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Sample records for pr tb ho

  1. Magnetic structures of rare earth intermetallic compounds RCuAs2 (R = Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lynn, J. W.; Thakur, G. S.; Haque, Z.; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Neutron scattering studies have been carried out on polycrystalline samples of a series of rare earth intermetallic compounds RCuAs2 (R = Pr, Nd, Dy, Tb, Ho and Yb) as a function of temperature to determine the magnetic structures and the order parameters. These compounds crystallize in the ZrCuSi2 type structure, which is similar to that of the RFeAsO (space group P4/nmm) class of iron-based superconductors. PrCuAs2 develops commensurate magnetic order with K = (0, 0, 0.5) below TN = 6.4(2) K, with the ordered moments pointing along the c-axis. The irreducible representation analysis shows either a Γ12 or Γ13 representation. NdCuAs2 and DyCuAs2 order below TN = 3.54(5) K and TN = 10.1(2) K, respectively, with the same ordering wave vector but the moments lying in the a-b plane (with a Γ29 or Γ210 representation). TbCuAs2 and HoCuAs2 exhibit incommensurate magnetic structures below TN = 9.44(7) and 4.41(2) K, respectively. For TbCuAs2, two separate magnetic ordering wave vectors are established as K1(Tb) = (0.240,0.155,0.48) and K2(Tb) = (0.205, 0.115, 0.28), whereas HoCuAs2 forms a single K(Ho) = (0.121, 0.041, 0.376) magnetic structure with 3rd order harmonic magnetic peaks. YbCuAs2 does not exhibit any magnetic Bragg peaks at 1.5 K, while susceptibility measurements indicate an antiferromagnetic-like transition at 4 K, suggesting that either the ordering is not long range in nature or the ordered moment is below the sensitivity limit of ≈0.2 μB.

  2. Electronic structure of triple intermetallic compounds of RAl/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ type. [(R=Pr,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm,Yb,Lu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoshkalenko, V.V.; Nagornyj, V.Ya.; Mamko, B.P.; Nikolyuk, P.K.; Gel, P.V.; Lutsiv, R.V.; Koterlin, M.D. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki; L' vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1981-11-01

    The electron structure of triple intermetallic compounds of RAl/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ type (R=Pr, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) is studied by X-ray spectral analysis. The study permits an assumption that the studied phases possess covalent bends besides metallic ones.

  3. Síntesis hidrotermal de monocristales LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Señarís Rodríguez, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten single crystals of the series LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er were synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis in a single step and without subsequent thermal treatments from aqueous solutions of metals salts at 240 ºC. The obtained single crystals have a size of various micrometers and their morphology changes throughout the serie: they are polygonal in the case of the compounds with Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd and needle-like in the case of the compounds with Ln= Y, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. After the analysis of the obtained products employing different conditions of synthesis we attributed the different morphology to a greater growth rate along the c axis when the smaller ions (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er are involved, due to their better adaptation to the compound’s crystal structure.Se han conseguido preparar monocristales de 10 óxidos mixtos de la serie LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er mediante síntesis hidrotermal optimizada, en un único paso y sin tratamientos térmicos posteriores partiendo de las correspondientes sales metálicas en disolución acuosa a 240 ºC. Los monocristales obtenidos son relativamente grandes, de varias micras y su morfología varía a lo largo de la serie: es poligonal en el caso de los compuestos de los lantánidos del inicio de la serie (Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu y Gd y acicular en el caso de los compuestos de Y y de los lantánidos del final de la serie (Ln= Tb, Dy, Ho y Er. Tras el análisis de los productos obtenidos empleando distintas condiciones de síntesis atribuimos la diferente morfología a una mayor velocidad de crecimiento cristalino a lo largo del eje c cuando intervienen los iones más pequeños (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er debido a la mejor adaptación de éstos últimos a la estructura cristalina del compuesto.

  4. Improvement of Thermal Stability of Nd-Tb-Fe-Co-B Sintered Magnets by Additions of Pr, Ho, Al, and Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the influence of Pr, Al, Cu, B and Ho which were introduced into the Co-containing sintered magnets of Nd-Dy-Tb-Fe-Co-B type on the magnetic parameters (α, Hci, Br, BHmax⁡. The effect of heat treatment parameters on magnetic properties was also studied. It was revealed that the essential alloying of NdFeB magnets by such elements as Dy, Tb, Ho, Co as well as by boron-forming elements, for example, by titanium, may lead to reducing of F-phase quantity, and, as a consequence, to decreasing of magnetic parameters. It was also shown that additional doping of such alloys by Pr, B, Al and Cu leads to a significant increase of the quantity of F-phase in magnets as well as solubility of the Dy, Tb, Ho and Co in it. This promotes the increase of magnetic parameters. It was possible to attain the following properties for the magnets (Nd0,15Pr0,35Tb0,25Ho0,2515(Fe0,71Co0,29bal ⋅ Al0,9Cu0,1B8,5 (at. % after optimal thermal treatment {1175 K (3,6–7,2 ks with slow (12–16 ks cooling to 675 K and subsequently remaining at T=775 K for 3,6 ks—hardening}: Br=0,88 T, Hci=1760 kA/m, BHmax⁡=144 kJ/m3, α<|0,01|%/K in the temperature interval 223–323 K.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the tripod-kagome-lattice family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Li, K.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Blanc, N.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the rare-earth tripod-kagome-lattice (TKL) family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb; here, we use abbreviation A-R, as in MgPr for Mg2Pr3Sb3O14 ), which complements our previously reported work on MgDy, MgGd, and MgEr [Z. L. Dun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 157201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.157201]. The present susceptibility (χdc, χac) and specific-heat measurements reveal various magnetic ground states, including the nonmagnetic singlet state for MgPr, ZnPr; long-range orderings (LROs) for MgGd, ZnGd, MgNd, ZnNd, and MgYb; a long-range magnetic charge ordered state for MgDy, ZnDy, and potentially for MgHo; possible spin-glass states for ZnEr, ZnHo; the absence of spin ordering down to 80 mK for MgEr, MgTb, ZnTb, and ZnYb compounds. The ground states observed here bear both similarities as well as striking differences from the states found in the parent pyrochlore systems. In particular, while the TKLs display a greater tendency towards LRO, the lack of LRO in MgHo, MgTb, and ZnTb can be viewed from the standpoint of a balance among spin-spin interactions, anisotropies, and non-Kramers nature of single-ion state. While substituting Zn for Mg changes the chemical pressure, and subtly modifies the interaction energies for compounds with larger R ions, this substitution introduces structural disorder and modifies the ground states for compounds with smaller R ions (Ho, Er, Yb).

  6. Hydrogenation Properties of Laves Phases LnMg2 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werwein, Anton; Maaß, Florian; Dorsch, Leonhard Y; Janka, Oliver; Pöttgen, Rainer; Hansen, Thomas C; Kimpton, Justin; Kohlmann, Holger

    2017-12-18

    The hydrogenation properties of Laves phases LnMg2 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) were investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray, synchrotron, and neutron powder diffraction. At 14.0 MPa hydrogen gas pressure and 393 K, PrMg2 and NdMg2 take up hydrogen and form the colorless, ternary hydrides PrMg2H7 (P41212, a = 632.386(6) pm, c = 945.722(11) pm) and NdMg2H7 (P41212, a = 630.354(9) pm, c = 943.018(16) pm). The crystal structures were refined by the Rietveld method from neutron powder diffraction data on the deuterides (PrMg2D7, P41212, a = 630.56(2) pm, c = 943.27(3) pm; NdMg2D7, P41212, a = 628.15(2) pm, c = 940.32(3) pm) and shown to be isotypic to LaMg2D7. The LaMg2D7 type of hydrides decompose at 695 K (La), 684 K (Ce), 684 K (Pr), 672 K (Nd), and 639 K (Sm) to lanthanide hydrides and magnesium. The Laves phase EuMg2 forms a hydride EuMg2Hx of black color. Its crystal structure (P212121, a = 664.887(4) pm, b = 1136.993(7) pm, c = 1069.887(7) pm) is closely related to the hexagonal Laves phase (MgZn2 type) of the hydrogen-free parent intermetallic. GdMg2 and TbMg2 form hydrides GdMg2Hx with orthorhombic unit cells (a = 1282.7(4) pm, b = 572.5(2) pm, c = 881.7(2) pm) and TbMg2Hx (a = 617.8(3) pm, b = 1045.8(8) pm, c = 997.1(5) pm), presumably also with a distorted MgZn2 type of structure. CeMg2H7 and NdMg2H7 are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.49(1) μB and 3.62(1) μB, respectively, in good agreement with the calculated magnetic moments of the free trivalent rare-earth cations (μcalc(Ce3+) = 2.54 μB; μcalc(Nd3+) = 3.62 μB).

  7. Visible and near-infrared intense luminescence from water-soluble lanthanide [Tb(III), Eu(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), Er(III)] complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quici, Silvio; Cavazzini, Marco; Marzanni, Giovanni; Accorsi, Gianluca; Armaroli, Nicola; Ventura, Barbara; Barigelletti, Francesco

    2005-02-07

    The synthesis of a new ligand (1) containing a single phenanthroline (phen) chromophore and a flexibly connected diethylenetriamine tetracarboxylic acid unit (DTTA) as a lanthanide (Ln) coordination site is reported [1 is 4-[(9-methyl-1,10-phenantrol-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazaheptane-1,1,7,7-tetraacetic acid]. From 1, an extended series of water-soluble Ln.1 complexes was obtained, where Ln is Eu(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III). The stoichiometry for the association was found 1:1, with an association constant K(A) > or = 10(7) s(-1) as determined by employing luminescence spectroscopy. The luminescence and photophysical properties of the series of lanthanide complexes were investigated in both H2O and D2O solutions. High efficiencies for the sensitized emission, phi(se), in air-equilibrated water were observed for the Ln.1 complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) in the visible region (phi(se) = 0.24 and 0.15, respectively) and of Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III) in the vis and/or near-infrared region [phi(se) = 2.5 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-4), 3 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-4), 4 x 10(-5), and (in D2O) 4 x 10(-5), respectively]. For Eu.1 and Tb.1, luminescence data for water and deuterated water allowed us to estimate that no solvent molecules (q) are bound to the ion centers (q = 0). Luminescence quenching by oxygen was investigated in selected cases.

  8. Fluorescence dynamics of Tb 3+ and Tb 3+/Ho 3+ doped phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S.; Hazarika, S.

    2008-05-01

    UV absorption and fluorescence analysis of Tb 3+ in phosphate glass is carried out by Judd-Ofelt method with emphasis on the 5D→7F lasing transition. Branching ratios, peak emission cross-sections for 5D→7( level of Tb 3+ are calculated using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. Furthermore, fluorescence dynamics of the 5D level of Tb 3+ ion in phosphate glasses co-doped with Ho 3+ were experimentally investigated with classical Forster-Dexter model for direct cross-relaxation type energy transfer between Tb 3+ (donor) and Ho 3+ (acceptor). The energy transfer rates between Tb 3+ and Ho 3+ in phosphate glasses were calculated on the basis of experimental measurements. These measurements were performed for 1 wt.% of Tb 3+ and Ho 3+ concentration ranging from 0 to 3 wt.%. The results show that energy transfer occurs between the 5D 4 terbium and 5F 3 holmium levels and is a phonon-assisted dipole-dipole interaction.

  9. Polyoxopalladates encapsulating yttrium and lanthanide ions, [X(III)Pd(II)12(AsPh)8O32]5- (X=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukova, Maria; Izarova, Natalya V; Biboum, Rosa Ngo; Keita, Bineta; Nadjo, Louis; Ramachandran, Vasanth; Dalal, Naresh S; Antonova, Nadya S; Carbó, Jorge J; Poblet, Josep M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2010-08-09

    A series of novel yttrium- and lanthanide-containing heteropolyoxopalladates have been prepared and isolated as hydrated sodium salts, Na(5)[X(III)Pd(II)(12)(AsPh)(8)O(32)]y H(2)O (X=Y (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Tb (7), Dy (8), Ho (9), Er (10), Tm (11), Yb (12), Lu (13); y=15-27). The polyanions [X(III)Pd(II)(12)(AsPh)(8)O(32)](5-) consist of a cuboid framework of twelve Pd(II) ions with eight phenylarsonate heterogroups located at the vertices and a central guest ion X. The compounds 1-13 have been prepared in a simple one-pot self-assembly reaction of Pd(CH(3)COO)(2), phenylarsonic acid and the respective salt of the element X in 0.5 M aqueous sodium acetate solution (pH 6.9), and characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, and IR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that small, medium, and also large lanthanide ions can be incorporated in the center of the novel heteropolypalladate [X(III)Pd(II)(12)(AsPh)(8)O(32)](5-). The Ln-O bond lengths follow the expected trend decreasing from left to right in the lanthanide series. This indicates that the {Pd(II)(12)O(32)} shell can adjust to the coordination requirements of the encapsulated guest cation. Compounds 3 and 5 were selected for electrochemical studies. Their cyclic voltammetry in a lithium acetate buffer at pH 5.9 showed a Pd(0) deposition process on the glassy carbon electrode surface. Coulometry indicated that all Pd(II) centers were reduced to Pd(0). The film was stable and could be taken out of the deposition medium and characterized in pure pH 5.9 buffer. Magnetic susceptibility and EPR measurements were carried out on 5 and 6. The former was confirmed to be diamagnetic and the latter strongly paramagnetic with a S=7/2 ground state. DFT calculations for some of the polyoxometalates have been also performed.

  10. Spin structure and magnetic frustration in multiferroic RMn2O5 (R=Tb,Ho,Dy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G.R.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Park, S.; Hur, N.; Cheong, S-W.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the crystal and magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric materials RMn2O5 (R=Tb,Ho,Dy) using neutron diffraction as a function of temperature. All three materials display incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below 40 K, becoming commensurate on further cooling. For R=Tb,Ho, a

  11. Magnetic structures in RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleno, E., E-mail: eric.alleno@icmpe.cnrs.fr [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS-UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mazumdar, C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-1, Block-AF, 700064 Kolkata (India)

    2013-06-01

    Neutron diffraction has been performed on RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) polycrystals. The orthorhombic structure for NdNi₄B and the CeCo₄B structure type (hexagonal) for TbNi₄B and HoNi₄B are confirmed. Our data also show that this last structure is currently the best approximant for ErNi₄B. The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) order ferromagnetically at respectively 11.0, 18.1, 6.2 and 10.0 K. The crystal electric field (CEF) interaction controls the magnetic anisotropy in this series leading to an easy axis ~30 deg above the basal plane in RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) and parallel to the c-axis in ErNi₄B at 1.6 K. The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) display a spin re-orientation below Tc which arises from a competition between the second order term and the higher order terms of the CEF hamiltonian. - Graphical abstract: Simplified magnetic structure in NdNi₄B and full magnetic structure in RNi₄B (R=Tb, Ho). Variation with temperature of the easy magnetization axis direction (angle with c-axis) showing a spin re-orientation. Highlights: • RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) polycrystals were inductively melted. • Neutron diffraction confirms they all order ferromagnetically. • The magnetization easy axis is parallel to the c-axis in ErNi₄B. • The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) display a spin re-orientation below Tc. • Their easy axis tilts from the c-axis at Tc to ~30 deg above the basal plane at 1.5 K.

  12. Design průmyslového planetového mixéru

    OpenAIRE

    Škodová, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na design průmyslového planetového mixéru o objemu díže 40 litrů. Cílem je vytvoření designu zohledňující ergonomii a konstrukční a technologické požadavky. The diploma thesis is focused on the design of an industrial planetary mixer with a volume of 40 liters. The goal is to create a design that takes account of ergonomics and design and technology requirements. C

  13. Magnetocaloric effects of binary rare earth mononitrides, Gd {sub x}Tb{sub 1-x}N and Tb {sub x}Ho{sub 1-x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Takashi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakagawa@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sako, Kengo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arakawa, Takayuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tomioka, Naoto [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamiya, Koji [Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003 (Japan); Numazawa, Takenori [Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    We have synthesized Gd {sub x}Tb{sub 1-x}N and Tb {sub x}Ho{sub 1-x}N (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) by the carbothermic reduction performed in a nitrogen gas stream. GdN and TbN have been completely miscible with each other as well as TbN and HoN. As x was changed from 0 to 1, the Curie temperature increased monotonously from 18.5 to 43.8 K for Tb {sub x}Ho{sub 1-x}N and from 43.8 to 61.2 K for Gd {sub x}Tb{sub 1-x}N. The magnetocaloric effects have been evaluated by calculating the magnetic entropy changes from the magnetization data sets measured at different applied fields and temperatures. In any composition x, the magnetocaloric effects of Gd {sub x}Tb{sub 1-x}N and Tb {sub x}Ho{sub 1-x}N are larger than those of Gd {sub x}Dy{sub 1-x}N. Therefore, Gd {sub x}Tb{sub 1-x}N and Tb {sub x}Ho{sub 1-x}N are promising magnetic refrigerant materials for hydrogen liquefying system working below liquid nitrogen temperature.

