therapy selection. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(4):246-251.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. MO-E-BRC-00: Online Adaptive Radiotherapy - Considerations for Practical Clinical Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Online adaptive radiation therapy has the potential to ensure delivery of optimal treatment to the patient by accounting for anatomical and potentially functional changes that occur from one fraction to the next and over the course of treatment. While on-line adaptive RT (ART) has been a topic of many publications, discussions, and research, it has until very recently remained largely a concept and not a practical implementation. However, recent advances in on-table imaging, use of deformable image registration for contour generation and dose tracking, faster and more efficient plan optimization, as well as fast quality assurance method has enabled the implementation of ART in the clinic in the past couple of years. The introduction of these tools into routine clinical use requires many considerations and progressive knowledge to understand how processes that have historically taken hours/days to complete can now be done in less than 30 minutes. This session will discuss considerations to perform real time contouring, planning and patient specific QA, as well as a practical workflow and the required resources. Learning Objectives: To understand the difficulties, challenges and available technologies for online adaptive RT. To understand how to implement online adaptive therapy in a clinical environment and to understand the workflow and resources required. To understand the limitations and sources of uncertainty in the online adaptive process I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; R. Kashani, I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; X. Li, Research supported by Elekta Inc.

  15. MO-E-BRC-00: Online Adaptive Radiotherapy - Considerations for Practical Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Online adaptive radiation therapy has the potential to ensure delivery of optimal treatment to the patient by accounting for anatomical and potentially functional changes that occur from one fraction to the next and over the course of treatment. While on-line adaptive RT (ART) has been a topic of many publications, discussions, and research, it has until very recently remained largely a concept and not a practical implementation. However, recent advances in on-table imaging, use of deformable image registration for contour generation and dose tracking, faster and more efficient plan optimization, as well as fast quality assurance method has enabled the implementation of ART in the clinic in the past couple of years. The introduction of these tools into routine clinical use requires many considerations and progressive knowledge to understand how processes that have historically taken hours/days to complete can now be done in less than 30 minutes. This session will discuss considerations to perform real time contouring, planning and patient specific QA, as well as a practical workflow and the required resources. Learning Objectives: To understand the difficulties, challenges and available technologies for online adaptive RT. To understand how to implement online adaptive therapy in a clinical environment and to understand the workflow and resources required. To understand the limitations and sources of uncertainty in the online adaptive process I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; R. Kashani, I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; X. Li, Research supported by Elekta Inc.

  16. On some practical consideration of the electron beam breakup transit time oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.

    1992-01-01

    The electron beam breakup transit time oscillator (BTO) makes use of the interaction between an electron beam and the azimuthally azimuthally asymmetric transverse magnetic mode (TM 110 ) of a cavity to facilitate the exchange of energy between them. Linear theory has shown a large growth rate in the regime where space-charge effects can be ignored. In this study, we have investigated the non-ideal elements in the BTO and evaluated their effects accordingly. The practical issues under consideration are electron beam quality, energy, and space-charge potential. Our calculations indicate only a modest unfavorable scalings with respect to these parameters

  17. Nurse and midwifery prescribing in Ireland: A scope-of-practice development for worldwide consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Murphy, Jill; Nam, Mavis A; Fahy, Anne; Tella, Susanna

    2018-01-29

    For 10 years, select Irish nurses and midwives who pass a rigorous 6 month theory and practical program can prescribe medications and other medicinal products. Given the need for timely, accessible, and affordable health-care services in all countries, this nursing/midwifery education and practice development is worthy of examination. Irish nurse/midwife prescribing occurred following long-term deliberative nursing profession advocacy, nursing education planning, nursing administration and practice planning, interdisciplinary health-care team support and complementary efforts, and government action. A review of documents, research, and other articles was undertaken to examine this development process and report evaluative information for consideration by other countries seeking to improve their health-care systems. Nurse/midwife prescribing was accomplished successfully in Ireland, with the steps taken there to initiate and establish nurse/midwife prescribing of value internationally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Building the Nonuniversity, Tertiary Care Center Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Practice: Structural and Financial Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erin H; Siddiqui, Imran; Vrochides, Dionisios; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Rorabaugh, Lauren; Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Swan, Ryan Z

    2016-12-01

    Early in their careers, many new surgeons lack the background and experience to understand essential components needed to build a surgical practice. Surgical resident education is often devoid of specific instruction on the business of medicine and practice management. In particular, hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) surgeons require many key components to build a successful practice secondary to significant interdisciplinary coordination and a scope of complex surgery, which spans challenging benign and malignant disease processes. In the following, we describe the required clinical and financial components for developing a successful HPB surgery practice in the nonuniversity tertiary care center. We discuss significant financial considerations for understanding community need and hospital investment, contract establishment, billing, and coding. We summarize the structural elements and key personnel necessary for establishing an effectual HPB surgical team. This article provides useful, essential information for a new HPB surgeon looking to establish a surgical practice. It also provides insight for health-care administrators as to the value an HPB surgeon can bring to a hospital or health-care system.

  20. 17 CFR 201.401 - Consideration of stays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of stays. 201... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Appeal to the Commission and Commission Review § 201.401 Consideration of stays... consideration. Where the action complained of has already taken effect and the motion for stay is filed within...

  1. [Innovative Prenatal Testing: Clinical Applications and Ethical Considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Chih; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Jung

    2017-10-01

    The biomedical technology related to prenatal screen/diagnosis has developed rapidly in recent decades. Many prenatal genetic examinations are now available to assist pregnant women to better understand the status and development of their fetus. Moreover, many commercial advertisements for innovative prenatal examinations are now shown in the media. Cell-free DNA Screening (cfDNA screening), a non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) procedure, is a safe and high accuracy test that may be done at an earlier gestational age to screen for fetal aneuploidy. The following questions should be considered when applying cfDNA screening in clinical practice: 1. what is cfDNA screening, 2. who are its potential users, and 3. what ethical and policy considerations are associated with this examination? This article provides relevant information, clinical practice guidelines, and ethical / policy considerations related to cfDNA screening. Discussing cases involving different clinical situations helps promote understanding of cfDNA screening and maternal-care quality.

  2. 28 CFR 44.200 - Unfair immigration-related employment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unfair immigration-related employment... IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES Prohibited Practices § 44.200 Unfair immigration-related employment practices. (a)(1) General. It is unfair immigration-related employment practice for a person or other entity...

  3. Reducing surgical nurses' aseptic practice-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholaakko, Teija-Kaisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to explore aseptic practice-related stress in surgery. The objectives are to define stress-related factors and the means to reduce the stress. Occupational stress is related to personal characteristics: job satisfaction and physiological and psychological well-being. The stress symptoms are often classified as part of a negative mood. Nurses have expressed stress when deadening their conscience to external demands with co-workers or internal working role-related demands. Surgery nurses expect fair division of work and compliance with rules. The hospital management, technology and the medical profession, instead of the needs of the patient, are recognised as a danger in the development of surgery nurses' role. A qualitative stimulated recall interview was performed in the surgery of the university hospital. Thirty-one operations were videotaped, and 31 nurses interviewed during videotape stimulation. The 1306 text pages were transcripted and analysed by a qualitative membership categorisation device analysis. The analysis revealed aseptic practice-related stress which constructed a sixteen level category. The membership categorisation identified connections between qualitatively attributed personnel and seven stress factors: working experience; time; equipment; person; patient; working morals and power. Final analysis revealed nurses reducing aseptic practice-related stress by safe, peaceful, competent and relative means. The aseptic practice-related stress varied from positive motivating feelings to exhaustion. The stress was experienced by medical and nursing co-workers and reduced by means which varied according to expertise and co-workers. This study showed needs for both the shared multiprofessional documentation of aseptic practice and better adherence to recommendations. Constructive means are useful when solving conflicts and replacing person-related aseptic practice with evidence-based. They may support nurses' professional growth, reduce

  4. Momentary Parental Stress and Food-Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela R; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that stress and depressed mood are associated with food-related parenting practices (ie, parent feeding practices, types of food served at meals). However, current measures of parental stress, depressed mood, and food-related parenting practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations across time and context. Identifying momentary factors that influence parent food-related parenting practices will facilitate the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy food-related parenting practices. In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between momentary factors (eg, stress, depressed mood) occurring early in the day and food-related parenting practices at the evening meal. Children aged 5 to 7 years and their families ( N = 150) from 6 racial and/or ethnic groups ( n = 25 each African American, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, American Indian, Somali, and white families) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Higher stress and depressed mood earlier in the day predicted pressure-to-eat feeding practices and fewer homemade foods served at meals the same night. Effect modification was found for certain racial and/or ethnic groups with regard to engaging in pressure-to-eat feeding practices (ie, America Indian, Somali) or serving fewer homemade meals (ie, African American, Hispanic/Latino) in the face of high stress or depressed mood. Clinicians may want to consider discussing with parents the influence stress and depressed mood can have on everyday food-related parenting practices. Additionally, future researchers should consider using real-time interventions to reduce parental stress and depressed mood to promote healthy parent food-related parenting practices. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Practical Considerations for Clinical PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Samuel; Viets, Zachary; Fowler, Kathryn; Gore, Lael; Thomas, John V; McNamara, Michelle; McConathy, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Clinical PET/MR imaging is currently performed at a number of centers around the world as part of routine standard of care. This article focuses on issues and considerations for a clinical PET/MR imaging program, focusing on routine standard-of-care studies. Although local factors influence how clinical PET/MR imaging is implemented, the approaches and considerations described here intend to apply to most clinical programs. PET/MR imaging provides many more options than PET/computed tomography with diagnostic advantages for certain clinical applications but with added complexity. A recurring theme is matching the PET/MR imaging protocol to the clinical application to balance diagnostic accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing the paradox of the team innovation process: A review and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Amanda L; Petruzzelli, Alexandra; McClurg, Caitlin E

    2018-01-01

    Facilitating team innovation is paramount to promoting progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math fields, as well as advancing national health, safety, prosperity, and welfare. However, innovation teams face a unique set of challenges due to the novelty and uncertainty that is core to the definition of innovation, as well as the paradoxical nature of idea generation and idea implementation processes. These and other challenges must be overcome for innovation teams to realize their full potential for producing change. The purpose of this review is, thus, to provide insight into the unique context that these teams function within and provide an integrative, evidence-based, and practically useful, organizing heuristic that focuses on the most important considerations for facilitating team innovation. Finally, we provide practical guidance for psychologists, organizations, practitioners, scientists, educators, policymakers, and others who employ teams to produce novel, innovative solutions to today's problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Omalizumab: Practical considerations regarding the risk of anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omalizumab has demonstrated efficacy among patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma, whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with other controller agents. This therapy is generally well tolerated, but there are some safety considerations, the most important of which is the rare, but potentially life-threatening, occurrence of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. In Canada, data from the manufacturer of omalizumab indicate that the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to Xolair in post-marketing use is approximately 0.2%. Other researchers, including the American Omalizumab Joint Task Force (OJTF, have suggested a lower overall frequency of 0.09%. This paper provides a summary of the epidemiologic research carried out to date and presents a concise, practical set of recommendations for the prevention, monitoring and management of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. Prevention tips include advice on patient education measures, concomitant medications and optimal administration. For the first three injections, the recommendation is to monitor in clinic for two hours after the omalizumab injection; for subsequent injections, the monitoring period should be 30 minutes or an appropriate time agreed upon by the individual patient and healthcare professional. In the event that a patient does experience omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis, the paper provides recommendations for handling the situation in-clinic and recommendations on how to counsel patients to recognize the potential signs and symptoms in the community and react appropriately.

  8. Consideration of children with intellectual disability as candidates for solid organ transplantation-A practice in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Diekema, Douglas; Goldberg, Aviva

    2018-02-01

    Children with intellectual disability were historically excluded from consideration as recipients of solid organ transplants. In light of an evolution in provider practices, this commentary will define intellectual disability and review the relevant provider attitudes and guidelines and known outcomes of solid organ transplant in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. How strategic considerations influence decision making on e-HRM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, R.; Timmerman, V.; van den Heuvel, S.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies indicate that the added value of human resource management is strongest when HRM decisions are linked to the organizational strategy, practical knowledge about how strategic considerations influence decision-making processes relating to e-HRM is limited. Therefore, the

  10. Practical considerations in the design and operation of superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    During the past few years, considerable experience has been gained in the operation of prototype superconducting accelerators under beam line conditions. As a result of this experience, important aspects of structure design and important questions related to the long term operation of superconducting structures have been brought into sharper focus. For applications where low power loss and high duty factor, or exceptional beam quality and stable operation, are essential properties, and where modest energy gradients can be tolerated, superconducting structures are distinctly superior to conventional room temperature structures. (auth)

  11. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education

  12. Articles on Practical Cybernetics. Computer-Developed Computers; Heuristics and Modern Sciences; Linguistics and Practice; Cybernetics and Moral-Ethical Considerations; and Men and Machines at the Chessboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A. I.; And Others

    Five articles which were selected from a Russian language book on cybernetics and then translated are presented here. They deal with the topics of: computer-developed computers, heuristics and modern sciences, linguistics and practice, cybernetics and moral-ethical considerations, and computer chess programs. (Author/JY)

  13. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Considerations related to Cernavoda NPP lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Cernavoda NPP, the first CANDU in Europe, is one of the original CANDU 6 plants and the first CANDU 6 producing over 706 MWe. While the first series of CANDU 6 plants (which entered service in the early 1980 s) have now reached the 2/3 of their 30 years design life, the Cernavoda NPP was put into service on the 2nd December 1996. After 10 years of operation the Plant Life Management (PLiM) Program for Cernavoda should be an increasingly important program to Utility ('CNE - Prod') in order to protect the investment and the continued success of plant operation. The goal of the paper is to present some considerations related to Cernavoda NPP lifetime management. The Plant Life Management Program, known as PLiM Program is concerned with the analysis of technical limits of the safe operation - from the point of view of nuclear safety - in NPP units, aiming at attaining the planned 30 years life duration and its extension to 40 or even 50 years of safe and economical operation. For the CANDU reactors the so-called PLiM and PLEX Programs are just applied. These are applied research programs that approach with priority the current practices for assessing the capability of safe operation within the limits of nuclear safety (fitness-for-service assessment). These programs also approach inspection, monitoring are prevention of degrading due to the ageing of critical systems, structures and components (CSSCs). As each nuclear plant is somewhat different in its components and systems, materials composition, procurement, construction, and operational history, directed research and development programs into materials behavior, monitoring techniques, and methods to mitigate ageing are required to support the lifetime management. Over the past 6 years, INR Pitesti (Institute for Nuclear Research - Romania) has been working on R and D Programs to support a comprehensive and integrated Cernavoda NPP Life Management Program (PLiM) that will see the Cernavoda NPP successfully and

  15. Relational Coordination in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    . The dissertation present the research study and a collection of three research papers prepared during the period from May 2010 to June 2014. Relational coordination and organisational social capital are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance. Relational coordination analyse the communication...... and relationship networks through which work is coordinated across functional and organisational boundaries. Previous studies have shown that relational coordination is positively associated with delivery of care for patients with chronic illness. Organisational social capital is used when analysing...... the psychosocial work environment in organisations, and is seen as a powerful resources for improving organisational performance. Relational coordination and organisational social capital may oer new insight and opportunities for general practice to learn. General practice provides cost-efficient, first...

  16. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Dark, Frances; Humberstone, Verity; Jablensky, Assen; Killackey, Eóin; Kulkarni, Jayashri; McGorry, Patrick; Nielssen, Olav; Tran, Nga

    2016-05-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the clinical management of schizophrenia and related disorders for health professionals working in Australia and New Zealand. It aims to encourage all clinicians to adopt best practice principles. The recommendations represent the consensus of a group of Australian and New Zealand experts in the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. This guideline includes the management of ultra-high risk syndromes, first-episode psychoses and prolonged psychoses, including psychoses associated with substance use. It takes a holistic approach, addressing all aspects of the care of people with schizophrenia and related disorders, not only correct diagnosis and symptom relief but also optimal recovery of social function. The writing group planned the scope and individual members drafted sections according to their area of interest and expertise, with reference to existing systematic reviews and informal literature reviews undertaken for this guideline. In addition, experts in specific areas contributed to the relevant sections. All members of the writing group reviewed the entire document. The writing group also considered relevant international clinical practice guidelines. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated when the writing group judged that there was sufficient evidence on a topic. Where evidence was weak or lacking, consensus-based recommendations were formulated. Consensus-based recommendations are based on the consensus of a group of experts in the field and are informed by their agreement as a group, according to their collective clinical and research knowledge and experience. Key considerations were selected and reviewed by the writing group. To encourage wide community participation, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists invited review by its committees and members, an expert advisory committee and key stakeholders including professional bodies and special interest groups. The

  17. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  18. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards

  19. Practical aspects of telehealth: financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, P K; Sabesan, S; Allen, D; Caldwell, P; Mozer, R; Komesaroff, P A; Talman, P; Williams, M; Shaheen, N; Grabinski, O; Withnall, D

    2013-07-01

    The second in a series of articles about the practical aspects of telehealth, this paper includes information and a case history on the cost-benefits for patients and practitioners using telehealth. The case history demonstrates that telehealth can save travel time for patients, carers and specialists, and can reduce out-of-pocket expenses. The practical aspects of telehealth article series considers the contextual, clinical, technical and ethical components of online video consultations. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the ‘Facebook effect’ (the relative permanence of postings) and the ‘online disinhibition effect’. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations...

  1. Ethics and values in health care practice: philosophical, educational, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vilma de

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents philosophical, pedagogical and political considerations on Ethics and Values in Professional Health Care Practice. The current changes and crises in the world, intensified by economic turmoil, have affected social justice issues affecting health and education. to clarify nurses' role in the context of the art to take care of clients both as individuals and community; to urge nurses for attention to laws and codes/norms as established in the profession; and to suggest the application of basic laws of the Philosophy of Art to nursing care. The study presents critical analysis on ethics and values involved in nursing actions and may affect the art of learning-to-be and becoming an expert professional in nursing care. The author's epistemological position is presented to build competencies in the nursing as a health science.

  2. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  3. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  4. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Some practical considerations in finite element-based digital image correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Bo

    2015-04-20

    As an alternative to subset-based digital image correlation (DIC), finite element-based (FE-based) DIC method has gained increasing attention in the experimental mechanics community. However, the literature survey reveals that some important issues have not been well addressed in the published literatures. This work therefore aims to point out a few important considerations in the practical algorithm implementation of the FE-based DIC method, along with simple but effective solutions that can effectively tackle these issues. First, to better accommodate the possible intensity variations of the deformed images practically occurred in real experiments, a robust zero-mean normalized sum of squared difference criterion, instead of the commonly used sum of squared difference criterion, is introduced to quantify the similarity between reference and deformed elements in FE-based DIC. Second, to reduce the bias error induced by image noise and imperfect intensity interpolation, low-pass filtering of the speckle images with a 5×5 pixels Gaussian filter prior to correlation analysis, is presented. Third, to ensure the iterative calculation of FE-based DIC converges correctly and rapidly, an efficient subset-based DIC method, instead of simple integer-pixel displacement searching, is used to provide accurate initial guess of deformation for each calculation point. Also, the effects of various convergence criteria on the efficiency and accuracy of FE-based DIC are carefully examined, and a proper convergence criterion is recommended. The efficacy of these solutions is verified by numerical and real experiments. The results reveal that the improved FE-based DIC offers evident advantages over existing FE-based DIC method in terms of accuracy and efficiency. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  7. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  8. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  9. Practical considerations in the development of hemoglobin-based oxygen therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Estep, Timothy N

    2012-09-01

    The development of hemoglobin based oxygen therapeutics (HBOCs) requires consideration of a number of factors. While the enabling technology derives from fundamental research on protein biochemistry and biological interactions, translation of these research insights into usable medical therapeutics demands the application of considerable technical expertise and consideration and reconciliation of a myriad of manufacturing, medical, and regulatory requirements. The HBOC development challenge is further exacerbated by the extremely high intravenous doses required for many of the indications contemplated for these products, which in turn implies an extremely high level of purity is required. This communication discusses several of the important product configuration and developmental considerations that impact the translation of fundamental research discoveries on HBOCs into usable medical therapeutics.

  10. Practical and clinical considerations in Cobalt-60 tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt-60 (Co-60 based radiation therapy continues to play a significant role in not only developing countries, where access to radiation therapy is extremely limited, but also in industrialized countries. Howver, technology has to be developed to accommodate modern techniques, in-clud-ing image guided and adaptive radiation therapy (IGART. In this paper we describe some of the practical and clinical considerations for Co-60 based tomotherapy by comparing Co-60 and 6 MV linac-based tomotherapy plans for a head and neck (HandN cancer and a prostate cancer case. The tomotherapy IMRT plans were obtained by modeling a MIMiC binary multi-leaf collimator attached to a Theratron-780c Co-60 unit and a 6 MV linear accelerator (CL2100EX. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC code was used for the modeling of the treatment units with the MIMiC collimator and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc code was used for beamlet dose data. An in-house inverse treatment planning program was then used to generate optimized tomotherapy dose distributions for the H and N and prostate cases. The dose distributions, cumulative dose area histograms (DAHs and dose difference maps were used to evaluate and compare Co-60 and 6 MV based tomotherapy plans. A quantitative analysis of the dose distributions and dose-volume histograms shows that both Co-60 and 6 MV plans achieve the plan objectives for the targets (CTV and nodes and OARs (spinal cord in HandN case, and rectum in prostate case.

  11. Nonuniqueness of the two-temperature Saha equation and related considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, D.; Capitelli, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper contains considerations relative to the long debated thermodynamic derivation of two-temperature Saha equations. The main focus of our discourse is on the dependence of the multitemperature equilibrium conditions on the constraints imposed on the thermodynamic system. We also examine the following key issues related to that dependence: correspondence between constraints and equilibrium-equation forms that have appeared in the literature; presumed dominance of the free-electron translational temperature in the two-temperature expression of the equilibrium constant of the ionization reaction A A + +e - ; disagreement between the derivation methods based on, respectively, the extended second law of classical thermodynamics and axiomatic thermodynamics; and plausibility of the existence of entropic constraints

  12. Impunity for International Terrorists? Key Legal Questions and Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Paulussen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper discusses several of the key questions related to the subject of impunity of international terrorists, taking both a fundamental and a more practical approach within the context of international law. First, it reflects on a number of core definitional and theoretical questions which have been pushed into the background of day‐to‐day reality, by the actual fight against terrorism. For instance: what does the concept of impunity entail exactly and which kinds of standards could be used in measuring impunity? Is it clear what falls under the header of international terrorism and can it in fact be argued that international terrorists enjoy impunity? In practical terms, the paper explores a number of questions related to the actual prosecution of terrorism. What are the obstacles that national prosecutors face every day when prosecuting suspects of international terrorism? To what extent does a rule that prima facie seems ideal to fight terrorism (aut dedere aut judicare: either extradite or prosecute apply to terrorist offences? And what is the role of international criminal law – and the international criminal tribunals – in fighting terrorism? The Paper concludes with a series of recommendations.

  13. Green related practices for construction procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Z. A.; Bohari, A. A. M.; Rais, S. L. A.; Saferi, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Environment degradation issue has been a worldwide problem and various efforts have been done to minimise the problem. Construction sectors are pointed as one of the major contributors to its construction activities. Green-oriented procurement [GP] is considered as an environmental strategy to integrate the environmental practices into the construction delivery. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of GP and the practices related to it. The outcome of this research findings provides a basis for understanding the concept of GP and the further development of GP. The listed GP practices identified from this paper can serve as guidelines for industry practitioners to design, implement, and benchmarking the green practices in their procurement delivery.

  14. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Lived Relationality as Fulcrum for Pedagogical-Ethical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevi, Tone

    2011-01-01

    What is the core of pedagogical practice? Which qualities are primary to the student-teacher relationship? What is a suitable language for pedagogical practice? What might be the significance of an everyday presentational pedagogical act like for example the glance of a teacher? The pedagogical relation as lived relationality experientially…

  16. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  17. Practical considerations in radionuclide imaging of pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A certain proportion of the patients encountered in the practice of nuclear medicine will fall within the pediatric age group. The pediatric age range is usually defined as extending from birth to 18 years. Therefore, the specialist in nuclear medicine may have to deal with pediatric patients weighing as little as 800 g or as much as 300 lb. This encounter may be pleasant or unpleasant, depending upon the physician's knowledge of the techniques required for handling children and obtaining an adequate study and a basic understanding of specific pediatric disorders. Among the issues that must be considered are the equipment, which must be suitable for handling and obtaining optimal images of small children; the development of a basic understanding of the peculiarities of radiopharmaceutical distribution in children, which differs from that in adults; and, importantly, a knowledge of radiation dosimetry as it relates to the pediatric patient. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to present a comprehensive dissertation on the topic of pediatric nuclear medicine. The theme therefore is limited to the general principles and techniques required for nuclear medicine studies on pediatric patients. In addition, studies that exhibit unique characteristics when performed on children are highlighted in an effort to define that essence of pediatric nuclear medicine that differentiates it from the practice of nuclear medicine in adults

  18. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  19. Clinical social work practice and technology: personal, practical, regulatory, and ethical considerations for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombo, Eileen A; Kays, Lisa; Weller, Katelyn

    2014-10-01

    The world that social work exists in is no longer defined by traditional physical settings and boundaries, such as schools, agencies, or even offices. With the advent of the Internet and digital communications, social work now exists in a far more complex reality, with clients and social workers engaging across multiple platforms, and sometimes even unintentionally and without one another's awareness. The implications of this can be ethical, practical, regulatory, and personal. This article explores these areas of concern and suggests strategies professionals can use to navigate these complex issues related to technology and clinical practice.

  20. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  1. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  2. Reinscribing the Goddess into the Culturally Relative Minutiae of Tantric Texts and Practices: A Perennialist Response to Tantric Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lidke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A celebration and critical evaluation of Sthaneshwar Timalsina’s brilliant book, Tantric Visual Culture: A Cognitive Approach. In this groundbreaking work, Timalsina utilizes the lens of cognitive studies to shed interpretive light on the Tantric visualization practices that he knows both as a scholar and lifetime practitioner. Timalsina argues that mastery of Tantric practice requires immersion in the culturally relative metonymic and holographic logic framed by the Tantric ritual texts. The conclusion that arises from his analysis is that Tantric “truths” are bound to the linguistic and cultural systems that frame them. In response, I herewith offer a perennialist critique and argument for a more nuanced consideration of the transcendent “truth” or “being” that is the stated aim of Tantric practice.

  3. Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael J; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Despite published treatment recommendations and the availability of approved and off-label pharmacologic therapies for narcolepsy, the clinical management of this incurable, chronic neurologic disorder remains challenging. While treatment is generally symptomatically driven, decisions regarding which drug(s) to use need to take into account a variety of factors that may affect adherence, efficacy, and tolerability. Type 1 narcolepsy (predominantly excessive daytime sleepiness with cataplexy) or type 2 narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy) may drive treatment decisions, with consideration given either to a single drug that targets multiple symptoms or to multiple drugs that each treat a specific symptom. Other drug-related characteristics that affect drug choice are dosing regimens, tolerability, and potential drug-drug interactions. Additionally, the patient should be an active participant in treatment decisions, and the main symptomatic complaints, treatment goals, psychosocial setting, and use of lifestyle substances (ie, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and cannabis) need to be discussed with respect to treatment decisions. Although there is a lack of narcolepsy-specific instruments for monitoring therapeutic effects, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness (eg, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) can be used to provide guidance on whether treatment goals are being met. These considerations are discussed with the objective of providing clinically relevant recommendations for making treatment decisions that can enhance the effective management of patients with narcolepsy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report arises from the fifth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities'. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in three peer group discussions during 1996-1997. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the nominating organizations, nor the IAEA. In many Member States nuclear facilities such as power and research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities and various industrial and medical facilities have reached the end of their useful life or will reach it in the near future. These facilities need to be safely decommissioned without causing any undue radiological, chemical or other risks to workers, the public and the environment. Today, there is a growing consensus that decommissioning needs to be given consideration from the design phase of a new facility and that planning for decommissioning is to be carried out during the entire life of the nuclear facility. In most Member States, there is no comprehensive set of requirements, be it on a legal or technical level, available to plan, assess, approve and carry out decommissioning operations. Since most of the facilities to be decommissioned in the near future are demonstration or prototype facilities, case by case specific and prescriptive requirements will have to be developed. However, such case by case requirements need to be based on existing applicable regulations as well as on generally accepted principles. In order to assist Member States in ensuring safe decommissioning operations, the IAEA has convened the fifth series of peer discussions on 'Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities'. The results and findings of these discussions are summarized in this report, concentrating on recommendations and established good

  5. Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report arises from the fifth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities'. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in three peer group discussions during 1996-1997. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the nominating organizations, nor the IAEA. In many Member States nuclear facilities such as power and research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities and various industrial and medical facilities have reached the end of their useful life or will reach it in the near future. These facilities need to be safely decommissioned without causing any undue radiological, chemical or other risks to workers, the public and the environment. Today, there is a growing consensus that decommissioning needs to be given consideration from the design phase of a new facility and that planning for decommissioning is to be carried out during the entire life of the nuclear facility. In most Member States, there is no comprehensive set of requirements, be it on a legal or technical level, available to plan, assess, approve and carry out decommissioning operations. Since most of the facilities to be decommissioned in the near future are demonstration or prototype facilities, case by case specific and prescriptive requirements will have to be developed. However, such case by case requirements need to be based on existing applicable regulations as well as on generally accepted principles. In order to assist Member States in ensuring safe decommissioning operations, the IAEA has convened the fifth series of peer discussions on 'Approaches relating to decommissioning of nuclear facilities'. The results and findings of these discussions are summarized in this report, concentrating on recommendations and established good

  6. Disclosure of information and informed consent: ethical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2009-12-01

    Disclosure of information and informed consent are relatively new concepts in the patient-physician relationship. They are based primarily on the principle of autonomy and they have many favorable practical advantages. However, the practical implementation of these requirements is fraught with difficulties, some of which can cause harm to the patient or be obstacles in fulfilling the moral obligation of beneficence. This is particularly true when disclosure of information and informed consent are done by physicians in a defensive way for fear of malpractice suits. The most ethically defensible approach is to tailor and navigate the information according to the needs and desires of each individual patient in a sensitive and empathic manner. The informed consent should be a process of mutually shared responsibility by the patient and the physician, ensuring adequate and relevant information that is well comprehended by the individual patient, and is used correctly for his or her decision making.