  14. Sulfate Exchange of the Nitrate-Type Layered Hydroxide Nanosheets of Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O for Better Dispersed and Multi-color Luminescent Ln2O3 Nanophosphors (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02, RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Liu, Weigang; Li, Ji-Guang; Zhu, Qi; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong

    2016-07-01

    Through restricting thickness growth by performing coprecipitation at the freezing temperature of ~4 °C, solid-solution nanosheets (up to 5-nm thick) of the Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O layered hydroxide (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02; RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm, respectively) were directly synthesized without performing conventional exfoliation. In situ exchange of the interlayer NO3 - with SO4 2- produced a sulfate derivative [Ln2(OH)5(SO4)0.5· nH2O] of the same layered structure and two-dimensional crystallite morphology but substantially contracted d 002 basal spacing (from ~0.886 to 0.841 nm). The sulfate derivative was systematically compared against its nitrate parent in terms of crystal structure and phase/morphology evolution upon heating. It is shown that the interlayer SO4 2-, owing to its bonding with the hydroxide main layer, significantly raises the decomposition temperature from ~600 to 1000 °C to yield remarkably better dispersed oxide nanopowders via a monoclinic Ln2O2SO4 intermediate. The resultant (Y0.98RE0.02)2O3 nanophosphors were studied for their photoluminescence to show that the emission color, depending on RE3+, spans a wide range in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram, from blue to deep red via green, yellow, orange, and orange red.

  15. Synthesis, structural characterization and Mössbauer study of LnV{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} perovskites (Ln = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashita, Flávio F.; Biondo, Valdecir; Bellini, Jusmar V.; Paesano, Andrea [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87.020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Blanco, M. Cecilia; Fuertes, Valeria C.; Pannunzio-Miner, Elisa V. [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Carbonio, Raúl E., E-mail: carbonio@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectra taken at 200 K for the Y(V{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} orthoferrivanadate synthesized by arc-melting. Highlights: ► LnFe{sub 0.5}V{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} were synthesized by the first time for most of the rare-earth elements. ► These orthoferrivanadates crystallize metastably with the perovskite structure. ► Iron and vanadium are trivalent stabilized in these solid solutions. ► The Mössbauer quadrupolar splitting is correlated with the tolerance factor. ► Below 100 K, these perovskites undergo a crystallographic phase transformation. -- Abstract: Perovskites LnV{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) were synthesized by rapid solidification from arc-melted samples and characterized by the study of their crystal structure and hyperfine properties. These metastable solid solutions crystallized in the Pbnm symmetry, with the iron and vanadium cations randomly distributed in the transition metal octahedral sites. Depending on the lanthanide present at the A site of the perovskite, iron is present with two valences (i.e., Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}). The volume of the unit cell for these perovskites increases linearly with the lanthanide ionic radius, as the perovskite approaches its ideal structure. At room temperature, the quadrupolar splitting of the trivalent paramagnetic Mössbauer component works as an indirect measurement for the Goldshmidt tolerance factor. Close to or below 100 K, these perovskites undergo a crystallographic phase transformation, probably due to orbital ordering of the V{sup 3+} cations, originating two different magnetic iron sites.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel 2D kagome materials RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho): Comparison to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.B.; Baroudi, K.M.; Krizan, J.W.; Mukadam, O.A.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho) with a perfect kagome lattice are presented and compared to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}. Rietveld structure refinements were performed using X-ray diffraction data, indicating that the layered compounds are fully structurally ordered. The compounds crystallize in a rhombohedral supercell of the cubic pyrochlore structure, in the space group R-3m. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show no signs of magnetic ordering above 2 K. The RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} family is similar to that of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}; however, the series reported here features a fully ordered distribution of cations in both the nonmagnetic antimony and magnetic rare earth kagome lattices. Unlike the offsite disorder that Zn{sup 2+} experiences in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}, the magnesium sites in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} are completely ordered. Here we compare the magnetic properties in both series of kagome compounds to determine how significant Zn{sup 2+}'s positional ordering is within this structure type. The compounds reported here appear to be relatively defect-free and are therefore model systems for investigating magnetic frustration on an ideal 2D rare earth kagome lattice. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in RCu{sub 2} (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, X.Q., E-mail: zhengxq@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Z.Y. [National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, B.; Hu, F.X. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, B.G., E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Orthorhombic polycrystalline RCu{sub 2} (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds were synthesized and the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) were investigated in detail. All of the RCu{sub 2} compounds are antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered. As temperature increases, RCu{sub 2} compounds undergo an AFM to AFM transition at T{sub t} and an AFM to paramagnetic (PM) transition at T{sub N}. Besides of the normal MCE around T{sub N}, large inverse MCE around T{sub t} was found in TbCu{sub 2} compound. Under a field change of 0–7 T, the maximal value of inverse MCE is even larger than the value of normal MCE around T{sub N} for TbCu{sub 2} compound. Considering of the normal and inverse MCE, TbCu{sub 2} shows the largest refrigerant capacity among the RCu{sub 2} (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds indicating its potential applications in low temperature multistage refrigeration. - Highlights: • Large inverse magnetocaloric effect is observed in TbCu{sub 2} compound. • The AFM to AFM transition is observed in RCu{sub 2} (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds. • The MCE performance of TbCu{sub 2} compound is evaluated in a more comprehensively way.

  18. Complex magnetism of Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lužnik, J.; Koželj, P.; Vrtnik, S.; Jelen, A.; Jagličić, Z.; Meden, A.; Feuerbacher, M.; Dolinšek, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth based equimolar Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy (HEA) is a prototype of an ideal HEA, stabilized by the entropy of mixing at any temperature with random mixing of elements on the hexagonal close-packed lattice. In order to determine intrinsic properties of an ideal HEA characterized by the enormous chemical (substitutional) disorder on a weakly distorted simple lattice, we have performed measurements of its magnetic and electrical response and the specific heat. The results show that the Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal HEA exhibits a rich and complex magnetic field-temperature (H ,T ) phase diagram, as a result of competition among the periodic potential arising from the electronic band structure that favors periodic magnetic ordering, the disorder-induced local random potential that favors spin glass-type spin freezing in random directions, the Zeeman interaction with the external field that favors spin alignment along the field direction, and the thermal agitation that opposes any spin ordering. Three characteristic temperature regions were identified in the (H ,T ) phase diagram between room temperature and 2 K. Within the upper temperature region I (roughly between 300 and 75 K), thermal fluctuations average out the effect of local random pinning potential and the spin system behaves as a pure system of compositionally averaged spins, undergoing a thermodynamic phase transition to a long-range ordered helical antiferromagnetic state at the Néel temperature TN=180 K that is a compositional average of the Néel temperatures of pure Tb, Dy, and Ho metals. Region II (between 75 and 20 K) is an intermediate region where the long-range periodic spin order "melts" and the random ordering of spins in the local random potential starts to prevail. Within the low-temperature region III (below 20 K), the spins gradually freeze in a spin glass configuration. The spin glass phase appears to be specific to the rare earths containing hexagonal HEAs, sharing

  19. Family of defect-dicubane Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and Ni4Y2 complexes: rare Tb(III) and Ho(III) examples showing SMM behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-04-07

    Reactions of Ln(III) perchlorate (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho), NiCl2·6H2O, and a polydentate Schiff base resulted in the assembly of novel isostructural hexanuclear Ni4Ln2 complexes [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4)] with an unprecedented 3d-4f metal topology consisting of two defect-dicubane units. The corresponding Ni4Y2 (5) complex containing diamagnetic Y(III) atoms was also isolated to assist the magnetic studies. Interestingly, complexes 2 and 3 exhibit SMM characteristics and 4 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. The absence of frequency-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase signals for the Ni-Y species suggests that the Ln ions' contribution to the slow relaxation must be effectual as previously observed in other Ni-Dy samples. However, the observation of χ″ signals with zero dc field for the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho derivatives is notable. Indeed, this is the first time that such a behavior is observed in the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho complexes.

  20. Genome sequencing and annotation of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) PR10 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohd Zakihalani A; Jaafar, Mohammad Maaruf; Teh, Lay Kek; Ismail, Mohamad Izwan; Lee, Lian Shien; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Nor, Norazmi Mohd; Zainuddin, Zainul Fadziruddin; Tang, Thean Hock; Najimudin, Mohd Nazalan Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-03-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of a multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain PR10 (MDR-TB PR10) isolated from a patient diagnosed with tuberculosis. The size of the draft genome MDR-TB PR10 is 4.34 Mbp with 65.6% of G + C content and consists of 4637 predicted genes. The determinants were categorized by RAST into 400 subsystems with 4286 coding sequences and 50 RNAs. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010968.

  1. Design průmyslového vysavače

    OpenAIRE

    Rašínová, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá designem průmyslového vysavače pro dílenské použití. Součástí práce je designérská a technická analýza současných vysavačů. Většina práce se zabývá vlastním návrhem vysavače s ohledem na technické a ergonomické požadavky. The thesis is focused on design of industrial vacuum cleaner for use in workshops. The thesis includes design and technical reaserch of current vacuum cleaners. The main part contains original design solution with regard to technical and ergonomi...

  2. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of the Flake-Shaped Pr-Ho-Fe Alloys in the C-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jialiang; Pan, Shunkang; Qiao, Ziqiang; Cheng, Lichun; Wang, Zhenzhong; Lin, Peihao; Chang, Junqing

    2018-01-01

    The polycrystalline samples Pr x Ho2- x Fe17 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by arc melting and high-energy ball milling method. The influences of Pr substitution on phase structure, morphology, saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle size increased and the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing Pr content. The minimum absorption peak frequency shifted towards a lower-frequency region with increasing Pr concentration. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was -41.03 dB at 6.88 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.0 mm. With different thickness of 1.8-2.8 mm, the minimum reflection loss (RL) of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was less than -20 dB in the whole C-band (4-8 GHz). The microwave-absorbing properties of the composite with different weight ratios of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co were researched. The microwave-absorbing peaks of the composites shifted to a lower frequency with increasing Co content. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co(10%) was -42.51 dB at 4.72 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.6 mm. This suggests that the Pr-Ho-Fe will be a promising microwave absorption material in higher-gigahertz frequency, especially in the C-band.

  3. Effect of rapid quenching on the magnetism and magnetocaloric effect of equiatomic rare earth intermetallic compounds RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajivgandhi, R.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Nirmala, R.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RNi (where R = Gd, Tb and Ho) compounds has been studied in their arc-melted and melt-spun forms. The compound GdNi has the orthorhombic CrB-type structure (Space group Cmcm, No. 63) and the compound HoNi has the orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62) at room temperature regardless of their synthesis condition. However, arc-melted TbNi orders in a monoclinic structure (Space group P21/m, No. 11) and when it is rapidly quenched to a melt-spun form, it crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62). The arc-melted GdNi, TbNi and HoNi compounds order ferromagnetically at ∼69 K, ∼67 K and ∼36 K (TC) respectively. While the melt-spun GdNi shows about 6 K increase in TC, the ordering temperature of TbNi remains nearly the same in both arc-melted and melt-spun forms. In contrast, a reduction in TC by about 8 K is observed in melt-spun HoNi, when compared to its arc-melted counterpart. Isothermal magnetic entropy change, ∆Sm, calculated from the field dependent magnetization data indicates an enhanced relative cooling power (RCP) for melt-spun GdNi for field changes of 20 kOe and 50 kOe. A lowered RCP value is observed in melt-spun TbNi and HoNi. These changes could have resulted from the competing shape anisotropy and the granular microstructure induced by the melt-spinning process. Tailoring the MCE of rare earth intermetallic compounds by suitably controlled synthesis techniques is certainly one of the directions to go forward in the search of giant magnetocaloric materials.

  4. Vliv implementace práv duševního vlastnictví na rozvoj vnitřního trhu NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Miková, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    UNIVERZITA KARLOVA FAKULTA SOCIÁLNÍCH VĚD INSTITUT POLITOLOGICKÝCH STUDIÍ Vplyv implementácie práv duševného vlastníctva na rozvoj vnútorného trhu NAFTA Bc. Ivana Miková MAGISTERSKÁ DIPLOMOVÁ PRÁCE Praha 2013 Abstract: The thesis discusses the impact of intellectual property rights on economic development of NAFTA. It is based on the theoretical assumptions of the new institutional economics and its notion of transaction costs and institutions and their impact on economic growth, in particula...

  5. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of RB4 (R =Yb,Pr,Gd,Tb,Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. C.; Laref, Amel; Shim, J. H.; Kwon, S. K.; Min, B. I.

    2009-04-01

    Most rare-earth tetraborides RB4 have antiferromagnetic ground states except for YbB4 and PrB4. We have investigated the electronic structures and magnetic properties of RB4 (R =Yb,Pr,Gd,Tb,Dy) employing the first-principles total energy band method. It is found that YbB4 has the paramagnetic ground state, while the other tetraborides are in the magnetic ground state, which is in agreement with experiments. We have obtained the spin and orbital magnetic moments and discussed the importance of the spin-orbit interaction and the on-site Coulomb repulsion (U ) in these systems.

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Giant Unit Cell Intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, and Ho have been prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 800 °C. All the compounds belong to the Tb117Fe52Ge112 structure type (space group Fm 3 ¯ m characterized by a complex giant cubic unit cell with a ~ 30 Å. The single-crystal structure determination of Y- and La-containing compounds reveals a significant structural disorder. A comparison of these and earlier reported crystal structures of R117Co52+δSn112+γ suggests that more extensive disorder occurs for structures that contain larger lanthanide atoms. This observation can be explained by the need to maintain optimal bonding interactions as the size of the unit cell increases. Y117Co56Sn115 exhibits weak paramagnetism due to the Co sublattice and does not show magnetic ordering in the 1.8–300 K range. Ho117Co55Sn108 shows ferromagnetic ordering at 10.6 K. Both Pr117Co54Sn112 and Nd117Co54Sn111 exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at 17 K and 24.7 K, respectively, followed by a spin reorientation transition at lower temperature.

  7. Intracluster interactions in butterfly {Fe3LnO2} molecules with the non-Kramers ions Tb(III) and Ho(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía-Romano, L.; Rubín, J.; Bartolomé, F.; Bartolomé, J.; Luzón, J.; Prodius, D.; Turta, C.; Mereacre, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2015-08-01

    The intracluster exchange interactions within the "butterfly" [Fe3Ln (μ3-O )2(CCl3COO )8(H2O )(THF )3] molecules, where Ln(III) represents a lanthanide cation, have been determined by a combination of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) along with an interaction model. We have studied the compounds with Ln =Tb and Ho, both non-Kramers lanthanides and with high uniaxial anisotropy, and Ln =Lu (III) and Y(III) as pseudolanthanides, which supply nonmagnetic Ln reference cases. At low temperature, the three Fe atoms can be considered as a self-unit with total spin SFe 3=5 /2 . Using the element selectivity of the XMCD magnetometry, measured at the Ln L2 ,3 edges, together with the VSM measurements, the local magnetization of the Ln ion and the Fe3 subcluster, as a function of the field and low temperature (T ≈2.5 K ), has been determined separately. These results are described quantitatively in the framework of a theoretical model based on an effective spin Hamiltonian, which considers the competing effects of intracluster interactions and the external applied magnetic field. The Ln -Fe3 exchange interaction within the {Fe3LnO2} cluster has been determined to be antiferromagnetic, in both Tb and Ho compounds, with JFeTb/kB=-0.13 (1 ) K and JFeHo/kB=-0.18 (1 ) K , respectively. In both cases, a field-induced reorientation of the Fe3 and Ln spins from antiparallel to parallel orientation takes place at a threshold field μ0H =1.1 and 2 T, for the {Fe3TbO2} and {Fe3HoO2} compounds, respectively. By comparison with other compounds of the series with uniaxial anisotropy, it is concluded that the polarizability of the Fe3 subcluster magnetic moment decreases in the trend {Fe3YO2}→{Fe3TbO2}→{Fe3HoO2}→{Fe3DyO2} , because of the increasing opposition of the exchange antiferromagnetic field caused by the Ln ion. In the Ln =Tb , Ho, and Dy, the magnetization of the whole molecule is dominated by the anisotropy of the Ln ion

  8. The influence of Pr3+ co-doping on the photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2:Eu3+/Tb3+

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tb3+-Pr3+, and Eu3+-Pr3+ ion pairs co-doped in a SiO2 matrix were prepared by a sol-gel method. Co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions with Pr3+ in SiO2 resulted in the quenching of Eu3+ and Tb3+ emissions with increasing Pr3+ concentrations. The quenching...

  9. Theoretical investigations on magnetic entropy change in amorphous and crystalline systems: Applications to RAg (R=Tb, Dy, Ho) and GdCuAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, E.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alho, B.P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, P.O.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Lopes, P.H.O.; Sousa, V.S.R. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetic entropy changes in amorphous systems through two different assumptions. In the first assumption, the HPZ-anisotropic model is considered to deal with the random direction of magnetic moments, where the amorphous RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) were used as prototypes systems. In the second assumption, the amorphisation is parameterized through the exchange interaction distribution and GdCuAl, in amorphous and crystalline structures, were considered as prototypes systems. Comparisons between the magnetic entropy changes under amorphisation and under the usual magnetic field variation were performed. The model reveals the dependence of refrigerant capacity on the amorphisation parameter, and an optimum amorphisation parameter was calculated. - Highlights: • Theoretical investigation on RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) and GdCuAl amorphous alloys. • Magnetic entropy changes in GdCuAl in both amorphous and crystalline structures. • The refrigerant capacity was compared in both amorphous and crystalline phases.

  10. Photoelectron spectra of the late rare-earth misfit layer compounds (LnS)(1+x)TS2 (Ln=Tb, Dy, Ho; T=Nb, Ta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, CM; Wiegers, GA; Haas, C

    Photoemission spectra (XPS and UPS) are presented for the valence band of misfit layer compounds (LnS)(1+x)TS2 with Ln = Dy, Ho or Tb; T = Nb or Ta. The Nb 4d(x)2 (or Ta 5d(x)2) conduction band is almost filled, which indicates a charge transfer of slightly less than one electron per T from the LnS

  11. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO Systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) at 900 °C in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) were investigated in air at 900 °C. The pseudo-ternary sections with RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu have a similar structure. They have in common with the RE = Eu system a solid solution of Ca0.833−xRExCuO2......+y composition but the system with RE = Eu differs by the presence of an Eu2CuO4 phase instead of RE2Cu2O5 for RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu. In contrast, the CaO-ScO1.5-CuO section does not contain a Ca0.833−xScxCuO2+y solid solution and is dominated by the CaSc2O4 phase, which has no equivalent...... in the other systems at 900 °C in air....

  12. Windmill-shaped octanuclear Zn/Ln (LnIII = Dy, Tb, Ho) heterometallic ensembles supported by a tetraferrocene scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amit; Goura, Joydeb; Bag, Prasenjit; Bar, Arun Kumar; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-11-28

    Utilizing a new ferrocene-based compartmental ligand, H4L (1), a series of novel heterometallic complexes [{LZn(μ-OAc)Dy}4(μ4-H2O)] (2), [{LZn(μ-OAc)Tb}4(μ4-H2O)] (3), [{LZn(μ-OAc)Ho}4(μ4-H2O)] (4), [L = Fe[(C5H4){-C(Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]N-N[double bond, length as m-dash]C6H3-(o-O)(m-O)}]2] were synthesized and characterized. 2 and 3 crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system in the I2/m space group, whereas 4 crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system in the I4/m space group. The tetra deprotonated ligand L4- has two distinct coordination compartments: one pocket (2N, 2O) suitable for the transition metal (3d) ions and another pocket (4O) suitable for lanthanide (4f) metal ions. Additionally, the terminal phenoxo group can be utilized for cluster expansion. In all the complexes, the ZnII ion is in a perfect square pyramidal (2N, 3O) geometry whereas the lanthanide ion has a coordination number of eight (8O) in a distorted biaugmented trigonal-prism geometry. The electrochemical properties of 2 and 3 along with ligand H4L (1) were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). All the complexes display a similar type of electrochemical behavior viz., one quasi-reversible oxidation typical of a ferrocene/ferrocenium motif. The magnetic properties of all the complexes have also been investigated.

  13. Effect of Tb and Al substitution within the rare earth and cobalt sublattices on magnetothermal properties of Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chzhan, V.B., E-mail: lemuriform@gmail.com [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Tereshina, E.A. [Institute of Physics CAS, Prague 18221 (Czech Republic); Mikhailova, A.B. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Politova, G.A. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw 53-421 (Poland); Tereshina, I.S. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V.I. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ćwik, J. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw 53-421 (Poland); Nenkov, K. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Alekseeva, O.A.; Filimonov, A.V. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Single-phase (Tb,Dy,Ho)(Co,Al){sub 2} alloys synthesized using high-purity metals. • Temperature dependence of lattice parameters measured in a wide temperature range. • Tb and Al substitution increase the Curie temperature in Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2.} • The MCE measured by direct and indirect methods. • Materials with ‘table-like’ MCE are found. - Abstract: The effect of Tb and Al substitution within the rare earth and cobalt sublattices on structural and magnetothermal properties of Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2} has been studied. Multicomponent Laves phase alloys Tb{sub x}(Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}Co{sub 2−y}Al{sub y} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5; y = 0, 0.25) synthesized using high-purity metals have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, heat capacity and magnetocaloric measurements. Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2} has a first order phase transition at the Curie temperature T{sub C} ≈ 110 K. Both Tb and Al substitution leads to increase of the T{sub C}. The increasing Tb content leads to the decreases slightly the MCE and all the transitions near the Curie temperature are of the first order. As for the Al-containing compounds, MCE measurements show that the phase transition type changes from the first to the second-order. The advantage of Tb{sub x}(Dy{sub 0.5}Ho{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}Co{sub 1.75}Al{sub 0.25} as compared with Al-free alloys is ‘table-like’ behavior of MCE.

  14. Thiacalix[4]arene-supported kite-like heterometallic tetranuclear Zn(II)Ln(III)3 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kongzhao; Jiang, Feilong; Qian, Jinjie; Wu, Mingyan; Xiong, Kecai; Gai, Yanli; Hong, Maochun

    2013-04-01

    Four kite-like tetranuclear Zn(II)Ln(III)3 (Ln= Gd 1, Tb 2, Dy 3, Ho 4) clusters supported by p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene (H4BTC4A) have been prepared under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the structures of these four complexes, each of them is capped by two tail-to-tail p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene molecules to form a bent sandwich-like unit. The photoluminescent analyses reveal that the H4BTC4A is an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) ions in 2. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 are also investigated, in which complex 3 exhibits slow magnetization relaxation typical for single molecule magnets.

  15. Polarized luminescence of Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 -Tb and Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 -Ho garnets controllable by magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Valiev, U V; Sokolov, B Y

    2002-01-01

    One studied spectra of circularly polarized luminescence of Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 -Tb and Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 -Ho garnets within sup 5 D sub 4 -> sup 7 F sub 5 -transition wave length range in Tb sup 3 sup + and within sup 5 S sub 2 -> sup 5 I sub 8 -transition wave length range in Ho sup 3 sup + ion. One detected substantial difference in intensity of orthogonal circularly polarized garnets. The obtained results enable to conclude that strong effect of magnetic field on intensity of oscillator of 4f -> 4f-transitions is general phenomenon in rare-earth system with energy spectrum quasi-doublet structure. Contribution of mixing in external magnetic field of Tb sup 3 sup + and Ho sup 3 sup + ion electron states may play essential role in magnetooptics of such systems

  16. Magnetocaloric properties of TbN, DyN and HoN nanopowders prepared by the plasma arc discharge method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, K P; Jang, S H; Kim, J W; Kim, D S; Ranot, M; Chung, K C

    2015-12-21

    We report for the first time the synthesis of nanopowders of TbN, DyN and HoN crystallized in a cubic structure by the plasma arc discharge (PAD) method and investigate their magnetocaloric properties for magnetic refrigeration applications. The nitridization of terbium, dysprosium and holmium was obtained using a mixture of nitrogen and argon gas inside a discharge chamber with 4 kPa pressure. The structural and microstructural properties of these rare earth nitrides were investigated by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The studied nitrides undergo a second-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition at Curie temperatures of 35.7, 19.9 and 14.2 K for TbN, DyN and HoN, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects were estimated by calculating the magnetic entropy changes from the magnetization data sets measured at the different applied magnetic fields and temperatures. The changes in entropy -ΔSM were found to be 12.0, 13.6 and 24.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at an applied magnetic field of 5 T.

  17. A series of lithium rare earth polyphosphates [LiLn(PO 3) 4] (Ln = Tb, Ho, Yb) and their structural, optical, and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Cheng, Wen-Dan; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Wei-Long; Yang, Song-Lin

    2008-11-01

    The structural, optical, and electronic properties of a series of lithium rare earth polyphosphates [LiLn(PO 3) 4] [Ln = Tb(1), Ho(2), Yb(3)] have been investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic measurements and calculations of energy-band structures, density of states, and optical response functions by density functional methods. These LiLn(PO 3) 4 systems are monoclinic with space group C2 /c and Z = 4. Their unit-cell parameters decrease as the ionic radius of Ln 3+ decreases (Tb 3+ > Ho 3+ > Yb 3+). Both (PO 4) 3- zig-zag chains and infinite chains formed by the alternate connection of LnO 8 polyhedra and LiO 4 tetrahedra run parallel to the b-axis in the structure. The energy-band structures, density of states, the chemical bonds, and optical properties have been investigated by density functional methods for LiYb(PO 3) 4.

  18. Odsíření práškového granulačního kotle K3 na Tp Olomouc

    OpenAIRE

    Kozumplík, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Cílem práce je návrh odsiřovacího zařízení pro práškový granulační kotel K3 v Teplárně Olomouc. V tomto kotli se spaluje černé uhlí, které obsahuje síru. Emise SOx na výstupu z kotle jsou mnohem vyšší než emisní limit pro SOx, který vstoupí v platnost 1.1.2016. Z tohoto důvodu je nutno přistavět odsiřovací zařízení, díky kterému dojde k výraznému snížení emisí SOx a splnění emisních limitů. Práce je rozdělena na dvě části - teoretickou a praktickou. V teoretické části jsou uvedeny emisní limi...

  19. Pico- and subpicosecond relaxation processes in lanthanide-porphyrin complexes. [Lanthanoids: Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' ev, K.N.; Tsvirko, M.P.; Krasauskas, V.V.; Pyatosin, V.E.; Stel' makh, G.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of nano- and picosecond absorption spectroscopy and luminescence are used to determine the deactivation rates of ..pi.., ..pi..*-electron states of S/sub 2/, S/sub 1/ and T/sub 1/ in complexes of organic molecules of meso-tetratolylporphyne and tetrabenzoporphyne with trivalent Sm/sup 3 +/, Eu/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/, Dy/sup 3 +/, Ho/sup 3 +/, Er/sup 3 +/, Tm/sup 3 +/, Yb/sup 3 +/, Lu/sup 3 +/. Quantitative data on superfast relaxation processes in lanthanide porphyrines are obtained. The function of the metal entral ion is presented in details as the excitation factor in deactivation processes of photoexcitation energy of the systems in question.

  20. Synthesis and magnetochemistry of heterometallic triangular FeLn(III) (Ln = La, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) and FeY(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Das Gupta, Sayak; Butcher, Raymond J; Christou, George

    2017-06-20

    A series of Fe2Ln (Ln = La, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho) and Fe2Y complexes have been synthesized via metal substitution and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the molecules are isostructural and have a Fe2LnO triangular core with the oxygen atom existing as an μ3-oxo(2-) anion. DC and AC magnetic susceptibility studies were performed on all the molecules. For Fe2Ln (Ln = Gd, La) and Fe2Y, the data were fitted to Van Vleck equations and the magnetic coupling constants were obtained. In all cases, the two Fe(iii) spins were found to be antiparallel to each other in the ground state leaving the heterometal to remain essentially uncoupled.

  1. Production cross sections of elements near the N=126 shell in Ca48-induced reactions with Gd154,Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorov, D. A.; Werke, T. A.; Alfonso, M. C.; Bennett, M. E.; Folden, C. M.

    2014-08-01

    Excitation functions for shell-stabilized evaporation residues produced in Ca48-induced reactions with Gd154,Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 targets have been measured in experiments performed at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The examined energy range predominantly covers the 3n and 4n evaporation channels with higher cross sections measured for the 4n products. The σ4n are nearly invariant within experimental uncertainty in reactions with Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 with the maxima at 12.6 ± 1.9, 12.6 ± 1.7, and 9.4 ± 1.3 mb, respectively. For the reaction with Gd154, the maximum is slightly lower at 4.0 ± 0.6 mb. A simple model to describe the measured production cross sections was employed. Capture was estimated by using the "diffused barrier formula" from the "fusion by diffusion" model proposed by Świątecki et al. [Phys. Rev. C 71, 014602 (2005)]., 10.1103/PhysRevC.71.014602 The fusion probability was estimated by using a phenomenological expression presented by Siwek-Wilczyńska et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 17, 12 (2008)]., 10.1142/S0218301308009501 The survival probability was calculated according to the formula of Vandenbosch and Huizenga [Nuclear Fission (Academic, New York, 1973)], derived from transition-state theory. The best agreement is reached between calculation and experiment upon inclusion of collective effects in the calculation of the survival probability, shown previously to be important for production of weakly deformed nuclei. This, in turn, challenges the expectation that strong shell stabilization benefits the production cross section. The present data are compared with earlier studies on production of neutron-deficient nuclei in Ca-induced reactions with lanthanide targets.

  2. Heterometallic trinuclear {CoLn(III)} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Ho and Er) complexes in a bent geometry. Field-induced single-ion magnetic behavior of the Er(III) and Tb(III) analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goura, Joydeb; Brambleby, Jamie; Topping, Craig V; Goddard, Paul A; Suriya Narayanan, Ramakirushnan; Bar, Arun Kumar; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-05-31

    Through the use of a multi-site compartmental ligand, 2-methoxy-6-[{2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethylimino}methyl]phenol (LH3), the family of heterometallic, trinuclear complexes of the formula [CoLn(L)2(μ-O2CCH3)2(H2O)3]·NO3·xMeOH·yH2O has been expanded beyond Ln = Dy(III) to include Gd(III) (), Tb(III) (), Ho(III) () and Er(III) () for , and (x = 1; y = 1) and for (x = 0; y = 2). The metallic core of these complexes consists of a (Co(III)-Ln(III)-Co(III)) motif bridged in a bent geometry resulting in six-coordinated distorted Co(III) octahedra and nine-coordinated Ln(III) monocapped square-antiprisms. The magnetic characterization of these compounds reveals the erbium and terbium analogues to display a field induced single-ion magnetic behavior similar to the dysprosium analogue but at lower temperatures. The energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization of the CoTb(III) analogue is Ueff ≥ 15.6(4) K, while for the CoEr(III) analogue Ueff ≥ 9.9(8) K. The magnetic properties are discussed in terms of distortions of the 4f electron cloud.

  3. Luminescent properties and quenching effects of Pr3+ co-doping in SiO2:Tb3+/Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of Pr(sup3+) single doped SiO2 and Pr(sup3+) co-doped SiO(sub2):Tb(sup3+)/Eu(sup3+) nanophosphors synthesized using sol–gel method were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used...

  4. Pentanuclear heterometallic {Mn(III)(2)Ln(3)} (Ln = Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho) assemblies in an open-book type structural topology: appearance of slow relaxation of magnetization in the Dy(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Prasenjit; Chakraborty, Amit; Rogez, Guillaume; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-07-07

    The reaction of Ln(III) nitrate and Mn(ClO4)2·6H2O salts in the presence of a multidentate sterically unencumbered ligand, (E)-2,2'-(2-hydroxy-3-((2-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)-5-methylbenzylazanediyl)diethanol (LH4) leads to the isolation of four isostructural pentanuclear hetereometallic complexes [Mn(III)2Gd3(LH)4(NO3)(HOCH3)]ClO4·NO3 (1), [Mn(III)2Dy3(LH)4(NO3)(HOCH3)]ClO4·NO3 (2), [Mn(III)2Tb3(LH)4(NO3)(HOCH3)]ClO4·NO3 (3), and [Mn(III)2Ho3(LH)4(NO3)(HOCH3)]ClO4·NO3 (4) with an open-book type structural topology. 1-4 are dicationic and crystallize in the achiral space group, P21/n. A total of four triply deprotonated ligands, [LH](3-), are involved in holding the pentameric metal framework, {Mn(III)2Ln3}. In these complexes both the lanthanide and the manganese(III) ions are doubly bridged, involving phenolate or ethoxide oxygen atoms. The magnetochemical analysis reveals the presence of global antiferromagnetic interactions among the spin centers at low temperatures in all the four compounds. AC susceptibility measurements show the presence of temperature dependent out-of-phase ac signal for compounds 2 and 4 indicating an SMM behavior.