  7. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P Distribution of optometry practices is relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  8. Ethical and clinical practice considerations for genetic counselors related to direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christopher H; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2006-11-15

    Several companies utilize direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for genetic tests and some, but not all, bypass clinician involvement by offering DTC purchase of the tests. This article examines how DTC marketing strategies may affect genetic counselors, using available cardiovascular disease susceptibility tests as an illustration. The interpretation of these tests is complex and includes consideration of clinical validity and utility, and the further complications of gene-environment interactions and pleiotropy. Although it is unclear to what extent genetic counselors will encounter clients who have been exposed to DTC marketing strategies, these strategies may influence genetic counseling interactions if they produce directed interest in specific tests and unrealistic expectations for the tests' capacity to predict disease. Often, a client's concern about risk for cardiovascular diseases is best addressed by established clinical tests and a family history assessment. Ethical dilemmas may arise for genetic counselors who consider whether to accept clients who request test interpretation or to order DTC-advertised tests that require a clinician's authorization. Genetic counselors' obligations to care for clients extend to interpreting DTC tests, although this obligation may be fulfilled by referral or consultation with specialists. Genetic counselors do not have an obligation to order DTC-advertised tests that have minimal clinical validity and utility at a client's request. This can be a justified restriction on autonomy based on consideration of risks to the client, the costs, and the implications for society. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  10. Practice-related examinations are feasible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrauth, Markus

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The 9th Revision of the German Federal Medical Training Regulations demands a practice-related assessment of medical students. On the way to these new regulations German faculties face as well problems related to a lack of experience of lecturers, tutors, examiners, and students with the required examination procedures as strains of a financial and logistic kind. How to succeed in introducing suitable examinations at short notice and which positive effects can be achieved is shown by the Faculty of Medicine of the university of Tübingen.

  11. Systems considerations in seismic margin evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermer, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increasing knowledge in the geoscience field has led to the understanding that, although highly unlikely, it is possible for a nuclear power plant to be subjected to earthquake ground motion greater than that for which the plant was designed. While it is recognized that there are conservatisms inherent in current design practices, interest has developed in evaluating the seismic risk of operating plants. Several plant-specific seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) have been completed to address questions related to the seismic risk of a plant. The results from such SPRAs are quite informative, but such studies may entail a considerable amount of expensive analysis of large portions of the plant. As an alternative to an SPRA, it may be more practical to select an earthquake level above the design basis for which plant survivability is to be demonstrated. The principal question to be addressed in a seismic margin evaluation is: At what ground motion levels does one have a high confidence that the probability of seismically induced core damage is sufficiently low? In a seismic margin evaluation, an earthquake level is selected (based on site-specific geoscience considerations) for which a stable, long-term safe shutdown condition is to be demonstrated. This prespecified earthquake level is commonly referred to as the seismic margin earthquake (SME). The Electric Power Research Institute is currently supporting a research project to develop procedures for use by the utilities to allow them to perform nuclear plant seismic margin evaluations. This paper describes the systems-related aspects of these procedures

  12. Telerehabilitation store and forward applications: a review of applications and privacy considerations in physical and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  13. Euthanasia and related practices worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E

    1998-01-01

    The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered.

  14. Patient autonomy in home care: Nurses' relational practices of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gaby

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, new healthcare policies are transforming healthcare practices towards independent living and self-care of older people and people with a chronic disease or disability within the community. For professional caregivers in home care, such as nurses, this requires a shift from a caring attitude towards the promotion of patient autonomy. To explore how nurses in home care deal with the transformation towards fostering patient autonomy and self-care. Research design and context: A case study was conducted in a professional development course ('learning circle') for home care nurses, including participant observations and focus groups. The theoretical notion of 'relational agency' and the moral concept of 'practices of responsibility' were used to conduct a narrative analysis on the nurses' stories about autonomy. Eight nurses, two coaches and two university lecturers who participated in the learning circle. Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought at the start of the course and again, at specific moments during the course of the learning circle. Three main themes were found that expressed the moral demands experienced and negotiated by the nurses: adapting to the person, activating patients' strengths and collaboration with patients and informal caregivers. On a policy and organisational level, the moral discourse on patient autonomy gets intertwined with the instrumental discourse on healthcare budget savings. This is manifested in the ambiguities the nurses face in fostering patient autonomy in their daily home care practice. To support nurses, critical thinking, moral sensitivity and trans-professional working should be part of their professional development. The turn towards autonomy in healthcare raises moral questions about responsibilities for care. Promoting patient autonomy should be a collaborative endeavour and deliberation of patients, professional and informal caregivers together.

  15. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  16. Americans with Disabilities Act considerations for the practice of occupational medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.clair, Steven; Shults, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), although developed in the context of civil rights legislation, is likely to have notable impact on the practice of occupational medicine. The ADA contains provisions limiting the use of preplacement examinations to determinations of the capability to perform the essential functions of the job and of direct threat to the health and safety of the job applicant and others. The Title 1 employment provisions of the ADA established definitions and requirements similar to those found in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; leading cases that have been litigated under the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, are described. The limitations of available scientific and medical information related to determinations of job capability and direct threat and ramifications of the ADA on the practice of occupational medicine are discussed.

  17. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  18. Ethical considerations when conducting joint interviews with close relatives or family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    simultaneously in the healthcare setting. AIM: To collect and share knowledge related to ethical considerations conducting joint interviews. DESIGN AND METHODS: A literature review inspired by the integrative review method was performed. Data were retrieved through a structured search in PubMed, CINAHL......; Conduction joint interviews and Reporting on joint interviews Findings: Participants should be offered the best terms for a constructive, on-going relationship after the joint interview has ended. This obligates the researcher to ensure a safe environment during the joint interview and create a delicate...

  19. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  20. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  1. The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2018-01-01

    Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...

  2. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the public...

  3. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  4. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  5. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  6. Emergency medicine and general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Emergency Medicine and Immediate Medical Care are relatively new specialties. In Malta, there is quite a considerable area of overlap between these specialties and general practice. Indeed, the family physician is confronted with some sort of medical emergency quite regularly. The brief of this article is to go through recent developments in Emergency Medicine as applied to General Practice. The areas considered are Basic Life Support, Head Injury, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Community Acquired Pneu...

  7. Landscape analysis: Theoretical considerations and practical needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.E.; Cleaves, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous systems of land classification have been proposed. Most have led directly to or have been driven by an author's philosophy of earth-forming processes. However, the practical need of classifying land for planning and management purposes requires that a system lead to predictions of the results of management activities. We propose a landscape classification system composed of 11 units, from realm (a continental mass) to feature (a splash impression). The classification concerns physical aspects rather than economic or social factors; and aims to merge land inventory with dynamic processes. Landscape units are organized using a hierarchical system so that information may be assembled and communicated at different levels of scale and abstraction. Our classification uses a geomorphic systems approach that emphasizes the geologic-geomorphic attributes of the units. Realm, major division, province, and section are formulated by subdividing large units into smaller ones. For the larger units we have followed Fenneman's delineations, which are well established in the North American literature. Areas and districts are aggregated into regions and regions into sections. Units smaller than areas have, in practice, been subdivided into zones and smaller units if required. We developed the theoretical framework embodied in this classification from practical applications aimed at land use planning and land management in Maryland (eastern Piedmont Province near Baltimore) and Utah (eastern Uinta Mountains). ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  9. Dental considerations in cardiovascular patients: A practical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Swantika; Jaiswal, Ritika; Sachdeva, Surender

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease trends, complications, and associated therapeutics impact the dental health and treatment. Such patients require special consideration with regard to when and which dental treatment is appropriate and what precautions are required. Alertness to potential oral adverse drug reactions enables referral of patient's to his physician or cardiologist. Cardiovascular drugs are also known to have mild to potentially fatal drug interactions. Dental professionals may be the first ...

  10. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  11. The theory–practice distinction and the complexity of practical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Miller-McLemore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, theologians have recognised the value of practice but have been optimistic about the ease with which practice is incorporated into theology. People use all sorts of adjectives to characterise the complex relationship – ‘integrally related’, a ‘deeper reciprocity’, ‘bound up in thickly intertwined ways’ – but connecting the two is not as easy as these words suggest. This article returns to the age-old question about the relationship between theory and practice. But it studies this question from the angle of practice. Although many scholars have analysed the distinction between theory and practice as it functions conceptually, few have examined challenges in relating the two as they emerge in practice. The article argues that there is an inevitable distinction between theory and practice that receives considerably less attention and needs more understanding and even respect. It also argues that the discipline of practical theology adds a distinctive angle on this discussion because it considers how the concepts function practically.

  12. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  13. Practical considerations in the calculation of orientation distribution functions from electron back-scattered diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Using model data sets for the Brass orientation, the importance of scatter width, angular accuracy and grain size and volume fraction on the sensitivity of the calculated Orientation Distribution Functions have been determined in order to highlight some of the practical considerations needed in the processing of experimental data from individual grain orientation measurements determined by the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique. It is suggested that the most appropriate scatter width can be calculated from the maximum function height versus scatter width curve in order to accommodate variations in texture sharpness. The sensitivity of the ODF to careful sample preparation, mounting and pattern analysis, in order to keep errors in angular accuracy to 1 or less is demonstrated, as is the imperative need to correct for the size of grains, and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  14. Student teacher anxieties related to practice teaching | Ngidi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interaction effects of student teachers' biographical variables (gender, age and grade placement) on practice-teaching related factors such as evaluation and an unsuccessful lesson. The findings are discussed and improvement on practice teaching suggested. (South African Journal of Education: 2003 23 (1): 18-22) ...

  15. 16 CFR 1012.1 - General policy considerations; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Policy, sets forth requirements for advance public notice, public attendance, and recordkeeping for... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy considerations; scope. 1012.1 Section 1012.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS...

  16. Ethical Tensions Related to Systemic Constraints: Occupational Alienation in Occupational Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Evelyne; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McCorquodale, Lisa; Phelan, Shanon

    2016-09-03

    Ethical tensions arise daily in health care practice and are frequently related to health care system structures or policies. Collective case study methodology was adopted to examine ethical tensions reported by occupational therapists practicing in different settings in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Inductive analysis involving multiple layers of coding was conducted. This article focuses on tensions related to systemic constraints. Participants reported ethical tensions related to balancing client priorities with those of health care services. Four themes related to systemic constraints were identified including imposed practices, ineffective processes, resource limitations, and lack of services. Therapists' aims could be seen to align with an "ethic of care" and were seen to be in tension in light of systemic constraints. The findings raise issues related to occupational justice, particularly related to occupational alienation in occupational therapy practice, and open conversations related to neoliberalist health care agendas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. A relational approach to health practices: towards transcending the agency-structure divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2014-02-01

    Many health scholars find that Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice leaves too little room for individual agency. We contend that, by virtue of its relational, field-theoretic underpinnings, the idea of leaving room for agency in Bourdieu's theory of practice is misguided. With agency manifested in interactions and social structures consisting of relations built upon relations, the stark distinction between agency and structure inherent to substantialist thinking is undermined, even dissolved, in a relational field-theoretic context. We also contend that, when treated as relationally bound phenomena, Bourdieu's notions of habitus, doxa, capital and field illuminate creative, adaptive and future-looking practices. We conclude by discussing difficulties inherent to implementing a relational theory of practice in health promotion and public health. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyko, Kacey

    2014-12-01

    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Nevi and lasers: Practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tova; Krakowski, Andrew C; Marino, Maria L; Rossi, Anthony; Anderson, Richard R; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2018-01-01

    Lasers are increasingly used for elective ablation of melanocytic nevi (MN). However, the associated risks of treating MN with lasers are debated and not well studied. Theoretical risks include inadvertently treating a melanoma mistaken for a nevus, the inability to remove all nevus cells and the possibility for residual cells to undergo malignant transformation, and the difficulty in clinically monitoring the remnant nevus for melanoma progression. Additional concerns include the morphological suitability of a lesion for laser removal and managing patients' expectations about the variable cosmetic outcomes. These potential issues have prompted us to outline some practical suggestions for clinicians and patients to consider when determining the suitability of a nevus for laser ablation. The choice to perform laser removal of a nevus is personal, both from the perspective of the treating physician and that of the person being treated. While acknowledging some uncertainty, we believe that these suggestions can help mitigate risk and improve patient outcomes. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:7-9, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Debra; Waddy-Smith, Bettie; Doyle, Jane

    2012-11-01

    There is a core body of knowledge, experience, and skills integral to facilitating auditory, speech, and spoken language development when working with the general population of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. There are additional issues, strategies, and challenges inherent in speech habilitation/rehabilitation practices essential to the population of deaf and hard of hearing students who also use sign language. This article will highlight philosophical and practical considerations related to practices used to facilitate spoken language development and associated literacy skills for children and adolescents who sign. It will discuss considerations for planning and implementing practices that acknowledge and utilize a student's abilities in sign language, and address how to link these skills to developing and using spoken language. Included will be considerations for children from early childhood through high school with a broad range of auditory access, language, and communication characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Statistical considerations in practical contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Gallaghar, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of smear survey practices which indicates that many radiation safety programs are lacking in important aspects of contamination monitoring. In order to satisfy regulatory and potential litigatory requirements, smear surveys should include the measurement and recording of the flowing data: area of each smear and smear procedure (by reference); total counts on smear and counting procedure; total counts on appropriate blanks and description of blank; total counts on standard and specifications of standard; and all counting times. The rationale for these smear survey requirements is obtained by examining the formulation of the minimum detectable amount (MDA) on a smear

  2. Deliberate interventions in the availability and circulation of practice elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    competences in relation to the heating system. Otherwise, the circulating ideas about comfort and the daily practices performed in the house remained unchanged. On the basis of these findings, we highlight how the considerations done by the urban government prior to the project and the negotiations undertaken...... of practices can help to inform policy makers in this regard, there is a need for more detailed insight into how such deliberate interventions are performed in practice and intersect with the availability and circulation of practice elements, among others. The aim of this paper is to explore the considerations...... area by setting up very strict requirements to the energy performance of the new buildings. Through qualitative interviews with the urban government, the building companies and the involved families, we have studied how this intervention hindered the circulation of certain practice elements, while...

  3. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna; Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus; Fischer, Thomas B.; Wachter, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  4. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus [Environment Agency Austria, Environmental Impact Assessment and Climate Change, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Fischer, Thomas B. [Environmental Assessment and Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom); Wachter, Thomas F. [Büro für Umweltplanung Dr. Wachter, Wiesnerring 2c, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  5. New theoretical and practical aspects regarding electrodynamic relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Florin; Cazacu, Emil

    2005-01-01

    The relativity theory of Einstein and Minkowski, based on the principle of inertial systems equivalence and Lorentz's kinematics transformation, was born from the necessity of agreement between the theory of moving mediums and experimental observations. Although Lorentz's transformation was found in pre- relativistic electrodynamics, later the electrodynamics phenomena (and not only) were explained by kinematics relations. Faraday's experiences that rendered manifest importance of the relative movement between the inductor and the induced system, is well known today from the theory and practice of electrical machines. The tensor symbolic intrinsic 'manifest covariant' expressions of the state and evolution equations for the electromagnetic field used by the physicists are elegant but non-intuitive and unfriendly for engineers. The quadritensors of electromagnetic fields contain six independent Cartesian components: two absolute, parallel to the relative translation velocity vector of the inertial reference system and four relative components perpendicular to the velocity vector. That is way it is possible and didactically useful the split of quadritensors and quadrivectors in bitensors and bivectors for simplifying the tensor equations expressed in an explicit matrix form, which is covariant and intuitive. The Lorentz's transformation of space - temporal derivative operators and thus the transformation of proper coordinate of reference system is obtained as a consequence (and not as a premise) of the electromagnetic field properties. For non-relativistic velocities the moving in a magnetic field creates an important electric field but the moving in an electric field leads to an unimportant practically insignificant magnetic field. That is way, the hypothesis that magnetic field density as an absolute value and the constitutive relation B = μ 0 H also the magnetic fields intensity remains absolute, is practically justified. From the Maxwell homogeneous equations a

  6. Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the methodological quality of age-related macular degeneration (AMD clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Methods. AMD CPGs published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO and Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCO were appraised by independent reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument, which comprises six domains (Scope and Purpose, Stakeholder Involvement, Rigor of Development, Clarity of Presentation, Applicability, and Editorial Independence, and an Overall Assessment score summarizing methodological quality across all domains. Results. Average domain scores ranged from 35% to 83% for the AAO CPG and from 17% to 83% for the RCO CPG. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the reliability of mean scores for the AAO and RCO CPGs were 0.74 and 0.88, respectively. The strongest domains were Scope and Purpose and Clarity of Presentation. The weakest were Stakeholder Involvement (AAO and Editorial Independence (RCO. Conclusions. Future AMD CPGs can be improved by involving all relevant stakeholders in guideline development, ensuring transparency of guideline development and review methodology, improving guideline applicability with respect to economic considerations, and addressing potential conflict of interests within the development group.

  7. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values

  8. Implant-assisted removable partial dentures: practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Aaron J; Latthe, Vaibhav; Marin, Mark M; Cagna, David R

    2016-01-01

    At the heart of prosthodontic treatment planning must be a sound understanding of the quality and reliability of the prosthodontic foundation. Implant prosthodontics relies almost entirely on the biological and mechanical properties of an osseous foundation. Initiation of therapy in the absence of a healthy and stable prosthodontic foundation risks unintended and suboptimal treatment outcomes. For conventional removable partial denture (RPD) therapy, consideration must be given to interactions between the soft and hard tissues available to support and stabilize planned prostheses. The strategic addition of implants to the partially edentulous foundation can improve the support, comfort, and esthetics of an RPD, resulting in elevated patient satisfaction and greater therapeutic success. This article discusses aspects of diagnosis, treatment planning, clinical management, laboratory execution, and maintenance that must be considered in order to obtain optimal results with implant-assisted RPDs.

  9. General practitioners' management of mental disorders: A rewarding practice with considerable obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Marie-Josée

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care improvement is the cornerstone of current reforms. Mental disorders (MDs are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide and widespread in industrialised countries. MDs are treated mainly in primary care by general practitioners (GPs, even though the latter ability to detect, diagnose, and treat patients with MDs is often considered unsatisfactory. This article examines GPs' management of MDs in an effort to acquire more information regarding means by which GPs deal with MD cases, impact of such cases on their practices, factors that enable or hinder MD management, and patient-management strategies. Methods This study employs a mixed-method approach with emphasis on qualitative investigation. Based on a previous survey of 398 GPs in Quebec, Canada, 60 GPs representing a variety of practice settings were selected for further study. A 10-minute-long questionnaire comprising 27 items was administered, and 70-minute-long interviews were conducted. Quantitative (SPSS and qualitative (NVivo analyses were performed. Results At least 20% of GP visits were MD-related. GPs were comfortable managing common MDs, but not serious MDs. GPs' based their treatment of MDs on pharmacotherapy, support therapy, and psycho-education. They used clinical intuition with few clinical tools, and closely followed their patients with MDs. Practice features (salary or hourly fees payment; psycho-social teams on-site; strong informal networks, and GPs' individual characteristics (continuing medical education; exposure and interest in MDs; traits like empathy favoured MD management. Collaboration with psychologists and psychiatrists was considered key to good MD management. Limited access to specialists, system fragmentation, and underdeveloped group practice and shared-care models were impediments. MD management was seen as burdensome because it required more time, flexibility, and emotional investment. Strategies exist to reduce the burden (one

  10. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  11. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  12. Advanced practice nurses: starting an independent practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, V A; Lambert, C E

    1996-01-01

    Independent or private practice is the delivery of nursing services provided by nurses over which nurses have full control. With a changing healthcare system, nurses are in a prime position to negotiate the delivery of appropriate, acceptable, and cost-effective health care as independent practitioners. This article addresses the mission and goals of independent practice, community need, business structure of the practice, housing the practice, legal considerations, financing the practice, marketing issues, clientele, record keeping, and reimbursement.

  13. On the Issue of Labor Relations Discontinuance by Staff Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of issues related to the procedure of labor law contract termination by staff reduction. The author, analyzing the judicial practice, gives practical recommendations on the procedure of employment relationships discontinuance

  14. Public Relations as "Practice": Applying the Theory of Alasdair MacIntyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Roy V.; Leeper, Kathie A.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how public relation's search for a unifying theory may be fulfilled through application of Alasdair MacIntyre's concept of a "practice," a very specific and value-laden concept. Explores what it would mean to be a public relations practice in MacIntyre's concept of the term and argues that such an approach to public relations…

  15. Disease-related knowledge, attitude and practices of tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. World Health ... hospitals were interviewed on their knowledge, attitude and practice related to TB using pre-tested ..... patients exercise care to limit the spread of. TB, only ...

  16. Practical considerations for a second-order directional hearing aid microphone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C.

    2003-04-01

    First-order directional microphone systems for hearing aids have been available for several years. Such a system uses two microphones and has a theoretical maximum free-field directivity index (DI) of 6.0 dB. A second-order microphone system using three microphones could provide a theoretical increase in free-field DI to 9.5 dB. These theoretical maximum DI values assume that the microphones have exactly matched sensitivities at all frequencies of interest. In practice, the individual microphones in the hearing aid always have slightly different sensitivities. For the small microphone separation necessary to fit in a hearing aid, these sensitivity matching errors degrade the directivity from the theoretical values, especially at low frequencies. This paper shows that, for first-order systems the directivity degradation due to sensitivity errors is relatively small. However, for second-order systems with practical microphone sensitivity matching specifications, the directivity degradation below 1 kHz is not tolerable. A hybrid order directive system is proposed that uses first-order processing at low frequencies and second-order directive processing at higher frequencies. This hybrid system is suggested as an alternative that could provide improved directivity index in the frequency regions that are important to speech intelligibility.

  17. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  18. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  19. Safety issues in established predisposal waste management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated at various stages in the nuclear fuel cycle vary considerably in relation to volume, physical and chemical properties, and radioactivity. The management of these wastes prior to disposal has to be adapted to these conditions, which calls for suitable characterization and minimization, collection, interim storage and conditioning of the wastes. Experience gained over decades shows that current predisposal waste management practices are well advanced. Whereas problems related to inadequate waste management practices in the past have been encountered at several sites and need ongoing remedial actions, modern practices have good safety records. Considerable development and improvement of waste management practices have been achieved and as a consequence of delays in implementing repositories in several countries they remain important tasks. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities also have to be taken into account. In most cases, these activities can be performed using existing technical means and practices. No significant safety concerns have been found for the long term storage of spent fuel and vitrified waste. Dry storage has reached technical maturity and appears to be attractive, especially for aged fuel. It has, however, to be stressed that long term storage is not the ultimate solution. Continued efforts to implement repositories are mandatory in order to maintain a credible and responsible strategy for waste management. (author)

  20. Practical considerations and effects of metallic screen fluorescence and backscatter control in gamma computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Steven

    2016-01-01

    It is a fairly common misconception that the role of metallic screens used with computed radiography is primarily that of scatter control, and that any amplification of the image signal is minimal. To the contrary, this paper shows how the physical interaction between gamma rays and front metallic screens can yield a significant boost in signal and whether that increased signal is, in fact, beneficial or detrimental to image quality. For rear metallic screens, this signal boost is differentiated from backscatter, and image quality considerations should be more carefully thought out because of the separation between the screen and the imaging layer provided by the imaging plate support. Various physical interactions are explained, and a series of practical experiments show the various changes in signal level and image quality with various thicknesses of lead and copper screens. Recommendations are made for the configuration of the imaging plate and screens for optimum image quality and for the control and monitoring of scatter.

  1. Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.

  2. Bridging Body and Mind: Considerations for Trauma-Informed Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lauren; Brems, Christiane; Ehlers, Karrie

    2018-02-08

    Individuals who suffer from trauma-related symptoms are a unique population that could benefit from the mind-body practice of yoga-or have their symptoms reactivated by it, depending on the type of yoga. Trauma-informed yoga (TIY), that is, yoga adapted to the unique needs of individuals working to overcome trauma, may ameliorate symptoms by creating a safe, tailored practice for students to learn how to respond, rather than react, to symptoms and circumstances. Yoga not thus adapted, on the other hand, may increase reactivity and activate symptoms such as hyperarousal or dissociation. This article reports on expert input about adapting yoga for individuals with trauma, with special considerations for military populations. Eleven experts, recruited based on literature review and referrals, were interviewed in person or via telephone and asked seven questions about trauma-informed yoga. Verbatim transcripts were subjected to open-coding thematic analysis and a priori themes. Findings revealed that TIY needs to emphasize beneficial practices (e.g., diaphragmatic breath and restorative postures), consider contraindications (e.g., avoiding sequences that overly engage the sympathetic nervous system), adapt to limitations and challenges for teaching in unconventional settings (e.g., prisons, VA hospitals), and provide specialized training and preparation (e.g., specialized TIY certifications, self-care of instructors/therapists, adaptions for student needs). TIY for veterans must additionally consider gender- and culture-related barriers, differing relationships to pain and injury, and medication as a barrier to practice.

  3. Practices Regarding Rape-related Pregnancy in U.S. Abortion Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Murphy, Molly; Rankin, Kristin M; Cowett, Allison; Harwood, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore current practices regarding screening for rape and response to disclosure of rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting. We performed a cross-sectional, nonprobability survey of U.S. abortion providers. Individuals were recruited in person and via emailed invitations to professional organization member lists. Questions in this web-based survey pertained to providers' practice setting, how they identify rape-related pregnancy, the availability of support services, and their experiences with law enforcement. Providers were asked their perceptions of barriers to care for women who report rape-related pregnancy. Surveys were completed by 279 providers (21% response rate). Most respondents were female (93.1%), and the majority were physicians in a clinical role (69.4%). One-half (49.8%) reported their practice screens for pregnancy resulting from rape, although fewer (34.8%) reported that screening is the method through which most patients with this history are identified. Most (80.6%) refer women with rape-related pregnancy to support services such as rape crisis centers. Relatively few (19.7%) have a specific protocol for care of women who report rape-related pregnancy. Clinics that screen were 79% more likely to have a protocol for care than centers that do not screen. Although the majority (67.4%) reported barriers to identification of women with rape-related pregnancy, fewer (33.3%) reported barriers to connecting them to support services. Practices for identifying and providing care to women with rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting are variable. Further research should address barriers to care provision, as well as identifying protocols for care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying practice-related factors for high-volume prescribers of antibiotics in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...

  5. Towards an ethics of authentic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Geneviève

    2008-10-01

    This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities.

  6. Dental considerations in cardiovascular patients: A practical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swantika Chaudhry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease trends, complications, and associated therapeutics impact the dental health and treatment. Such patients require special consideration with regard to when and which dental treatment is appropriate and what precautions are required. Alertness to potential oral adverse drug reactions enables referral of patient's to his physician or cardiologist. Cardiovascular drugs are also known to have mild to potentially fatal drug interactions. Dental professionals may be the first line of defense in the detection and referral of a patient suspected of having cardiovascular disease, an uncontrolled disease status, or oral adverse drug reactions, and they have a key role to play in oral and systemic disease prevention and treatment, in partnership with the patient and his physician.

  7. Practical considerations for integrating switch mode audio amplifiers and loudspeakers for a higher power efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    An integration of electrodynamic loudspeakers and switch mode amplifiers has earlier been proposed in [1]. The work presented in this paper is related to the practical aspects of integration of switch mode audio amplifiers and electro dynamic loudspeakers, using the speaker’s voice coil as output...

  8. Special considerations for electric submersible pump applications in underpressured reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of electric submersible pump performance tolerances and minor speed variations on the producing rate of wells completed in underpressured reservoirs, and presents ESP design considerations which are unique for this class of wells. These wells require considerable head to initiate flow and have relatively flat well-load curves. Pumps that operate near their maximum recommended rate have steep performance curves. it is shown that this minimizes the effect of an underperforming pump on producing rate. Equations are developed for calculating the effects of pump performance and speed. Application requires evaluating the slopes of the pump performance curve and well-load curve at design rate. Utility of these equations is demonstrated by practical examples. It is also demonstrated that flow-stall can easily occur in underpressured reservoir applications when pumps designed to operate near their minimum recommended rate are installed

  9. Practicing uneven age management: does it pay? Some economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Unevenage silvicultural practices can be used to regenerate and manage many eastern hardwood stands. Single-tree cutting methods are feasible in stands where a desirable shade tolerant commercial species can be regenerated following periodic harvests. A variety of partial harvest practices, including single-tree selection and diameterlimit cutting have been used for 30...

  10. Practices and Perceptions in School-Media Relations in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clair Everett

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived effectiveness of existing practices in school/media relations; to report on responsibility in school/media relations as perceived by superintendents of schools, the editors of daily newspapers, and television news directors; and to discover the perceived relative importance of each of 40…

  11. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H.; Clark, Malissa A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Nett, Randall J.; Moeller, Amanda N.; Stabler, Margaret E.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents’ main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians. PMID:29319445

  12. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H; Clark, Malissa A; Witte, Tracy K; Nett, Randall J; Moeller, Amanda N; Stabler, Margaret E

    2018-01-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents' main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.