  5. Deactivation effects of the lowest excited state of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm emission introduced by Pr3+ ions in LiLuF4 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixiong; Hang, Yin; Zhang, LianHan

    2012-12-15

    The use of Pr3+ codoping for enhancement of the Ho3+:5I6 →5I7 mid-IR emissions were investigated in the LiLuF4 crystal for the first time. It was found that Pr3+ greatly increased Ho3+ 2.9 μm emission by depopulating the Ho3+:5I7 level while having little influence on the Ho3+:5I6 level, leading to greater population inversion. The energy transfer efficiency from Ho3+:5I7 to Pr3+:3F2 is calculated to be 88%. Based on Judd-Ofelt theory, the 2.9 μm emission cross section is calculated to be 1.91×10(-20)   cm2, and the gain property of the Ho3+:5I6 →5I7 transition is discussed. We propose that the Ho, Pr:LiLuF4 crystal may be a promising material for 2.9 μm laser applications.

  6. Crystal structure, magnetic and electrical properties of compounds in the RCrMnO{sub 5} family (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho and Er) synthesized under high oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomiro, Fernando; Miner, Elisa V.P.; Carbonio, Raul E. [INFIQC (CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba), Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lohr, Javier; Sanchez, Rodolfo D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Nassif, Vivian [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    RCrMnO{sub 5} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) were synthesized at high O{sub 2} pressures and 900-950 C. Crystal structures were refined by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and powder neutron diffraction (PND) for Tb, Ho, and Er compounds and PXRD for Sm, Eu and Gd compounds. All compounds were isostructural with RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. By using the bond-valence model we found that (Cr/Mn){sup 4+} mainly occupy the octahedral sites and (Cr/Mn){sup 3+} occupy the pyramidal sites. Antisite disorder between octahedral and pyramidal sites was found in the three samples analyzed by PND. From the values obtained for the occupancies of Cr and Mn in the pyramidal and octahedral sites and from the approximate average oxidation states for each crystallographic site obtained by the bond-valence calculations, an estimated ionic distribution model was proposed. The μ{sub eff} value for RCrMnO{sub 5} could be explained by considering the contribution of all the paramagnetic species and by using the ionic distribution model. No magnetic long-range order was observed by PND in R = Er, Ho, and Tb compounds. All the Curie-Weiss temperatures obtained from the magnetic susceptibility were negative (θ < 0), indicating antiferromagnetic correlations. For the compounds with Eu and Sm, θ close to -200 K were obtained for the Cr-Mn sublattice. The semiconducting properties could be described by a variable range hopping mechanism associated with antisite disorder of Cr/Mn. No dielectric transitions were observed in the electric permittivity in the measured temperature range. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Exploring the Influence of Diamagnetic Ions on the Mechanism of Magnetization Relaxation in {CoIII2LnIII2} (Ln = Dy, Tb, Ho) "Butterfly" Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-03-06

    The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [CoIII2LnIII2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)2- = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The CoIII ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two LnIII ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81.2 cm-1, while complexes 2 and 3 exhibit field induced SMM behavior, with a Ueff value of 34.2 cm-1 for 2. The barrier height for 3 could not be quantified. To understand the experimental observations, we performed DFT and ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations to probe the single-ion properties and the nature and magnitude of the LnIII-LnIII magnetic coupling and to develop an understanding of the role the diamagnetic CoIII ion plays in the magnetization relaxation. The calculations were able to rationalize the experimental relaxation data for all complexes and strongly suggest that the CoIII ion is integral to the observation of SMM behavior in these systems. Thus, we explored further the effect that the diamagnetic CoIII ions have on the magnetization blocking of 1. We did this by modeling a dinuclear {DyIII2} complex (1a), with the removal of the diamagnetic ions, and three complexes of the types {KI2DyIII2} (1b), {ZnII2DyIII2} (1c), and {TiIV2DyIII2} (1d), each containing a different diamagnetic ion. We found that the presence of the diamagnetic ions results in larger negative charges on the bridging hydroxides (1b > 1c > 1 > 1d), in comparison to 1a (no diamagnetic ion), which reduces quantum tunneling of magnetization effects, allowing for more desirable SMM characteristics. The results indicate very strong

  8. S-shaped decanuclear heterometallic [Ni8Ln2] complexes [Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho]: theoretical modeling of the magnetic properties of the gadolinium analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Chakraborty, Amit; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-07-14

    The reaction of 8-quinolinol-2-carboaldoxime (LH2) with Ni(II) and Ln(III) salts afforded the heterometallic decanuclear compounds [Ni8Dy2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)6](ClO4)2·16H2O (1), [Ni8Gd2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](NO3)2·12H2O (2), [Ni8Ho2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](ClO4)2·2MeOH·12H2O (3) and [Ni8Tb2 (μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(MeOH)4(OMe)2]·2CH2Cl2·8H2O (4). While compounds 1-3 are dicationic, compound 4 is neutral. These compounds possess an S-shaped architecture and comprise a long chain of metal ions bound to each other. In all the complexes, the eight Ni(II) and two Ln(III) ions of the multimetallic ensemble are hold together by two μ3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)) and two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) whereas compound 4 has two μ3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)), two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) and two terminal methoxy (MeO(-)) ligands. The central portion of the S-shaped molecular wire is made up of an octanuclear Ni(II) ensemble which has at its two ends the Ln(III) caps. Magnetic studies on 1-4 reveal that the magnetic interactions between neighboring metal ions are negligible at room temperature. On the other hand, at lower temperatures in all the compounds anti-ferromagnetic interactions seem to be dominated. Analysis of the magnetic data for the Gd(III) derivative indicates Ni(II)-Ni(II) anti-ferromagnetic interactions and Gd(III)-Ni(II) ferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures. A theoretical density functional study on the magnetic behavior of the Gd(III) derivative suggests that while the weak ferromagnetic interaction between Gd(III) and Ni(II) is in line with the expectation of the magnetic interactions between orthogonal d and f orbitals, antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) interactions are related to the wide Ni-O-Ni angles (∼102°) and quasi-planar conformation of the Ni2O2 core.

  9. Magnetic properties of monoclinic lanthanide metaborates, Ln(BO2)3, Ln  =  Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Suard, E.; Dutton, S. E.

    2017-10-01

    The bulk magnetic properties of the lanthanide metaborates, Ln(BO2)3, Ln  =  Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb are studied using magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and isothermal magnetisation measurements. They are found to crystallise in a monoclinic structure containing chains of magnetic Ln 3+ and could therefore exhibit features of low-dimensional magnetism and frustration. Pr(BO2)3 is found to have a non-magnetic singlet ground state. No magnetic ordering is observed down to 0.4 K for Nd(BO2)3. Gd(BO2)3 exhibits a sharp magnetic transition at 1.1 K, corresponding to 3D magnetic ordering. Tb(BO2)3 shows two magnetic ordering features at 1.05 K and 1.95 K. A magnetisation plateau at a third of the saturation magnetisation is seen at 2 K for both Nd(BO2)3 and Tb(BO2)3, which persists in an applied field of 14 T. This is proposed to be a signature of quasi 1D behaviour in Nd(BO2)3 and Tb(BO2)3.

  10. Adverse events in the treatment of MDR-TB patients within and outside the NTP in Pham Ngoc Thach hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Hai, Nguyen Viet; Quyen, Bui Thi Tu

    2015-12-22

    Treatment outcomes of a high proportion of inpatients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were not reported to the Vietnamese National Tuberculosis Program because they received treatment outside of the green light committee (GLC) program. The study aimed (1) to describe the strengths and weaknesses of treatment of GLC and non-GLC MDR-TB patients as well as the factors influencing treatment completion and (2) to determine the incidence of adverse drug reactions. This cross-sectional study comprised two elements: (1) in-depth interviews with clinical doctors, hospital pharmacists; and focus group discussions with MDR-TB patients; and (2) a review of the charts of all GLC and non-GLC MDR-TB patients in 2010. A total of 282 MDR-TB patients were recruited, including 79(28%) MDR-TB patients treated through the GLC program and 203(72%) MDR-TB patients treated outside of the GLC program. The main strengths of GLC treatment were the supply of quality assured second line TB drugs, routine monitoring and clinical evaluation, free diagnostic tests and close clinical monitoring. The greatest barriers to patients treated outside of the GLC program was difficulty paying for second line TB drugs and other treatment costs. There was no significant difference between the incidence of adverse events among GLC (46.8%) and non-GLC treated patients (52.2%; p = 0.417). Among 143 patients who reported 226 adverse reaction events, arthralgia/joint pain (35.8%), gastrointestinal (14.2%), ototoxicity (8.4%), cutaneous (6.6%), and giddiness (5.8%) were the most common. The non-GLC MDR-TB patients face substantial barriers to treatment, and require greater support if they are to complete treatment and improve disease outcomes. Staff training about the management of adverse drug reactions is needed.

  11. Enhanced 2.7- and 2.9-μm emissions in Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} doped fluoride glasses sensitized by Pr{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ying, E-mail: tianyingcjlu@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wei, Tao [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Jing, Xufeng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Junjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xu, Shiqing, E-mail: sxucjlu@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced 2.7 and 2.9 μm emissions were observed in fluoride glass. • Energy transfer mechanism among Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} was investigated. • High emission cross sections at 2.7- and 2.9-μm were obtained. - Abstract: In this report, Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+}/Pr{sup 3+} tri-doped fluoride glass was prepared. The enhancement of 2.7 and 2.9 μm emissions from Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+}doped system were achieved successfully after the addition of Pr{sup 3+}. The combination of low OH{sup −} concentration, low maximum phonon energy and high mid-infrared transmittance is beneficial to the realization of mid-infrared emissions. The energy transfer mechanism among Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} was investigated. The decay profiles of several levels were measured to further examine the enhanced mid-infrared emissions. Moreover, high stimulated emission cross sections at 2.7- and 2.9 μm (1.08 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} and 2.0 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}, respectively) were determined. Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+}/Pr{sup 3+} tri-doped fluoride glass might provide a new choice for mid-infrared laser.

  12. Assembly of heterobimetallic Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Y(III)) complexes using a ferrocene ligand: slow relaxation of the magnetization in Dy(III), Tb(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amit; Bag, Prasenjit; Rivière, Eric; Mallah, Talal; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-06-21

    A family of dinuclear 3d-4f heterobimetallic complexes [LNi(H2O)(μ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN; {Ln = Dy(III) (1), Tb(III) (2), Ho(III) (3), Gd(III) (4), Er(III) (5), Y(III) (6)} have been synthesized by utilizing a ferrocene-based, dual compartmental ligand H2L. 1-6 are isostructural and crystallize in the triclinic (P1) space group. In these complexes Ni(II) is present in the inner coordination sphere of the dianionic [L](2-) ligand; Ln(III) is encapsulated in the outer coordination pocket. Ni(II) shows a 2N, 4O coordination environment in a distorted octahedral geometry, while the Ln(III) ion possesses a 9O coordination environment in a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. ESI-MS studies suggest that the structural integrity of 1-6 is retained in solution. Electrochemical studies reveal that these complexes show a reversible one-electron response typical of the ferrocene motif along with an irreversible one-electron oxidation involving the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple. Magnetic studies revealed the presence of ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Ni(II) and Ln(III) centers as shown by the increase of χMT value upon cooling below 50 K for compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5. Further, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (1-3) confirm the absence of an out-of-phase (χ'') signal at zero dc fields. However, when these measurements were carried out at 1000 Oe dc field the χ'' signal was observed, although maxima could not be detected up to 2 K.

  13. Study of hyperfine interactions in intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In; Estudo de interacoes hiperfinas em compostos intermetalicos Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In e Ho(Ni,Pd)In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapolli, Andre Luis

    2006-07-01

    Systematic behavior of magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) in the intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In was studied by Perturbed Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation spectroscopy. The measurements of B{sub hf} were carried out at the rare earth atom and in sites using the nuclear probes {sup 140}Ce and {sup 11}'1Cd respectively. The variation of hyperfine field with temperature, in most cases, follows the Brillouin function predicted from the molecular field theory. The hyperfine field values at rare earth atom sites obtained from {sup 140}Ce probe as well as at in sites obtained from {sup 111}Cd probe for each series of compounds were extrapolated to zero Kelvin B{sub hf}(T=0) from these curves. These values were compared with the values of the literature for other compounds containing the same rare earth element and all of them show a linear relationship with the ordering temperature. This indicates that the main contribution to B{sub hf} comes from the conduction electron polarization (CEP) through Fermi contact interaction and the principal mechanism of magnetic interaction in these compounds can be described by the RKKY type interaction. The values of B{sub hf}(T=0) for each family of intermetallic compounds RNiIn and RPdIn when plotted as a function of 4f spin projection of rare earth element also shows a linear relationship. Exceptions are the results for the compounds RNiIn obtained with {sup 111}Cd probe where a small deviation from linearity is observed. The results of the measurements carried out with the {sup 111}Cd probe were also analyzed to obtain the hyperfine parameters of the quadrupole interaction as a function of temperature for RPdln and GdNiIn compounds. The results show that for the compound GdPdIn there might be some Gd-In disorder at high temperature. (author)

  14. Luminescence characteristic of RE (RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) and energy levels of lanthanide ions in Gd5Si3O12N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Woochul

    2017-10-01

    Polycrystalline Gd5Si3O12N: RE (RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy) phosphors have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction method at high temperature, and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The absorption peak at about 230 nm is attributed to the host absorption. For the Pr3+-doped sample, the typical excitation lines located at 273 nm originating from the 8S7/2 → 6IJ (J = 5/2, 7/2) transitions of the Gd3+ ions were observed in the excitation spectra. Upon excitation at 227 nm UV light, the 4f15d → 4f2 emission band (350-450 nm) and typical 4f2 → 4f2 emission lines (450-700 nm) assigned to Pr3+ were observed. The Sm3+-doped sample exhibits a bright red emission owing to the 4G5/2 → 6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) transitions. However, the charge transfer band of Sm3+ was not observed in the excitation spectrum. There is a broad band from 200 to 350 nm originating from the charge transfer transition (CT) of the Eu3+ (O2-/N3- → Eu3+) in the excitation spectra, and the strongest peak in the emission spectra located at 615 nm is due to the electric-dipole 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+. For the Tb3+-doped sample, it shows 5D3 →7FJ (J = 5, 4, 3, 2) blue line emissions and 5D4 → 7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) green line emissions under the excitation of Tb3+. The Dy3+-activated sample upon excitation at 349 and 386 nm UV light shows blue-green and orange-red emission lines originating from 4F9/2 → 6HJ (J = 15/2, 13/2) transitions. In addition, the energy transfer from the host lattice to the luminescence activators (i.e. Pr3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+) has been confirmed. In addition, the energy level diagram including the 4f and 5d energy levels of all Ln2+ and Ln3+ ions relative to the valence and conduction band of Gd5Si3O12N were constructed and discussed.

  15. Magnetic phase transitions in TbFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 , HoFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 and ErFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0

    CERN Document Server

    Reehuis, M; Krimmel, A; Scheidt, E W; Stüsser, N; Loidl, A; Jeitschko, W

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic order of the orthorhombic aluminides TbFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 , HoFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 and ErFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 (space group Cmcm) has been studied by specific heat and magnetic measurements, as well as by neutron powder diffraction down to 100 mK and in external fields up to 5 T. Only the rare-earth ions carry a magnetic moment. At T = 1.5 K the terbium moments in TbFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 show a square-wave modulated magnetic order with wavevector k = (0, 0.7977, 0) and a moment direction parallel to the a-axis. At a critical field of H sub c sub 1 = 0.9 T one of ten spins is forced to flip, going into an intermediate ferrimagnetic phase that is stable up to the critical field H sub c sub 2 = 1.8 T. Above this field finally all the rest of the spins flip, resulting in a ferromagnetic order of the terbium moments. ErFe sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 0 orders antiferromagnetically below T sub N 1.77(7) K with a similar magnetic structure characterized by a wavevector k (0, approx 0.8, 0). In contras...

  16. A family of 3d-4f octa-nuclear [Mn(III)(4)Ln(III)(4)] wheels (Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y): synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyuan; Lan, Yanhua; Ako, Ayuk M; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Anson, Christopher E; Buth, Gernot; Powell, Annie K; Wang, Zheming; Gao, Song

    2010-12-20

    We present the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetochemical characterizations for a family of isostructural [Mn(4)Ln(4)] compounds (Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y). They were prepared from the reactions of formic acid, propionic acid, N-n-butyl-diethanolamine, manganese perchlorate, and lanthanide nitrates under the addition of triethylamine in MeOH. The compounds possess an intriguing hetero-octanuclear wheel structure with four Mn(III) and four Ln(III) ions alternatively arranged in a saddle-like ring, where formate ions act as key carboxylate bridges. In the lattice, the molecules stack into columns in a quasi-hexagonal arrangement. Direct current (dc) magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated the depopulation of the Stark components at low temperature and/or very weak antiferromagnetic interactions between magnetic centers. The zero-field alternating current (ac) susceptibility studies revealed that the compounds containing Sm, Tb, and Dy showed frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals, indicating they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Magnetization versus applied dc field sweeps on a single crystal of the Dy compound down to 40 mK exhibited hysteresis depending on temperatures and field sweeping rates, further confirming that the Dy compound is a SMM. The magnetization dynamics of the Sm and Y compounds investigated under dc fields revealed that the relaxation of the Sm compound is considered to be dominated by the two-phonon (Orbach) process while the Y compound displays a multiple relaxation process.

  17. NdHO, a novel oxyhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerøe, Marius; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Norby, Truls

    2011-01-01

    A new metal oxyhydride; neodymium oxyhydride, NdHO, has been synthesized from a reactant mixture of metal hydride (CaH2 or NdH3) and neodymium oxide(Nd2O3). The unit cell dimensions decrease smoothly in the series from LaHO, CeHO, PrHO to NdHO, in line with the lanthanide contraction. The crystal...

  18. Magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Dhilsha and Rama Rao (1990) reported single particle excitations in Co substituted Ho0⋅85Tb0⋅15Fe2, through ele- ctrical resistivity measurements. Low temperature mag- netization studies on Ni substituted Dy0⋅73Tb0.27Fe2 and. Ho0⋅85Tb0⋅15Fe2 have revealed domain wall pinning (Senthil. Kumar et al 1995).

  19. Sensitivity of magnetic properties to chemical pressure in lanthanide garnets Ln 3 A 2 X 3O12, Ln  =  Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, A  =  Ga, Sc, In, Te, X  =  Ga, Al, Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Sackville Hamilton, A. C.; Glass, H. F. J.; Dutton, S. E.

    2017-10-01

    A systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of three-dimensionally frustrated lanthanide garnets Ln 3 A 2 X 3O12, Ln  =  Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, A  =  Ga, Sc, In, Te, X  =  Ga, Al, Li is presented. Garnets with Ln  =  Gd show magnetic behaviour consistent with isotropic Gd3+ spins; no magnetic ordering is observed for T  ⩾  0.4 K. Magnetic ordering features are seen for garnets with Ln  =  Tb, Dy, Ho in the temperature range 0.4  <  T  <  2.5 K, however the nature of the magnetic ordering varies for the different Ln as well as for different combinations of A and X. The magnetic behaviour can be explained by tuning of the magnetic interactions and changes in the single-ion anisotropy. The change in magnetic entropy is evaluated from isothermal magnetisation measurements to characterise the magnetocaloric effect in these materials. Among the Gd garnets, the maximum change in magnetic entropy per mole (15.45 J K-1 molGd-1 ) is observed for Gd3Sc2Ga3O12 at 2 K, in a field of 9 T. The performance of Dy3Ga5O12 as a magnetocaloric material surpasses the other garnets with Ln  =  Tb, Dy, Ho.

  20. Mononuclear lanthanide single molecule magnets based on the polyoxometalates [Ln(W5O18)2]9- and [Ln(beta2-SiW11O39)2]13- (Ln(III) = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDamen, Murad A; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Luis, Fernando; Montero, Oscar

    2009-04-20

    The first two families of polyoxometalate-based single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are reported here. Compounds of the general formula [Ln(W(5)O(18))(2)](9-) (Ln(III) = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) and [Ln(SiW(11)O(39))(2)](13-) (Ln(III) = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) have been magnetically characterized with static and dynamic measurements. Slow relaxation of the magnetization, typically associated with SMM-like behavior, was observed for [Ln(W(5)O(18))(2)](9-) (Ln(III) = Ho and Er) and [Ln(SiW(11)O(39))(2)](13-) (Ln(III) = Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb). Among them, only the [Er(W(5)O(18))(2)](9-) derivative exhibited such a behavior above 2 K with an energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization of 55 K. For a deep understanding of the appearance of slow relaxation of the magnetization in these types of mononuclear complexes, the ligand-field parameters and the splitting of the J ground-state multiplet of the lanthanide ions have been also estimated.

  1. A Dy4 single-molecule magnet and its Gd(iii), Tb(iii), Ho(iii), and Er(iii) analogues encapsulated by an 8-hydroxyquinoline Schiff base derivative and β-diketonate coligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Pu; Bi, Yan-Xia; Shen, Hai-Yun; Wang, Wen-Min; Wang, Ni-Ni; Chang, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Ru-Xia; Cui, Jian-Zhong

    2017-04-05

    Five new tetranuclear complexes based on an 8-hydroxyquinoline Schiff base derivative and the β-diketone coligand, [Ln4(acac)4L6(μ3-OH)2]·CH3CN·0.5CH2Cl2 (Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4) and Er (5); HL = 5-(benzylidene)amino-8-hydroxyquinoline; acac = acetylacetonate) have been synthesized, and structurally and magnetically characterized. Complexes 1-5 have similar tetranuclear structures. Each LnIII ion is eight coordinated and its coordination polyhedra can be described as being in a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. The magnetic studies reveal that 1 features the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with the magnetic entropy change of -ΔSm(T) = 25.08 J kg-1 K-1 at 2 K for ΔH = 7 T, and 3 displays the slow magnetic relaxation behavior of Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) with the anisotropic barrier of 86.20 K and the pre-exponential factor τ0 = 2.99 × 10-8 s.

  2. Correlation between slow magnetic relaxation and the coordination structures of a family of linear trinuclear Zn(II)-Ln(III)-Zn(II) complexes (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Moe; Hino, Shiori; Yamashita, Kei; Kataoka, Yumiko; Nakano, Motohiro; Yamamura, Tomoo; Kajiwara, Takashi

    2012-11-28

    Six linear trinuclear [Ln{Zn(L)(AcO)}(2)]BPh(4) complexes (H(2)L denotes the Schiff-base ligand formed by a condensation reaction between ethylenediamine and two equivalents of o-vanillin), including Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), Tm (5) and Yb (6) were synthesized and were confirmed to be isostructural via X-ray crystallographic analyses. The Ln(III) ion in each complex is deca-coordinated by four equatorial oxygen donors from the methoxo groups of the Schiff-base ligands, two oxygen donors from the acetate anions and four axial oxygen donors from the phenoxo groups of the Schiff-base ligands. AC susceptibility measurements, with an oscillating frequency of 10 to 10,000 Hz, revealed that 1, 2, 4 and 6 show slow magnetic relaxation under a 1000 Oe DC bias field, which occurs via a single process, as confirmed by the semi-circular Cole-Cole plots. These complexes are considered to be field-induced single-molecule magnets under these conditions. The presence or absence of the slow magnetic relaxation process is discussed by correlating the characteristic magnetic anisotropy of each Ln(III) ion with the ligand field anisotropy.

  3. A bis(pyridine N-oxide) analogue of DOTA: relaxometric properties of the Gd(III) complex and efficient sensitization of visible and NIR-emitting lanthanide(III) cations including Pr(III) and Ho(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André F; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Carvalho, Henrique F; Teixeira, João M C; Paula, Carlos T B; Hermann, Petr; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Petoud, Stephane; Tóth, Eva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2014-11-03

    We report the synthesis of a cyclen-based ligand (4,10-bis[(1-oxidopyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid=L1) containing two acetate and two 2-methylpyridine N-oxide arms anchored on the nitrogen atoms of the cyclen platform, which has been designed for stable complexation of lanthanide(III) ions in aqueous solution. Relaxometric studies suggest that the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the Gd(III) complex may be sufficient for biological applications. A detailed structural study of the complexes by (1) H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations indicates that they adopt an anti-Δ(λλλλ) conformation in aqueous solution, that is, an anti-square antiprismatic (anti-SAP) isomeric form, as demonstrated by analysis of the (1) H NMR paramagnetic shifts induced by Yb(III) . The water-exchange rate of the Gd(III) complex is ${k{{298\\hfill \\atop {\\rm ex}\\hfill}}}$=6.7×10(6)  s(-1) , about a quarter of that for the mono-oxidopyridine analogue, but still about 50 % higher than the ${k{{298\\hfill \\atop {\\rm ex}\\hfill}}}$ of GdDOTA (DOTA=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). The 2-methylpyridine N-oxide chromophores can be used to sensitize a wide range of Ln(III) ions emitting in both the visible (Eu(III) and Tb(III) ) and NIR (Pr(III) , Nd(III) , Ho(III) , Yb(III) ) spectral regions. The emission quantum yield determined for the Yb(III) complex (${Q{{{\\rm L}\\hfill \\atop {\\rm Yb}\\hfill}}}$=7.3(1)×10(-3) ) is among the highest ever reported for complexes of this metal ion in aqueous solution. The sensitization ability of the ligand, together with the spectroscopic and relaxometric properties of its complexes, constitute a useful step forward on the way to efficient dual probes for optical imaging (OI) and MRI. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Family of carboxylate- and nitrate-diphenoxo triply bridged dinuclear Ni(II)Ln(III) complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Y): synthesis, experimental and theoretical magneto-structural studies, and single-molecule magnet behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacio, Enrique; Ruiz, José; Mota, Antonio J; Palacios, María A; Cremades, Eduard; Ruiz, Eliseo; White, Fraser J; Brechin, Euan K

    2012-05-21

    Seven acetate-diphenoxo triply bridged M(II)-Ln(III) complexes (M(II) = Ni(II) and Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Y; M(II) = Zn(II) and Ln(III) = Ho(III) and Er(III)) of formula [M(μ-L)(μ-OAc)Ln(NO(3))(2)], one nitrate-diphenoxo triply bridged Ni(II)-Tb(III) complex, [Ni(μ-L)(μ-NO(3))Tb(NO(3))(2)]·2CH(3)OH, and two diphenoxo doubly bridged Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes (Ln(III) = Eu, Gd) of formula [Ni(H(2)O)(μ-L)Ln(NO(3))(3)]·2CH(3)OH have been prepared in one pot reaction from the compartmental ligand N,N',N"-trimethyl-N,N"-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H(2)L). Moreover, Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes bearing benzoate or 9-anthracenecarboxylate bridging groups of formula [Ni(μ-L)(μ-BzO)Dy(NO(3))(2)] and [Ni(μ-L)(μ-9-An)Dy(9-An)(NO(3))(2)]·3CH(3)CN have also been successfully synthesized. In acetate-diphenoxo triply bridged complexes, the acetate bridging group forces the structure to be folded with an average hinge angle in the M(μ-O(2))Ln bridging fragment of ~22°, whereas nitrate-diphenoxo doubly bridged complexes and diphenoxo-doubly bridged complexes exhibit more planar structures with hinge angles of ~13° and ~2°, respectively. All Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes exhibit ferromagnetic interactions between Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions and, in the case of the Gd(III) complexes, the J(NiGd) coupling increases weakly but significantly with the planarity of the M-(O)(2)-Gd bridging fragment and with the increase of the Ni-O-Gd angle. Density functional theory (DFT) theoretical calculations on the Ni(II)Gd(III) complexes and model compounds support these magneto-structural correlations as well as the experimental J(NiGd) values, which were found to be ~1.38 and ~2.1 cm(-1) for the folded [Ni(μ-L)(μ-OAc)Gd(NO(3))(2)] and planar [Ni(H(2)O)(μ-L)Gd(NO(3))(3)]·2CH(3)OH complexes, respectively. The Ni(II)Dy(III) complexes exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization with Δ/k(B) energy barriers under 1000 Oe applied magnetic fields of 9.2 and 10

  5. Temperature-induced spin reorientation and magnetization jump of rare-earth orthoferrite Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhao, Weiyao; Cao, Yiming; Kang, Baojuan [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, Jincang [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cao, Shixun, E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-07-25

    We report temperature-induced spin reorientation and magnetization jump effects in the rare earth (RE) orthoferrite Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal. The single crystal of about 6 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was successfully grown by optical floating zone method. Both X-ray diffraction and Laue photograph confirmed the homogeneity and high quality of the crystal. Magnetic properties of Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal are studied over a wide temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Spin reorientation transition from Γ{sub 2} to Γ{sub 4} phase is observed in the temperature range of 75–90 K. At lower temperature, the Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} shows an abrupt jump of magnetization along the a-axis, which occurs only in the field-cooling process, and is sensitive to external applied magnetic field. By analyzing the jump temperature and magnitude of the magnetization, we conclude that it is caused by the spin reversal of the rare earth ions. The isothermal magnetization versus field hysteresis loop measurements along a axis explain the spin configuration variation from 3 K to 60 K. - Highlights: • Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal was grown by optical floating zone method. • It shows an abrupt jump of magnetization along a axis at low temperature. • The jump height and temperature is sensitive to external applied magnetic field. • It is attributed to the spin reversal of the rare earth ions.

  6. Microestrutura e condutividade elétrica em Ce0,85Y0,15-xRxO2-delta (R=Pr, Tb Microstructure and electrical conductivity in Ce0.85Y0.15-xRxO2-delta (R=Pr, Tb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Tadokoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soluções sólidas de Ce0,85Y0,15-xRxO2-delta (R=Pr, Tb com x = 0,02 e 0,06 foram sintetizadas pela co-precipitação dos hidróxidos para o estudo do efeito dos co-dopantes Pr e Tb na microestrutura e na condutividade elétrica das cerâmicas sinterizadas. Para fins comparativos foram também preparadas as soluções sólidas Ce0,85Y0,13Pr0,02O2-delta pela mistura do Pr6O11 ao gel precipitado contendo céria e ítria, e Ce0,85Y0,15O2-gama. A caracterização estrutural das amostras sinterizadas foi feita por difração de raios X e espectroscopia Raman. O estudo da microestrutura foi feito por observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, e a análise elementar em micro-regiões por espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. A condutividade elétrica foi determinada por medidas de espectroscopia de impedância. Os principais resultados obtidos mostraram a importância da técnica de síntese na obtenção de soluções sólidas com homogeneidade química e estrutural. A adição de praseodímio a céria-ítria resulta em maior homogeneidade microestrutural, diminuindo o tamanho médio de grãos e estreitando a distribuição de tamanho de grãos. A adição de térbio não altera a microestrutura da céria-ítria. Os co-dopantes Pr e Tb exercem efeito deletério na condutividade elétrica da céria-ítria na temperatura de operação típica (650 ºC de uma célula a combustível de óxido sólido em temperaturas intermediárias.Ce0.85Y0.15-xRxO2-delta (R=Pr, Tb with x = 0.02 e 0.06 solid solutions were synthesized by the hydroxide coprecipitation technique to study the effect of Pr and Tb additions in the microstructure and electrical conductivity of yttria-doped ceria solid electrolyte. For comparison purposes, the solid solution Ce0.85Y0.13Pr0.02O2-delta was prepared by mixing Pr6O11 to the precipitated gel of ceria-yttria. The solid electrolyte Ce0.85Y0.15O2-gamma was also synthesized by chemical route. The structural characterization

  7. Reflexia na stav a perspektívy didaktiky biológie z pohľadu situácie na Prírodovedeckej fakulte Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Ušáková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Príspevok popisuje východiská a impulzy rozvoja didaktiky biológie na Slovensku  z pohľadu skúseností edukačnej a výskumnej práce na Katedre didaktiky prírodných vied, psychológie a pedagogiky PRIFUK v Bratislave. Cez stručný historický prehľad od povojnového obdobia až po súčasnosť upriamuje pozornosť na osobnosti, ktoré sú s formovaním didaktiky biológie úzko spojené. Poukazuje na niektoré spoločné problémy prírodovedného vzdelávania v kontexte spoločensko-politických zmien spojených so vstupom do EU a dôsledkami reformného úsilia s cieľom konvergencie vzdelávacích systémov krajín EU. Podrobnejšie sa venuje problémom v doktorandskom štúdiu  a výskumu v didaktike biológie, od kvality ktorého sa odvíja aj úroveň učiteľskej prípravy budúcich učiteľov biológie. Konkretizuje zmeny v obsahu aj v štruktúre didaktických predmetov s cieľom zvýšiť kvalitu a funkčnosť prípravy učiteľov. V závere príspevku autorka upozorňuje na pretrvávajúce problémy didaktiky biológie, ktorých riešenie si vyžaduje potrebu vyššej miery spolupráce všetkých zainteresovaných zložiek.