  13. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical considerations for obtaining high quality quantitative computed tomography data of the skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Karen L; Edwards, W Brent

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative CT (QCT) analysis involves the calculation of specific parameters such as bone volume and density from CT image data, and can be a powerful tool for understanding bone quality and quantity. However, without careful attention to detail during all steps of the acquisition and analysis process, data can be of poor- to unusable-quality. Good quality QCT for research requires meticulous attention to detail and standardization of all aspects of data collection and analysis to a degree that is uncommon in a clinical setting. Here, we review the literature to summarize practical and technical considerations for obtaining high quality QCT data, and provide examples of how each recommendation affects calculated variables. We also provide an overview of the QCT analysis technique to illustrate additional opportunities to improve data reproducibility and reliability. Key recommendations include: standardizing the scanner and data acquisition settings, minimizing image artifacts, selecting an appropriate reconstruction algorithm, and maximizing repeatability and objectivity during QCT analysis. The goal of the recommendations is to reduce potential sources of error throughout the analysis, from scan acquisition to the interpretation of results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE CRIMINAL OFFENCE OF MONEY LAUNDERING – A SERIES OF THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin NEDELCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper at hand addresses the extremely complex and sensitive matter relating to one of the most controversial offences in the criminal laws of Romania – in particular, the criminal offence of money laundering. This paper bears both theoretical and practical interest, in that it points out specific instances of court case-law which were given different constructions by various judiciary authorities.

  16. Practical considerations in clinical strategy to support the development of injectable drug-device combination products for biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Easton, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    The development of an injectable drug-device combination (DDC) product for biologics is an intricate and evolving process that requires substantial investments of time and money. Consequently, the commercial dosage form(s) or presentation(s) are often not ready when pivotal trials commence, and it is common to have drug product changes (manufacturing process or presentation) during clinical development. A scientifically sound and robust bridging strategy is required in order to introduce these changes into the clinic safely. There is currently no single developmental paradigm, but a risk-based hierarchical approach has been well accepted. The rigor required of a bridging package depends on the level of risk associated with the changes. Clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparability or outcome studies are only required when important changes occur at a late stage. Moreover, an injectable DDC needs to be user-centric, and usability assessment in real-world clinical settings may be required to support the approval of a DDC. In this review, we discuss the common issues during the manufacturing process and presentation development of an injectable DDC and practical considerations in establishing a clinical strategy to address these issues, including key elements of clinical studies. We also analyze the current practice in the industry and review relevant and status of regulatory guidance in the DDC field.

  17. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  18. Residential hospice environments: evidence-based architectural and landscape design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The residential hospice care movement is increasingly accepted and supported globally, and yet, unfortunately, the amount of literature on best practices in the planning and design of residential hospice facilities and adjacent outdoor spaces remains relatively small. This paper reports on a compendium of architectural and landscape design considerations that reflect the fundamental dimensions of the residential hospice experience: site and context, arrival spaces, communal and private spaces of the residential milieu, transitional spaces, and nature connectivity. Additionally, key staffing and administrative ramifications of this built-environment compendium are addressed, as are prognostications and challenges for the future.

  19. Counterfactual comparison modulates fairness consideration in the mini-ultimatum game: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The practice of uvulectomy and related complications among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of uvulectomy and related complications among children aged below 6 years in Ilemela district, Mwanza, Tanzania. F Taylor. Abstract. Aim: The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of traditional uvulectomy, the age at which it is normally performed, the reasons as well as the associated complications.

  1. Evidence-based practice curriculum in allied health professions for teaching-research-practice nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V

    2012-11-01

    Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  2. School Principals' Opinions about Public Relations Practices on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoruk, Adil

    2018-01-01

    Schools are at the forefront of the institutions that need to be in close relations with the social environment. In this regard, practices of the public relations are prominent. This obligation is also responsibility of the school principals, as there are no public relations units in public schools. The purpose of this research is to reveal the…

  3. Practical considerations for solar energy thermally enhanced photo-luminescence (TEPL) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Nimrod; Manor, Assaf; Kurtulik, Matej; Sabapathy, Tamilarasan; Rotschild, Carmel

    2017-04-01

    While single-junction photovoltaics (PV's) are considered limited in conversion efficiency according to the Shockley-Queisser limit, concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics aim to harness lost heat and overcome this barrier. We claim the novel concept of Thermally Enhanced Photoluminescence (TEPL) as an easier route to achieve this goal. Here we present a practical TEPL device where a thermally insulated photo-luminescent (PL) absorber, acts as a mediator between a photovoltaic cell and the sun. This high temperature absorber emits blue-shifted PL at constant flux, then coupled to a high band gap PV cell. This scheme promotes PV conversion efficiencies, under ideal conditions, higher than 62% at temperatures lower than 1300K. Moreover, for a PV and absorber band-gaps of 1.45eV (GaAs PV's) and 1.1eV respectively, under practical conditions, solar concentration of 1000 suns, and moderate thermal insulation; the conversion efficiencies potentially exceed 46%. Some of these practical conditions belong to the realm of optical design; including high photon recycling (PR) and absorber external quantum efficiency (EQE). High EQE values, a product of the internal QE of the active PL materials and the extraction efficiency of each photon (determined by the absorber geometry and interfaces), have successfully been reached by experts in laser cooling technology. PR is the part of emitted low energy photons (in relation to the PV band-gap) that are reabsorbed and consequently reemitted with above band-gap energies. PV back-reflector reflectivity, also successfully achieved by those who design the cutting edge high efficiency PV cells, plays a major role here.

  4. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  5. Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegren, Nathan D; Kraus, Chadd K

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne illness in North America. Reported cases of LD have increased from approximately 10,000 cases annually in 1991 to >25,000 cases in 2014. Greater recognition, enhanced surveillance, and public education have contributed to the increased prevalence, as have geographic expansion and the number of infected ticks. Cases are reported primarily in the Northeastern United States, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, with children having the highest incidence of LD among all age groups. The increased incidence and prevalence of LD in the United States makes it increasingly more common for patients to present to the emergency department (ED) for tick bites and LD-related chief complaints, such as the characteristic erythema migrans skin manifestation. We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations. In this review, ED considerations for LD are presented and clinical presentations and management of the disease at different stages is discussed. Delayed sequelae that have significant morbidity, including Lyme carditis and Lyme neuroborreliosis, are discussed. Diagnostic tests and management are described in detail. The increasing prevalence and growing geographic reach of Lyme disease makes it critically important for emergency physicians to consider the diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of LD and to initiate appropriate treatment to minimize the potential of delayed sequelae. Special consideration should be made for the epidemiology of LD and a high clinical suspicion should be present for patients in endemic areas or with known exposures to ticks. Emergency physicians can play a critical role in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Planning-related motor processes underlie mental practice and imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Patric; Allami, Bassem Khalaf; Tucker, Mike; Ellis, Rob

    2014-06-01

    It is still controversial whether mental practice-the internal rehearsal of movements to improve later performance-relies on processes engaged during physical motor performance and, if so, which processes these are. We report data from 5 experiments, in which participants mentally practiced complex rhythms with either feet or hands while using the same or different body parts to respond to unrelated sounds. We found that responses were impaired for those body parts that were concurrently used in mental practice, suggesting a binding of body-part-specific motor processes to action plans. This result was found when participants mentally trained to memorize the rhythms, to merely improve their performance, when mental practice and execution directly followed one another and when separated by a different task. Finally, it was found irrespective of whether participants practiced on the basis of a symbolic rhythm description and when they practiced by watching somebody perform the rhythms (imitation learning). The effect was eliminated only when the requirement for mental practice was eliminated from the task while keeping visual stimulation identical. These data link mental practice not to execution but planning related motor processes and reveal that these planning processes underlie both mental practice and imitation learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Measuring energy metabolism in the mouse – theoretical, practical and analytical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Speakman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is one of the most important model organisms for understanding human genetic function and disease. This includes characterisation of the factors that influence energy expenditure and dysregulation of energy balance leading to obesity and its sequalae. Measuring energy metabolism in the mouse presents a challenge because the animals are small, and in this respect it presents similar challenges to measuring energy demands in many other species of small mammal. This paper considers some theoretical, practical and analytical considerations to be considered when measuring energy expenditure in mice. Theoretically total daily energy expenditure is comprised of several different components: basal or resting expenditure, physical activity, thermoregulation and the thermic effect of food. Energy expenditure in mice is normally measured using open flow indirect calorimetry apparatus. Two types of system are available – one of which involves a single small Spartan chamber linked to a single analyser, which is ideal for measuring the individual components of energy demand. The other type of system involves a large chamber which mimics the home cage environment and is generally configured with several chambers per analyser. These latter systems are ideal for measuring total daily energy expenditure but at present do not allow accurate decomposition of the total expenditure into its components. The greatest analytical challenge for mouse expenditure data is how to account for body size differences between individuals. This has been a matter of some discussion for at least 120 years. The statistically most appropriate approach is to use ANCOVA with individual aspects of body composition as independent predictors.

  8. Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve to evaluate energy policy: Some practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; McDonough, Ian K.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a widely applied empirical model that is used to assess the effect of country's increased income on its emissions (such as CO 2 ). Typical estimation is of a reduced form model relating per capita emissions to per capita GDP (and sometimes to energy consumption) with an eye toward determining whether a country's per capita emissions increase or decrease with per capita GDP. In this article, we consider a number of practical issues in estimating and using the EKC for energy policy analysis. Proper estimation procedures should be used if the empirical work is to provide valid estimates of the EKC's shape. In addition, policymakers should proceed with caution when crafting policy on the basis of reduced form estimates of the EKC because the reduced form model provides limited insight into the policy implications of the relationship between income, energy consumption and emissions. - Highlights: • Many practical issues need to be considered when estimating the EKC. • Concerns expressed by some about use of polynomial functions are misplaced. • Confidence bands on EKC turning points should be provided. • Differences in short and long-run elasticities are not indicative of EKC shape. • Reduced-form estimates should be interpreted cautiously by policymakers.

  9. Exceptions to the Stark law: practical considerations for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the applicable legislative exceptions to prohibitions under the Stark law, which governs common legitimate business relationships in surgical practice. Stark I and II prohibits all referrals (and claims) for the provision of designated health services for federal reimbursement if a physician or immediate family member has any financial relationship with the entity. Regardless of intent (unlike the antikickback statute), any financial relationship is illegal unless specifically excepted by statute. These exceptions are relevant to ownership, compensation arrangements, or both. The most important ones relevant to surgeons are as follows: physician service exception (services rendered in an intragroup referral); in-office ancillary services exception (office-based vascular laboratory); the whole hospital exception (ownership interest in a hospital or department); lease exception (conditions that must be met for a lease not to be considered illegal); bona fide employment exception (important to academic medical centers); personal services arrangement exception (vascular laboratory medical directorship); physician incentive plans exception (if volume or value of referrals are an issue); hospital-affiliated group practice exception (physician services billed by a hospital); recruitment arrangement exception (inducements by hospitals to relocate); items/services exception (transcription services purchased from a hospital); fair market value exception (covers services provided to health care entities); indirect compensation arrangements (dealings between a hospital and entity owned by physicians); and academic medical centers exception (new phase II rules broaden the definition of academic medical centers and ease the requirement that practice plans be tax-exempt organizations, among other changes. Although expert legal advice is required for navigation through the maze of Stark laws, it is incumbent on surgeons

  10. Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical Considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    the performance of a network where two sources communicate with each other via fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relays is studied and for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expressions for the outage probability (OP), moment generating function (MGF) and SER are derived. Relay location is also taken into consideration and it is shown that the performance can be improved by placing the relay closer to the source whose channel is more outdated. Some practical issues encountered in cognitive radio systems (CRS) are also investigated. The QoS of CRS can be improved through spatial diversity which can be achieved by either using multiple antennas or exploiting the independent channels of each user in a multi-user network. In this dissertation, both approaches are examined and in multi-antenna CRS, transmit antenna selection (TAS) is proposed where as in a multi-user CRS, user selection is proposed to achieve performance gains. TAS reduces the implementation cost and complexity and thus makes CRS more feasible. Additionally, unlike previous works, in accordance with real world systems, the transmitter is assumed to have limited peak transmit power. For both these schemes, considering practical channel models, closed-form expression for the OP performance, SER performance and ergodic capacity (EC) are obtained and the performance in the asymptotic regimes is also studied. Furthermore, the OP performance is also analyzed taking into account the interference from the primary network on the cognitive network.

  11. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  13. Practical considerations in clinical strategy to support the development of injectable drug-device combination products for biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of an injectable drug-device combination (DDC) product for biologics is an intricate and evolving process that requires substantial investments of time and money. Consequently, the commercial dosage form(s) or presentation(s) are often not ready when pivotal trials commence, and it is common to have drug product changes (manufacturing process or presentation) during clinical development. A scientifically sound and robust bridging strategy is required in order to introduce these changes into the clinic safely. There is currently no single developmental paradigm, but a risk-based hierarchical approach has been well accepted. The rigor required of a bridging package depends on the level of risk associated with the changes. Clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparability or outcome studies are only required when important changes occur at a late stage. Moreover, an injectable DDC needs to be user-centric, and usability assessment in real-world clinical settings may be required to support the approval of a DDC. In this review, we discuss the common issues during the manufacturing process and presentation development of an injectable DDC and practical considerations in establishing a clinical strategy to address these issues, including key elements of clinical studies. We also analyze the current practice in the industry and review relevant and status of regulatory guidance in the DDC field. PMID:29035675

  14. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  15. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  16. Finance considerations relating to power station construction from the viewpoint of a European banker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The energy industry in the European Community is outlined in brief in the first section. It includes a description of the structure and organization of the various companies operating power stations, featuring such keywords as centralized-decentralized and shareholding. The general considerations of the banking sector are then dealt with. From the banker's point of view, the risk factor of a loan depends on whether the load is to be used for the financing of a brand new power station based either on fossil fuels, nuclear power or alternative sources of energy or whether the load is to be used for modernization purposes. In this respect the credit rating of the borrower, including shareholders, profitability, capital investment volume in relation to company size, project risk and methods of furnishing security shall be discussed. Having dealt with these basic questions, the specific factors relating to financing for modernization purposes are examined. A distinction must be made between voluntary and mandatory modernization measures. The assessment of modernization required by law is generally based on whether the mandatory standards an be fulfilled by investing the least possible expenditure. On the other hand, the banker assesses voluntary modernization mainly in light of the resulting effects on the financial standing of the borrower. If satisfactory results are achieved from the examination of these points, the question of security must be considered when evaluating the residual exposure. All considerations culminate in the selection of the appropriate form of financing. In addition to the traditional bank loan and project financing, government support and special forms of financing are also discussed

  17. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  18. Implementation gap between the theory and practice of biodiversity offset multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Lloyd, Samuel P.; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    literature on multipliers. Then, we collate data on multipliers implemented in practice, rep- resenting the most complete such assessment to date. Finally, we explore remaining design gaps relating to social, ethical, and governance considerations. Multiplier values should theoretically be tens or hundreds...... when considering, for example, ecological uncertainties. We propose even larger multipliers required to satisfy previously ignored considerations – including prospect theory, taboo trades, and power relationships. Conversely, our data analyses show that multipliers are smaller in practice, regularly...... for the implementation gap we have identified. At the same time, there is a need to explore when and where the social, ethical, and governance requirements for NNL reviewed here can be met through approaches other than multipliers....

  19. Practical reason in a technical culture. 90 years of VGB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gethmann, Carl Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Speech on the occasion of the VGB Congress ''Power Plants 2010'' and the 90th anniversary of VGB. Considerations on the practical reason in a technical culture are ethical considerations. It must be realised that new technology has resulted in new types of conflicts: a tightened situation of acting in an environment of uncertainty, increased problems related to unequal distribution. In order to cope with these new problems, no new ethics is required but an ethical reflection on these problems. (orig.)

  20. Regional Competitiveness: Labor-Management Relations, Workplace Practices, and Workforce Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Kleinhenz; Russ Smith

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines regional competitiveness as it relates to regional labor-management relations. A survey of recent literature provides perspective and secondary evidence regarding labor-management relations, workplace practices, and workforce quality. It does not answer the question, “Are unions good or bad?” Rather, it investigates the themes of productivity, wage premium, job security, innovation, communication, and economic development—the larger picture to consider when evaluating the ...

  1. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) aremeasures of novel aspects of an organisation’s performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives.The aim of this studywas to analyse the associations between RC and OSC......, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC...... and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type...

  2. Technical note - Considerations for MR imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine clinical veterinary use of MR scanning is becoming more common. This article addresses the major technical considerations for radiographers performing MR examinations on small animals and provides practical advice for scanning techniques.

  3. Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Joep P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…

  4. Special Consideration in Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Kamenetsky, Stuart B.; Pongracic, Syb

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in the practice of granting special consideration for missed tests and late papers in colleges and universities. We analyzed a database of 4,183 special consideration requests at a large Canadian university between 1998 and 2008. Results show a growing rate of requests per enrolment between 2001 and 2007. Although…

  5. Tinnitus: considerations for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Gill

    2016-11-09

    Tinnitus is a common condition characterised by a subjective, and less commonly objective, noise sensation that is often described as ringing heard in one or both ears by the individual. The exact cause of tinnitus is not known, but it is related to physiological changes in the auditory system and is closely linked to psychological well-being. Tinnitus can have a significant effect on the lives of people who experience it on a continuous basis. Although there is no cure for tinnitus, various strategies are available to support individuals to manage the condition on a daily basis; these management strategies are discussed in this article.

  6. The consideration of ecological safety in judicial practice-also on the ecological safety legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhongmei

    2006-01-01

    Ecological safety has been one of the hot issues of environmental law in recent years.The maintenance of ecological safety has become one of the legislative principles,as exemplified by the revision of the Law of Sand Prevention and Sand.Management and the Law against Solid Waste Environmental Pollution,and the relevant rules that will be established.However actual cases will still happen,whether the legislators have made the statutory law or not.While scholars and legislators are debating,the judges have to handle cases and render judgments.Through the analysis of a case,this article will discuss the feasibility for judges to make ecological safety considerations in the judicial process by applying the principle of good faith and will also discuss the legislative issues related to ecological safety.

  7. Dynamic design matter[s] : Practical considerations for interactive architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaskiewicz, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of interactive architecture. The first section begins by formulating a daring vision of a radically new kind of architecture. In the second chapter this vision is further elaborated upon, by proposing a generic approach towards practically accomplishing the originally

  8. Student Teachers' Experiences of Relation Building in Teaching Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Laursen, Per Fibæk

    The study explores how 22 student teachers in a Danish college of education experience and interpret their own becoming a teacher and the implied attitudes to pupils. The student teachers attending mainstream teacher education and a course in mindful awareness and relational competencies have...... – to a larger extend than the mainstream educated student teachers - learned a reflexive attitude to their state of being in teaching practice and to their relational interaction with children in class....

  9. Ethical Considerations in College Admission Practices: A Proposal for Dialogic Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    Notes that current surge in promotional activities has called into question the social responsibility of colleges and universities. Focuses specifically on admission and promotional practices. Begins by reviewing the current practice, then goes on to discuss self-regulation, counseling, and the role of marketing in the college admission process.…

  10. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...... and combined the results with register data. We found that relational coordination was statistically significant associated with number of consultation per staff per year. We later divided consultations in to three types: Face-to-face, Email and phone consultations. We found a statistically significant...... associating between relational coordination and with number of face-to-face consultation per staff per year....

  11. Practical considerations in planning a cath-lab | Schulenburg | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a vascular laboratory depends on various factors like the geographic environment of the radiology practice, the need for interventional procedures, types of angiography procedures, the number of patients, building size, and lastly the budget available for equipment and running costs. Usually the suppliers of the ...

  12. Standard practice for determining relative image quality response of industrial radiographic imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E 1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a ¾-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response com...

  13. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  14. 24 CFR 100.110 - Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residential real estate-related transactions. 100.110 Section 100.110 Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.110 Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of the...

  15. Practical considerations in realizing a magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The magnetic centrifugal mass filter concept represents a variation on the plasma centrifuge, with applications that are particularly promising for high-throughput separation of ions with large mass differences. A number of considerations, however, constrain the parameter space in which this device operates best. The rotation speed, magnetic field intensity, and ion temperature are constrained by the ion confinement requirements. Collisions must also be large enough to eject ions, but small enough not to eject them too quickly. The existence of favorable regimes meeting these constraints is demonstrated by a single-particle orbit code. As an example of interest, it is shown that separation factors of about 2.3 are achievable in a single pass when separating Aluminum from Strontium ions.

  16. Quagmires for clinical psychology and executive coaching? Ethical considerations and practice challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Judith Ann

    2016-04-01

    As the coaching field burgeons, both the mental health and coaching professionals, and their respective professions, face a myriad of potential quagmires, especially if the unique challenges encountered are ignored. After a short introduction and presentation on ethics and morals related to executive coaching and clinical therapy, a discussion follows on the lengthy and intimate relationship between executive coaching and psychology. Next are definitions and comparisons and 6 areas that are potential quagmires. This includes roles, skill sets/core competencies, education/training, licensing/credentialing-certification, governing bodies and confidentiality, and fees/reimbursement. Each section includes a discussion and several questions to highlight potentially problematic areas, practice challenges, and/or ethical issues, followed with brief responses. This paper concludes with the inquiry, "Where do we go from here?" (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

    2005-01-01

    With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

  18. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  19. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  20. Practical considerations for image-based PSF and blobs reconstruction in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, Simon; Comtat, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Iterative reconstructions in positron emission tomography (PET) need a model relating the recorded data to the object/patient being imaged, called the system matrix (SM). The more realistic this model, the better the spatial resolution in the reconstructed images. However, a serious concern when using a SM that accurately models the resolution properties of the PET system is the undesirable edge artefact, visible through oscillations near sharp discontinuities in the reconstructed images. This artefact is a natural consequence of solving an ill-conditioned inverse problem, where the recorded data are band-limited. In this paper, we focus on practical aspects when considering image-based point-spread function (PSF) reconstructions. To remove the edge artefact, we propose to use a particular case of the method of sieves (Grenander 1981 Abstract Inference New York: Wiley), which simply consists in performing a standard PSF reconstruction, followed by a post-smoothing using the PSF as the convolution kernel. Using analytical simulations, we investigate the impact of different reconstruction and PSF modelling parameters on the edge artefact and its suppression, in the case of noise-free data and an exactly known PSF. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we assess the proposed method of sieves with respect to the choice of the geometric projector and the PSF model used in the reconstruction. When the PSF model is accurately known, we show that the proposed method of sieves succeeds in completely suppressing the edge artefact, though after a number of iterations higher than typically used in practice. When applying the method to realistic data (i.e. unknown true SM and noisy data), we show that the choice of the geometric projector and the PSF model does not impact the results in terms of noise and contrast recovery, as long as the PSF has a width close to the true PSF one. Equivalent results were obtained using either blobs or voxels in the same conditions (i.e. the blob

  1. Towards a Tectonic Sustainable Building Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    and environmental problems? The objective of the project is to analyse and develop the tectonic practice based on case studies, in relation to: • Cultural anchoring and identity creation • Building culture and creative processes • Sustainability, lifecycle and resource management The research project is divided...... into a main project and various subprojects, respectively, two levels that mutually feed each other.The main project, which constitutes the general level, seeks to identify a coherent strategy towards a new tectonically sustainable building culture.The subprojects look at partial issues and go into specific......Can a tectonic building practice be strengthened through new creation processes, where resources are used more purposefully, deliberately and systematically? Which new measures are necessary if we are to develop a strong tectonic building practice with due consideration for increasing climate...

  2. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  3. Diabetes-Related Knowledge and Preventative Practices Among Government Employees with Diabetes in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al-Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Kostantinos

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%). The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001) and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001). High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002), DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026) and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015). Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.

  4. Autonomy and autonomy competencies: a practical and relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kim

    2006-10-01

    This essay will address a general philosophical concern about autonomy, namely, that a conception of autonomy focused on freedom of the will alone is inadequate, once we consider the effects of oppressive forms of socialization on individuals' formation of choices. In response to this problem, I will present a brief overview of Diana Meyers's account of autonomy as relational and practical. On this view, autonomy consists in a set of socially acquired practical competencies in self-discovery, self-definition, self-knowledge, and self-direction. This account provides a distinction between choices that express unreflectively internalized social norms and those that are the result of a critical 'self-reading'. I conclude that this practical conception of autonomy makes much higher demands upon nurses (and patients) than has previously been thought. In fact, if nurses are to be expected to genuinely promote autonomy, they are going to need specific training in counselling-type communication skills.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  6. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Telecommuting: Occupational health considerations for employee health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M L

    2000-06-01

    1. Information technology has moved "work" out of a centralized location. Employees who telecommute pose significant challenges and considerations for the practice of occupational health nursing. 2. Employer and employee benefits associated with telecommuting are reportedly associated with high levels of job satisfaction. However, the occupational health and safety risks of this new work environment need to be fully assessed and understood. 3. The ergonomic controls to minimize the risk of repetitive motion injuries are the same for both office and home locations. Additional attention need to be paid to implementing risk controls for other physical hazards and psychosocial considerations, as well as personal safety and security issues. 4. The scope of occupational health nursing practice needs to remain dynamic, recognizing the impact new technologies have on the workplace, to continue to meet the needs of the changing workplace.

  8. A Relational Ecology of Photographic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Knight

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational history of media artifacts, which decentralizes the dominance of the photographer or filmmaker as the absolute author of the work. It adds an alternative account to understanding the creative process and the subsequent study of media forms by discussing film and photographic practices as the reciprocal affective relationship between the maker, their intentions, materials, technologies, non-human agents and the environment. By reorganizing the anthropocentrism of art historical narratives, which typically exclude corporeality and materiality as drivers of human history, we are able to discuss the complex dynamic meshwork of determinants that bring photographic artifacts into existence: the lived, animate, vital materialism at once emergent and mixing of different causalities and temporalities.

  9. Age-related practice effects across longitudinal neuropsychological assessments in older people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Link, Peter; Fish, Scott; Kraemer, Helena; Jeste, Dilip

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between aging and practice effects on longitudinal neuropsychological assessments was investigated in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Older people with schizophrenia (n = 107; M age = 56.1) and age-comparable nonpsychiatric controls (n = 107; M age = 57.7) were scheduled to receive annual assessments on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests for an average of 2.5 years (range 11 months to 4 years). Mixed-model analyses were used to separately examine the effects of practice and age on test performance. Number of prior assessments (practice) was associated with significant performance improvement across assessments, whereas older age was associated with significant decline in performance. The groups did not differ significantly in extent of age-related cognitive decline, but a three-way interaction among group, age, and practice was found, such that greater age-related decline in practice effects were found for older people with schizophrenia relative to nonpsychiatric participants. This study did not find any evidence of neurodegenerative age-related decline in neuropsychological abilities in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia, but older age was associated with diminished ability to benefit from repeated exposure to cognitive tasks in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia may combine with cognitive decline associated with normal aging to reduce practice effects in older patients. These findings have important implications for the design of studies examining the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive functioning across the life span of people with schizophrenia, as well as clinical trials that attempt to demonstrate cognitive enhancement in these individuals. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. SU-E-I-68: Practical Considerations On Implementation of the Image Gently Pediatric CT Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Adams, C; Lumby, C; Dillon, J; Woods, E; Richer, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One limitation associated with the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols is practical implementation of the recommended manual techniques. Inconsistency as a result of different practice is a possibility among technologist. An additional concern is the added risk of data error that would result in over or underexposure. The Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) features automatically reduce radiation for children. However, they do not work efficiently for the patients of very small size and relative large size. This study aims to implement the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols in the practical setting while maintaining the use of AEC features for pediatric patients of varying size. Methods: Anthropomorphological abdomen phantoms were scanned in a CT scanner using the Image Gently pediatric protocols, the AEC technique with a fixed adult baseline, and automatic protocols with various baselines. The baselines were adjusted corresponding to patient age, weight and posterioranterior thickness to match the Image Gently pediatric CT manual techniques. CTDIvol was recorded for each examination. Image noise was measured and recorded for image quality comparison. Clinical images were evaluated by pediatric radiologists. Results: By adjusting vendor default baselines used in the automatic techniques, radiation dose and image quality can match those of the Image Gently manual techniques. In practice, this can be achieved by dividing pediatric patients into three major groups for technologist reference: infant, small child, and large child. Further division can be done but will increase the number of CT protocols. For each group, AEC can efficiently adjust acquisition techniques for children. This implementation significantly overcomes the limitation of the Image Gently manual techniques. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness in clinical practice, Image Gently Pediatric CT protocols can be implemented in accordance with AEC techniques, with adjusted baselines, to

  11. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COST CALCULATION USING DIRECT COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aurora, Bunea-Bontaş

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the cost of production as applied to inventories refers to the acquisition and production cost, and its determination involves many considerations. This article emphasizes a comparative approach of the calculation of production cost under direct costing and absorption costing, and examines the impact of using these calculation systems on the financial performance of the companies presented in the income statement.

  12. The truth on journalism: relations between its practice and discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bertasso Ribeiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretically approach over the relations that journalism establishes with the concept of truth. The notion of truth in Foucault leads the debate. This reflection centers on how journalism builds discursive strategies that produces effects of truth on itsreports. The journalist discourse presents itselfas truthful, although its constructive discourse of the world is a result of rules, practices and values. The debate of “truth” allows us to comprehend the complexity and particularities of journalism as a discursive practice that has reflection in the social knowledge of reality.

  13. A model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses an ATD based (Chevallard, 2012) model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education. The notions of didactic transposition and praxeology are combined and concretized in order to form a comprehensive model for analysing the theory......-practice problematique. It is illustrated how the model can be used both as a descriptive tool to analyse interactions between and interviews with student teachers and teachers and as a normative tool to design and redesign learning environments in teacher education in this case a lesson study context....

  14. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-04-17

    Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  15. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Keith Shearer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  16. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws and diseases of chickens at slaughter: A pilot study in Kaduna state. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  17. [Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Franka; Pahlke, Stephanie; Diesing, Alice; Marin, Nina; Klasen, Fionna; Pawils, Silke; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2018-03-01

    Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders. Scientific knowledge and practical experiences regarding CPTSD, DESNOS and DTD in children and adolescents up to 18 years were examined by 1) a Systematic Review of 1,070 publications identified by database research and additional search strategies, and 2) a nationwide online survey of 374 psychotherapists and psychiatrists for children and adolescents in Germany. Of 13 included empirical studies (8 CPTSD or DESNOS, 5 DTD), 9 were conducted in the USA, 4 based on file coding and 3 on secondary data analysis and only 7 reported diagnosis rates (range: 0-78 %). Of the interviewed therapists, 100 % considered the CPTSD as being met with at least one patient with interpersonal traumata up to 18 years of age in 2014 and 99 % gave this estimate for the DTD. Two thirds of therapists rated the diagnostic option CPTSD and DTD as "very often" or "often" helpful for their therapeutic work with children and adolescents. While empirical data available is to be considered insufficient and characterized by methodological limitations, the relevance of complex trauma-related disorders is perceived as high by practitioners.