  8. A passively mode-locked sub-picosecond Ho3+,Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber laser operating at 2.86 µm(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, Sergei; Jackson, Stuart D.; Withford, Michael J.; Fürbach, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively mode-locked holmium-praseodymium co-doped ring fiber laser that produces an estimated 950 fs pulsewidth and peak power of 4.3 kW at a pulse repetition rate of 74 MHz. The measured center wavelength was 2.86 µm which overlaps more strongly with liquid water whilst better avoiding atmospheric water vapor which overlaps more strongly with previously reported ultrafast Er3+ fiber lasers operating at 2.8. Thus the present system should display better long term stability compared to the Er3+-based system and at the same time, be a more practical tool for interaction with biological tissues. The laser was constructed using a 1.2 m long double-clad fluoride fiber doped with Ho3+ and Pr3+ ions and arranged into a unidirectional ring resonator that was resistant to instabilities associated with back reflections. Two semiconductor 1150 nm laser diodes with the maximum combined output of 7.5 W were used to pump the fiber. Mode-locking was achieved using the combination of two techniques: sub-picosecond pulses were produced by nonlinear polarization evolution after longer pulses were initially obtained using an in-cavity GaAs saturable absorber having a modulation depth of 90% and a relaxation time of 10 ps. A standard arrangement employing two waveplates and an optical isolator was introduced into the resonator to carry out nonlinear polarization rotation. The average power of the mode-locked laser reached 350 mW after the 50% outcoupling mirror. The RF signal-to-noise ratio reached 67 dB for the first peak at the resolution bandwidth of 10 kHz.

  9. Effects of Nd-, Pr-, Tb- and Y-doping on the structural, textural, electrical and N2O decomposition activity of mesoporous NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zied, Bahaa M.; Bawaked, Salem M.; Kosa, Samia A.; Ali, Tarek T.; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Aqlan, Faisal M.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, nickel oxide, NiO, promoted with various dopants showed an interesting activity behavior in N2O direct decomposition. In this paper, the activity of a series of rare earth (Nd, Pr, Tb and Y) doped NiO catalysts was investigated for this reaction. These catalysts have been prepared by the calcination of their corresponding oxalate mixtures, which have been synthesized via the microwave-assisted precipitation route using oxalic acid as precipitant. Characterization of the obtained catalysts was carried out by using various physico-chemical techniques including TGA, FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, TPR, XPS and electrical conductivity. The results obtained revealed the nanocrystalline nature of the prepared catalysts. Moreover, the presence of the various dopants has led to a noticeable decrease of the NiO crystallites size, mesoporosity development and an increase of its surface area and pore volume. There is a substantial activity increase upon doping NiO with the various rare earth oxides. Such activity increase is associated with the structural modifications as well as the electrical conductivity increase of these catalysts.

  10. Structural and magnetic studies on the new Laves phases RE(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 (RE = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Magnetocaloric effect of Gd(Co0.667Ga0.333)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Greedan, John E.; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2017-11-01

    Several new MgZn2-type Laves phases with the P63/mmc symmetry and RE(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 stoichiometries (RE = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) were obtained by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. Single crystals with the MgZn2-type structure were extracted from the annealed RE(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 (RE = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) alloys and Ga flux-grown Er(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 sample. Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods were used for the phase analysis and structural characterization. A decrease in the cell volume due to the lanthanide contraction is observed from Gd(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 to Er(Co0.667Ga0.333)2. RE atoms occupy the 4f site, while Co and Ga are in the 2a and 6h sites. Magnetic behavior of the hexagonal MgZn2-type RE(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 phases strongly depends on the RE. Apparent ferromagnetic transition is observed for RE = Gd, Tb, and Dy, while the other two phases (RE = Ho, and Er) seem to be ferrimagnetic. Magnetocaloric properties of the Gd(Co0.667Ga0.333)2 phase were measured; the small isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSiso) value of -4.94 J/kgK at 152 K and for a ΔH = 0-50 kOe field change suggests a conventional magnetocaloric effect.

  11. Evidence of Coulomb correction and spin-orbit coupling in rare-earth dioxides CeO{sub 2}, PrO{sub 2} and TbO{sub 2}: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Mohammed Benali, E-mail: mohammmed.kanoun@kaust.edu.sa [PSE, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex Systems, FFWP-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kanoun-Bouayed, Nawel [PES, LPT, Universite de Tlemcen (Algeria); Goumri-Said, Souraya [PSE, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-15

    The current study investigates the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of CeO{sub 2}, PrO{sub 2} and TbO{sub 2} using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the Wu-Cohen generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with Hubbard (U) correction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The GGA+U implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO{sub 2}. We clarify that the inclusion of the Hubbard U parameter and the spin-orbit coupling are responsible for the ferromagnetic insulating of PrO{sub 2} and TbO{sub 2}. The magnetic description is achieved by the spin-density contours and magnetic moment calculations, where we show the polarization of oxygen atoms from the rare earth atoms. The mechanical stability is shown via the elastic constants calculations. The optical properties, namely the dielectric function and the reflectivity are calculated for radiation up to 12 eV, giving interesting optoelectronic properties to these dioxides. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GGA+U implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inclusion of the Hubbard-U parameter and spin-orbit coupling is responsible for ferromagnetic insulating of PrO{sub 2} and TbO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elastic constants calculation proves the mechanical stability of CeO{sub 2}, PrO{sub 2} and TbO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic structure description shows that these compounds are stable in ferromagnetic phases.

  12. Octanuclear {Ln(III)8}(Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) macrocyclic complexes in a cyclooctadiene-like conformation: manifestation of slow relaxation of magnetization in the Dy(III) derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Colacio, Enrique

    2013-04-15

    The synthesis of a series of macrocyclic, isostructural octanuclear lanthanide complexes [Gd8 (LH2)4 (μ-Piv)4 (η(2)-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]·6CH3OH·2H2O (1), [Tb8 (LH2)4 (μ-Piv)4 (η(2)-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]4CH3OH·4H2O (2), [Dy8(LH2)4 (μ-Piv)4 (η(2)-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]·8CH3OH (3), and [Ho8(LH2)4(μ-Piv)4 (η(2)-Piv)4 (μ-OMe)4]·CH3OH·4H2O (4) have been achieved, using Ln(III) nitrate salts, pivalic acid, and a new multidentate chelating ligand (2E,N'E)-N'-(3-((bis(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzylidene)-2-(hydroxyimino) propane hydrazide (LH5), containing two unsymmetrically disposed arms; one side of the phenol unit is decorated with a diethanolamine group while the other side is a hydrazone that has been built by the condensation reaction involving 2-hydroxyiminopropanehydrazide. All the compounds, 1-4, are neutral and are held by the four [LH2](3-) triply deprotonated chelating ligands. In these complexes all the lanthanide ions are doubly or triply bridged via phenolate, alkoxy, and pivalate oxygens. The metal centers are distributed over the 8 vertices of an octagon, resembling a cyclooctadiene ring core. The details of magnetochemical analysis for complexes 1-4 shows that they exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ln(3+) ions through the phenoxo, alkoxo, and pivalato bridging groups. None of the compounds exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization at zero applied direct current (dc) magnetic field, which could be due to the existence of a fast quantum tunneling relaxation of the magnetization (QTM). In the case of 3, the application of a small dc field is enough as to fully or partly suppress the fast and efficient zero-field QTM allowing the observation of slow relaxation above 2 K.

  13. Tetranuclear hetero-metal [Co(II)2Ln(III)2] (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, La) complexes involving carboxylato bridges in a rare μ4-η(2):η(2) mode: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Maity, Manoranjan; Titiš, Ján; Boča, Roman; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2014-02-03

    A new family of 3d-4f heterometal 2 × 2 complexes [Co(II)2(L)2(PhCOO)2Ln(III)2(hfac)4] (1-5) (Ln = Gd (compound 1), Tb (compound 2), Dy (compound 3), Ho (compound 4), and La (compound 5)) have been synthesized in moderate yields (48-63%) following a single-pot protocol using stoichiometric amounts (1:1 mol ratio) of [Co(II)(H2L)(PhCOO)2] (H2L = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)ethylenediamine) as a metalloligand and [Ln(III)(hfac)3(H2O)2] (Hhfac = hexafluoroacetylacetone) as a lanthanide precursor compound. Also reported with this series is the Zn-Dy analog [Zn(II)2(L)2(PhCOO)2Dy(III)2(hfac)4] 6 to help us in understanding the magnetic properties of these compounds. The compounds 1-6 are isostructural. Both hexafluoroacetylacetonate and benzoate play crucial roles in these structures as coligands in generating a tetranuclear core of high thermodynamic stability through a self-assembly process. The metal centers are arranged alternately at the four corners of this rhombic core, and the carboxylato oxygen atoms of each benzoate moiety bind all of the four metal centers of this core in a rare μ4-η(2):η(2) bridging mode as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data confirm a paramagnetic behavior, and no remnant magnetization exists in any of these compounds at vanishing magnetic field. The metal centers are coupled in an antiferromagnetic manner in these compounds. The [Co(II)2Dy(III)2] compound exhibits a slow magnetic relaxation below 6 K, as proven by the AC susceptibility measurements; the activation energy reads U/kB = 8.8 K (τ0 = 2.0 × 10(-7) s) at BDC = 0, and U/kB = 7.8 K (τ0 = 3.9 × 10(-7) s) at BDC = 0.1 T. The [Zn(II)2Dy(III)2] compound also behaves as a single-molecule magnet with U/kB = 47.9 K and τ0 = 2.75 × 10(-7) s.

  14. Systematic Study of a Family of Butterfly-Like {M2Ln2} Molecular Magnets (M = Mg(II), Mn(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II); Ln = Y(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Er(III)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Chilton, Nicholas F; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E P; McInnes, Eric J L

    2015-06-15

    A family of 3d-4f [M(II)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) "butterflies" (where M(II) = Mg, Co, Ni, and Cu; Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) and [Mn(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-O)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) molecules (where Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) has been synthesized and characterized through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and ab initio calculations. All dysprosium- and some erbium-containing tetramers showed frequency-dependent maxima in the out-of-phase component of the susceptibility associated with slow relaxation of magnetization, and hence, they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). AC susceptibility measurements have shown that the SMM behavior is entirely intrinsic to the Dy and Er sites and the magnitude of the energy barrier is influenced by the interactions between the 4f and the 3d metal. A trend is observed between the strength of the 3d-4f exchange interaction between and the maximum observed in the χ″M(T).

  15. Evidence of Coulomb correction and spinorbit coupling in rare-earth dioxides CeO 2, PrO 2 and TbO 2: An ab initio study

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    The current study investigates the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of CeO 2, PrO 2 and TbO 2 using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the WuCohen generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with Hubbard (U) correction and spinorbit coupling (SOC). The GGAU implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO 2. We clarify that the inclusion of the Hubbard U parameter and the spinorbit coupling are responsible for the ferromagnetic insulating of PrO 2 and TbO 2. The magnetic description is achieved by the spin-density contours and magnetic moment calculations, where we show the polarization of oxygen atoms from the rare earth atoms. The mechanical stability is shown via the elastic constants calculations. The optical properties, namely the dielectric function and the reflectivity are calculated for radiation up to 12 eV, giving interesting optoelectronic properties to these dioxides. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Tuberculosis Go to Information for Researchers ► Tuberculosis (TB) is ... are drug resistant. Why Is the Study of Tuberculosis a Priority for NIAID? Tuberculosis is one of ...

  17. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a new family of tetra-nuclear {Mn2(III)Ln2}(Ln = Dy, Gd, Tb, Ho) clusters with an arch-type topology: single-molecule magnetism behavior in the dysprosium and terbium analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Speldrich, Manfred; van Leusen, Jan; Kögerler, Paul

    2013-05-06

    Sequential reaction of Mn(II) and lanthanide(III) salts with a new multidentate ligand, 2,2'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzylazanediyl)diethanol (LH3), containing two flexible ethanolic arms, one phenolic oxygen, and a methoxy group afforded heterometallic tetranuclear complexes [Mn2Dy2(LH)4(μ-OAc)2](NO3)2·2CH3OH·3H2O (1), [Mn2Gd2(LH)4(μ-OAc)2](NO3)2·2CH3OH·3H2O (2), [Mn2Tb2(LH)4(μ-OAc)2](NO3)2·2H2O·2CH3OH·Et2O (3), and [Mn2Ho2(LH)4(μ-OAc)2]Cl2·5CH3OH (4). All of these dicationic complexes possess an arch-like structural topology containing a central Mn(III)-Ln-Ln-Mn(III) core. The two central lanthanide ions are connected via two phenolate oxygen atoms. The remaining ligand manifold assists in linking the central lanthanide ions with the peripheral Mn(III) ions. Four doubly deprotonated LH(2-) chelating ligands are involved in stabilizing the tetranuclear assembly. A magnetochemical analysis reveals that single-ion effects dominate the observed susceptibility data for all compounds, with comparably weak Ln···Ln and very weak Ln···Mn(III) couplings. The axial, approximately square-antiprismatic coordination environment of the Ln(3+) ions in 1-4 causes pronounced zero-field splitting for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and Ho(3+). For 1 and 3, the onset of a slowing down of the magnetic relaxation was observed at temperatures below approximately 5 K (1) and 13 K (3) in frequency-dependent alternating current (AC) susceptibility measurements, yielding effective relaxation energy barriers of ΔE = 16.8 cm(-1) (1) and 33.8 cm(-1) (3).

  18. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Ce0.8PrxTb0.2−xO2−δ and Evaluation of Performance as Oxygen Permeation Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2012-01-01

    to that of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ, and was found to increase with increasing Pr/Tb ratio. The oxide ion mobility in Ce0.8PrxTb0.2−xO2−δ is similar to that in Ce1−2δGd2δO2−δ at the same oxygen vacancy concentration. Based on the measured ionic and electronic conductivities, fluxes through thin film Ce0.8PrxTb0.2−xO2...

  19. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  20. Effect of Si codoping on thermoluminescence properties of undoped and RE (RE:Ce/Tb/Pr/Eu/Yb/Nd) doped YAG phosphor under UV, and γ-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Manisha; Butey, B. P.; Wankhede, S. P.; Joshi, C. P.; Patil, R. R.; Moharil, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work is to test an efficient material synthesis method, for the development of thermoluminescence (TL) material using yttrium aluminium garnet. The TL properties of undoped, Ce/Tb/Pr/Eu/Yb/Nd doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) polycrystalline material, synthesized by combustion synthesis at low temperature, under ultra-violet (uv) and γ -rays irradiation is reported. The effect of controlled Si codoping is also inspected. The introduction of the doping ions induces changes in the trapping processes and the TL efficiency. The TL signal of Ce doped YAG samples indicates a high sensitivity to uv, γ-ray irradiation. It has been found that there is a prominent enhancement in TL glow peak with Si doping. Trapping parameters of uv irradiated YAG:Ce/Si were calculated from the TL data. The prepared ceramics have found potential application for uv and γ-ray radiation dosimetry purpose.

  1. TB Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  2. Studies of the energy transfer processes from Er{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} in LiYF{sub 4} crystal and ZBLAN glass for the laser media optimization operating near 3{mu}m region; Estudos dos processos de transferencia de energia dos ions de Er{sup 3+} e Ho{sup 3+} para os ions de Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} e Eu{sup 3+} no cristal de LiYF{sub 4} e no vidro ZBLAN para a otimizacao de meios laser ativos que operam na regiao de 3{mu}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagosich, Fabio Henrique

    2006-07-01

    The energy transfer processes (ET) from the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}; {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} and {sup 5}I{sub 6} levels of Ho{sup 3+} ions in LiYF{sub 4} (YLF) crystal and ZBLAN glass to Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} deactivators ions were studied. The micro parameters of these energy transfer processes were determined using the overlap integral method, and showed that Eu{sup 3+} ion is the best deactivator of the first excited state of the Ho{sup 3+} in YLF, and Nd{sup 3+} is the best deactivator of the Er{sup 3+} in YLF and ZBLAN materials. The 1.5 and 2.7{mu}m emissions of Er{sup 3+} and 2.1 and 2.9{mu}m fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} were measured using short laser pulses excitations from a tunable OPO pumped 2w-Nd:YAG laser system. We proposed a criterion for discriminating the energy transfer processes assisted by excitation migration (diffusion or hopping) among donors. It was observed that diffusion model describes the ET process from the second excited state of the donor (Er{sup 3+} or Ho{sup 3+}) independently of the C{sub D-D}/C{sub D-A} ratio, while the hopping model can describe the ET process involving the first excited state of donor. We proposed a modification of the hopping model in order to describe the experimental results for systems having C{sub D-D}/C{sub D-A} {>=} 10. Using the ET parameters, we determined that the best systems for laser action at 3{mu}m are the Ho:Eu:YLF, Ho:Nd:YLF and Er:Nd:YLF systems. On the other hand, we found that Er{sup 3+} doped (1.5 mol%) ZBLAN glasses, single and co-doped with Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+}, do not show potential for laser action at 2.8{mu}m. The up-conversion processes were studied in Er:YLF systems as a function of the Er{sup 3+} concentration, and the excited state absorption (ESA) and up conversion by energy transfer (ETU) processes were discriminated using a time resolved fluorescence decays. It was observed that 980 nm is the most convenient wavelength for pumping the Er

  3. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-21

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  6. Analysis of the crystallographic and magnetic structures of the Tb0.1Pr0.9Al2 and Tb0.25Pr0.75Al2 magnetocaloric compounds by means of neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedesco, Julio C. G.; Carvalho, Alexandre Magnus G.; Christensen, Niels Bech

    2015-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering data were used to simulate and understand the magnetization and heat capacity curves of the pseudobinary Tbx Pr1-x Al2, with x = 0.10 and 0.25, as a function of temperature. From the Rietveld analysis, we concluded that no crystallograph...

  7. Synthesis, structures, and luminescent properties of sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4} (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Dorofeev, Sergey G.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zitzer, Sabine; Greiner, Stefan; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Olenev, Andrei V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sine Theta Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-17

    Six sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, isostructural to Na{sub 2}Y{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, were synthesized by flux techniques and characterized by single-crystal XRD. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 23.967(1), b = 5.6342(3), c = 16.952(1) Aa, β = 134.456(5) for Ln = Sm, a = 23.932(2), b = 5.6044(5), c = 17.134(1) Aa, β = 135.151(6) for Ln = Eu, a = 23.928(1), b = 5.5928(1), c = 17.1133(8) Aa, β = 135.366(3) for Ln = Gd, a = 23.907(1), b = 5.569(3), c = 16.745(1) Aa, β = 134.205(3) for Ln = Tb, a = 23.870(1), b = 5.547(3), c = 16.665(1) Aa, β = 134.102(3) for Ln = Dy, and a = 23.814(1), b = 5.526(3), c = 16.626(1) Aa, β = 134.016(3) for Ln = Ho and Z = 4. Their crystal structure can be considered as a framework built of intergrowing Ln-O and Na-(O,Cl) slabs with channel walls decorated by tellurium atoms of [TeO{sub 3}]{sup 2-} groups. The luminescent properties of the new compounds due to the Ln{sup 3+} cations are described and discussed. We also discuss the crystal chemistry of various alkali-metal rare-earth metal(III) halide oxochalcogenates(IV). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Changes in speed and strength in female volleyball players during and after a plyometric training program Změny rychlostně-silových předpokladů volejbalistek v průběhu a po absolvování plyometrického tréninkového programu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Elfmark

    2009-03-01

    ázelo k pozitivním změnám průměrných hodnot testových skóre, avšak dynamika změn ukazatelů odrazové síly a rychlosti byla odlišná. Další nárůst výkonnosti u všech sledovaných ukazatelů byl zaznamenán při výstupním měření (šest týdnů po absolvování tréninkového programu. Posouzení rozdílů testových skóre sledovaného souboru před intervencí a šest týdnů po jejím skončení ukázalo na věcně i statisticky významné změny ve výkonnosti hráček (p < .05 Výsledky studie podporují názor, že plyometrická cvičení jsou efektivním prostředkem rozvoje výbušné odrazové síly a rychlosti sportující mládeže.

  9. Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    In this podcast, Dr. Sundari Mase, Medical Team Lead in the Field Services and Evaluation Branch in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day and the 2014 theme.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  10. Mycobacteria and TB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufmann, S. H. E. (Stephan H. E.); Hahn, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    .... Scientists investigating the epidemiology, immunology and molecular biology of TB or engaged in vaccine and drug development as well as physicians and social workers treating TB patients will benefit...

  11. Problematika elektronického obchodu společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Frolichová, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na problematiku zřízení elektronického obchodu společnosti. Obsahem diplomové práce je podrobná analýza trhu a možných dodavatelů řešení, dále jsou řešeny otázky bezpečnosti, práva a technologie. Součástí práce je návrh postupu zavádění internetového obchodu do firmy. Práce se zabývá také internetovým marketingem a SEO optimalizací. The thesis is focused on the establishment of company's e-commerce. Content of the thesis is a detailed market analysis and possibl...

  12. Stínová kinematografie - Mytologie australského gotického filmu 70.let

    OpenAIRE

    Kotrlová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    8 Univerzita Karlova v Praze Filozofická fakulta Katedra filmových studií Diplomová práce Jitka Kotrlová Stínová kinematografie: mytologie australského gotického filmu 70. let Shadow Cinematography: Mythology of the Australian Gothic Film of the 1970's Praha 2015 Vedoucí práce: PhDr. Petra Hanáková, Ph.D Abstract: The thesis focuses on the mythological aspects of films of the so-called Australia gothic in 1970's. In a detailed form of thematic analysis it discovers three fundamental myths wit...

  13. Studium sterilizačních účinků dielektrického bariérového výboje

    OpenAIRE

    Slámová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Předmětem dizertační práce bylo studium sterilizačních účinků dielektrického bariérového výboje pracujícího za atmosférického tlaku. Jako modelové mikroorganismy byly při studiu použity plíseň Aspergillus niger, grampozitivní bakterie Bacillus subtilis a částečně také gramnegativní bakterie Escherichia coli. Vzorky mikroorganismů byly naneseny na papír Whatman 1 nebo PET folii a vystaveny účinkům plazmatu. Plazma bylo generováno v prostředí argonu, dusíku, suchého a vlhkého vzduchu s frekvenc...

  14. Occupational Competence for Improving Industrial Enterprise Competitive Standards / Profesní Kompetence Pro Zlepšení Konkurenčních Standardů Průmyslového Podniku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krčmarská Lucie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Úspěchy firem jsou většinou poměřovány jejich dosaženými výsledky. Za základ těchto úspěchů lze považovat úroveň kompetencí lidí, kteří pro firmu pracují. Kompetence lidí chápeme jako souhrn dosahovaného výkonu a přinášeného potenciálu. Jestliže chybí jedno, pak chybí i kompetence jako celek. Problémy, které vznikají ve firmách můžete tedy převést na chybějící nebo nedostačující kompetence a je tedy nutné doplnit to, co v oblasti kompetencí chybí. Uvědomí-li si firma význam kompetencí lidí ve vztahu k úspěchům nebo neúspěchům a zaměří-li se na jejich rozvoj, odstraňuje tím příčiny vznikajících problémů, ne jen jejich viditelné problémy. Článek je zaměřen na posouzení kompetencí a kompetenčních modelů jako významného nástroje v oblasti řízení lidských zdrojů.

  15. Výložník kombinovaného skládkového stroje

    OpenAIRE

    Štursa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá konstrukcí částí kombinovaného skládkového stroje určeného pro obsluhu skládky hnědého uhlí u uhelné elektrárny. Nejprve jsou nadefinovány základní parametry stroje a silové účinky zatěžující stroj během provozu. Práce dále obsahuje návrh ocelové konstrukce kolesového výložníku, kolesa, korečků, pohonu kolesa, hřídele, ložisek a dalších částí kolesového výložníku. Tyto součásti jsou ověřeny analytickými nebo konečnoprvkovými výpočty. This master’s thesis deal...

  16. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  17. The Ho(III) as structural probe for high temperature ionic liquids: RCl 3 (R = rare earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Papatheodorou, G. N.

    2008-12-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of the f ← f transitions of Ho 3+ as a probe cation doped in solid and liquid YCl 3 and TbCl 3 have been measured from room temperature to above the melting point of both compounds. In the same temperature range Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize all phases present. Emphasis is given on the Ho 3+ ligand field spectra of the 5G 6 ← 5I 8 hypersensitive transition and their similarities with the known spectra of holmium chloro-elpasolite. Smooth spectral changes with nearly invariant molar absorptivities (between 30 and 40 L mol -1 cm -1) are observed upon melting YCl 3 and α-TbCl 3 which indicate that most probably the Ho 3+ is in 6-fold distorted octahedral coordination in both compounds and both phases. Drastic spectral changes are observed alongside the α-TbCl 3 to β-TbCl 3 phase transition where the coordination is altered from six to eight and the molar absorptivity quadruples. The spectra of liquid Y(Ho)Cl 3 and Tb(Ho)Cl 3 are correlated to the spectra of liquid La(Ho)Cl 3 and Gd(Ho)Cl 3 and are attributed to the ligand field states of Ho 3+ in distorted octahedral geometries. In conjunction with the molar volumes of all RCl 3 (R = rare earth) liquids which are invariant and independent of R and with Raman spectroscopic measurements for the same systems, a common possible structure of the rare earth chloride liquids is deduced and proposed.

  18. Model elektronického obchodu pro služby

    OpenAIRE

    Zechmeisterová, Věra

    2009-01-01

    Obsahem práce je vytvoření modelu informačního zabezpečení služeb autoopravny a vytvoření odpovídajícího systémového řešení elektronického obchodování této autoopravny. The content of this Master thesis is the creation of the car repair shop services informational security model and also the creation of commensurate e-commerce system solution for this car repair shop. A

  19. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  20. Návrh rezervačního hotelového portálu

    OpenAIRE

    Rykala, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem webového rezervačního portálu pro ubytovací zařízení, jako jsou hotely a penziony. Výchozím aspektem jsou požadavky zadavatele. V práci je popsán návrh postupu tvorby portálu, posouzení jeho ekonomické hodnoty a zhodnocení jeho případného nasazení do provozu. This Bachelor’s thesis is focused on the design of hotel reservation through web portal, used by accommodation facilities such as hotels . Initial aspects are client’s requests. The thesis describes ...

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  2. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  3. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: July 26, 2017 ...

  4. Míra negativního zobrazení Miloše Zemana a Karla Schwarzenberga v médiích v průběhu prezidentské volby v roce 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Tvarohová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis The Rate of Negativity in Miloš Zeman's and Karel Schwarzenberg' Reflection in Media during Presidential Election in 2013 analyses the rate of negativity in the news production of three national newspapers - Mladá fronta Dnes, Lidové noviny and Právo - about these presidential candidates. Time range setting is one month before first round of presidential election and one month after first round of presidential election. The presidential election in January of 2013 was completel...

  5. Structural trends in a series of isostructural lanthanide-copper metallacrown sulfates (Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho): hexaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) heptaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) sulfate hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlishchuk, Anna V; Kolotilov, Sergey V; Fritsky, Igor O; Zeller, Matthias; Addison, Anthony W; Hunter, Allen D

    2011-07-01

    The seven isostructural complexes, [Cu(5)Ln(C(2)H(4)N(2)O(2))(5)(SO(4))(H(2)O)(6.5)](2)(SO(4))·6H(2)O, where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho, are representatives of the 15-metallacrown-5 family. Each dianion of glycinehydroxamic acid (GlyHA) links two Cu(II) cations forming a cyclic [CuGlyHA](5) frame. The Ln(III) cations are located at the centre of the [CuGlyHA](5) rings and are bound by the five hydroxamate O atoms in the equatorial plane. Five water molecules are coordinated to Cu(II) cations, and one further water molecule, located close to an inversion centre between two adjacent [Cu(5)Ln(GlyHA)(5)](2+) cations, is disordered around this inversion centre and coordinated to a Cu(II) cation of either the first or second metallacrown ether. Another water molecule and one of the two crystallographically independent sulfate anions are coordinated, the latter in a bidentate fashion, to the Ln(III) cation in the axial positions. The second sulfate anion is not coordinated to the cation, but is located in an interstitial position on a crystallographic inversion centre, thus leading to disorder of the O atoms around the centre of inversion. The Ln-O bond distances follow the trend of the lanthanide contraction. The apical Ln-O bond distances are very close to the sums of the ionic radii. However, the Ln-O distances within the metallacrown units are slightly compressed and the Ln(III) cations protrude significantly from the plane of the otherwise flat metallacrown ligand, thus indicating that the cavity is somewhat too small to accommodate the Ln(III) ions comfortably. This effect decreases with the size of the lanthanide cation from complex (I) (Ln(III) = Pr; 0.459) to complex (VII) (Ln(III) = Ho; 0.422), which indicates that the smaller lanthanide cations fit the cavity of the pentacopper metallacrown ring better than the larger ones. The diminished contraction of Ln-O distances within the metallacrown planes leads to an aniostropic contraction of the unit

  6. Effect of A-site cation size on magnetic and charge-ordering properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.9}Cu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, or Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Kamlesh [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Singh, M.P.; Razavi, F.S. [Department of Physics, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave, St Catharines L2S 3A1 (Canada); Varma, G.D., E-mail: gdvarfph@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.9}Cu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, or Ho) have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of A-site cation radius ( Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket r{sub A} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket ) and the A-site cation size-disorder ({sigma}{sup 2}) on magnetic properties are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The various interdependent phenomena such as ferromagnetism, phase separation, and charge ordering are investigated. - Abstract: The structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.9}Cu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, or Ho) perovskite manganites have been investigated to explore the influence of A-site cation radius ( Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket r{sub A} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket ) and the A-site cation size-disorder ({sigma}{sup 2}) on the various interdependent phenomena such as ferromagnetism (FM), phase separation (PS), and charge ordering (CO). The temperature dependence magnetization (M-T) curve of La-based sample shows four distinct points at {approx}269 K, 255 K, 200 K, and 148 K corresponding to strong FM, cluster glass (CG), weak FM, and charged ordered antiferromagnetic (COAFM) transitions, respectively. Our investigation shows that Neel temperatures (T{sub N}) increases, whereas Curie (T{sub C}) and irreversibility temperatures (T{sub irr}) decrease with decreasing Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket r{sub A} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , i.e., with increasing {sigma}{sup 2}. Furthermore, the value of the magnetization decreases and resistivity increases with decreasing Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket r{sub A} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket . All samples exhibit insulating behavior in the temperature range 77-300 K and above 110 K the electronic conduction mechanism has been described within the framework of the variable range hopping (VRH) model.

  7. Separation and Recycling for Rare Earth Elements by Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (HoLLE Using a pH-Responsive Fluorine-Based Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Saito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A selective separation and recycling system for metal ions was developed by homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HoLLE using a fluorosurfactant. Sixty-two different elemental ions (e.g., Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, In, Ir, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, and Zr were examined. By changing pH from a neutral or alkaline solution (pH ≥ 6.5 to that of an acidic solution (pH < 4.0, gallium, zirconium, palladium, silver, platinum, and rare earth elements were extracted at >90% efficiency into a sedimented Zonyl FSA® (CF3(CF2n(CH22S(CH22COOH, n = 6–8 liquid phase. Moreover, all rare earth elements were obtained with superior extraction and stripping percentages. In the recycling of rare earth elements, the sedimented phase was maintained using a filter along with a mixed solution of THF and 1 M sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. The Zonyl FSA® was filtrated and the rare earth elements were recovered on the filter as a hydroxide. Furthermore, the filtrated Zonyl FSA was reusable by conditioning the subject pH.