  18. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferi J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jalle Teferi,1 Zewdu Shewangizaw2 1Addis Ababa Health Bureau, Zewuditu Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. Keywords: Oromia, favorable attitude, safe practice, rural

  19. Manufacture of Third-Generation Lentivirus for Preclinical Use, with Process Development Considerations for Translation to Good Manufacturing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Carolina; Affleck, Valerie; Stoll, Elizabeth Ann

    2018-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are used in laboratories around the world for in vivo and ex vivo delivery of gene therapies, and increasingly clinical investigation as well as preclinical applications. The third-generation lentiviral vector system has many advantages, including high packaging capacity, stable gene expression in both dividing and post-mitotic cells, and low immunogenicity in the recipient organism. Yet, the manufacture of these vectors is challenging, especially at high titers required for direct use in vivo, and further challenges are presented by the process of translating preclinical gene therapies toward manufacture of products for clinical investigation. The goals of this paper are to report the protocol for manufacturing high-titer third-generation lentivirus for preclinical testing and to provide detailed information on considerations for translating preclinical viral vector manufacture toward scaled-up platforms and processes in order to make gene therapies under Good Manufacturing Practice that are suitable for clinical trials.

  20. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  1. Diabetes-Related Knowledge and Preventative Practices Among Government Employees with Diabetes in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J. Abdulsalam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. Results: A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%. The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001 and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001. High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002, DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026 and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015. Conclusion: Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.

  2. Technical considerations relative to removal of sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J S; Asquith, J G

    1975-07-01

    Reviewed in this paper are technical considerations which are of importance in choosing between an alcohol process and a moist nitrogen process for the removal of sodium from LMFBR components. Results observed in laboratory tests and in the cleaning of large scale components (e.g. a 28 MWt Modular Steam Generator Test Unit) are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  4. Blended learning as a solution to practice-related problems in vocational schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Duch, Henriette Skjærbæk; Mark, Lene

    Four different types of vocational schools have experimented with blended learning as a way of dealing with problems faced in their students’ theoretical and practical training and the interplay between these. A large part of this has involved the need for differentiated teaching...... as will be illustrated through selected cases. The foci of the cases are: •How can students be part of school-based teaching and learning during periods of practical training? •How can authentic practice be brought into school-based practical training? •How may blended learning assist and support students who...... are otherwise challenged in terms of meeting the prescribed competence goals? Methodologically, scenarios have been employed as a tool for defining the practice-related problems teachers meet in their practice and describing ways in which blended learning may present solutions. Subsequently, the solutions have...

  5. Practical considerations and patient selection for intrathecal drug delivery in the management of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulino M

    2014-11-01

    assessed in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 457 patients, and safety has been assessed in 1,254 patients overall, with severe chronic cancer, noncancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pain types. Both agents are highlighted as first-line intrathecal therapy for the management of neuropathic or nociceptive pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss practical considerations for intrathecal drug delivery, delineate criteria for the identification and selection of candidates for intrathecal drug delivery, and consider which agent may be more appropriate for individual patients. Keywords: review, patient selection, chronic pain, intrathecal, drug delivery

  6. Factors related to coping strategies during Japanese physical therapy students' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Daisuke; Echigo, Ayumi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify social skills and support that are related to the coping strategies Janpanese physical therapy students use during their clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Third-year students who were finished with their clinical practice participated. Self-administered questionnaires were used, including the daily life skill scale, social support scale, and tri-axial coping scale. Spearman's partial correlation coefficients were calculated between social skills, support of daily living, and coping strategies used during the clinical practice, while controlling for gender. [Results] A total of 56 completed questionnaires (median of age: 21 years; 27 males). Social skills during personal situations-knowledge summarization, self-esteem, and positive thinking-were significantly, positively correlated with planning and affirmative interpreting strategies to approach stressors regarding clinical practice, and negatively related to giving up strategies to avoid stressors. Intimacy, leadership, and empathy (social skills during interpersonal situations) were significantly, positively correlated with the following responses to approach stressors: catharsis, information gathering, and affirmative interpreting. Moreover, emotional/companionship social support was significantly, positively correlated with all avoidant coping strategies. [Conclusion] Japanese physical therapy students who had low personal and interpersonal social skills and excess emotional/companionship support in daily life tend to select avoidance, not approach, coping strategies during clinical practice.

  7. Education, practical training and professional development for public health practitioners: a scoping review of the literature and insights for sustainable food system capacity-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Fong, Debbie; Rocha, Cecilia

    2018-06-01

    Noting the upstream positioning of sustainable food systems (SFS) to multiple global crises, the present review described examples of emerging and promising practices to support SFS-oriented education, practical training (PT) and continuing professional development (CPD) among trainees and public health practitioners (PHP). A secondary objective was to compile the evidence into practical considerations for educators, supervising practitioners and professional associations. A scoping review of the literature published between 2007 and 2017 was conducted in May 2017 using four databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus and HSSA, along with bibliography hand-searching and expert consultation. Articles were screened for relevance and specificity by independent raters. Nineteen articles were included for analysis. Two-thirds of the articles related to dietitians and public health nutritionists. Emerging practices included curriculum-based considerations, incorporation of 'sustainability' within professional competencies and self-reflection related to SFS. Descriptions of SFS-related education, PT and CPD practices appeared largely in the literature from developed countries. Articles converged on the need for ecosystems, food systems and sustainability considerations within and across practice to support current and future practitioners. There is growing interest in SFS but guidance to support educators and preceptors is lacking. Updates to dietary guidelines to reflect issues of sustainability are a timely prompt to examine the education, training and development needs of trainees and PHP. Practical examples of emerging practices can empower PHP to promote SFS in all areas of practice. More research is needed to address identified gaps in the literature and to improve SFS-specific education, PT and CPD.

  8. Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Elizabeth A; Spiers, Jude

    2016-11-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions" found on pages 24-30, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until October 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Define the application of Swanson's Middle Range Theory of Caring in care aides' relational care practices for nursing home

  9. Development of AACAP practice parameters for gender nonconformity and gender discordance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart L

    2011-10-01

    The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is preparing a publication, Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender-Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents. This article discusses the development of the part of the parameter related to gender nonconformity and gender discordance and describes the practice parameter preparation process,rationale, key scientific evidence, and methodology. Also discussed are terminology considerations, related clinical issues and practice skills, and overall organization of information including influences on gender development, gender role behavior, gender nonconformity and gender discordance, and their relationship to the development of sexual orientation.

  10. Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior. This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting. Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured. Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.

  11. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  12. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided

  13. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  14. Combining the role of convenience and consideration set size in explaining fish consumption in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortveit, Asbjorn Warvik; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how convenience orientation, perceived product inconvenience and consideration set size are related to attitudes towards fish and fish consumption. The authors present a structural equation model (SEM) based on the integration of two previous studies. The results of a SEM analysis using Lisrel 8.72 on data from a Norwegian consumer survey (n=1630) suggest that convenience orientation and perceived product inconvenience have a negative effect on both consideration set size and consumption frequency. Attitude towards fish has the greatest impact on consumption frequency. The results also indicate that perceived product inconvenience is a key variable since it has a significant impact on attitude, and on consideration set size and consumption frequency. Further, the analyses confirm earlier findings suggesting that the effect of convenience orientation on consumption is partially mediated through perceived product inconvenience. The study also confirms earlier findings suggesting that the consideration set size affects consumption frequency. Practical implications drawn from this research are that the seafood industry would benefit from developing and positioning products that change beliefs about fish as an inconvenient product. Future research for other food categories should be done to enhance the external validity.

  15. Professional roles in physiotherapy practice: Educating for self-management, relational matching, and coaching for everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvang, Per Koren; Fougner, Marit

    2016-11-01

    The patient's active participation in treatment and rehabilitation represents a cultural change in clinical practice as well as a major change in physiotherapist and patient roles. This article presents findings from a study aimed at gaining a better understanding of how physiotherapists in actual practice understand their interactions with patients during the treatment process. This article reports on the findings from focus-group interviews with physiotherapists working in three different settings. Analyses of the interview data identified three modes of physiotherapy practice. In one, physiotherapists educate their patients to be self-managing in conducting exercise programs based on sound evidence. Educational films available on the Internet are included in these efforts to teach patients. In another, physiotherapists emphasize the importance of a close relationship to the patient. A good personal chemistry is believed to improve the treatment process. And finally, what physiotherapists learn about the living conditions and the biographies of their patients was shown to be very important. Understanding the importance of the life-world and taking this into consideration in the treatment process were factors considered to be central to good practice. The article concludes with a discussion linking these findings to those of other studies identifying those factors contributing to our knowledge of what is involved in biopsychosocial practice in physiotherapy.

  16. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Chapman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  17. Social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm for organisational psychology in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective for studying and practising organisational psychology in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The relevance of the paradigm perspective that is currently used in studying and practising organisational psychology in South Africa seems to be biased towards an individual perspective of human behaviour that is incongruent with the African context, which asks for an Afro-centric approach with the emphasis on human relationships. It was argued that social constructionism and relational practices could provide a relevant perspective that can help to transform workplace relationships in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study was based on a non-empirical, theoretical research design. Articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2013 using specific keywords relating to social constructionism and organisational psychology were retrieved. This was supplemented by other relevant electronic and hardcopy resources. The main findings are reported and discussed and recommendations made. Main findings: Although the literature on social constructionism and relational practices is limited in organisational psychology, it does provide an additional perspective, not only on the mainstream theory, but also as a practice in organisation development for transforming workplace relationships in the South African context. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational psychology should be cautious about the possibility of constructing a monologue at the expense of introducing new perspectives on behaviour in the workplace. Organisational

  18. Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group engaged in litter cleanup in Iran, and village grove restoration in South Korea. Our analysis suggests that in applying practice theory to the civic ecology context, consideration should be given to social and communication competencies, how meanings can motivate volunteers and sustain practice, and the nature of the resource that is being stewarded. Future studies may want to focus on how practice elements interact within and vary across practices and may be used to more systematically analyze and share ideas among diverse civic ecology practices.

  19. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  20. Recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of clients undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Jill B; Giuliano, Susan; Meehan, Caitlin; Sander, Beth; Wootten, Rachel; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Evidence points to the efficacy of physical and occupational therapy intervention for the management of impairments and functional limitations related to the treatment of breast cancer. However, few studies give voice to the women participating in the physical rehabilitation programs intended to ameliorate their deficits. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the experience of physical rehabilitation as well as to identify recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of the client undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments. A phenomenological design was chosen and included a purposive sample of women (n = 10) undergoing physical rehabilitation for impairments related to breast cancer treatment. Data included semistructured interviews and artifact examination. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted at a setting of the participants' choice. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Data analysis was cyclical and ongoing and involved all six researchers in analyzing and triangulating all pieces of data. Member checks and a peer review were conducted to confirm relevance and validity. Five themes emerged: 1) challenges with obtaining referrals, 2) challenges with patient education, 3) improvements in functional impairments, 4) emotional support, and 5) benefits of a specialized clinic environment. Consideration of the five themes led to four recommendations for physical and occupational therapist practice from the perspective of the client: 1) advocate for presurgical therapy consultations, 2) be competent in the management of all impairments and functional limitations associated with breast cancer treatment, 3) be aware of the emotional support the therapist has the capacity to provide or not provide, and 4) as much as possible, create an inviting, nonclinical environment.

  1. Some practical considerations in finite element-based digital image correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Bo; Pan, Bing; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    effectively tackle these issues. First, to better accommodate the possible intensity variations of the deformed images practically occurred in real experiments, a robust zero-mean normalized sum of squared difference criterion, instead of the commonly used sum

  2. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  3. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  4. Contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice: associations with musculoskeletal pain and injury-related absence among construction apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Dutra, Lauren M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-07-01

    This paper sought to assess organizational safety practices at three different levels of hierarchical workplace structure and to examine their association with injury outcomes among construction apprentices. Using a cross-sectional sample of 1,775 construction apprentices, three measures of organizational safety practice were assessed: contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice. Each safety practice measure was assessed using three similar questions (i.e., on-the-job safety commitment, following required or recommended safe work practices, and correcting unsafe work practices); the summed average of the responses ranged from 1 to 4, with a higher score indicating poorer safety practice. Outcome variables included the prevalence of four types of musculoskeletal pain (i.e., neck, shoulder, hand, and back pain) and injury-related absence. In adjusted analyses, contractor-safety practice was associated with both hand pain (OR: 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.04, 1.54) and back pain (OR: 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.17, 1.68); coworker-safety practice was related to back pain (OR: 1.42, 95 % CI: 1.18, 1.71) and injury-related absence (OR: 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.67). In an analysis that included all three safety practice measures simultaneously, the association between coworker-safety practice and injury-related absence remained significant (OR: 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.20, 2.37), whereas all other associations became non-significant. This study suggests that organizational safety practice, particularly coworker-safety practice, is associated with injury outcomes among construction apprentices.

  5. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  6. Transition to Office-based Obstetric and Gynecologic Procedures: Safety, Technical, and Financial Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Lisa M; Thomassee, May E; Williams, Valerie L; Young, Amy E

    2015-06-01

    Office-based surgery is increasingly desired by patients and providers due to ease of access, overall efficiency, reimbursement, and satisfaction. The adoption of office-based surgery requires careful consideration of safety, efficacy, cost, and feasibility within a providers practice. This article reviews the currently available data regarding patient and provider satisfaction as well as practical considerations of staffing, equipment, and supplies. To aid the practitioner, issues of office-based anesthesia and safety with references to currently available national guidelines and protocols are provided. Included is a brief review of billing, coding, and reimbursement. Technical procedural aspects with information and recommendations are summarized.

  7. Psychosocial Training in U.S. Internal Medicine and Family Practice Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufberg, Elizabeth H.; Joseph, Robert C.; Pels, Richard J.; Wyshak, Grace; Wieman, Dow; Nadelson, Carol C.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed directors of internal medicine (IM) and family practice (FP) residency programs regarding the format, content, and quantity of psychosocial training in their programs, their opinions on topics related to such training, and program demographics. Found considerable variation in content and time devoted to psychosocial training within and…

  8. Leadership in Nursing Homes: Directors of Nursing Aligning Practice With Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Elena O; Bettega, Kristen; Bakerjian, Debra; Sikma, Suzanne

    2018-06-01

    Nursing homes use team nursing, with minimal RN presence, leaving the majority of direct care to licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPNs/LVNs) and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), including medication aides. The current article describes challenges faced by nursing home directors of nursing (DONs) leading and managing a team nursing approach, including consideration of scope of practice, delegation and supervision regulations, and related policy implications. A secondary data analysis was performed of qualitative data from a study to develop and test DON guidelines for delegation in nursing home practice. A convenience sample (N = 29) of current or previous DONs and other nursing home leaders with knowledge and expertise in the DON role participated in in-depth, guided interviews. The findings highlight a core concern to nursing licensure policy and regulation: knowledge and practice gaps related to scope of practice and delegation and supervision among DONs, RNs, and LPNs/LVNs, as well as administrators, and the role of nursing leaders in supporting appropriate delegation practices. The findings offer directions for research and practice in addressing challenges in aligning team nursing practices with regulatory standards as well as the related gaps in knowledge among DONs, administrators, and nursing staff. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(6), 10-14.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. 75 FR 60616 - Commission Guidance Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards Related To Brokers and Dealers... Oversight Board in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to establish auditing... 60617

  10. Summarizing knowledge about ethical considerations when conducting Joint Interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    interviewing poses some specific ethical challenges although similarities to other qualitative research methods exist. The main difference occurs on behalf of the relationship. The potential creation of conflicts between participants should be given much consideration because of the possible negative impact...... the researcher not to jeopardize it doing joint interviews. Ethical considerations conducting joint interviews remain largely undescribed in the literature. Our purpose was to illuminate the literature regarding specific ethical challenges conducting joint interviews with interrelated people in order to avoid...... it has on interviewees’ ongoing health status. This obligates the researcher to balance delicately between the needs of the interviewees, before, under and after the joint interview....

  11. Considerations relating to different types of packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Cohendy, G.

    1976-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials has never given rise to a serious accident in France. This is due to the high quality of the provisions contained in the Regulations and to the conscientious manner in which the latter are applied. However, it would now seem appropriate to re-examine certain of these provisions in the light of a number of minor incidents which have occurred, or merely because problems have arisen which did not exist at the time of the last revision. This applies particularly to Type B packaging, intended for irradiated fuel shipments whose considerable bulk calls for a mock-up study. The transport of Type B packaging by sea may pose the problem of its resistance to fire on normal merchant ships, and similarly its behaviour under the effect of crushing should be examined in the context of air transport. Industrial-type packaging likewise presents problems, although these are basically of a psychological nature. This is particularly the case with consignments of uraniferous concentrates, uranium hexafluoride and plutonium-contaminated wastes. The accumulation (which sometimes reaches substantial numbers) of Type A packaging on a single vehicle may involve consequences which also call for study. (author)

  12. ALARP considerations in criticality safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, Russell L.; Barnes, Andrew; Thorne, Peter R.; Venner, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrating that the risk to the public and workers is As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) is a fundamental requirement of safety cases for nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom. This is embodied in the Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) published by the Regulator, the essence of which is incorporated within the safety assessment processes of the various nuclear site licensees. The concept of ALARP within criticality safety assessments has taken some time to establish in the United Kingdom. In principle, the licensee is obliged to search for a deterministic criticality safety solution, such as safe geometry vessels and passive control features, rather than placing reliance on active measurement devices and plant administrative controls. This paper presents a consideration of some ALARP issues in relation to the development of criticality safety cases. The paper utilises some idealised examples covering a range of issues facing the criticality safety assessor, including new plant design, operational plant and decommissioning activities. These examples are used to outline the elements of the criticality safety cases and present a discussion of ALARP in the context of criticality safety assessments. (author)

  13. Practical Considerations in Creating School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; Connell, James; Thier, Kimberly; Feinberg, Adam; Putnam, Robert

    2007-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic…

  14. NASA preferred reliability-practices for design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisk, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    NASA HQ established the NASA R&M Steering Committee (R&MSC) comprised of membership from each NASA field center. The primary charter of the R&MSC is to obtain, record, and share the best design practices that NASA has applied to successful space flight programs and current design considerations (guidelines) that should enhance flight reliability on emerging programs. The practices and guidelines are being assembled in a living document for distribution to NASA centers and the aerospace community. The document will be updated annually with additional practices and guidelines as contributions from the centers are reviewed and approved by the R&MSC. Practices and guidelines are not requirements, but rather a means of sharing procedures and techniques that a given center and the R&MSC together feel have strong technical merit and application to the design of space-related equipment.

  15. Headaches of otolaryngological interest: current status while awaiting revision of classification. Practical considerations and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farri, A; Enrico, A; Farri, F

    2012-04-01

    In 1988, diagnostic criteria for headaches were drawn up by the International Headache Society (IHS) and is divided into headaches, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. The 2(nd) edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) was produced in 2004, and still provides a dynamic and useful instrument for clinical practice. We have examined the current IHC, which comprises 14 groups. The first four cover primary headaches, with "benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood" being the forms of migraine of interest to otolaryngologists; groups 5 to 12 classify "secondary headaches"; group 11 is formed of "headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cranial structures"; group 13, consisting of "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain" is also of relevance to otolaryngology. Neither the current classification system nor the original one has a satisfactory collocation for migraineassociated vertigo. Another critical point of the classification concerns cranio-facial pain syndromes such as Sluder's neuralgia, previously included in the 1988 classification among cluster headaches, and now included in the section on "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain", even though Sluder's neuralgia has not been adequately validated. As we have highlighted in our studies, there are considerable similarities between Sluder's syndrome and cluster headaches. The main features distinguishing the two are the trend to cluster over time, found only in cluster headaches, and the distribution of pain, with greater nasal manifestations in the case of Sluder's syndrome. We believe that it is better and clearer, particularly on the basis of our clinical experience and published studies, to include this nosological entity, which is clearly distinct from an otolaryngological point of view, as a variant of cluster headache. We agree with experts in the field of headaches, such as

  16. Starting a business as a nurse consultant: practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, E M

    2000-03-01

    Nursing experience translates well to self employment in the occupational and environmental health field. However, nurses must conduct a self assessment to determine whether owning a business is a good fit for their personality and work style. Exploring which services to offer is the next step in starting a business and consists of determining not only which service to offer (e.g., writing policies or protocols, providing clinical services) but also which type of consultation model to use (i.e., purchase of expertise, doctor/client, process consultation). Every business must have a plan. A business plan is essential to starting a business. It solidifies the entrepreneur's focus, lays the foundation for the business, provides a tool for evaluating success, and is a strong tool for soliciting financial support. The name of the business is an important consideration because it is often the first contact the customers have with the occupational health nurse consultant. The name must be descriptive, appropriate, and memorable.

  17. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia; Hutchesson, Melinda; Patterson, Amanda; Chalmers, Kerry; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-16

    Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted.

  18. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  20. Practical consideration of nuclear fuel spiking for proliferation deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.; Angelini, P.; Rainey, R.H.; Federer, J.I.; Olsen, A.R.

    1978-10-01

    The use of a gamma active radionuclide with nuclear fuel has been proposed as a way to inhibit unauthorized diversion of the fuel and thus provide proliferation deterrence. The purpose of this report is to examine some of the practical aspects of incorporating spikants into nuclear fuel in an attempt to identify any adverse consequences of their use. Selection of potential spikants was made by the application of some somewhat arbitrary radiation criteria to 64 candidate spikants followed by an analysis of the chemical and physical state of each potential spikant. As a result of this analysis the list of candidates was narrowed to 60 Co, 106 Ru, and 144 Ce. Following this, we investigated the practical aspects of the use of these three spikants in nuclear fuel. Among the subjects considered are: dose rates available from fuel elements, fission product buildup, chemical behavior of spikants during reproecssing, and possible effects of spikants on refabrication and on the fuel properties. No single radionuclide was found to be preferred in all stages of reprocessing and refabriaction. In order to provide deterrence in all stages of reprocessing and refabrication, a duplex spiking process appears necessary, in which two different spikants, 106 Ru and 60 Co, are used in different portions of reprocessing. The use of nominal amounts of ruthenium or cobalt as spikants is not expected to adversely affect fuel performance

  1. Play therapy: considerations and applications for the practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Ritesh; Lawver, Timothy

    2010-10-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize-the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases.

  2. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPICE...

  3. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  4. Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

  5. Assessment: Examining Practice in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Luke; Edwards, Corina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues…

  6. Practice environment and its association with professional competence and work-related factors: perception of newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Ruoppa, Eija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Hupli, Maija; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    To explore newly graduated nurses' (NGN) perception of their practice environment and its association with their self-assessed competence, turnover intentions and job satisfaction as work-related factors. The impact of practice environment on nurses' work is important. Positive practice environments are associated with positive organisational, nurse and patient outcomes. How this applies to NGNs needs further exploration. A cross-sectional descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected with PES-NWI and NCS instruments from 318 Finnish registered nurses, and analysed statistically. Newly graduated nurses' perception of their practice environment was mainly positive. Most positive perceptions related to collegial nurse-physician relations, and the least positive to staffing and resource adequacy. Positive perceptions were also associated with higher professional competence, higher perceptions of quality of care and lower intentions to leave the job or profession. The findings revealed strong and significant associations between practice environment and work-related factors. Practice environment is an important element in supporting NGNs' competence, retention and job satisfaction. Nursing management should pay attention to NGNs' perceptions of their practice environment. Management's ability to create and maintain positive practice environments can foster NGNs' professional development and job satisfaction, and consequently retain them in the workforce. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  8. Exploring relations among mindfulness facets and various meditation practices: Do they work in different ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Campos, Daniel; Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Tomás, Jose Manuel; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Soler, Joaquim; García-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa María

    2017-03-01

    Several meditation practices are associated with mindfulness-based interventions but little is known about their specific effects on the development of different mindfulness facets. This study aimed to assess the relations among different practice variables, types of meditation, and mindfulness facets. The final sample was composed of 185 participants who completed an on-line survey, including information on the frequency and duration of each meditation practice, lifetime practice, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural model was specified, estimated, and tested. Results showed that the Model's overall fit was adequate: χ 2 (1045)=1542.800 (p<0.001), CFI=0.902, RMSEA=0.042. Results revealed that mindfulness facets were uniquely related to the different variables and types of meditation. Our findings showed the importance of specific practices in promoting mindfulness, compared to compassion and informal practices, and they pointed out which one fits each mindfulness facet better. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teachers' Beliefs, Perceived Practice and Actual Classroom Practice in Relation to Traditional (Teacher-Centered) and Constructivist (Learner-Centered) Teaching (Note 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakamoglu, Sibel Ersel

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the EFL teachers' beliefs, perceived practice and actual classroom practice in relation to Traditional (teacher-centered) and Constructivist (learner-centered) teaching in Cyprus Turkish State Secondary Schools context. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews and structured observations were employed with purposively…

  10. Acceleration of cardiovascular MRI using parallel imaging: basic principles, practical considerations, clinical applications and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, T.; Sodickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CVMR) imaging has proven to be of clinical value for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMR requires rapid imaging; however, the speed of conventional MRI is fundamentally limited due to its sequential approach to image acquisition, in which data points are collected one after the other in the presence of sequentially-applied magnetic field gradients and radiofrequency coils to acquire multiple data points simultaneously, and thereby to increase imaging speed and efficiency beyond the limits of purely gradient-based approaches. The resulting improvements in imaging speed can be used in various ways, including shortening long examinations, improving spatial resolution and anatomic coverage, improving temporal resolution, enhancing image quality, overcoming physiological constraints, detecting and correcting for physiologic motion, and streamlining work flow. Examples of these strategies will be provided in this review, after some of the fundamentals of parallel imaging methods now in use for cardiovascular MRI are outlined. The emphasis will rest upon basic principles and clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular MRI applications. In addition, practical aspects such as signal-to-noise ratio considerations, tailored parallel imaging protocols and potential artifacts will be discussed, and current trends and future directions will be explored. (orig.)

  11. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  12. 49 CFR 190.323 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 190.323 Section 190.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... SAFETY PROGRAMS AND RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 190.323 Consideration of...

  13. EFSA Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87 Revision 1 (FGE.87Rev1): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 17 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 63rd meeting in 2004. This revision of FGE.87 is made due to consideration of two additional...

  14. Bioanalytical method transfer considerations of chromatographic-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, Clark V

    2016-07-01

    Bioanalysis is an important part of the modern drug development process. The business practice of outsourcing and transferring bioanalytical methods from laboratory to laboratory has increasingly become a crucial strategy for successful and efficient delivery of therapies to the market. This chapter discusses important considerations when transferring various types of chromatographic-based assays in today's pharmaceutical research and development environment.

  15. What Is the Molecular Signature of Mind–Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buric

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind–body interventions (MBIs in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health. We searched PubMed throughout September 2016 to look for studies that have used gene expression analysis in MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong, relaxation response, and breath regulation. Due to the limited quantity of studies, we included both clinical and non-clinical samples with any type of research design. Eighteen relevant studies were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.

  16. What Is the Molecular Signature of Mind-Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, Ivana; Farias, Miguel; Jong, Jonathan; Mee, Christopher; Brazil, Inti A

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health. We searched PubMed throughout September 2016 to look for studies that have used gene expression analysis in MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong, relaxation response, and breath regulation). Due to the limited quantity of studies, we included both clinical and non-clinical samples with any type of research design. Eighteen relevant studies were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.

  17. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.

  18. A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D Dwayne

    2002-06-01

    Systematic evaluations of efforts to transfer research-based interventions and procedures into general practice at community drug treatment programs have been limited. However, practical experiences as well as results from studies of technology transfer and organizational behavior in related fields provide a basis for proposing a heuristic model of key factors that influence this process. The successful completion of four stages of activity typically involved in program change (exposure, adoption, implementation, and practice of new interventions) appears to be influenced by several organizational considerations (e.g., institutional readiness for change, resources, and climate) as well as staff attributes. Assessment instruments for measuring organizational functioning (based on ratings aggregated for staff and patients in a program) are introduced, along with preliminary evidence for their validity. A better conceptual understanding of the process of program change and common barriers that may be encountered is needed for effectively transferring research to practice.

  19. North America Wound, Ostomy, and Continence and Enterostomal Therapy Nurses Current Ostomy Care Practice Related to Peristomal Skin Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janice C; McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. Descriptive study. Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were identified, but some variability in management approaches emerged.

  20. Safe practices and financial considerations in using oral chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sylvia B

    2007-05-01

    Safe handling practices and financial concerns associated with oral chemotherapy in non-traditional settings are discussed. Oral chemotherapy may pose a risk to patients because of a narrow therapeutic index, complex dosing regimen, dispensing by community pharmacists without prescription order review by an oncology pharmacist or nurse, or self-administration in the home or another nontraditional setting, where patient monitoring is infrequent. Errors in prescribing, dispensing, and administration and patient or caregiver misunderstandings are potential problems with the use of oral chemotherapy that need to be addressed when developing safe practices. Changes in Medicare pharmaceutical reimbursement rates and rules need to be monitored because they have the potential to affect patient care and outcomes. Patient assistance programs and advocacy groups can help alleviate financial concerns associated with oral chemotherapy. Consensus guidelines specific to safe handling of oral chemotherapy in the home or other nontraditional setting need to be developed. Also, healthcare providers must understand reimbursement and provide direction to patients when patient assistance programs or advocacy groups can assist with the financial challenges of oral chemotherapy.

  1. 49 CFR 389.23 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 389.23 Section 389.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.23 Consideration...

  2. 49 CFR 1110.5 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... PROCEEDINGS § 1110.5 Consideration of comments received. All timely comments will be considered before final...

  3. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  4. Justification and radiology: Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology. (authors)

  5. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  6. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  7. Relating UMLS semantic types and task-based ontology to computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Ciccarese, Paolo; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario; Caffi, Ezio; Boiocchi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Medical knowledge in clinical practice guideline (GL) texts is the source of task-based computer-interpretable clinical guideline models (CIGMs). We have used Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types (STs) to understand the percentage of GL text which belongs to a particular ST. We also use UMLS semantic network together with the CIGM-specific ontology to derive a semantic meaning behind the GL text. In order to achieve this objective, we took nine GL texts from the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and marked up the text dealing with a particular ST. The STs we took into consideration were restricted taking into account the requirements of a task-based CIGM. We used DARPA Agent Markup Language and Ontology Inference Layer (DAML + OIL) to create the UMLS and CIGM specific semantic network. For the latter, as a bench test, we used the 1999 WHO-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. We took into consideration the UMLS STs closest to the clinical tasks. The percentage of the GL text dealing with the ST "Health Care Activity" and subtypes "Laboratory Procedure", "Diagnostic Procedure" and "Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure" were measured. The parts of text belonging to other STs or comments were separated. A mapping of terms belonging to other STs was done to the STs under "HCA" for representation in DAML + OIL. As a result, we found that the three STs under "HCA" were the predominant STs present in the GL text. In cases where the terms of related STs existed, they were mapped into one of the three STs. The DAML + OIL representation was able to describe the hierarchy in task-based CIGMs. To conclude, we understood that the three STs could be used to represent the semantic network of the task-bases CIGMs. We identified some mapping operators which could be used for the mapping of other STs into these.

  8. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...

  9. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  10. Sri Lankan English O Level: Lever for Change. Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Ethel; Webber, Richard

    A discussion of the new Sri Lankan General Certificate of Education (GCE) O-Level standardized test of English focuses on how new ideas in testing have been implemented in the test and on their effect on classroom practice and the quality of English instruction. The discussion begins with a brief outline of the history and context in which the new…

  11. Selection of best entrepreneurship practices in relation to the emerging 3D internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Flåten, Bjørn-Tore

    This report focuses on entrepreneurship in relation to the 3D internet in general (aka virtual worlds, virtual environments, etc.) and the selection of best practices specifically. In preparing this report, we focused primarily on the Nordic countries and the USA and on empirically-based research...... articles. We faced three major challenges when going through the scientific research literature: 1) the lack of and fragmentation of knowledge due to the relative infancy of the 3D internet field and its interdisciplinary nature across many research fields, 2) the fluid definitions of terms regarding the 3...... of entrepreneurship in relation to the emergence of virtual worlds / 3D internet, 3) the definitions and review of literature on entrepreneurship, 4) selection of best entrepreneurial practices, and 5) discussion and preliminary conclusions....

  12. Knowledge and practices related to reproductive health amongst adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.

  13. Pharmacy students' preference for using mobile devices in a clinical setting for practice-related tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Craig A H; Hastings, Justine F; Bryant, Jennifer E

    2015-03-25

    To examine pharmacy students' ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students.

  14. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  15. The Pedagogical Practices of Québec High School Teachers Relative to Sexual Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which teachers describe their pedagogical and intervention practices relative to sexual diversity in Québec (Canada). Three variables closely associated with teachers who report inclusive practices emerge: experiential training (based on the experience of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual [LGB] teacher), contact…

  16. 'I try to make a net around each patient': home care nursing as relational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Kristin

    2018-03-01

    As a result of restructuring, home care is increasingly defined in a narrow, task-based way, undermining the holistic nature of practice. Recent practice theories can aid us in articulating the nature of this important, yet often invisible practice. My aim in this article was to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the nature of home care nursing practice. The approach was ethnographic, involving extensive fieldwork and formal interviews with members of five home care nursing teams and 15 older persons receiving care at home in a metropolitan area of Iceland. The study was approved by the National Bioethics Committee. As a net of services, home care was enacted through relational, but often invisible care practices, relating different actors - patient, family and health-care and social-care workers - in doing the work needed for the older persons to live comfortably at home. The work was collective in that it was shared by different actors and motivated by a common understanding that had developed and was preserved in conversations in the teams. Although the findings are limited in that they only reflect home care as practiced in one neighbourhood, they can be seen as providing important insights into what is needed for home care services to work. Home care practice can be understood as relational, aimed at creating a net of needed assistance. This work is a collective accomplishment of the teams and shaped by ideals and values shared among team members. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. The Value of Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  18. Initial Freudian theories and practices: considerations on discovery of the unconscious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Polimeni Maireno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares some theoretical postulates and some clinical practices of early moments of Freudian works, favoring production periods of Studies on Hysteria and the Interpretation of Dreams. Other works are cited in order to complement. The study highlights the role of concepts such as repression, resistance and transference before the emergence of the concept of the unconscious – without which all previous lose much of their senses; suggests that, rather than a Freud’s willful disposition in the formulation of concept of the unconscious, what we see is, instead, his reluctance to admit such a concept, which justifies its late appearance compared to the others. We conclude, finally, that such reluctance itself, conveys a valuable model to psychoanalysts about how theoretical and practical developments of psychoanalysis must happens.

  19. Design control considerations for biologic-device combination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dave; Liu, Roger; Anand Subramony, J; Cammack, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products. As innovative as biologic-device combination products are, they can pose considerable development, regulatory, and commercialization challenges due to unique physicochemical properties and special clinical considerations (e.g., dosing volumes, frequency, co-medications, etc.) of the biologic medicine. A biologic-device combination product is a marriage between two partners with "cultural differences," so to speak. There are clear differences in the development, review, and commercialization processes of the biologic and the device. When these two cultures come together in a combination product, developers and reviewers must find ways to address the design controls and risk management processes of both the biologic and device, and knit them into a single entity with supporting product approval documentation. Moreover, digital medicine and connected health trends are pushing the boundaries of combination product development and regulations even further. Despite an admirable cooperation between industry and FDA in recent years, unique product configurations and design features have resulted in review challenges. These challenges have prompted agency reviewers to modernize consultation processes, while at the same time, promoting

  20. Theory and practice of corrosion related to ashes and deposits in a WtE boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; De Greef, Johan; Van Caneghem, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of heat-exchanging components is one of the main operational problems in Waste-to-Energy plants, limiting the electrical efficiency that can be reached. Corrosion is mainly related to the devolatilization and/or formation of chlorides, sulphates and mixtures thereof on the heat-exchanging surfaces. Theoretical considerations on this corrosion were already put forward in literature, but this paper now for the first time combines theory with a large scale sampling campaign of several Waste-to-Energy plants. Based on the outcome of elemental and mineralogical analysis, the distribution of Cl and S in ashes sampled throughout the plant during normal operation is explained. Cl concentrations are high (15-20%) in the first empty pass, decrease in the second and third empty pass, but increase again in the convective part, whereas the S concentrations show an inverse behavior, with the highest concentrations (30%) observed in the second and third empty pass. Sampling of deposits on specific places where corrosion possibly occurred, gives a better insight in the mechanisms related to corrosion phenomena in real-scale WtE plants and provides practical evidence for some phenomena that were only assumed on the basis of theory or lab scale experiments before. More specific, it confirms the role of oxygen content, temperatures in the different stages of the boiler, the presence of polysulphates, Pb and Zb, and the concentrations of HCl and SO 2 in the flue gas for different types of boiler corrosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  2. Mechanisms of Practice-Related Reductions of Dual-Task Interference with Simple Tasks: Data and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Torsten, Schubert

    2017-01-01

    In dual-task situations, interference between two simultaneous tasks impairs performance. With practice, however, this impairment can be reduced. To identify mechanisms leading to a practice-related improvement in sensorimotor dual tasks, the present review applied the following general hypothesis: Sources that impair dual-task performance at the beginning of practice are associated with mechanisms for the reduction of dual-task impairment at the end of practice. The following types of processes provide sources for the occurrence of this impairment: (a) capacity-limited processes within the component tasks, such as response-selection or motor response stages, and (b) cognitive control processes independent of these tasks and thus operating outside of component-task performance. Dual-task practice studies show that, under very specific conditions, capacity-limited processes within the component tasks are automatized with practice, reducing the interference between two simultaneous tasks. Further, there is evidence that response-selection stages are shortened with practice. Thus, capacity limitations at these stages are sources for dual-task costs at the beginning of practice and are overcome with practice. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the existence of practice-related mechanisms associated with capacity-limited motor-response stages. Further, during practice, there is an acquisition of executive control skills for an improved allocation of limited attention resources to two tasks as well as some evidence supporting the assumption of improved task coordination. These latter mechanisms are associated with sources of dual-task interference operating outside of component task performance at the beginning of practice and also contribute to the reduction of dual-task interference at its end. PMID:28439319

  3. Good Practice Standards – a Regulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the considerations weighed in regulation with good practice standards. In this article, potential due process problems with regulation via legal standards are identified and compared to other considerations, which this regulation technique meets....

  4. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Yadeta; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Bedru, Abdo; Davey, Gail

    2011-06-01

    Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. A cross-sectional study was conducted among ART attendees from February to March, 2009. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. SPSS software was used to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Six hundred and one ART attendees who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was included in the study and interviewed. More than one-third (36.9%) had a history of risky sexual practices in the three months prior to the study. The major reasons given for not using condoms were: partner's dislike of them, both partners being positive for HIV and the desire to have a child. Factors associated with risky sexual practices included: lack of discussion about condom use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.14, 12.63); lack of self-efficacy in using condoms (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.23); lack of sexual pleasure when using a condom (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.76); and multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.57). Being with a negative sero-status partner (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.80), or partners of unknown sero-status (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.39) were associated with less risky practice. A considerable proportion (36.9%) of respondents engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, potentially resulting in re-infection by a new virus strain, other sexually transmitted infections and onward transmission of the HIV virus. Health education and counseling which focuses on the identified factors has to be provided. The health education and counseling can be

  5. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedru Abdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among ART attendees from February to March, 2009. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. SPSS software was used to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Six hundred and one ART attendees who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was included in the study and interviewed. More than one-third (36.9% had a history of risky sexual practices in the three months prior to the study. The major reasons given for not using condoms were: partner's dislike of them, both partners being positive for HIV and the desire to have a child. Factors associated with risky sexual practices included: lack of discussion about condom use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.14, 12.63; lack of self-efficacy in using condoms (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.23; lack of sexual pleasure when using a condom (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.76; and multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.57. Being with a negative sero-status partner (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.80, or partners of unknown sero-status (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.39 were associated with less risky practice. Conclusions A considerable proportion (36.9% of respondents engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, potentially resulting in re-infection by a new virus strain, other sexually transmitted infections and onward transmission of the HIV virus. Health education and counseling which focuses on the identified factors has to

  6. Factors for and against establishing and working in private practice correlated with work-related behavior and experience patterns of Ferman physicians in Schleswig-Holstein: A 2-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Voltmer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify factors in favor of or against establishing and working in private practice, to determine the quality of life and work-related behavior and experience patterns of German physicians working in private practice, and to analyze the correlation of those factors. Material and Methods: A representative sample of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was surveyed according to a 2-year longitudinal design (T1 – 2008, N = 549 and T2 – 2010, N = 414. The study included 22 items regarding the attractiveness of establishing and working in private practice, and the questionnaires: the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12, and Work-related Behavior and Experience Pattern (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster – AVEM. Results: Job satisfaction among those private practitioners decreased over time but their willingness to choose the profession once again remained unchanged. Patient care and the continuity of physician-patient relationship encouraged establishing and working in private practice; state regulation, financial risk, and administrative effort weighed against it. At both T1 and T2, physicians scored significantly lower for mental health than general population. About 20% of physicians showed a healthy behavior and experience pattern but 40% of them showed the pattern of reduced working motivation. About 20% of participants were at elevated risk for overexertion and for burnout. Physical and mental health as well as the total distribution of patterns did not change significantly during the 2-year observation period. Physicians at higher burnout risk rated tasks related to patient care considerably less positively than those with healthy pattern. Conclusions: In order to improve job satisfaction and quality of life, and to make private practice more attractive, those German physicians require a improved legislation, b educational programs that promote the attractiveness of private practice

  7. Pharmacy Students’ Preference for Using Mobile Devices in a Clinical Setting for Practice-Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine F.; Bryant, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students’ ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Methods. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Results. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Conclusion. Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students. PMID:25861103

  8. Some practical and theoretical considerations of personal alpha-particle dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigu, J [Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Elliot Lake, ON (Canada). Elliot Lake Lab.; Duport, P [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1990-12-31

    The status of personal {alpha}-particle dosimetry in the uranium industry is presented. A brief description of personal dosimeters and prototypes is followed by some theoretical considerations regarding their practical use under steady-state and time-dependent field conditions. It is suggested that, at present, more effort should be placed on the evaluation of dosimeters than in the development of new ones. Also, more information should be gathered from countries which use personal {alpha}-particle dosimeters routinely. Furthermore, emphasis is recommended on comparison of personal dosimetry data with experimental data by area monitoring, using continuous monitoring systems, as well as with data by grab-sampling techniques. (author). 44 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Some practical and theoretical considerations of personal alpha-particle dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1989-01-01

    The status of personal α-particle dosimetry in the uranium industry is presented. A brief description of personal dosimeters and prototypes is followed by some theoretical considerations regarding their practical use under steady-state and time-dependent field conditions. It is suggested that, at present, more effort should be placed on the evaluation of dosimeters than in the development of new ones. Also, more information should be gathered from countries which use personal α-particle dosimeters routinely. Furthermore, emphasis is recommended on comparison of personal dosimetry data with experimental data by area monitoring, using continuous monitoring systems, as well as with data by grab-sampling techniques. (author). 44 refs., 1 tab

  10. Spirituality and medical practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandarajah, G; Hight, E

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between spirituality and medicine has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. Studies suggest that many patients believe spirituality plays an important role in their lives, that there is a positive correlation between a patient's spirituality or religious commitment and health outcomes, and that patients would like physicians to consider these factors in their medical care. A spiritual assessment as part of a medical encounter is a practical first step in incorporating consideration of a patient's spirituality into medical practice. The HOPE questions provide a formal tool that may be used in this process. The HOPE concepts for discussion are as follows: H--sources of hope, strength, comfort, meaning, peace, love and connection; O--the role of organized religion for the patient; P--personal spirituality and practices; E--effects on medical care and end-of-life decisions.

  11. Apprehensions of nurse managers on evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Camargo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the apprehensions of nurse managers in the implementation of the Evidence Based Practice in a Teaching Hospital of Triângulo Mineiro. Method: Qualitative research guided by the Theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. Five workshops were conducted per focal group (n = 18 participants, conducted by hermeneutic-dialectic interactions between August and September/2016. Textual records resulting from each workshop were analyzed by semantic categories. Results: Aspects conditioning to the implementation of the Evidence Based Practice permeate from elements related to the fragmentation of the care network to the necessary expansion of the governability of the nurse managers to put changes into practice in their sectors. Most importantly, timely access to the results of research conducted at the teaching hospital was mentioned as crucial to guide better practices. Final considerations: The approach allowed the recognition of contextual conditions for the implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice, which may coincide with similar scenarios, as well as increase the national scientific production on the subject, which is still scarce.

  12. Simple and multiple linear regression: sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James A

    2016-11-01

    The suggested "two subjects per variable" (2SPV) rule of thumb in the Austin and Steyerberg article is a chance to bring out some long-established and quite intuitive sample size considerations for both simple and multiple linear regression. This article distinguishes two of the major uses of regression models that imply very different sample size considerations, neither served well by the 2SPV rule. The first is etiological research, which contrasts mean Y levels at differing "exposure" (X) values and thus tends to focus on a single regression coefficient, possibly adjusted for confounders. The second research genre guides clinical practice. It addresses Y levels for individuals with different covariate patterns or "profiles." It focuses on the profile-specific (mean) Y levels themselves, estimating them via linear compounds of regression coefficients and covariates. By drawing on long-established closed-form variance formulae that lie beneath the standard errors in multiple regression, and by rearranging them for heuristic purposes, one arrives at quite intuitive sample size considerations for both research genres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical Considerations for Optic Nerve Estimation in Telemedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The projected increase in diabetes in the United States and worldwide has created a need for broad-based, inexpensive screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR), an eye disease which can lead to vision impairment. A telemedicine network with retina cameras and automated quality control, physiological feature location, and lesion / anomaly detection is a low-cost way of achieving broad-based screening. In this work we report on the effect of quality estimation on an optic nerve (ON) detection method with a confidence metric. We report on an improvement of the fusion technique using a data set from an ophthalmologists practice then show the results of the method as a function of image quality on a set of images from an on-line telemedicine network collected in Spring 2009 and another broad-based screening program. We show that the fusion method, combined with quality estimation processing, can improve detection performance and also provide a method for utilizing a physician-in-the-loop for images that may exceed the capabilities of automated processing.

  14. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  15. Guarding against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs): Practical evidence from China's local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shukui; Wang, Siliang

    2017-04-01

    China is faced with serious challenges brought by large-scale social protests in the period of rapid urbanization and profound social transition. In rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China's local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive three-dimensional theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed data and/or cases, break various local practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce the probabilities of conflicts through regulating land expropriation behavior and safeguarding economic interests and participation rights of affected peasants, and the specific local practices which point to the innovative local government behaviors with heterogeneity, in general, the tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments' paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.

  16. Children's Literacy Interest and Its Relation to Parents' Literacy-Promoting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Laura E.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how children's literacy interests related to parent literacy-promoting practices across time. Using a sample of 909 preschool-age children and the newly developed Child Activities Preference Checklist, literacy interest appeared to be a complex construct, not easily captured by a single measure. In a subsample of 230 children…

  17. Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation on practice-related changes in fast finger movements in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Rocco; Iezzi, Ennio; Dinapoli, Loredana; Suppa, Antonio; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the primary motor cortex on practice-related changes in motor performance. Seventeen healthy subjects underwent two experimental sessions, one testing real iTBS and the other testing sham iTBS. Before and after both iTBS sessions, the subjects practiced fast right index-finger abductions for a few minutes. As measures of cortical excitability we calculated resting motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude. As measures of practice-related changes we evaluated the mean movement amplitude, peak velocity and peak acceleration values for each block. When subjects practiced the movement task, the three variables measuring practice-related changes improved to a similar extent during real and sham iTBS whereas cortical excitability increased only during real iTBS. In a further group of five healthy subjects we investigated the effect of real and sham iTBS on changes in motor performance after a longer task practice and found no significant changes in motor performance and retention after real and sham iTBS. From our results overall we conclude that in healthy subjects iTBS applied to the primary motor cortex leaves practice-related changes in an index finger abduction task unaffected. We suggest that iTBS delivered over the primary motor cortex is insufficient to alter motor performance because early motor learning probably engages a wide cortical and subcortical network.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxing; Lin, Ruifang; Li, Huifang; Su, Meng; Zhang, Wenyi; Deng, Xia; Zhang, Ping; Zou, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Background . The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods . Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results . A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54) had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5%) expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level ( p = 0.006) and attitudes ( p = 0.001) influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients' understanding of preoperative therapy.

  19. Towards a Pragmatic Theory of Creative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Simpson, Barbara

    specifically on the works of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead, who developed these general Pragmatist principles in ways that directly inform practice.  Dewey concentrated particularly on relational dynamics, emphasising the continuous transactions between subjects and worlds in the situated construction...... of meanings.  He argued that inquiry, which he saw as synonymous with critical and reflective thinking, is the foundation of all constructive activity, and that creative thinking and action are generated by a forward-looking, anticipative mode of inquiry.  Mead contributed considerable analytical detail...

  20. Ethics of social media research: common concerns and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Peter S; Diekema, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Social media Websites (SMWs) are increasingly popular research tools. These sites provide new opportunities for researchers, but raise new challenges for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) that review these research protocols. As of yet, there is little-to-no guidance regarding how an IRB should review the studies involving SMWs. The purpose of this article was to review the common risks inherent in social media research and consider how researchers can consider these risks when writing research protocols. We focused this article on three common research approaches: observational research, interactive research, and survey/interview research. Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to the issues pertinent to SMW research, including privacy, consent, and confidentiality. After considering these challenges, we outlined key considerations for both researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols. Our goal in this article was to provide a detailed examination of relevant ethics and regulatory issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols.

  1. Ethics of Social Media Research: Common Concerns and Practical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Peter S.; Diekema, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Social media Websites (SMWs) are increasingly popular research tools. These sites provide new opportunities for researchers, but raise new challenges for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) that review these research protocols. As of yet, there is little-to-no guidance regarding how an IRB should review the studies involving SMWs. The purpose of this article was to review the common risks inherent in social media research and consider how researchers can consider these risks when writing research protocols. We focused this article on three common research approaches: observational research, interactive research, and survey/interview research. Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to the issues pertinent to SMW research, including privacy, consent, and confidentiality. After considering these challenges, we outlined key considerations for both researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols. Our goal in this article was to provide a detailed examination of relevant ethics and regulatory issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols. PMID:23679571

  2. Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Current Assumptions and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Campisi, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: The research on evidence-based practices (EBP) in special education has shifted over the last decade from identifying efficacious interventions to exploring issues that impede implementation in the classroom. Common barriers to implementation include absence of training and resources, limited collaboration between researchers and…

  3. Predictors of relational continuity in primary care: patient, provider and practice factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Hogg, William; Dahrouge, Simone; Tuna, Meltem; Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Gebremichael, Goshu

    2013-05-31

    Continuity is a fundamental tenet of primary care, and highly valued by patients; it may also improve patient outcomes and lower cost of health care. It is thus important to investigate factors that predict higher continuity. However, to date, little is known about the factors that contribute to continuity. The purpose of this study was to analyse practice, provider and patient predictors of continuity of care in a large sample of primary care practices in Ontario, Canada. Another goal was to assess whether there was a difference in the continuity of care provided by different models of primary care. This study is part of the larger a cross-sectional study of 137 primary care practices, their providers and patients. Several performance measures were evaluated; this paper focuses on relational continuity. Four items from the Primary Care Assessment Tool were used to assess relational continuity from the patient's perspective. Multilevel modeling revealed several patient factors that predicted continuity. Older patients and those with chronic disease reported higher continuity, while those who lived in rural areas, had higher education, poorer mental health status, no regular provider, and who were employed reported lower continuity. Providers with more years since graduation had higher patient-reported continuity. Several practice factors predicted lower continuity: number of MDs, nurses, opening on weekends, and having 24 hours a week or less on-call. Analyses that compared continuity across models showed that, in general, Health Service Organizations had better continuity than other models, even when adjusting for patient demographics. Some patients with greater health needs experience greater continuity of care. However, the lower continuity reported by those with mental health issues and those who live in rural areas is concerning. Furthermore, our finding that smaller practices have higher continuity suggests that physicians and policy makers need to consider

  4. Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers as They Relate to Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily; Poel, Elissa; Licona, Miguel M.; Arroyos, Elsa C.; Meraz-Rodriguez, Alma

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and concerns of pre-service teachers as they relate to professional practice during their practicum experience. This study took place in a minority-serving university in the Southwest. All activities were conducted during one academic semester and held during the weekly on-campus seminars. The…

  5. Reconsidering experiential knowledge in the relation of art and science practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Søndergaard, Morten; Allen, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    of interdisciplinary research and practice. In this paper, we investigate the discursive and communicative relation between different disciplines, in social and experiential events (conferences, festivals, and the like). For this purpose, we will build upon the experiences and observations from various ‘Remix......’ situations in which art-scientists meet in conference and festival settings....

  6. Opinion paper: scientific, philosophical and legal consideration of doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Massimo; Marzullo, Natale; Caso, Francesca; Calanni, Luca; D'Antona, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    The term doping is generally used to indicate practices based on the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) or the abuse of medical therapies. Mostly analysed by doctors and officials, doping nevertheless also requires a philosophical consideration to avoid being simplistically portrayed as an isolated practice. To do this, we need to pay attention to the contradictions and paradoxes in the modern approach to doping in sport. In this context, doping is not only relevant to the health of an individual involved in the violation of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) criteria, but it actually represents a double-edged phenomenon containing ethical and legal points of view. Several philosophical items affect the ethics of doping. While, indeed, through a deontological vision it is easy to morally condemn an athlete who takes the decision to turn to doping, the same condemnation becomes difficult when the practice of doping is compared with the strong social demand of winners in every field of life. This point must be considered to prevent doping from becoming accepted as a daily practice to excel at all costs and regarded not only as normal but as a necessity for those participating in sport at both an amateur and professional level. Furthermore, a complete discussion on doping has to consider not only the philosophy of performance-enhancing drug abuse, but also the widespread practice of an inappropriate and excessive intake of certain dietary supplements with the unique and obsessive purpose (similar to doping) of increasing physical or mental performance. Based on the above, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical opinion of the doping problem and its related practices and analyze possible solutions considering issues that go beyond the impact of doping on health and reflect on whether it is right or not that an athlete does all he can to improve his performance.

  7. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  8. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng (Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville, Florida (United States)), e-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  9. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  11. Technical considerations during disinfection by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiarzadeh, Z.; Sadeghpur, H.

    2002-01-01

    The use of new methods for treatment of water and wastewater in the country is one the rise and therefore the theoretical and practical knowledge of the industry's engineers should increase simultaneously. Ultraviolet is one of the new technologies used both for treatment of water as well as wastewater. The UV disinfection system consists of different components such as the lamp, ballast and the lamp fixtures. Each has a specification, which should be taken into account prior to design, order and purchase. The subject of price is also among the important considerations. The article presents figures cost comparison in various sections. It does not try to either approve or reject other disinfection systems such as chlorination, but the writer believes that any method should find its own practice and conditions of use, and the disinfection system designers should opt for the best system suited to their plans and avoid limiting themselves to a single one

  12. Through the Looking Glass: Examining the Practice of Science Classroom Dissection with a Multi-Faceted Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Melissa Marie

    2014-01-01

    Dissection of lab specimens is a common procedure in science classrooms, yet there are many unasked and unexamined questions relating to this practice. In addition to ethical considerations, there are personal and environmental health impacts of using conventional dissection, which has historically included animals and animal organs embalmed in…

  13. Considerable variability of procedural sedation and analgesia practices for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, Hermanus H B; Knape, Johannes T A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so

  14. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  15. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  16. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  17. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are

  18. Work-related trauma, PTSD, and workers compensation legislation: Implications for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Edward A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-09-01

    The current review examines work-related traumatic events, with particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a potential mental health outcome. Despite considerable empirical knowledge about trauma and PTSD, a gap exists with respect to laws undergirding Workers Compensation (WC) insurance coverage for work-related mental health injuries. In this article, state and federal WC statutes are examined with an eye toward coverage of PTSD following work-related trauma. Examples of differences between states, as well as state-specific idiosyncratic facets of WC laws, are discussed. Federal WC programs are also examined. Two policy issues are highlighted: (a) lack of parity between WC coverage for work-related physical versus mental health injuries and (b) lack of reliance on psychological science in scripting legislation and determining WC benefits. The cost of untreated PTSD following work-related trauma is examined, focusing on costs to the individual, the employer, and society at large. The authors provide 3 recommendations designed to address discrepancies related to compensable psychological injuries following work-related trauma exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Rates and predictors of consideration for adjuvant radiotherapy among high-risk breast cancer patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotneva, Stanimira; Reidel, Kristen; Nassif, Mohammed; Trabulsi, Nora; Mayo, Nancy; Tamblyn, Robyn; Meguerditchian, Ari N

    2013-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS) represents the standard for local control of breast cancer (BC). However, variations in practice persist. We aimed to characterize the rate of RT consideration (or referral) after BCS and identify predictors in Quebec, Canada, where universal health insurance is in place. A historical prospective cohort study using the provincial hospital discharge and medical services databases was conducted. All women with incident, non-metastatic BC (stages I-III) undergoing BCS (1998-2005) were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for RT consideration were estimated with a generalized estimating equations regression model, adjusting for clustering of patients within physicians. Of the 27,483 women selected, 90 % were considered for RT and 84 % subsequently received it. Relative to women 50-69 years old, younger and older women were less likely to be considered: ORs of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.73-0.93) and 0.10 (0.09-0.12), respectively. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations unrelated to BC were associated with decreased odds of RT consideration: 0.85 (0.76-0.94) and 0.83 (0.71-0.97). Women with regional BC considered for chemotherapy were more likely to be considered for RT: 3.41 (2.83-4.11). RT consideration odds increased by 7 % (OR of 1.07, 95 % CI 1.03-1.10) for every ten additional BCSs performed by the surgeon in the prior year. Social isolation, comorbidities, and greater distance to a referral center lowered the odds. Demographic and clinical patient-related risk factors, health service use, gaps in other aspects of BC management, and surgeon's experience predicted RT consideration.

  20. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  1. An overview of age estimation in forensic anthropology: perspectives and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Information on methods of age estimation in physical anthropology, in particular with regard to age-at-death from human skeletal remains, is widely available in the literature. However, the practicalities and real challenges faced in forensic casework are not always highlighted. To provide a practitioner's perspective, regarding age estimation in forensic anthropology (both in the living as well as the dead), with an emphasis on the types of cases, the value of such work and its challenges and limitations. The paper reviews the current literature on age estimation with a focus on forensic anthropology, but it also brings the author's personal perspective derived from a number of forensic cases. Although much is known about what methods to use, but not always how to apply them, little attention has been given in the literature to the real practicalities faced by forensic anthropologists, for example: the challenges in different types of scenarios; how to report age estimations; responsibilities; and ethical concerns. This paper gathers some of these aspects into one overview which includes the value of such work and the practical challenges, not necessarily with the methods themselves, but also with regard to how these are applied in the different cases where age estimation is required.

  2. Ethical considerations in clinical training, care and research in psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D

    2011-04-01

    Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training.

  3. The 2014 FDA assessment of commercial fish: practical considerations for improved dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Kaplan, Jason; Lapolla, John; Kleiner, Rima

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released its report: A Quantitative Assessment of the Net Effects on Fetal Neurodevelopment from Eating Commercial Fish (As Measured by IQ and also by Early Age Verbal Development in Children). By evaluating the benefits and potential concerns of eating fish during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the analysis suggests that pregnant women consuming two seafood meals (8-12 oz) per week could provide their child with an additional 3.3 IQ points by age 9. Recent insights from behavioral economics research indicate that other factors, such as concerns about price and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, appear to reduce fish consumption in many individuals.To assess the net effects of eating commercial fish during pregnancy, we compared the consumption of select fish species necessary to achieve IQ benefits with the amount necessary to have adverse developmental effects due to MeHg exposure. For the species or market types evaluated, the number of servings necessary to reach MeHg exposure to observe an adverse effect was at least twice that the amount estimated to achieve peak developmental benefit. We then reported average costs of fresh and canned or pouched fish, and calculated the cost per week for pregnant women to achieve maximum IQ benefits for their gestating child. Canned light tuna was the least expensive option at $1.83 per week to achieve maximum IQ benefit.Due to their relatively low cost, canned and pouched fish products eaten with enough regularity are likely to provide peak cognitive benefits. Because of its popularity, canned and pouched tuna could provide some of the largest cognitive benefits from fish consumption in the U.S. Future FDA consumer advice and related educational initiatives could benefit from a broader perspective that highlights the importance of affordable and accessible fish choices. These observations underscore the importance of clear public health messaging that address both health

  4. Parental feeding practices in relation to low diet quality and obesity among LSES children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entin, Anna; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Naggan, Lechaim; Vardi, Hillel; Shahar, Danit R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships between parental feeding practices, diet quality, overweight, and obesity among low-socioeconomic status (LSES) preschoolers. A cohort of preschool children (aged 5-6) and their mothers was recruited from November 2009 to December 2009. To overcome seasonal and personal variation in dietary intake, 3 replications of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) were obtained in person at baseline, 3 months from baseline, and 6 months from baseline. Anthropometric measurements were attained at preschool class on the same dates. Scores of the 12 factors of the CFPQ were calculated and related to dietary intake. Correlation coefficients between the mean energy and fat intake and CFPQ factors' scores were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to compare nutrient intake and anthropometric measures across CFPQ tertiles. Preschoolers (n = 63), aged 64.4 ± 5.0 months (47% boys), were recruited. Unhealthy feeding practices including food as a reward for good behavior and food restriction for promoting health were associated with increased consumption of junk food, sweets, and snacks. Among healthy feeding practices, encouraging balance and food variety and healthy eating modeled by parents were associated with increased vegetable consumption and smaller waist circumference. Weight was negatively associated with factors that reflect parental pressure and food restriction for weight control. Our data showed that certain feeding practices relate to a higher diet quality and lower weight and waist circumference. These practices may be encouraged in order to improve diet quality and prevent overweight and obesity.

  5. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of the individual patient ’ s needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive...... these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a fl ow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients ’ sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space...... to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Discussion. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition...

  6. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  7. PRACTICE POINTS: AIDS Vaccine 2001: Looking to the Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRACTICE POINTS: AIDS Vaccine 2001: Looking to the Future. ... The 3-day meeting in Philadelphia provided considerable information on the preclinical ... deal of effort and considerable expertise is now being directed towards dissecting the ...

  8. Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Combating Mental Illness Stigma in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Thomas; Knaak, Stephanie; Szeto, Andrew C H

    2016-04-01

    Reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness is becoming an increasingly important focus for research, policy, programming and intervention work. While it has been well established that the healthcare system is one of the key environments in which persons with mental illnesses experience stigma and discrimination there is little published literature on how to build and deliver successful anti-stigma programs in healthcare settings, towards healthcare providers in general, or towards specific types of practitioners. Our paper intends to address this gap by providing a set of theoretical considerations for guiding the design and implementation of anti-stigma interventions in healthcare.

  9. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p classroom strategies for increasing self-efficacy and given specific recommendations related to teamwork and feedback to support students. Finally, although there were weaknesses in the study related to the survey administration, future research opportunities are presented which may build from this work.

  10. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining How Proactive Management and Culturally Responsive Teaching Relate to Student Behavior: Implications for Measurement and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2018-01-01

    The discipline gap between White students and African American students has increased demand for teacher training in culturally responsive and behavior management practices. Extant research, however, is inconclusive about how culturally responsive teaching practices relate to student behavior or how to assess using such practices in the classroom.…

  12. Supporting Transfer of Learning: Practice-based considerations on the applicability of transfer literature in online design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2014-01-01

    for school teachers. The PhD-project is inspired by design-based research and the research into learning transfer. It aims to evaluate if, how, and why an online facilitated, collaborative learning solution can improve the teaching practices of science teachers in Danish elementary schools. Based...... on the ethnographic study, this paper attempts to answer the following questions: what characterizes the work environment at the schools, specifically in regards to collegial support, organizational support, and manager support? How does the empirical research relate to the learning transfer literature? Do...... these characteristics give rise to reconsiderations of applying learning transfer research when designing for competence development?...

  13. Ethical Considerations for Data Collection Using Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-03-01

    Surveys are widely used instruments to collect research data. Although surveys may appear relatively benign and easily unlinked to participants, considerations for the ethical conduct of research with surveys are important. Maintaining scientific rigor is essential. This article explores ethical tenets in relation to informed consent and scientific consent when using surveys.

  14. An audit of health products advertised for sale on chiropractic Web sites in Canada and consideration of these practices in the context of Canadian chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; Grod, Jaroslaw P

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the extent to which chiropractors with Web sites practicing in Canada advertise health products for sale and considers this practice in the context of chiropractic codes of ethics and conduct. Chiropractic Web sites in Canada were identified using a public online business directory (Canada 411). The Web sites were searched, and an inventory of the health products for sale was taken. The influences of type of practice and province of practice on the sale of health product were assessed. Textual comments about health product marketing were summarized. National and provincial codes of ethics were reviewed, and the content on health product advertising was summarized. Two hundred eighty-seven Web sites were reviewed. Just more than half of the Web sites contained information on health products for sale (n = 158, 54%). Orthotics were advertised most often (n = 136 practices, 47%), followed by vitamins/nutritional supplements (n = 53, 18%), pillows and supports (n = 40, 14%), and exercise/rehabilitation products (n = 20, 7%). Chiropractors in solo or group chiropractic practices were less likely to advertise health products than those in multidisciplinary practice (P advertise nutritional supplements (P ethics and conduct varied in their guidelines regarding health product sales. Variations in codes of ethics and in the proportions of practitioners advertising health products for sales across the country suggest that opinions may be divided on the acceptability of health product sales. Such practices raise questions and considerations for the chiropractic profession.

  15. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  17. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  18. Study on Students' Impression Data in Practical Training Using Text Mining Method-Analysis of Considerable Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramachi, Hitomi; Sugita, Ikuto; Ino, Yoko; Hayashi, Yuta; Yoshida, Aki; Otsubo, Manami; Ueno, Anri; Katsuno, Hayato; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Tachi, Tomoya

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed impression data and the scale of communication skills of students using text mining method to clarify which area a student was conscious of in communication in practical training. The results revealed that students tended to be conscious of the difference between practical hospital training and practical pharmacy training. In practical hospital training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient-visit", "counseling-conduct", "patient-counseling", and "patient-talk". In practical pharmacy training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient counseling-conduct", "story-listen", "patient-many", and "patient-visit". In practical hospital training, the word "patient" was connected to many words suggesting that students were conscious of a patient-centered communication. In practical pharmacy training, words such as "patient counseling", "patient", and "explanation" were placed in center and connected with many other words and there was an independent relationship between "communication" and "accept". In conclusion, it was suggested that students attempted active patient-centered communication in practical hospital training, while they were conscious of listening closely in patient counseling in practical pharmacy training.

  19. Patterns of diet-related practices and prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaillzadeh, A; Keshteli, A H; Feizi, A; Zaribaf, F; Feinle-Bisset, C; Adibi, P

    2013-10-01

    No studies have evaluated associations between patterns of diet-related practices as determined by latent class analysis (LCA) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess this relationship in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study in 4763 adults, diet-related practices were assessed in four domains, 'meal pattern', 'eating rate', 'intra-meal fluid intake', and 'meal-to-sleep interval', using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. We defined GERD as the presence of heartburn sometimes, often or always. The prevalence of GERD in the study population was 23.5% (n = 1120). We identified two distinct classes of meal patterns: 'regular' and 'irregular', three classes of eating rates: 'moderate', 'moderate-to-slow', and 'moderate-to-fast', two major classes of fluid ingestion with meals: 'moderate' and 'much intra-meal drinking', and two classes regarding the interval between meals and sleeping: 'short' and 'long meal-to-sleep' interval. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with 'irregular meal pattern' had higher odds of GERD compared with subjects with 'regular meal pattern' (OR: 1.21; 1.00-1.46). However, when taking into account BMI, the association disappeared. 'Long meal-to-sleep interval' was inversely associated with GERD compared with 'short meal-to-sleep interval' (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.95). 'Eating rate' and 'intra-meal fluid intake' were not significantly associated with GERD. Our data suggest certain associations between dietary patterns and GERD. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective studies to establish the potential value of modifications in dietary behaviors for the management of GERD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exploring the Role of Relational Practices in Water Governance Using a Game-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Magnuszewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexity and interdependence of water management processes requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders in water governance. Multi-party collaboration is increasingly vital at both the strategy development and implementation levels. Multi-party collaboration involves a process of joint decision-making among key stakeholders in a problem domain directed towards the future of that domain. However, the common goal is not present from the beginning; rather, the common goal emerges during the process of collaboration. Unfortunately, when the conflicting interests of different actors are at stake, the large majority of environmental multi-party efforts often do not reliably deliver sustainable improvements to policy and/or practice. One of the reasons for this, which has been long established by many case studies, is that social learning with a focus on relational practices is missing. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and initial results of a pilot study that utilized a game-based approach to explore the effects of relational practices on the effectiveness of water governance. This paper verifies the methods used by addressing the following question: are game mechanisms, protocols for facilitation and observation, the recording of decisions and results, and participant surveys adequate to reliably test hypotheses about behavioral decisions related to water governance? We used the “Lords of the Valley” (LOV game, which focuses on the local-level management of a hypothetical river valley involving many stakeholders. We used an observation protocol to collect data on the quality of relational practices and compared this data with the quantitative outcomes achieved by participants in the game. In this pilot study, we ran the game three times with different groups of participants, and here we provide the outcomes within the context of verifying and improving the methods.

  1. Relating Teacher PCK and Teacher Practice Using Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, Erik; Henze, Ineke

    2017-09-01

    Science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been researched in many studies, yet little empirical evidence has been found to determine how this knowledge actually informs teachers' actions in the classroom. To complement previous quantitative studies, there is a need for more qualitative studies to investigate the relationship between teacher knowledge (as formulated by the teacher) and classroom practice, especially in the context of an educational innovation. In this study we explored a possible way to investigate this relationship in an in-depth and systematic fashion. To this end, we conducted a case study with a chemistry teacher in the context of the implementation of a context-based science curriculum in The Netherlands. The teacher's PCK was captured using the Content Representation form by Loughran, Mulhall, and Berry. We used an observation table to monitor classroom interactions in such a way that the observations could be related to specific elements of teachers' PCK. Thus, we were able to give a detailed characterization of the correspondences and differences between the teacher's personal PCK and classroom practice. Such an elaborate description turned out to be a useful basis for discussing mechanisms explaining the relationship between teachers' knowledge and teachers' actions.

  2. The practical impact of differential item functioning analyses in a health-related quality of life instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results.......Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results....

  3. 20 CFR 1002.7 - How does USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices? (a) USERRA establishes... law (including any local law or ordinance), contract, agreement, policy, plan, practice, or other... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does USERRA relate to other laws, public...

  4. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods. Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results. A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54 had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5% expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level (p=0.006 and attitudes (p=0.001 influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that, despite the fact that participants had suboptimal level of knowledge on rectal cancer, their attitude is favorable to pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients’ understanding of preoperative therapy.

  6. Librarian contributions to clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Peggy; Protzko, Shandra

    2014-01-01

    Librarians have become more involved in developing high quality systematic reviews. Evidence-based practice guidelines are an extension of systematic reviews and offer another significant area for librarian involvement. This column highlights opportunities and challenges for the librarian working on guideline panels and provides practical considerations for meaningful contributions to the guideline creation process.

  7. Discovery of the Meanings, Expressions, and Practices Related to Malaria Care Among the Maasai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Cecily W; Mixer, Sandra J

    2016-07-01

    Although malaria is preventable and treatable, morbidity and mortality from this disease continue among the Maasai of Southern Kenya. Prior to this study, the Maasai's generic and professional malaria care/cure practices were largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to discover, describe, and systematically analyze meanings, expressions, and practices that promote culturally congruent malaria care among this population. The qualitative, ethnonursing research method was used to conduct in-depth examination of the Maasai ethnohistory and culture relevant to malaria care and analyze data from 48 interviews conducted in Maasailand. Guided by the "culture care theory," four themes were discovered related to Maasai community, traditional, spiritual, and professional care/cure practices. These significant findings filled a research gap and contribute to nursing knowledge and caring practice. These study findings have implications for culturally congruent malaria care education, practice, research, policy, and partnership with traditional and professional caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers’ eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. Results A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The ‘authoritarian’ cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children’s eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. Conclusion This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children’s eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children’s food intake

  9. The role of parental rearing practices and family demographics on oral health-related quality of life in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Kroon, J; Lalloo, R; Johnson, N W

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the direct and indirect (via oral health-related behaviour) effects of parental rearing practices on children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) within a family-focused, comprehensive predictive model. Participants were 11- to 14-year-old children and their parents living in Telangana State, India (N = 1130). Children were clinically assessed for dental caries, gingivitis, oral hygiene status, fluorosis, and malocclusion, and completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health-related behaviour and OHRQoL. Parents answered questions related to their socioeconomic status (SES), family circumstances, parent's perceptions of child's OHRQoL, and child rearing practices. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the pathways through which parenting practices were associated with children's OHRQoL. Parents with higher positive (β = -0.106) and lower power assertion rearing practices (β = 0.103) had children with better OHRQoL. Parental rearing practices did not have any effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour. Children who had malocclusion (β = 0.076) and fluorosis (β = 0.38) had lower OHRQoL. Family SES had a significant effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour and oral hygiene status with children of higher SES demonstrating better oral hygiene behaviour and status. Children living in single-parent families reported poorer oral hygiene behaviour (β = -0.048) than those living in other types of families. Parental rearing practices had direct effects on OHRQoL. However, the hypothesised indirect effects of these practices on OHRQoL via poor oral health behaviour were not supported.

  10. Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Practice Guidelines Based on Systematic Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Eligible publications were systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision without language or date restrictions; the database was up to date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as reliable when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, methodologic quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for AMD to systematic reviews and citations of reliable systematic reviews to support each treatment recommendation. Of 1570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met inclusion criteria; most targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements, or photodynamic therapy. We classified 33 (70%) reviews as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often by Cochrane reviews and reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy were the only interventions identified as effective by reliable reviews. Of 35 treatment recommendations extracted from the PPPs, 15 could have been supported with reliable systematic reviews; however, only 1

  11. Presenting practice financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.

  12. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  13. Environmental approvals in New Brunswick : economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrack, C.; Maitland, R. [Suez Renewable Energy North America, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided a timeline of economic considerations related to New Brunswick's regulatory approval process for wind power developments. The economics of wind power projects require careful consideration during the initial planning phases, as it is not yet known if projects are viable. Spending in the early stages of a project should therefore be limited to items that focus on components of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process that include establishing a relationship with First Nations groups in the area, and conducting seasonal bird studies. Economic considerations change when project viability is confirmed, and developers can then progress to conducting traditional knowledge studies and further seasonal bird studies. Baseline information studies should be reviewed, and biophysical surveys should involve the identification of any wetlands, sensitive areas, and rare plants. Archaeology studies are also required by the provincial government, as well as bat studies to determine if the site has a resident population of bats. Public and stakeholder consultations and open houses should then be held with an adequate time-frame for the submission of questions and concerns and the development of mitigation strategies. Project viability should be confirmed before power purchase agreements (PPAs) are signed. After PPAs are signed, the largest economic consideration is the schedule-related risk associated with legal and financial problems. It was concluded that noise impact, visual impact, and socioeconomic assessments and studies can be conducted after the PPA is secured. tabs., figs.

  14. [Micro and Macro Social Work Practice in the Context of Tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva M; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M; Martínez, Omar

    2017-07-01

    The study of tuberculosis (TB) in the U.S.-Mexico border involves the consideration of three key components, which are complex and interrelated: the difficulty tracking and providing appropriate TB care due to the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of TB; the border itself is a geographical and epidemiological area that interweaves two nations, two cultures, two health systems and different laws; and the need for prevention and treatment approaches to TB that involve comprehensive clinical care and prevention while also taking into consideration stigma, social context and knowledge. This manuscript describes the work of ten studies conducted in Mexico and in the U.S.-Mexico border region from 2006 to 2013. It also provides an understanding of the social and public health implications of TB, the environment and communities, as well as the identification and application of advocacy and social mobilization practices. The work presented provides an understanding of different interventions related to adherence, stigma reduction, person-centered approaches, and effective micro and macro practices in social work.

  15. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  16. Idiotypic vaccinations: consideration towards a practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, K; Emmrich, F; Kaufmann, S H

    1987-01-01

    We review the theoretical background as well as the available experimental data in animals and man on the possible use of anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. In the first part, the basic experiments and concepts that fostered the idea of idiotypic vaccination are discussed. Although many basic aspects are still unknown, we conclude that the immune system can take antibody variable domains as representatives ("semiotypes") of foreign antigens not only in special cases, but also in a general sense. Among the major areas to be studied further are the events that regulate response to antibody in relation to those that regulate responses to antigen. Initial experiments suggest that responses to antibody may be directed intentionally towards a desired outcome. In the second part, we evaluate the actual medical need for idiotypic vaccination. We conclude that most novel vaccination regimes are likely to be developed with the help of protein chemistry and gene technology. Idiotypic vaccines may become applicable only in special, well-defined situations, such as cases of nonresponsiveness to antigen or cases of severe dysregulation of immunity by the antigen. The third part of the article deals with experimental models for idiotypic vaccination. A number of groups have performed protection experiments in various model infections of experimental animals using anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines. In a fair number of cases, involving infections with viral, bacterial, and parasitic microorganisms, protection has been successfully induced. In the fourth part, we summarize studies on idiotype expression in human antigen-driven immune responses. The limited data available suggest that human idiotype expression follows similar rules as in experimental animals. In particular, widely cross-relative idiotopes are readily detected using monoclonal anti-idiotopes. Antibodies to such idiotopes reacted with major proportions of the antibodies

  17. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-01-01

    type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals. PMID:29673140

  18. Systemic relational therapy and the case from the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rožič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article are represented the principal guidelines of the systemic relational model of psychotherapy and an example of clinical practice where the pacient was incluced in this kind of therapy. In the essence of systemic relational model there is a person which is captured in the repetition of old patterns in spite of its painfulness and hardness. Captured and helpless in old patterns, the person not only repeats but also recreates them, because they promise safety, belonging and connectedness. From the review of the therapy it is evident that behind the pacient's concrete problems stands her family system to which she is loyal in the way that only deepens her distress. By the increasing the responsability for herself, for her feelings and her acts, it increases the pacient's funcionality, too.

  19. Practical Solutions for Addressing Labor-Related Barriers to Bhutan's Private Employment Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    This note provides practical solutions for addressing the labor-related barriers that impede Bhutan's private sector employment growth: (i) lack of workers with relevant experience and skills, (ii) restrictions on employing non-Bhutanese workers, and (iii) lack of interest among Bhutanese workers in private sector employment opportunities (Enterprise Survey 2015). This note draws on intern...

  20. MASTERING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WRITING SKILLS BY FUTURE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyshyna, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article under consideration is related to the problem of mastering writing skills by future international relations professionals. The problem is that for the last ten years its performance has declined in comparison with other foreign сommunication skills at all key stages. In our investigation, the history of teaching-of-writing approaches over the last 50 years was characterised by five phases, some elements of which have been and continue to be concurrent in the best practice. Modern ...

  1. Relations between views of nature and practices in Danish organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    research in organic farming: The organic farming in practice represents a variety of views of nature. So does scientific work, but especially the natural scientifical and agrotechnical sciences has no tradition for reflecting that kind of matters. If the scientific approaches do not try to make......The paper presents and discusses empirical results from my ph.d. study concerning environmental ethics as a concept of practice. The theoretical approach to the study of environmental ethics is not purely philosophical. It questions what guides professionals in action with nature (farmers....... These findings are related to the actual manuring strategies, diversity in crops and products and ways of treating the herd at the same farms. The empirical study is methodologically based on qualitative methods inspired by phenomenology, ethnography and narrativity.The outcome is four distinct groups of organic...

  2. Attitudes and practice of couples regarding sexual relations during the menses and spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K; Furman, I; Devoto, L

    1995-02-01

    To determine attitudes and practices regarding sexual relations during menstruation and vaginal spotting, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. A total of 287 women and 206 men were randomly selected from an urban population. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding sexual relations during vaginal bleeding were surveyed and stratified by educational level and other demographic characteristics. Overall, 70% of women and 72% of men were found to avoid sexual relations during menstruation. Fifty-four percent of women and 60% of men avoided sexual relations during vaginal spotting. Women with higher education (technical or university) were less likely to avoid sexual intercourse compared to those with a lower educational level (basic or secondary education) during menstruation (73% vs. 57%) and vaginal spotting (69% vs. 34%). Men with a higher educational level (university) avoided intercourse less frequently when their partner was spotting (48% vs. 64%). As many methods of contraception affect a woman's menstrual cycle, they therefore may affect the intimacy of a couple. Counseling and education regarding the menstrual cycle and expected alterations by a contraceptive method may reduce any negative impact of a contraceptive device on a couple's sexual life.

  3. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    images, and a preliminary experiment demonstrates thermal self-regulation and adequate heating of a tissue-mimicking phantom by seed prototypes. The effect of self-shielding of the seed against the external magnetic field is small, and only minor thermal stress is induced in heating of the seeds from room temperature to well above the seed operating temperature. With proper selection of magnetic field parameters, the thermal dose distribution of an arrangement of TB and hyperthermia-only seeds may be made to match with its radiation dose distribution. Conclusions: The presented analyses address several practical considerations for manufacturing of the proposed TB seeds and identify critical issues for the prototype implementation. The authors’ preliminary experiments demonstrate close agreement with the modeling results, confirming the feasibility of combining sources of heat and radiation into a single thermobrachytherapy seed.

  4. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    , and a preliminary experiment demonstrates thermal self-regulation and adequate heating of a tissue-mimicking phantom by seed prototypes. The effect of self-shielding of the seed against the external magnetic field is small, and only minor thermal stress is induced in heating of the seeds from room temperature to well above the seed operating temperature. With proper selection of magnetic field parameters, the thermal dose distribution of an arrangement of TB and hyperthermia-only seeds may be made to match with its radiation dose distribution. Conclusions: The presented analyses address several practical considerations for manufacturing of the proposed TB seeds and identify critical issues for the prototype implementation. The authors’ preliminary experiments demonstrate close agreement with the modeling results, confirming the feasibility of combining sources of heat and radiation into a single thermobrachytherapy seed

  5. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  6. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We investigate two types of age-related workplace norms, namely age equality norms (whether younger and older workers should be treated equally) and retirement age norms (when older workers are expected to retire) while controlling for organizational and national contexts. Data collected among top managers of 1,088 organizations from six European countries were used for the study. Logistic regression models were run to estimate the effects of age-related workplace norms on four different organizational outcomes: (a) recruiting older workers, (b) encouraging working until normal retirement age, (c) encouraging working beyond normal retirement age, and (d) rehiring retired former employees. Age-related workplace norms of top managers affect their organizations' practices, but in different ways. Age equality norms positively affect practices before the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes a and b), whereas retirement age norms positively affect practices after the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes c and d). Changing age-related workplace norms of important actors in organizations may be conducive to better employment opportunities and a higher level of employment participation of older workers. However, care should be taken to target the right types of norms, since targeting different norms may yield different outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as

  8. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  9. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  10. Survey of beaver-related restoration practices in rangeland streams of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  11. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  12. Impact of a State Law on Physician Practice in Sports-Related Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael R; Raybould, Toby; Jamal-Allial, Aziza; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Lee, Jarone; Gervasini, Alice; Ginsburg, Richard; Mandell, Mark; Donelan, Karen; Masiakos, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    To determine physician-reported adherence to and support of the 2010 Massachusetts youth concussion law, as well as barriers to care and clinical practice in the context of legislation. Primary care physicians (n = 272) in a large pediatric network were eligible for a cross-sectional survey in 2014. Survey questions addressed key policy and practice provisions: concussion knowledge, state regulations and training, practice patterns, referrals, patient characteristics, and barriers to care. Analyses explored relationships between practice and policy, adjusting for physician demographic and practice characteristics. The survey response rate was 64% among all responders (173 of 272). A total of 146 respondents who had evaluated, treated, or referred patients with a suspected sports-related concussion in the previous year were eligible for analysis. The vast majority (90%) of providers agreed that the current Massachusetts laws regarding sports concussions are necessary and support the major provisions. Three-quarters (74%) had taken a required clinician training course on concussions. Those who took training courses were significantly more likely to develop individualized treatment plans (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-11.0). Physician training did not improve screening of youth with concussion for depression or substance use. Most physicians (77%) advised patients to refrain from computer, telephone, or television for various time periods. Physicians reported limited communication with schools. Primary care physicians report being comfortable with the diagnosis and management of concussions, and support statewide regulations; however, adherence to mandated training and specific legal requirements varied. Broader and more frequent training may be necessary to align current best evidence with clinical care and state-mandated practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Student Commitment to Healthcare-Related Design Practice by Improving the Studio Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lindsay; Hong, Miyoung; Albert, Taneshia West

    2017-10-01

    This case study explores the influence of the healthcare design studio experience on students' short-term professional goals as measured through rates of healthcare-related certification and internship/employment. The value and relevance of interior design is evident in the healthcare design sector. However, interior design students may not perceive this value if it is not communicated through their design education. Students' experience in the design studio plays a crucial role in determining career choices, and students may be more committed to career goals when there is clear connection between major coursework and professional practice. The authors compared healthcare-related certification and internship/employment levels between two student cohorts in a capstone undergraduate interior design healthcare design studio course. The first cohort was led by the existing curriculum. The second cohort was led by the revised curriculum that specifically aimed at encouraging students to commit to healthcare-related design practice. When measured at 3 months from graduation, the second cohort, led by the revised curriculum, saw a 30% increase in Evidence-based Design Accreditation and Certification exam pass rates and a 40% increase in healthcare-related internship/employment. The challenge of interior design education is to instill in emerging professionals not only professional competence but also those professional attitudes that will make them better prepared to design spaces that improve quality of life, particularly in healthcare environments. The results exceeded the project goals, and so this could be considered a promising practice for courses focused on healthcare design education.

  14. Understanding Digital Note-Taking Practice for Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Goffin, Pascal; Isenberg, Petra

    2015-05-13

    We present results and design implications from a study of digital note-taking practice to examine how visualization can support revisitation, reflection, and collaboration around notes. As digital notebooks become common forms of external memory, keeping track of volumes of content is increasingly difficult. Information visualization tools can help give note-takers an overview of their content and allow them to explore diverse sets of notes, find and organize related content, and compare their notes with their collaborators. To ground the design of such tools, we conducted a detailed mixed-methods study of digital note-taking practice. We identify a variety of different editing, organization, and sharing methods used by digital note-takers, many of which result in notes becoming "lost in the pile''. These findings form the basis for our design considerations that examine how visualization can support the revisitation, organization, and sharing of digital notes.

  15. Breast milk sharing via the internet: the practice and health and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly A; Jayadeva, Chenali M; Braun, Ashlea C; Dillon, Chelsea E; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the practice of breast milk sharing via the internet in the US and examine factors associated with participants' communication regarding potential health and safety risks. This cross-sectional study examined all original postings (n = 254) placed during 1 week in 2011 on four websites to facilitate the sharing of breast milk. Postings were characterized for intent and health and safety topics (i.e., selling vs. donating milk, hygiene/handling practices, infectious disease screening, diet/exercise habits, substance and pharmaceutical use, milk quality claims, price) communicated between milk providers and recipients. Approximately 69% of postings were providing milk and 31% were seeking milk; 47% included identifiers. Few provider postings reflected measures to potentially reduce risks to recipients: 20% mentioned using a healthy handling/hygiene practice, 11% offered specifics about infectious disease screening, 51% mentioned limiting/abstaining from 1+ substances. The presence of indications about handling/hygiene, diet/exercise, and abstaining from substances were strongly positively associated with each other (ORs 7.42-13.80), with the odds of selling (ORs 6.03-∞), and with making quality claims (ORs 3.14-13.54), but not with disease screening. One-fifth of recipients sought milk for a child with a medical condition or poor birth outcome. Most recipients (90%) did not specify any health and safety practices of a provider in their posting. Health behaviors and screening for diseases that may affect milk safety are not prominent topics in postings seeking to share milk. This lack of communication may exacerbate the health risks to recipient infants, especially infants at increased risk due to pre-existing health conditions.

  16. Citizen Science and Biomedical Research: Implications for Bioethics Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W Callaghan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain trends in scientific research have important relevance to bioethics theory and practice. A growing stream of literature relates to increasing transparency and inclusivity of populations (stakeholders in scientific research, from high volume data collection, synthesis, and analysis to verification and ethical scrutiny. The emergence of this stream of literature has implications for bioethics theory and practice. This paper seeks to make explicit these streams of literature and to relate these to bioethical issues, through consideration of certain extreme examples of scientific research where bioethical engagement is vital. Implications for theory and practice are derived, offering useful insights derived from multidisciplinary theory. Arguably, rapidly developing fields of citizen science such as informing science and others seeking to maximise stakeholder involvement in both research and bioethical engagement have emerged as a response to these types of issues; radically enhanced stakeholder engagement in science may herald a new maximally inclusive and transparent paradigm in bioethics based on lessons gained from exposure to increasingly uncertain ethical contexts of biomedical research.

  17. Strategic Considerations for the Sustainable Remediation of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Susan; Wilson, Ian; Decung, Fabien; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Pellenz, Gilles; Palut-Laurent, Odile; Nitzsche, Olaf; Rehs, Bernd; Altavilla, Massimo; Osimani, Celso; Florya, Sergey; Revilla, Jose-Luis; Efraimsson, Henrik; Baines, Kim; Clark, Anna; Cruickshank, Julian; Mitchell, Nick; Mobbs, Shelly; Orr, Peter; Abu-Eid, Rateb Boby; Durham, Lisa; Morse, John; Walker, Stuart; Weber, Inge; ); Monken-Fernandes, Horst; )

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable sites, or parts of sites, to be reused. Although such activities are relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic drawbacks and benefits. Site remediation should thus be sustainable and result in an overall net benefit. This report draws on recent experience of NEA member countries in nuclear site remediation during decommissioning in order to identify strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of subsurface contamination - predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater - to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development. It provides insights for the decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so as to ensure the sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future. (authors)

  18. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  19. Design and application consideration of high temperature superconducting current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    As a potential major source of heat leak and the resultant cryogen boiloff, cryogenic current leads can significantly affect the refrigeration power requirement of cryogenic power equipment. Reduction of the heat leak associated with current leads can therefore contribute to the development and application of this equipment. Recent studies and tests have demonstrated that, due to their superconducting and low thermal conductivity properties, ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTSC) can be employed in current leads to significantly reduce the heat leak. However, realization of this benefit requires special design considerations pertaining to the properties and the fabrication technology of the relatively new ceramic superconductor materials. Since processing and fabrication technology are continuously being developed in the laboratories, data on material properties unrelated to critical states are quite limited. Therefore, design analysis and experiments have to be conducted in tandem to achieve a successful development. Due to the rather unique combination of superconducting and thermal conductivities which are orders of magnitude lower than copper, ceramic superconductors allow expansion of the operating scenarios of current leads. In addition to the conventional vapor-cooled lead type application, low heat leak conduction-cooled type current leads may be practical and are being developed. Furthermore, a current lead with an intermediate heat leak intercept has been successfully demonstrated in a multiple current lead assembly employing HTSC. These design and application considerations of high temperature superconducting current leads are addressed here

  20. Best Practices in Pulic Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney; Buxner, Sanlyn; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    IntroductionEach year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsors public outreach events designed to increase student, educator, and general public engagement in its missions and goals. NASA SMD Education’s review of large-scale events, “Best Practices in Outreach Events,” highlighted planning and implementation best practices, which were used by the Dawn mission to strategize and implement its Ceres arrival celebration event, i C Ceres.BackgroundThe literature review focused on best identifying practices rising from evaluations of large-scale public outreach events. The following criteria guided the study:* Public, science-related events open to adults and children* Events that occurred during the last 5 years* Evaluations that included information on data collected from visitors and/or volunteers* Evaluations that specified the type of data collected, methodology, and associated resultsBest Practices: Planning and ImplementationThe literature review revealed key considerations for planning implement large-scale events. Best practices included can be pertinent for all event organizers and evaluators regardless of event size. A summary of related best practices is presented below.1) Advertise the event2) Use and advertise access to scientists* Attendees who reported an interaction with a science professional were 15% to 19% more likely to report positive learning impacts, (SFA, 2012, p. 24).3) Recruit scientists using findings such as:* High percentages of scientists (85% to 96%) from most events were interested in participating again (SFA, 2012).4) Ensure that the event is group and, particularly, child friendly5) Target specific event outcomesBest Practices Informing Real-world Planning, Implementation and EvaluationDawn mission’s collaborative design of a series of events, i C Ceres, including in-person, interactive events geared to families and live presentations, will be shared, with focus on the family event, and the evidence

  1. Considerations in using radiation dosimetry data in epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.H.; Beck, W.L.; Fry, S.A.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Watson, J.

    1983-01-01

    From experience to date, it is concluded that cohorts can be divided into useable risk groups without need for extensive calculations of individual doses. Several possible risk group classification schemes are presented for use with standard methods of data analysis. The rationale, advantages, and disadvantages of each are discussed with respect to possible classification biases, and statistical and practical considerations. Data from a cohort of nuclear material workers are used to illustrate these dichotomous and ordinal schemes

  2. Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.

  3. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.

  4. Relations between task delegation and job satisfaction in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Nexøe, Jørgen; Videbæk Le, Jette

    2016-01-01

    practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction appears to be sparse even though job satisfaction is acknowledged as an important factor associated with both patient satisfaction and medical quality of care. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was 1) to review the current research on the relation between...... task delegation and general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction and, additionally, 2) to review the evidence of possible explanations for this relation. METHODS: A systematic literature review. We searched the four databases PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, and Scopus systematically. The immediate...... attitude towards task delegation was positive and led to increased job satisfaction, probably because task delegation comprised a high degree of work autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: The few studies included in our review suggest that task delegation within general practice may be seen by the staff as an overall...

  5. Counseling Issues: Addressing Behavioral and Emotional Considerations in the Treatment of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Aaron

    2018-02-06

    Counseling is an important fundamental professional activity and an established component of the speech-language pathology/audiology scope of practice as documented by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2004a, 2016a). Appropriate incorporation of counseling into practice can optimize service provision, help address comorbid behavioral and emotional reactions to communication disorders, and enhance prognosis. Practitioner insecurity in incorporating counseling into practice has been documented by Phillips and Mendel (2008), as well as Atkins (2007). This tutorial seeks to present general counseling constructs and treatment applications primarily utilizing a humanistic counseling perspective. This tutorial incorporated relevant publications from communication disorders and counseling psychology literature databases over a 3-year period. The tutorial evolved through interviews with practicing speech-language pathology practitioners and educators and was undertaken to provide transparency and clarity to support the assertions and recommendations offered. This tutorial organizes and presents general counseling considerations along with specific suggestions, which can help practitioners who are seeking to expand their understanding, skill, and confidence in incorporating counseling into their practice. The tutorial identifies some of the potential and impactful comorbid emotional and behavioral responses to experiencing a communication disorder and/or to the treatment process for the communication disorder issue(s). Theoretically grounded considerations for mitigating such potentially impactful responses are offered. Continued and enhanced efforts may be necessary to meet American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's mandate for universal incorporation of empirically supported counseling approaches and in advancing universal speech-language pathology/audiology training in this area. It is hoped that this tutorial serves as an initial guide for addressing

  6. Practical challenges related to point of care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie L V

    2016-04-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) refers to laboratory testing that occurs near to the patient, often at the patient bedside. POCT can be advantageous in situations requiring rapid turnaround time of test results for clinical decision making. There are many challenges associated with POCT, mainly related to quality assurance. POCT is performed by clinical staff rather than laboratory trained individuals which can lead to errors resulting from a lack of understanding of the importance of quality control and quality assurance practices. POCT is usually more expensive than testing performed in the central laboratory and requires a significant amount of support from the laboratory to ensure the quality testing and meet accreditation requirements. Here, specific challenges related to POCT compliance with accreditation standards are discussed along with strategies that can be used to overcome these challenges. These areas include: documentation of POCT orders, charting of POCT results as well as training and certification of individuals performing POCT. Factors to consider when implementing connectivity between POCT instruments and the electronic medical record are also discussed in detail and include: uni-directional versus bidirectional communication, linking patient demographic information with POCT software, the importance of positive patient identification and considering where to chart POCT results in the electronic medical record.

  7. The Psychological Benefits from Reconceptualizing Music-Making as Mindfulness Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Matthew; Brewer, Judson

    2015-06-01

    While the music psychology and education literatures have devoted considerable attention to how musical instrumentalists practice their instruments, less formal scholarly attention has been given in consideration of what it means to maintain a musical "practice" over time and across context. In this paper, the practice of mindfulness meditation is used as heuristic, arguing for a view of mindfulness meditation as a formalized de-specialization of the infinite number of other activities with which people can achieve mindfulness. Sitting meditation, requiring of one to observe the contents of their mind unmediated, can serve as a useful model for the musician in understanding the phenomenology of the music-making process and the "flow" states that can result from an embodied musical practice. Finally, reconceptualizing music-making as a mindfulness practice is considered with psychological and pedagogical implications relevant for developing musicians.

  8. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)

    2011-12-01

    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  9. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  10. Genetic moderation of transactional relations between parenting practices and child self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2016-10-01

    The present study addressed the ways in which parent and child dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotypes jointly moderate the transactional relations between parenting practices and child self-regulation. African American children (N = 309) and their parents provided longitudinal data spanning child ages 11 to 15 years and a saliva sample from which variation at DRD4 was genotyped. Based on the differential susceptibility perspective, this study examined moderation effects of DRD4 status on (a) the extent to which parenting practices affect child self-regulation and (b) the extent to which child self-regulation, as an environmental influence on the parent, affects parenting behavior. Results indicated that responsive-supportive parenting interacted with children's DRD4 status to influence increases in child self-regulation. Also, child self-regulation interacted with parent's DRD4 status to predict changes in parenting practices. Both Gene × Environment effects conformed to a differential susceptibility model in which parents' and children's DRD4 genes operated to increase environmental sensitivity "for better and for worse." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  12. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-02-01

    Given the growing attention to the importance of design in shaping healing hospital environments this study extends the understanding of healing environments, beyond causal links between environmental exposure and health outcome by elucidating how environments and practices interrelate. The study was conducted as an ethnographic fieldwork from March 2011 to September 2011 at the Department of Haematology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, systematically using participant observation and interviews as research strategies. It included 20 patients, four of who were followed closely over an extended time period. Through thematic analysis five key concepts emerged about the social dynamics of hospital environments: practices of self; creating personal space; social recognition; negotiating space; and ambiguity of space and care. Through these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a flow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients' sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition of the individual patient's needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive to the need for flexible spaces in hospitals that recognize the dynamics of healing, by providing individualized care, relating to the particular and changing needs of patients supporting their potential and their challenged condition with the best

  13. Treatment Effects of a Primary Care Intervention on Parenting Behaviors: Sometimes It's Relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.

  14. European Top Managers’ Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations’ Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations’ recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We

  15. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Jaap Oude; Henkens, Kene; Schippers, Joop

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We

  16. Representación social de la prevención de enfermedades en la atención primaria de salud Social consideration related to diseases prevention in health primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rodríguez Méndez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el plan del Médico de Familia está instaurado hace más de 20 años para prevenir enfermedades y promover salud; sin embargo, los resultados no se corresponden aún con lo esperado. La forma en que los profesionales de la Atención Primaria de la Salud se representan y practican la prevención pudiera condicionar tal problema. OBJETIVO: explorar la relación de las representaciones sociales del profesional de la salud en la Atención Primaria de la Salud con sus prácticas preventivas cotidianas. MÉTODOS: cualitativos, aplicando las técnicas de entrevista, observación y análisis de contenido a la Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral. RESULTADOS: los profesionales de la Atención Primaria de la Salud se representan la prevención de enfermedades esencialmente como la ejecución de acciones orientadas por programas e informar a la población sobre las pautas de conducta a seguir. Aunque se manifestó una actitud favorable hacia la prevención en sí, se quejan de sobrecarga laboral y las condiciones de trabajo en este nivel de atención. CONCLUSIONES: las representaciones de la prevención de enfermedades y las prácticas preventivas en Atención Primaria de la Salud son complementarias, puesto que la práctica preventiva en este nivel de atención se caracteriza por realizar lo exigido por los programas, sobre todo, si son priorizados, así como por informar sobre las pautas de conductas preventivas.INTRODUCTION: family Physician program was established twenty years ago to prevent diseases and to promote the health; however, results are not as expected. How the Health Primary Care professionals consider and practice the prevention could fit such problem. AIM: to explore the relation of social consideration of health professional in Health Primary Care with their daily preventive practices. METHODS: qualitative types applying the interview, observation, and content analysis techniques to Cuban Journal of General

  17. Practical reason in a technical culture. 90 years of VGB; Praktische Vernunft in einer technischen Kultur. 90 Jahre VGB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gethmann, Carl Friedrich [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie

    2010-07-01

    Speech on the occasion of the VGB Congress ''Power Plants 2010'' and the 90th anniversary of VGB. Considerations on the practical reason in a technical culture are ethical considerations. It must be realised that new technology has resulted in new types of conflicts: a tightened situation of acting in an environment of uncertainty, increased problems related to unequal distribution. In order to cope with these new problems, no new ethics is required but an ethical reflection on these problems. (orig.)

  18. From workshop to work practice: An exploration of context and facilitation in the development of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Isabelle; Howard, Peter; Larson, Ann; Robertson, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the process of translating evidence into practice using a facilitation model developed by the Western Australian Centre for Evidence Based Nursing and Midwifery. Using the conceptual framework Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS), the aims of the study were (1) to explore the relative and combined importance of context and facilitation in the successful implementation of a new evidence-based clinical practice protocol and (2) to examine the establishment of more lasting change to individuals and organizations that resulted in greater incorporation of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). A pre-workshop, semi-structured telephone survey with 16 nurse managers in six rural hospitals; a summative evaluation immediately post-workshop with 54 participants; and follow-up, semi-structured interviews with 23 workshop participants. The contexts in each of the participating hospitals were very different; of the six hospitals, only one had not implemented the new protocol. Five had reviewed their practices and brought them in line with the protocol developed at the workshop. The rate of adoption varied considerably from 2 weeks to months. The participants reported being better informed about EBP in general and were positive about their ability to improve their practice and search more efficiently for best practice information. Underlying motivations for protocol development should be included in the PARIHS framework. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION: Good facilitation appears to be more influential than context in overcoming the barriers to the uptake of EBP.

  19. One dozen considerations when working with women in substance abuse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Osborne, Victoria A; Greif, Geoffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included.

  20. Postpartum mental health in relation to sociocultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.

  1. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  2. Institutionalization of evidence-informed practices in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Henderson, Joanna

    2012-11-21

    The effective and timely integration of the best available research evidence into healthcare practice has considerable potential to improve the quality of provided care. Knowledge translation (KT) approaches aim to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to address the research-practice gap. However, most KT research has been directed toward implementation strategies that apply cognitive, behavioral, and, to a lesser extent, organizational theories. In this paper, we discuss the potential of institutional theory to inform KT-related research. Despite significant research, there is still much to learn about how to achieve KT within healthcare systems and practices. Institutional theory, focusing on the processes by which new ideas and concepts become accepted within their institutional environments, holds promise for advancing KT efforts and research. To propose new directions for future KT research, we present some of the main concepts of institutional theory and discuss their application to KT research by outlining how institutionalization of new practices can lead to their ongoing use in organizations. In addition, we discuss the circumstances under which institutionalized practices dissipate and give way to new insights and ideas that can lead to new, more effective practices. KT research informed by institutional theory can provide important insights into how knowledge becomes implemented, routinized, and accepted as institutionalized practices. Future KT research should employ both quantitative and qualitative research designs to examine the specifics of sustainability, institutionalization, and deinstitutionalization of practices to enhance our understanding of these complex constructs.

  3. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... of strategic and operational aspects of management; multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary evaluations; practical objectives for the four pillars of sustainability; appropriate participation; and a governance system that is able to integrate these diverse considerations in management. We challenge all involved...... governance....

  4. Quality assurance considerations related to in-house radiopharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Boothe, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration through its interpretation of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act with various amendments not only oversees the clinical investigation of new drugs, including short-lived radiopharmaceuticals but also monitors specific basic research protocols through the activities of the approved Radioactive Drug Research Committees. Concurrent with the technical improvements being made with positron emission tomographs is the increased availability of a variety of radiolabeled substrates possessing the unique potential to serve as indicators of in vivo alteration of biochemical processes. The syntheses of certain positron emitting radioligands with specific emphasis on the quality control procedures and current good manufacturing practices are discussed

  5. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  6. Nigerian Hospital Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also publishes miscellaneous articles – hospital administration, business practice, accounting, Law for health practitioners and letters about published papers. All manuscript will be subject to blinded peer-review and the decision of the editor would be final. Articles submitted for consideration by the author should not have ...

  7. Energy Democracies and Publics in the Making: A Relational Agenda for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Chilvers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream approaches to energy democracy and public engagement with energy transitions tend to adopt specific, pre-given meanings of both “democracy” and “publics.” Different approaches impose prescriptive assumptions about the model of participation, the identity of public participants, and what it means to participate well. The rigidity of many existing approaches to energy participation is increasingly being challenged by the ever-multiplying diversity of ways in which citizens participate in energy systems, as consumers in energy markets, protesters against new infrastructures and technologies, as initiators of community energy projects, and as subjects of behavior change interventions, amongst others. This paper is concerned with growing areas of scholarship which seek to understand and explore these emerging energy publics and forms of energy democracy from a relational perspective. Such work, grounded in constructivist and relational ontologies, views forms of participatory democracy and publics as being co-produced, constructed, and emergent through the performance of collective practices. It pays closer attention to power relations, politics, materiality, exclusions, and effects in both understanding and intervening in the making of energy democracy. This in turn shifts the focus from studying discrete unitary forms of “energy democracy” to one of understanding interrelations between multiple diverse energy democracies in wider systems. In this paper, we chart these developments and explore the significant challenges and potential contributions of relational approaches to furthering the theories, methods, and practices of energy democracy and energy public engagement. The paper draws on an expert workshop, and an accompanying review, which brought together leading proponents of contending relational approaches to energy participation in direct conversation for the first time. We use this as a basis to explore tensions

  8. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  10. Sex and gender-based analysis in pharmacy practice research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa; Milne, Emily; Waite, Nancy; Cooke, Martin; Cook, Katie; Chang, Feng; Sproule, Beth A

    2017-11-01

    Recognizing the potential effect of sex and gender on health outcomes, there is a shift toward conducting sex and gender-based analysis (SGBA) within health research. However, little is known about the extent to which SGBA has been incorporated into pharmacy practice research. To understand the extent to which SGBA is included in pharmacy practice research. Scoping review of English-language studies identified through MEDLINE, Embase, International Pharmacy Abstracts (IPA), and CINAHL (inception to Jan 2014). Two raters independently screened citations to identify titles and abstracts that included key words related to sex or gender and studies that could be categorized as pharmacy practice research. One author extracted data from included studies related to study design, population, intervention/exposure and outcomes, with results reviewed by another. All authors reviewed eligible articles to categorize them based on a previously-developed typology, and to assess four criteria: 1) the inclusion of sex or gender in research objectives, 2) the depth of sex/gender analysis incorporated into study designs and reporting, 3) the inclusion of sex or gender considerations in interpretation of study results, 4) the intentional and accurate use of sex/gender language. Of 458 unique search results, only six articles met the inclusion criteria. Two of these six publications included sex/gender considerations in a model consistent with sex/gender based analysis as described by Hammarström. Three of the six studies inaccurately applied sex and gender terminology, whereas the two studies that featured sex or gender in their primary research question did use these terms appropriately. Despite increasing attention on the need for considering sex and gender, there was a paucity of pharmacy practice research publications that conducted SGBA. This presents an opportunity to explore sex, gender and intersectionality when pursuing studies that explore the impact of pharmacists

  11. Using Relational Reasoning Strategies to Help Improve Clinical Reasoning Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Torre, Dario M; Durning, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    Clinical reasoning-the steps up to and including establishing a diagnosis and/or therapy-is a fundamentally important mental process for physicians. Unfortunately, mounting evidence suggests that errors in clinical reasoning lead to substantial problems for medical professionals and patients alike, including suboptimal care, malpractice claims, and rising health care costs. For this reason, cognitive strategies by which clinical reasoning may be improved-and that many expert clinicians are already using-are highly relevant for all medical professionals, educators, and learners.In this Perspective, the authors introduce one group of cognitive strategies-termed relational reasoning strategies-that have been empirically shown, through limited educational and psychological research, to improve the accuracy of learners' reasoning both within and outside of the medical disciplines. The authors contend that relational reasoning strategies may help clinicians to be metacognitive about their own clinical reasoning; such strategies may also be particularly well suited for explicitly organizing clinical reasoning instruction for learners. Because the particular curricular efforts that may improve the relational reasoning of medical students are not known at this point, the authors describe the nature of previous research on relational reasoning strategies to encourage the future design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for relational reasoning within the medical education literature. The authors also call for continued research on using relational reasoning strategies and their role in clinical practice and medical education, with the long-term goal of improving diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. DESIGN: Cohort-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish general practice. SUBJECTS: Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer...... information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. RESULTS: Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude....... Strongest determinants for GP use among Danish adults aged 50-65 years were the presence of medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment, while lifestyle factors (e.g., body mass index, alcohol consumption and smoking) had minor effect....

  13. Considerations for restoring temperate forests of tomorrow: Forest restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Mary I. Williams; John A. Stanturf; Brad St. Clair

    2015-01-01

    Tomorrow’s forests face extreme pressures from contemporary climate change, invasive pests, and anthropogenic demands for other land uses. These pressures, collectively, demand land managers to reassess current and potential forest management practices. We discuss three considerations, functional restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering, which are currently...

  14. The role of human resource management in open innovation: exploring the relation between HR practices and OI

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    How do human resource practices strengthen open innovation activities? This inductive study of six cases led to propositions exploring that question. I thereby investigated the role of human resource management in open innovation, specifically the relation between HR practices and an employee's willingness to embrace open innovation.

  15. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  16. Ethical considerations in sexual health research: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an assumption that sexual health research has great influence on the quality of human life through elevating sexual health standards, and their results will eliminate the burden of sexual health challenges on family relationships. The aim of this study was to review ethical considerations in sexual health research. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted between January 1990 and December 2017 based on the five-step approach of York University. The keywords used to search for the studies included ethical issues, research, sexual health, reproductive health, and sensitive topics. The language of the literatures was English and the search process was performed on PubMed, Elsevier, Ovid, Springer, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, SAGE Publishing, ProQuest, WHO website, Kinsey Confidential, and Worldsexology. Results: After assessing the quality and eligibility of 94 articles, 13 were selected. The results of the present study showed that the most important ethical considerations were protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants, obtaining informed consent, and paying attention to vulnerable people. Conclusions: The review of literature exhibited several considerations that sexual health researchers are faced with. In order to manage these considerations, the researcher should have sufficient understanding of them. The important matter is that strategies to manage these challenges should be completely rational and practical according to each context. These strategies can also be applied in other societies with great similarities in their context.

  17. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  18. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  19. From research to practice: one organisational model for promoting research based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a framework used by the National Institute for Nursing in Oxford to integrate research, development and practice. With the increasing attention given to the topic of how research findings are implemented into clinical practice, it was felt important to share the challenges that have arisen in attempting to combine traditional research activities with more practice based development work. The emerging conceptual framework, structures and functions are described highlighting the variety of partnerships to be established in order to achieve the goal of integrating research into practice. While the underpinning principles of the framework--generating knowledge, implementing research into practice and evaluating the effectiveness of programmes--are not new, it is the way they have been combined within an organisational structure that could be helpful to others considering such a strategy. Both the strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed, a number of conclusions drawn as to its robustness and consideration given to its replication.

  20. The Relationship between Structure-Related Food Parenting Practices and Children's Heightened Levels of Self-Regulation in Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Powell, Elisabeth; Jansen, Elena

    Food parenting practices influence children's eating behaviors and weight status. Food parenting practices also influence children's self-regulatory abilities around eating, which has important implications for children's eating behaviors. The purpose of the following study is to examine use of structure-related food parenting practices and the potential impact on children's ability to self-regulate energy intake. Parents (n = 379) of preschool age children (M = 4.10 years, SD = 0.92) were mostly mothers (68.6%), Non-White (54.5%), and overweight/obese (50.1%). Hierarchical Multiple Regression was conducted to predict child self-regulation in eating from structure-related food parenting practices (structured meal setting, structured meal timing, family meal setting), while accounting for child weight status, parent age, gender, BMI, race, and yearly income. Hierarchical Multiple Regression results indicated that structure-related feeding practices (structured meal setting and family meal setting, but not structured meal timing) are associated with children's heightened levels of self-regulation in eating. Models examining the relationship within children who were normal weight and overweight/obese indicated the following: a relationship between structured meal setting and heightened self-regulation in eating for normal-weight children and a relationship between family meal setting and heightened self-regulation in eating for overweight/obese children. Researchers should further investigate these potentially modifiable parent feeding behaviors as a protective parenting technique, which possibly contributes to a healthy weight development by enhancing self-regulation in eating.

  1. Orthodontic practices in Australasia: practice activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rachael; Sampson, Wayne J; Spencer, A John

    2005-05-01

    To collect baseline data on practice types and services provided by orthodontists in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 510 questionnaires was sent and 258 were returned. The response rate was 53 per cent. The average age of respondents was 50 years (SD: 9.8 years) with female orthodontists being younger (Mean: 42.3 years; SD: 6.5). The ratio of responding female to male orthodontists was 1:8.8. Overall, more orthodontists were in solo private practice than associateships or partnerships. New Zealand orthodontists were more likely to be in associateships. Australian orthodontists had twice the number of practices (Mean: 2.4; SD: 1.4) than their New Zealand counterparts (Mean: 1.1; SD: 0.3). Orthodontists estimated they saw a mean of 21.3 (SD: 11.3) patients per day. Older orthodontists saw few patients in a day and spent fewer hours in any practice activity in a week. The mean waiting time for a consultation appointment in the private sector in New Zealand was nearly twice that in Australia. There was a significant association between male orthodontists and referral of patients by general dental practitioners. More than three quarters of respondents incorporated retention fees into the treatment fee. Overall, orthodontists were satisfied with the workload and did not want more orthodontists in their geographical area. This study provides a sound basis for consideration of challenges in practice and changes over time.

  2. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  3. Gynecologic oncologists' attitudes and practices relating to integrative medicine: results of a nationwide AGO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bader, Werner; Brucker, Cosima; Dobos, Gustav; Fischer, Dorothea; Hanf, Volker; Hasenburg, Annette; Jud, Sebastian M; Kalder, Matthias; Kiechle, Marion; Kümmel, Sherko; Müller, Andreas; Müller, Myrjam-Alice T; Paepke, Daniela; Rotmann, Andre-Robert; Schütz, Florian; Scharl, Anton; Voiss, Petra; Wallwiener, Markus; Witt, Claudia; Hack, Carolin C

    2017-08-01

    The growing popularity and acceptance of integrative medicine is evident both among patients and among the oncologists treating them. As little data are available regarding health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to the topic, a nationwide online survey was designed. Over a period of 11 weeks (from July 15 to September 30, 2014) a self-administered, 17-item online survey was sent to all 676 members of the Research Group on Gynecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie) in the German Cancer Society. The questionnaire items addressed the use of integrative therapy methods, fields of indications for them, advice services provided, level of specific qualifications, and other topics. Of the 104 respondents (15.4%) using integrative medicine, 93% reported that integrative therapy was offered to breast cancer patients. The second most frequent type of tumor in connection with which integrative therapy methods were recommended was ovarian cancer, at 80% of the participants using integrative medicine. Exercise, nutritional therapy, dietary supplements, herbal medicines, and acupuncture were the methods the patients were most commonly advised to use. There is considerable interest in integrative medicine among gynecological oncologists, but integrative therapy approaches are at present poorly implemented in routine clinical work. Furthermore there is a lack of specific training. Whether future efforts should focus on extending counseling services on integrative medicine approaches in gynecologic oncology or not, have to be discussed. Evidence-based training on integrative medicine should be implemented in order to safely guide patients in their wish to do something by themselves.

  4. Practical challenges related to point of care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L.V. Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Point of care testing (POCT refers to laboratory testing that occurs near to the patient, often at the patient bedside. POCT can be advantageous in situations requiring rapid turnaround time of test results for clinical decision making. There are many challenges associated with POCT, mainly related to quality assurance. POCT is performed by clinical staff rather than laboratory trained individuals which can lead to errors resulting from a lack of understanding of the importance of quality control and quality assurance practices. POCT is usually more expensive than testing performed in the central laboratory and requires a significant amount of support from the laboratory to ensure the quality testing and meet accreditation requirements.Here, specific challenges related to POCT compliance with accreditation standards are discussed along with strategies that can be used to overcome these challenges. These areas include: documentation of POCT orders, charting of POCT results as well as training and certification of individuals performing POCT. Factors to consider when implementing connectivity between POCT instruments and the electronic medical record are also discussed in detail and include: uni-directional versus bidirectional communication, linking patient demographic information with POCT software, the importance of positive patient identification and considering where to chart POCT results in the electronic medical record. Keywords: Point of care Testing, Laboratory accreditation, Medical directive, Results documentation, Electronic Medical Record, Transcription error, Connectivity, Positive patient identification

  5. Considering dance practices as unique cases in interdisciplinary research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    ” (Flyvbjerg, 2011) in the domain of qualitative research. Such designs are of specific relevance for research projects exploring body, movement and sensing in general. Thereafter I present the results of some of my resent studies. These studies are based in a critical constructive interdisciplinary......The aim of this paper is to present interdisciplinary considerations of relevance to strengthen dance research in relation to – and in cooperation with - other academic disciplines. I firstly describe how dance practices can be handled as “extreme cases” and cases with “maximal variations...

  6. Self-adapting the success rate when practicing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Hofman, A.D.; Savi, A.; Visser, I.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Use and benefits of the possibility to choose a success rate are studied in a math-practice application that is used by a considerable percentage of Dutch primary school children. Study 1 uses data that were collected with the application, using children's practice data (N = 40,329; grades 1–6).

  7. Strategic directions for developing the Australian general practice nurse role in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Patricia M; Yallop, Julie; Griffiths, Rhonda; Daly, John

    2007-08-01

    Practice nursing is an integral component of British and New Zealand primary care, but in Australia it remains an emerging specialty. Despite an increased focus on the Australian practice nurse role, there has been limited strategic role development, particularly relating to national health priority areas. This paper reports the third stage of a Project exploring the Australian practice nurse role in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This stage involved a consensus development conference, undertaken to identify strategic, priority recommendations for practice nurse role development. 1. Practice nurses have an important role in developing systems and processes for CVD management; 2. A change in the culture of general practice is necessary to promote acceptance of nurse-led CVD management; 3. Future research needs to evaluate specific models of care, incorporating outcome measures sensitive to nursing interventions; 4. Considerable challenges exist in conducting research in general practice; and 5. Changes in funding models are necessary for widespread practice nurse role development. The shifting of funding models provides evidence to support interdisciplinary practice in Australian general practice. The time is ripe, therefore, to engage in prospective and strategic planning to inform development of the practice nurse role.

  8. The Study Of Anxiety In Medical Students And It’s Relation With Practice of Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding to deal with various stressors, which may cause impaired judgment, reduced concentration, lack of self-steam, increased anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 medical students from 6 month period to graduation in medical college of Tehran university of Medical sciences in order to assess their anxiety and practice of health behaviors and also the relation between the two variables and some other related factors.. Results: The results of study show that of 6.6% medical students suffer from severe state and 4.9% from trait anxiety. The finding of this study shows that 83.3% of girls and 84.6% of boys have practicing risky health behaviors. No statistical relationships found between, anxiety and practicing health behaviors. The relation between anxiety and health satisfaction was Statistically significant; mental and physical (P<0.001. Conclusion: The information found in this research, can help medical education institute to capitalize an opportunities to help their students in preventing risky behaviors, and different stress management techniques should be taught at medical schools.

  9. An audit of health products and services marketed on chiropractic websites in Alberta and consideration of these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A

    2007-06-01

    Chiropractic's success as a health care profession is evidenced in part by the rising number of practitioners. Paradoxically, this success may start to cost the profession, as the number of consumers may not be increasing proportionally. Fewer patients mean less income for practitioners. Some chiropractors are responding to these pressures by marketing health products, and services. To describe the extent to which Alberta chiropractors with websites sold health products and the extent to which fee discounts/service inducements were advertised. To consider these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics. Chiropractic websites in the province of Alberta were identified using the online Telus Business Finder and cross-referenced with the Yellow Pages print directories. The websites were searched and an inventory of the health products for sale was recorded. Fee discounts and service inducements were also recorded. 56 websites were identified and reviewed. Just under two-thirds of the chiropractic websites surveyed contained information on health products for sale. Orthotics were sold most often (N = 29 practices; 51.8%), followed by pillows and supports (N = 15: 26.8%), vitamins/nutritional supplements (N = 15; 26.8%) and exercise/rehabilitation products (N = 10; 17.9%). Nine practices (16.1%) offered some type of inducement to potential customers. These included discounts on treatment packages (N = 2; 3.6%), free gait/ posture analyses (N = 2; 3.6%) and free general consultations with the chiropractors (N = 3; 5.4%) The marketing of health care products and services by chiropractors in Alberta is common. Such practices raise ethical considerations for the profession. Professional guidelines vary on the acceptability of these practices. Consumer and practitioner perspectives and practices regarding retailing need to be further examined.

  10. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  11. Some considerations on displacement assumed finite elements with the reduced numerical integration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Isha, H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the displacement-assumed-finite elements by applying the reduced numerical integration technique in structural problems. The first part is a general consideration on the technique. Its purpose is to examine a variational interpretation of the finite element displacement formulation with the reduced integration technique in structural problems. The formulation is critically studied from a standpoint of the natural stiffness approach. It is shown that these types of elements are equivalent to a certain type of displacement and stress assumed mixed elements. The rank deficiency of the stiffness matrix of these elements is interpreted as a problem in the transformation from the natural system to a Cartesian system. It will be shown that a variational basis of the equivalent mixed formulation is closely related to the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. It is presented that for simple elements, e.g. bilinear quadrilateral plane stress and plate bending there are corresponding mixed elements from the functional. For relatively complex types of these elements, it is shown that they are equivalent to localized mixed elements from the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. In the second part, typical finite elements with the reduced integration technique are studied to demonstrate this equivalence. A bilinear displacement and rotation assumed shear beam element, a bilinear displacement assumed quadrilateral plane stress element and a bilinear deflection and rotation assumed quadrilateral plate bending element are examined to present equivalent mixed elements. Not only the theoretical consideration is presented but numerical studies are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of these elements in practical analysis. (orig.)

  12. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes

  13. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  14. Discontinuation of Preventive Drugs in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John Sahl; Lindberg, Laura Maria Glahder; Nixon, Michael Simon

    Introduction: In Denmark about 600,000 persons are treated for hypertension and more than 300,000 people are receiving cholesterol lowering drugs. The prevalence of hypertension in people aged 80 years is 70%. For antidepressants the defined daily doses/1000 aged >80 years/day exceed 200. By far...... the most preventive drugs are prescribed in general practice. Special considerations exist in relation to medication of elderly patients. The prevalence of polypharmacy and the subsequent increased risk of side effects and drug interactions is high. Drug-related problems represent the fifth leading cause...... of death in the United States. The public expenses to drug treatment are constantly increasing. The possibility to withdraw the medication must be taken into account but the decision to discontinue drugs is complex and poorly understood. Planned studies: 1. Patients’ views upon discontinuation...

  15. The Army's Green Warriors: Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... Environmental considerations encompass anything related to the environment that either affects the planning and execution of military operations, positively or negatively, or is affected by those operations...

  16. Predicting Use of Outdoor Fall Prevention Strategies: Considerations for Prevention Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor falls are just as common as indoor falls, but have received less attention in research and practice. Behavioral strategies play an important role in outdoor fall prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of strategy use. Backward stepwise regression was used to study factors associated with use of outdoor fall prevention strategies among a random sample ( N = 120) of community-dwelling seniors. Significant negative predictors of strategy use included higher education levels ( p outdoor fallers and nonfallers in the use of three different types of strategies ( ps outdoor fall prevention strategies. Further study of additional factors is warranted.

  17. Social Robotic Experience and Media Communication Practices: An Exploration on the Emotional and Ritualized Human-technology-relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Linke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technology-relations, theoretical ideas of a mediatization of communication and of a ritual interaction order are applied. Ritual theory is particularly used to enable a focus on emotion as a significant dimension in analyzing social technologies. This explorative article refers to empirical findings regarding media communication practices in close relationships. It argues that following the developed approach regarding mediatized and ritualized relational practices, useful insights for a conceptualization of the human-social robot relation can be achieved. The article concludes with remarks regarding the challenge of an empirical approach to human-social robot-relations.

  18. Siting considerations for radioactivity in reactor effluents during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.M.; Strom, P.O.

    1975-01-01

    In selecting a proper site for a nuclear power station, the consideration of radioactivity released in effluents can be handled in a straightforward manner using the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission's proposed Appendix I to 10 CFR 50, which gives numerical guidelines for design objectives for meeting the criterion ''as low as practicable'' for radioactive material in light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor effluents. By relating the release of radioactive material, the site meteorological conditions, and site boundary distance through appropriate dose models, the suitability of a given site can be determined. ''Rules of thumb'' for comparing anticipated releases to design objectives can be constructed for rapid assessment using the maximum permissible concentration values of 10 CFR 20 as dose factors. These rules of thumb tend to underpredict the allowed releases except in the case of radiocesium in liquids. For gaseous releases, these rules of thumb can be made up in convenient nomogram form for a quick assessment of allowed releases based on local site meteorological conditions. (U.S.)

  19. Employer Requirements to Work during Emergency Responses: Key Ethics Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Taylor, Holly A; Powell, Tia

    2017-03-01

    Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work. After describing different approaches taken by local health departments throughout the United States, we briefly identify and explore key ethics considerations that arise for local health departments when employees are required to report to work for emergency responses. We then discuss how these ethics considerations may inform local health department practices intended to promote a robust emergency response.

  20. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Salama, Khaled N.; Sedky, S.; Soliman, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  1. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-07-28

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  2. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The importance of gender of patients and general practitioners in relation to treatment practices for overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Hessner, Marie Vik; Lous, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that men and women are treated differently for similar disease including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Differences in attitudes and treatment practices towards men and women with obesity are not well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes...... and treatment practices among Danish general practitioners (GPs), in relation to treatment of overweight, while taking gender of both the patients and practitioners into account. DESIGN: Questionnaire inventory covertly examining attitudes and practices among Danish general practitioners towards treatment......: Among general practitioners in Denmark, treatment for weight loss is more often practiced for overweight male than overweight female patients presenting with same symptoms. In addition, hyperlipidemia among overweight males is also more often treated with lipid lowering medicine than hyperlipidemia...

  4. Multicultural and Diversity Considerations in the New "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Brenda Y.; Fleming, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    As the demographic transformation of the U.S. population continues, the challenges of multicultural and diversity-based considerations remain a central focus, as does the need to incorporate cultural competencies into the practice of rehabilitation. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for…

  5. A Dialogue with Social Media Experts: Measurement and Challenges of Social Media Use in Chinese Public Relations Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Luo; Hua Jiang

    2012-01-01

    With the advent and increasing popularity of new communication technologies, social media tools have been widely used in corporate organization-public communication. The extant literature on social media use in public relations practice has largely centered on the ways social media tools have transformed the practice of public relations in the United States. Limited studies have examined the role of social media in China. The present study represents one of the first to investigate the measur...

  6. Information Governance: A Model for Security in Medical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A.H. Williams

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Information governance is becoming an important aspect of organisational accountability. In consideration that information is an integral asset of most organisations, the protection of this asset will increasingly rely on organisational capabilities in security.  In the medical arena this information is primarily sensitive patient-based information. Previous research has shown that application of security measures is a low priority for primary care medical practice and that awareness of the risks are seriously underestimated. Consequently, information security governance will be a key issue for medical practice in the future. Information security governance is a relatively new term and there is little existing research into how to meet governance requirements. The limited research that exists describes information security governance frameworks at a strategic level. However, since medical practice is already lagging in the implementation of appropriate security, such definition may not be practical although it is obviously desirable. This paper describes an on-going action research project undertaken in the area of medical information security, and presents a tactical approach model aimed at addressing information security governance and the protection of medical data. 

  7. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  8. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  9. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS, geographically weighted regression (GRW, and exploratory regression (ER were applied to (a model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70. Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m, insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning, irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the

  10. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  11. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2014-10-01

    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. What is required for the validation of in vitro assays for predicting contaminant relative bioavailability? Considerations and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Albert L.; Basta, Nicholas T.; Smith, Euan

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown the potential of in vitro assays to predict contaminant in vivo relative bioavailability in order to refine human health exposure assessment. Although the term ‘validated’ has been used to describe the goodness of fit between in vivo and in vitro observations, its misuse has arisen from semantic considerations in addition to the lack of defined criteria for establishing performance validation. While several internal validation methods may be utilised, performance validation should preferably focus on assessing the agreement of model predictions with a set of data which are independent of those used to construct the model. In order to achieve robust validated predictive models, a number of parameters (e.g. size of data set, source of independent soils, contaminant concentration range, animal model, relative bioavailability endpoint) need to be considered in addition to defined criteria for establishing performance validation which are currently lacking. -- Defined criteria for establishing in vivo–in vitro performance validation are required in order to ensure robust, defensible predictive models for human health exposure assessment

  13. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli

    2017-11-01

    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  14. Icelandic nurses' beliefs, skills, and resources associated with evidence-based practice and related factors: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Hrund S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential to the improvement of patient outcomes and the quality of care. Nurses' use of evidence in practice, however, remains limited. Assessing nurses' readiness for EBP where it is not as prominent as in countries leading EBP research was of particular interest. To determine Icelandic registered nurses' (RNs') ability to provide care based on evidence as measured by their beliefs, perception of skills, and access to resources associated with EBP. A descriptive survey was used in which a random sample of 540 Icelandic RNs completed the translated and modified version of the Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice and the translated EBP Beliefs Scale. Descriptive statistics, correlations, chi-square tests, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Participants strongly believed in the value of EBP for patient care, but were less confident regarding their own knowledge and skills needed for EBP. Most (82%) of the respondents (i.e., RNs) turned to peers when in need of information, rather than peer-reviewed resources. Although over half of the RNs (54%) had received instructions in the use of electronic databases, only a third indicated success in using them. They considered "lack of search skills" as the primary barrier to use of research in practice. Using research findings in practice was associated with positive EBP beliefs, familiarity with EBP and other EBP-related activities. Clinical RNs were found to be at a disadvantage when it came to access to EBP-related resources and participated less frequently in EBP-related activities other than using research in practice. Icelandic RNs' beliefs regarding EBP are similar to those of RNs in other countries. Their access to EBP resources is generally good, but they lack the skills and knowledge needed for EBP. Strategies aimed at changing the organizational and practice context need to be developed. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Structuring group medical practices: shareholder and partnership agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, A S

    1992-01-01

    This article is the second in a series addressing the structuring of group medical entities, shareholder relationships, and general representation factors. In this article, a number of the legal and business considerations for entering into shareholder and partnership agreements are discussed, and various types of practice structures and recommended group practice agreement provisions are described.

  16. Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Caroline A; Russo, Ethan B

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. With the advent of pharmaceutical cannabis-based medicines (Sativex/nabiximols and Epidiolex), and liberalisation of access in certain nations, this ignorance of cannabis pharmacology and therapeutics has become untenable. In this article, the authors endeavour to present concise data on cannabis pharmacology related to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) et al., methods of administration (smoking, vaporisation, oral), and dosing recommendations. Adverse events of cannabis medicine pertain primarily to THC, whose total daily dose-equivalent should generally be limited to 30mg/day or less, preferably in conjunction with CBD, to avoid psychoactive sequelae and development of tolerance. CBD, in contrast to THC, is less potent, and may require much higher doses for its adjunctive benefits on pain, inflammation, and attenuation of THC-associated anxiety and tachycardia. Dose initiation should commence at modest levels, and titration of any cannabis preparation should be undertaken slowly over a period of as much as two weeks. Suggestions are offered on cannabis-drug interactions, patient monitoring, and standards of care, while special cases for cannabis therapeutics are addressed: epilepsy, cancer palliation and primary treatment, chronic pain, use in the elderly, Parkinson disease, paediatrics, with concomitant opioids, and in relation to driving and hazardous activities. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of best practice in relation to iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, A.; Kruse, P.; Smith, K

    2010-03-01

    This report was produced by Enviros Consulting Ltd under contract to the RPII. It presents a review of best practice in relation to the management of iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer and recommends a waste management strategy that could be adopted in the Republic of Ireland

  18. Current status and future considerations for a transportation system for spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Darr, D.G.; Godfrey, W.L.; Keely, R.B.; Lusk, E.C.; Peterson, R.W.; Ridihalgh, J.L.; Shallo, F.A.; Young, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is part of the OWI Transportation/Logistics systems analysis of problems associated with shipping these wastes to waste terminal storage facilities. It covers governmental regulations and functional responsibilities, highway and rail transportation status and economic considerations, assessment of present industry capabilities and business-related considerations, important receiving facility considerations, necessary engineering and licensing-related aspects of packaging systems, and essential elements of reprocessing plant waste activities including packaging and transportation

  19. Using a Locum Tenens in a Private Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Slabbert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many medical practitioners in private practice use a locum tenens when they themselves are not available to practice. The locums are often appointed without consideration of the legal consequences or requirements. Legislation distinguishes between an employee and an independent contractor. If the locum is appointed as an employee the doctrine of vicarious liability comes into play which is not the case with an independent contractor. Contracts currently available to appoint a locum give the contracting parties a choice between being appointed as an employee or an independent contractor; this should be changed in that all locums should be appointed as independent contractors especially if the working of the Consumer Protection Act is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, according to the rules of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA the onus to ensure that the locum tenens is registered and fit to practice, rests with the principal.

  20. Associations of Organizational Safety Practices and Culture With Physical Workload, Perceptions About Work, and Work-Related Injury and Symptoms Among Hospital Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Joung Hee

    The study aim was to examine the relationships of organizational safety practices with nurses' perceptions about job and risk and experiences of work-related injury and symptoms. Nursing professions report high rates of work-related injuries. Organizational safety practices have been linked to workers' safety outcomes and perceptions about work. This study analyzed data from a random sample of 280 California RNs in a cross-sectional statewide survey. Data were collected by both postal and online surveys. Higher perceptions of organizational safety practices (safety climate, ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture) were significantly associated with lower physical workload, lower job strain, higher job satisfaction, lower risk perception, and lower work-related injury and symptom experiences. Ergonomic practices and people-oriented culture were associated with less intention of leaving job. Organizational safety practices may play a pivotal role in improving positive perceptions about jobs, reducing injury risks, and promoting nurse retention.

  1. Relative professional roles in antenatal care: results of a survey in Scottish rural general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Stimpson, Paul; Tucker, Janet

    2003-11-01

    There is evidence of variation and some ambiguity about self-perceived relative professional roles in antenatal care in the UK. There is little information about models of antenatal care provision in UK rural areas. In rural areas, in particular, women have limited choice in accessing health care professionals or alternative primary care delivery settings. In the light of a recent review of Scottish maternity services, it is important and timely to examine models of care and interprofessional working in antenatal care in rural areas. This study explores midwives' and GPs' perceptions about their relative professional roles in remote and rural general practice in Scotland. A questionnaire survey involving all 174 Scottish remote and rural general practices (using one definition of rurality) was conducted, followed by 20 interviews. At least one professional returned a completed questionnaire from 91% of rural practices. A number of areas of dissonance were noted between GPs' and midwives' perceptions of their roles in maternity care and, given the context of service provision, these may impact upon rural patients. Findings are relevant to wider debates on extending the primary care team and strengthening inter-disciplinary working, particularly in rural areas.

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  3. Eleven essential steps to purchasing or selling a medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, William

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience in representing more than 100 doctors and medical specialists in practice sales and acquisitions, we have identified 11 key considerations important to a deal. There are several issues to consider while going through the process of buying or selling a practice including the implementation of a "letter of intent" as a first step rather than drafting a contract, securing a lease, and verifying the property is not in violation of the local zoning requirements. There are also considerations with regard to the patients, which range from how will the accounts receivable at the time of the closing be handled to who is responsible for the handling of continued treatment in an ongoing case after a deal is finalized. This article details these considerations and more.

  4. Practice and Age-Related Loss of Adaptability in Sensorimotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Voudrie, Stefani J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine whether the ability to adapt to task constraints is influenced by short-term practice in older adults. Young (18–29 years old) and old (65–75 years old) adults produced force output to a constant force target and a 1-Hz sinusoidal force target by way of the index finger flexion. Participants completed each task 5 times per session for 5 concurrent sessions. The amount and structure of force variability was calculated using linear and nonlinear analyses. As expected, there was a decrease in the magnitude of variability (coefficient of variation) in both tasks and task-related change in the structure of force variability (approximate entropy) with training across groups. The authors found older adults to have a greater amount of variability than their younger counterparts in both tasks. Older adults also demonstrated an increase in the structure of force output in the constant task but a decrease in structure in the sinusoidal task. Age differences in the adaptability to task constraints persisted throughout practice. The authors propose that older adults' ability to adapt sensorimotor output to task demands is not a result of lack of familiarity with the task but that it is, instead, characteristic of the aging process. PMID:19201684

  5. Patient attributes warranting consideration in clinical practice guidelines, health workforce planning and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal Leonie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs to meet their broad objective of enhancing the quality of care and supporting improved patient outcomes, they must address the needs of diverse patient populations. We set out to explore the patient attributes that are likely to demand a unique approach to the management of chronic disease, and which are crucial if evidence or services planning is to reflect clinic populations. These were incorporated into a new conceptual framework; using diabetes mellitus as an exemplar. Methods The patient attributes that informed the framework were identified from CPGs, the diabetes literature, an expert academic panel, and two cross-disciplinary panels; and agreed upon using a modified nominal group technique. Results Full consensus was reached on twenty-four attributes. These factors fell into one of three themes: (1 type/stage of disease, (2 morbid events, and (3 factors impacting on capacity to self-care. These three themes were incorporated in a convenient way in the workforce evidence-based (WEB model. Conclusions While biomedical factors are frequently recognised in published clinical practice guidelines, little attention is given to attributes influencing a person's capacity to self-care. Paying explicit attention to predictable threats to effective self-care in clinical practice guidelines, by drawing on the WEB model, may assist in refinements that would address observed disparities in health outcomes across socio-economic groups. The WEB model also provides a framework to inform clinical training, and health services and workforce planning and research; including the assessment of healthcare needs, and the allocation of healthcare resources.

  6. Waste in Education: The Potential of Materiality and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt; Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Laessøe, Jeppe

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how waste materials and waste practices figure in education, pointing to educational potentials of waste which have hitherto received little consideration in environmental and sustainability education practice and research. Building on empirical research on waste education in Danish schools and preschools, we discuss how an…

  7. Psychometric properties of DAPonDEN: definitions, attitudes and practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen A; Bin Sidek, Muhamad Adam; Chinna, Karuthan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the developed 21 item questionnaire to measure definitions, attitudes and management practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition (DAPonDEN). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis from a cross sectional study of 102 nurses aged 18 and over, conducted from December 2011 to February 2012 in Malaysia. Face and content validity of DAPonDEN were first evaluated by few expert panels and patients. For this study, adult nurses were recruited from the adult wards. In the final model, three items in DAPonDEN were dropped. In the exploratory factor analysis, five factors were extracted that explained a total of 55% of the variation in the remaining 18 items. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was 0.723. For definition, there were two underlying factors: 'Key items in defining diarrhea' and 'non-key items in defining diarrhea'. For attitude there was a single factor. For practice, there were two underlying factors: 'enteral nutrition (EN) related' and 'awareness related'. The items in each of the underlying dimensions seem to measure the respective concepts for definition, attitude and practices adequately. The 18-items DAPonDEN instrument can be a suitable education tool to be used in relation to diarrhea during EN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical practice recommendations for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, G S; Adams, D; Porter, R; Wignall, A; Lampe, L; O'Connor, N; Paton, M; Newton, L A; Walter, G; Taylor, A; Berk, M; Mulder, R T

    2009-01-01

    To provide clinically relevant evidence-based recommendations for the management of depression in adults that are informative, easy to assimilate and facilitate clinical decision making. A comprehensive literature review of over 500 articles was undertaken using electronic database search engines (e.g. MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Cochrane reviews). In addition articles, book chapters and other literature known to the authors were reviewed. The findings were then formulated into a set of recommendations that were developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians who routinely deal with mood disorders. The recommendations then underwent consultative review by a broader advisory panel that included experts in the field, clinical staff and patient representatives. The clinical practice recommendations for depression (Depression CPR) summarize evidence-based treatments and provide a synopsis of recommendations relating to each phase of the illness. They are designed for clinical use and have therefore been presented succinctly in an innovative and engaging manner that is clear and informative. These up-to-date recommendations provide an evidence-based framework that incorporates clinical wisdom and consideration of individual factors in the management of depression. Further, the novel style and practical approach should promote uptake and implementation.

  9. The absolute power of relative risk in debates on repeat cesareans and home birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Changes in policies and practices related to repeat cesareans and home birth in the U.S. have been influenced by different interpretations of the risk of poor outcomes. This article examines two cases-vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) and home birth to illustrate how an emphasis on relative over absolute risk has been used to characterize outcomes associated with these practices. The case studies will rely on reviews of the research literature and examination of data on birth trends and outcomes. Childbirth involves some unique challenges in assessing health risks, specifically the issues of: (1) timing of risks (lowering health risk in a current birth can increase it in subsequent births); (2) the potential weighing of risks to the mother's versus the infant's health; (3) the fact that birth is a condition of health and many of the feared outcomes (for example, symptomatic uterine rupture) involve very low absolute risk of occurrence; and (4) a malpractice environment that seizes upon those rare poor outcomes in highly publicized lawsuits that receive widespread attention in the clinical community. In the cases of VBAC and home birth, the result has been considerable emphasis on relative risks, typically an adjusted odds ratio, with little consideration of absolute risks. Assessments of the safety of interventions in childbirth should involve careful consideration and communication of the multiple dimensions of risk, particularly a balancing of relative and absolute risks of poor health outcomes.

  10. Design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Jones, C.R.

    1989-06-01

    Studies on spent fuel shipping logistics and operation make it clear that the use of large casks, i.e., 100--125 tons, is superior to smaller casks of similar construction. This superiority manifests itself in both transportation and/or shipping economics and safety as well as reduced personnel exposure in the processing of the casks. An on-site system for the transfer of spent fuel from the storage pool to a large shipping or storage cask, as well as the transfer of spent fuel directly from a storage cask to a shipping cask, could bring the large cask benefits to those restricted reactors. Sensing the need to look more closely at this opportunity, EPRI contracted with S. Levy, Incorporated of Campbell, CA to develop a set of design considerations for such transfer systems. Rather then embark on another design study, EPRI decided to first identify the system considerations that must be factored into any design. The format for this effort presents both the Consideration and the Rationale for the consideration. The resulting work identified thirty-six General Considerations and two Special Considerations. The Considerations are in the form of mandatory requirements and desirable but nonmandatory requirements. Additionally, a brief economic study was performed to get a feel for the cost considerations of on-site transfers. The study results suggest a relatively narrow set of scenarios where on-site transfers are economically superior to alternatives. These scenarios generally involve the use of concrete casks as on-site storage devices

  11. Key elements of high-quality practice organisation in primary health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L

    2014-08-04

    To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.

  12. Optical fiber sensors for medical applications: practical engineering considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.A.C.; Cheng, L.K.; Wieringa, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of optical fibers as medical sensors are recognized world wide nowadays. Insensitivity to electromagnetic disturbances and relative small dimensions are the most well known properties. The advantages of fiber optic sensors are especially valuable within environments with high

  13. Relative Importance of Human Resource Practices on Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention in South Korea and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived HR practices on affective commitment and turnover intention. This study explored which HR practices were relatively more important in predicting affective commitment and turnover intention. A total of 302 employees from the United States and 317 from South Korea completed the same questionnaires for assessing the aforementioned relationships. The results illustrated that among perceived HR practices, internal mobility had the most significant association with turnover intention in both the United States and South Korea. While internal mobility was a stronger predictor of affective commitment for the United States sample, training was the most important variable for predicting affective commitment in South Korea. The second purpose of the study was to examine whether individuals’ positive affect influences the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention. In the United States, positive affect moderated the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention such that the relationships were stronger for individuals reporting high positive affect relative to those reporting low positive affect. However, these relationships were not significant in South Korea. We discuss the implications of these results, study limitations, and practical suggestions for future research.

  14. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy: Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Balán, Iván C.; Lejuez, C. W.; Hoffer, Marcela; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral Activation and specifically the Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression (BATD) has a strong record of empirical support but its focus on practical out of session activation-based assignments can lead to poor levels of adherence if efforts to enhance motivation are not prioritized. Towards this end, this manuscript describes the assimilative integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and BATD to improve clinical outcomes by integrating MI's focus on building and mainta...

  15. Practical considerations on frenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, Lucia; Badea, Florin Ciprian; Odor, Alin A.

    2014-01-01

    Besides surgically classical frenectomy, modern dentistry currently allows its approach by dental laser. Materials and Method: We proposed clinical observation of the results obtained by frenectomy with/without frenoplasty made by laser Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm. Results: The patients reported no pain, bleeding, swelling or major discomfort during the postoperative control of the following day. In terms of psycho-emotional reactions, both patients well behave well, the calm being given by no pain, bleeding, suture or edema. Discussions: The accuracy of this method, as well as the use of additional means of healing, allow satisfactory results both for patient and physician. Working parameters depend on the type of laser that is used, in our case Biolase Waterlase MD Turbo, regularly used in Toldimed Clinic in Constanta. Conclusions: Our study reveals that the possibilities regarding the surgical modeling of the lower lip frenulum are higher due to laser than the classical surgical approach. Moreover, a major role in the prevention of relapse by inappropriate healing is represented by the approach of frenectomy accompanied by frenuloplasty.

  16. Quantitative accelerated degradation testing: Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein; Ait-Kadi, Daoud; Routhier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The concept of accelerated testing by tracking degradation of samples over test time needs to be developed for reliability estimation. This paper aims at proposing practical approaches to conduct accelerated degradation testing on new and available used samples. For this purpose, product failure is related to a suitable physical property. Then, its failure time is defined as the expected time in which its property reaches the critical level. Degradation model of field samples returned from service due to a degrading failure mode has been estimated based on the least square method, and available gap between manufacturer criterion and user's claim (to report a failure) has also been discussed. For a product under some stresses, a general formula has been proposed by the superposition principle in order to estimate its degradation for independent and dependent failure modes. If used samples are available, and acceleration factor of the related test is unknown, partial aging method has been presented to considerably shorten the test time.

  17. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2009-08-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.

  18. Nurse prescribing in general practice: a qualitative study of job satisfaction and work-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Rosanna; Donnell, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Studies examining the impact nurse prescribing have largely focused on the efficacy of the service. It was suggested in pro-prescribing policy arguments that extending the nursing role to include prescribing would increase job satisfaction. This assertion has not been fully explored. To investigate the impact of independent prescribing for experienced nurse practitioners (NPs) working in general practice. In-depth interviews were conducted with six NPs who each had at least 3 years experience of independent prescribing in a busy inner city general practice. Analysis of interview data yielded two main themes: as independent prescribers NPs experienced increased levels of both job satisfaction and work-related stress. Increased satisfaction was associated with having greater autonomy and being able to provide more holistic care. Increased work-related stress emerged from greater job demands, perceived insufficient support and perceived effort-reward imbalance that centred upon the enhanced role not being recognized in terms of an increase in grade and pay. Independent prescribing increases job satisfaction for NPs in general practice, but there is also evidence of stressors associated with the role. It is important that NPs in general practice are encouraged and supported towards providing the effective patient-centred care in the community envisaged by current UK government. We acknowledge that the results presented in this paper are based on a sample limited to one city; however, it provides information that has important implications for the well being of NPs and ultimately patient care.

  19. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  20. Systemic therapy and the social relational model of disability: enabling practices with people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapy has been critiqued for personalizing the political (Kitzinger, 1993). The social-relational model (Thomas, 1999) is one theoretical resource for understanding the practices of therapy through a political lens. The social model(s) have viewed therapy with suspicion. This paper highlights – using composite case examples and the authors primary therapeutic modality, systemic therapy – some systemic practices with adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) that enact a position that it is s...