  8. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  9. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  10. Rare-earth tricyanomelaminates [NH(4)]Ln[HC(6)N(9)](2)[H(2)O](7)H(2)O (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy): structural investigation, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Abanti; Lotsch, Bettina V; Schmedt Auf der Günne, Jörn; Oeckler, Oliver; Schmidt, Peter J; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The rare-earth tricyanomelaminates, [NH(4)]Ln[HC(6)N(9)](2)[H(2)O](7)xH(2)O (LnTCM; Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy), have been synthesized through ion-exchange reactions. They have been characterized by powder as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, and solid-state (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N MAS NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray powder pattern common to all nine rare-earth tricyanomelaminates LnTCM (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) indicates that they are isostructural. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction pattern of LnTCM is indicative of non-merohedral twinning. The crystals are triclinic and separation of the twin domains as well as refinement of the structure were successfully carried out in the space group P1 for LaTCM (LaTCM; P1, Z=2, a=7.1014(14), b=13.194(3), c=13.803(3) A, alpha=90.11(3), beta=77.85(3), gamma=87.23(3) degrees , V=1262.8(4) A(3)). In the crystal structure, each Ln(3+) is surrounded by two nitrogen atoms from two crystallographically independent tricyanomelaminate moieties and seven oxygen atoms from crystal water molecules. The positions of all of the hydrogen atoms of the ammonium ions and water molecules could not be located from difference Fourier syntheses. The presence of [NH(4)](+) ions as well as two NH groups belonging to two crystallographically independent monoprotonated tricyanomelaminate moieties has only been confirmed by subjecting LaTCM to solid-state (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N{(1)H} cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR and advanced CP experiments such as cross-polarization combined with polarization inversion (CPPI). The (1)H 2D double-quantum single-quantum homonuclear correlation (DQ SQ) spectrum and the (15)N{(1)H} 2D CP heteronuclear-correlation (HETCOR) spectrum have revealed the hydrogen-bonded (N--HN) dimer of monoprotonated tricyanomelaminate moieties as well as H-bonding through [NH(4)](+) ions and H(2)O molecules. The structures of the other eight rare-earth tricyanomelaminates (Ln

  11. Biotechnologická produkce polyhydroxyalkanoátů s využitím odpadů kávového průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Vašíčková, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá produkcí polyhydroxyalkanoátů (PHA) kmeny bakterií Burkholderia cepacia a Burkholderia sacchari. Produkce PHA byla studována s využitím různými způsoby předupravené a hydrolyzované kávové sedliny. V rámci práce byla porovnána standardní metoda hydrolýzy kávové sedliny zředěnou minerální kyselinou a následnou enzymatickou hydrolýzou provedenou pouze pomocí enzymů. Vzniklé hydrolyzáty byly analyzovány se zaměřením na obsahu redukujících sacharidů a výtěžnost hydrolýzy...

  12. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss • • May spread TB bacteria to others • • Needs treatment to treat TB disease Additional Information 1. American Thoracic Society (ATS) and CDC. Diagnostic standards and classification of ...

  13. 94 β-Decay Half-Lives of Neutron-Rich _{55}Cs to _{67}Ho: Experimental Feedback and Evaluation of the r-Process Rare-Earth Peak Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Nishimura, S; Lorusso, G; Möller, P; Ideguchi, E; Regan, P-H; Simpson, G S; Söderström, P-A; Walker, P M; Watanabe, H; Xu, Z Y; Baba, H; Browne, F; Daido, R; Doornenbal, P; Fang, Y F; Gey, G; Isobe, T; Lee, P S; Liu, J J; Li, Z; Korkulu, Z; Patel, Z; Phong, V; Rice, S; Sakurai, H; Sinclair, L; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, M; Yagi, A; Ye, Y L; Yokoyama, R; Zhang, G X; Alharbi, T; Aoi, N; Bello Garrote, F L; Benzoni, G; Bruce, A M; Carroll, R J; Chae, K Y; Dombradi, Z; Estrade, A; Gottardo, A; Griffin, C J; Kanaoka, H; Kojouharov, I; Kondev, F G; Kubono, S; Kurz, N; Kuti, I; Lalkovski, S; Lane, G J; Lee, E J; Lokotko, T; Lotay, G; Moon, C-B; Nishibata, H; Nishizuka, I; Nita, C R; Odahara, A; Podolyák, Zs; Roberts, O J; Schaffner, H; Shand, C; Taprogge, J; Terashima, S; Vajta, Z; Yoshida, S

    2017-02-17

    The β-decay half-lives of 94 neutron-rich nuclei ^{144-151}Cs, ^{146-154}Ba, ^{148-156}La, ^{150-158}Ce, ^{153-160}Pr, ^{156-162}Nd, ^{159-163}Pm, ^{160-166}Sm, ^{161-168}Eu, ^{165-170}Gd, ^{166-172}Tb, ^{169-173}Dy, ^{172-175}Ho, and two isomeric states ^{174m}Er, ^{172m}Dy were measured at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory, providing a new experimental basis to test theoretical models. Strikingly large drops of β-decay half-lives are observed at neutron-number N=97 for _{58}Ce, _{59}Pr, _{60}Nd, and _{62}Sm, and N=105 for _{63}Eu, _{64}Gd, _{65}Tb, and _{66}Dy. Features in the data mirror the interplay between pairing effects and microscopic structure. r-process network calculations performed for a range of mass models and astrophysical conditions show that the 57 half-lives measured for the first time play an important role in shaping the abundance pattern of rare-earth elements in the solar system.

  14. LiHo(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Férid

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium holmium(III polyphosphate(V, LiHo(PO34, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO34, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetrahedra and 21 internal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetrahedral and dodecahedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho...Ho distance being 5.570 (1 Å.

  15. Systém integrovaného managementu

    OpenAIRE

    Slavíček, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá zaváděním integrovaného systému managementu. Konkrétně zaváděním systému managementu kvality a systémem environmentálního managementu. Praktická část obsahuje přezkoumání současného stavu plnění požadavků norem ČSN EN ISO 9001/2009 a ČSN EN ISO 14001/2005, registr právních požadavků, identifikaci environmentálních aspektů a jejich zhodnocení z hlediska významnosti a identifikaci situací havarijního ohrožení. This thesis deals with the introduction of integrate man...

  16. Ocelová konstrukce zimního stadionu

    OpenAIRE

    Lobreis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na posouzení stavby městského zimního stadionu, který bude umístěn v lokalitě Brno - Komárov. Zimní stadion je navržen dle směrnic ledního hokeje s kapacitou přibližně 7 000 diváků. Z toho 5 850 k sezení, 1 050 na stání a 100 ve VIP prostorech. Konstrukci zimního stadiónu tvoří ocelové a ocelobetonové sloupy, které společně se spřaženými příčnými průvlaky, železobetonovou deskou a ztužidly zajišťují tuhost konstrukce. Sloupy jsou podepřeny soustavou vrtaných pilot s hlavicem...

  17. TB Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implementation of New TB Screening Requirements for U.S.-Bound Immigrants and Refugees — 2007–2014. Medscape Multispecialty from ... October 28, Rev L). AccuProbe, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification Test. Gen-Probe [Package Insert]. Available online ...

  18. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  19. TB Anywhere Is TB Everywhere: The Intersection of U.S. Immigration Enforcement Policy and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Australia is in a similar situation to the United States regarding the incidence of TB. Australia has one of the lowest TB rates in the world, and almost...would not only cost less than 65 Justin T. Denholm, and Emma S. McBryde, “Can Australia Eliminate TB...LTBI. Also identified are known risk factors for TB transmission such as homelessness , substance abuse, and previous detention. An additional

  20. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  1. Design městského elektrokola

    OpenAIRE

    Sojka, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Předmětem této diplomové práce je design asistovaného městského elektrokola – tzv. pedelec. Cílem bylo navrhnout takový design, který bude splňovat jak požadavky zadavatele práce, tak kritéria nadčasového designu za použití moderních materiálů a technologií. Výsledkem je návrh, který ve srovnání s běžně prodávanými elektrokoly, vyniká především výrazně lepším rozložením hmotnosti a uživatelským komfortem. Práce je řešena po designérské, technické, ergonomické, psychologické a také ekonomické ...

  2. Suppression of impurity phases and the study of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ho2Co2Al intermetallic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, E. A.; Shang, Y. F.; Fu, H.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Hadimani, R. L.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The R2Co2Al compounds (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) are known to contain RCoAl-type impurity. In order to suppress the impurity phase in Ho2Co2Al intermetallic compound, nonstoichiometric samples with excess rare-earth Ho were prepared and annealed. Structural analysis indicates that annealed nonstoichiometric Ho42Co40Al20 sample, with 2 at% excess Ho, comprises the Ho2Co2Al phase and minor traces of Ho2O3 oxide. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the sample have been studied in detail. The alloy undergoes three phase transitions at 9 K, 21 K and 30 K. The multiple transitions and broadening effect of second-order phase transitions (SOT) on peak magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM), result in good refrigerant capacities (RCareas) of 136.9 and 437 J/kg under field changes (ΔH) of 2 and 5 T, respectively. These values of RCarea and their corresponding large -ΔSM peak magnitudes of 9.1 and 18.4 J/kg K under ΔH = 2 and 5 T, respectively, make Ho2Co2Al a promising and competitively good candidate magnetic refrigerant for low temperature cooling applications such as liquefaction of hydrogen gas.

  3. Napájecí zdroj elektrostatického odlučovače

    OpenAIRE

    Broďák, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na seznámení s problematikou napájení elektrických odlučovačů. Vzhledem k doposud dominantnímu postavení jednofázových transformátorů pracujících na síťové frekvenci 50 Hz řízených tyristory, se práce zaměřuje právě na tyto zdroje. První část popisuje princip elektrického odlučování a popis vlastního elektrického odlučovače. Na to navazuje stručné seznámení s teorií návrhu elektrického odlučovače. Dále se práce zabývá popisem zdroje velmi vysokého napětí, který je ...

  4. Konstrukce nestandardního kola

    OpenAIRE

    Mihálik, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Cieľom tejto bakalárskej práce je návrh a konštrukcia chopper bicykla určeného na propagačné účely. V prvej časti je definovaný chopper bicykel a jeho vhodnosť pre propagačné účely. Druhá časť sa zaoberá koncepciou riešenia a výberom variant riešenia jednotlivých konštrukčných uzlov bicykla. Konečným návrhom konštrukcie ako aj ekonomickým zhodnotením sa zaoberá časť tretia. The aim of this bachelor work is design and construction of chopper bicycle designed for promotional purposes. The fi...

  5. Algoritmizace a implementace automatického obchodního systému v prostředí devizových trhů

    OpenAIRE

    Foltýn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na návrh, algoritmizaci, implementaci a optimalizaci automatického obchodního systému (AOS) pro devizový trh Forex. Systém je naprogramován v jazyce MQL 4, který je speciálně používán v obchodní platformě MetaTrader 4. Práce obsahuje vysvětlení základů teorie a pojmů, které jsou nezbytné pro porozumění funkčnosti vytvořeného AOS. This bachelor thesis focuses on the proposal, algorithms, implemetation and optimization of automatic trading system (EA – expert adv...

  6. Řízení krokového motoru injekčního dávkovače

    OpenAIRE

    Bárta, František

    2011-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřená na téma řízení krokového motorku injekčního dávkovače. Na začátku práce jsou rozebrány vlastnosti, typy, charakteristiky a možnosti řízení krokových motorů. Dále práce pojednává o infuzních dávkovačích, jejich vlastnostech a parametrech. Jsou uvedeny někteří tuzemští a zahraniční výrobci a jejich výrobky. Na závěr práce je proveden teoretický návrh řídícího obvodu pro krokový motor dle zvoleného motoru. The thesis is focused on the topic of a stepper motor cont...

  7. Murine model of TB meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Datta Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the design of a novel murine model of CNS-TB using a C3 strain and that replicated events of EPTB dissemination. This model will promote efforts to understand the pathogenesis CNS-TB infection for development of improved therapeutic interventions in the future.

  8. Návrh GUI multimediálního centra pro seniory

    OpenAIRE

    Gongol, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou tvorby grafického uživatelského rozhraní pro seniory se zaměřením na dotyková zařízení. Cílem je návrh a vytvoření aplikace ovladače multimediálního centra XBMC pro platformu Android. Práce také popisuje některá existující řešení a testování vytvořené aplikace. This thesis covers the subject a graphical user interface for the erderly with focus on smartphones and tablets. The main object is design and creation of an Android application for remote control of th...

  9. Growth and magneto-optical characteristic of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junbiao; Xu, Wenming; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Feiyun; Wu, Shuting; Chen, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    A pyrochlore crystal with magneto-optical effect-Ho2Ti2O7 crystal has been grown by Czochralski method. X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, transmission spectrum and Faraday rotation of single crystal Ho2Ti2O7 were measured. The results of Rietveld refinement revealed that the crystal belongs to cubic system and the lattice parameters calculated by Jade 7.0 (Materials Data, Inc.) were a=1.00915(7) nm and V=1.0277 nm3. The effective magnetic moment and Curie-Weiss temperature of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal are 10.4 μB and 1.86 K, respectively. The transmittance of Ho2Ti2O7 crystals grown in Ar can be more than 72% in 700-1080 nm and 1260-1500 nm. The Verdet constant of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal at 1064 nm comes up to -54.1 rad/(mT), which is 1.35 times as large as that of Tb3Ga5O12 reported.

  10. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection.

  11. Detectemos la TB. Tratemos la TB. Trabajemos juntos para eliminar la TB. (Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    Este podcast trata sobre el Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis y el tema de los CDC para el año 2014.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  12. Návrh oběžného kola odstředivého čerpadla pro dané parametry

    OpenAIRE

    Moravec, Prokop

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem oběžného kola odstředivého čerpadla pro dané parametry. Tento návrh se skládá z výpočtu základních rozměrů meridiálního řezu kola, návrhu tvaru tohoto řezu a z návrhu tvaru lopatky. Kompletní návrh kola je následně simulován v CFD programu. This thesis deals with centrifugal pump impeller design for given parameters. This pump impeller design consists of the calculation of basic dimensions, the meridional flow channel design and blade design. Complete...

  13. Příprava pro atestaci procesů životního cyklu informačního systému WIN-X

    OpenAIRE

    Šmíd, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Bakalářská práce „Příprava pro atestaci procesů životního cyklu informačního systému WIN-X“ se zabývá problematikou jakosti a její certifikace. Teoretická část popisuje způsoby měření jakosti a metodik k tomu určených. Praktická část se zaměřuje na analýzu, popis a vytvoření dokumentace pro vybrané procesy informačního systému jako zdroje pro obdržení certifikátu jakosti. Bachelor thesis „Preparation of attestation of life cycle processes of information system WIN-X“ deals with the questio...

  14. Low-pressure study of the HO2 + HO2 reaction at 298 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 was measured at 298 K and 1 torr total pressure of helium by using the discharge flow technique. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to detect HO2 in conjunction with in situ long-path ultraviolet absorption which was used for calibration. A value of 1.5 + or - 0.4 x 10 to the -12th per molecule/s was obtained for k1 where the rate constant is defined by the relation -d(HO2)/dt = 2K1(HO2)HO2.

  15. Studie modernizace železničního uzlu Žilina

    OpenAIRE

    Mastilová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je studie modernizace železničního uzlu Žilina. Ve stanici dochází k úpravě osobního nádraží, redukci odstavného kolejiště a zrušení třídicího nádraží. V práci je navrženo nové vedení průjezdných kolejí Košicko – Bohumínské dráhy a trati od Bratislavy v souběhu. Původní traťová rychlost 40 km/h je zvýšena na 80 km/h. The aim of the diploma thesis is study of modernization of Žilina railway junction. In the railway station is modified passenger station, reduced stablin...

  16. TB anywhere is TB everywhere: the intersection of U.S. immigration enforcement policy and TB

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Reed David

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant health issue to both the general public and the officers who enforce our nation's immigration laws. Current immigration enforcement policies increase the likelihood that immigration officers will encounter people with TB. Should the United States alter its immigration enforcement policies to address more directly the threat that tuberculosis poses to public health? This thesis reviews this question th...

  17. 94 {beta}-Decay Half-Lives of Neutron-Rich 55Cs to 67Ho: Experimental Feedback and Evaluation of the r-Process Rare-Earth Peak Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Moller, P; Ideguchi, E; Regan, P. H.; Simpson, G. S.; Soderstrom, P. -A.; Walker, P. M.; Watanabe, H.; Kondev, F. G.

    2017-02-17

    The β-decay half-lives of 94 neutron-rich nuclei 144$-$151Cs, 146$-$154Ba, 148$-$156La, 150$-$158Ce, 153$-$160Pr, 156$-$162Nd, 159$-$163Pm, 160$-$166Sm, 161$-$168Eu, 165$-$170Gd, 166$-$172Tb, 169$-$173Dy, 172$-$175Ho, and two isomeric states 174mEr, 172mDy were measured at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory, providing a new experimental basis to test theoretical models. Strikingly large drops of β-decay half-lives are observed at neutron-number N = 97 for 58Ce, 59Pr, 60Nd, and 62Sm, and N = 105 for 63Eu, 64Gd, 65Tb, and 66Dy. Lastly, features in the data mirror the interplay between pairing effects and microscopic structure. r-process network calculations performed for a range of mass models and astrophysical conditions show that the 57 half-lives measured for the first time play an important role in shaping the abundance pattern of rare-earth elements in the solar system

  18. Vizualizace síťového provozu

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá vizualizací síťového provozu z NetFlow dat. V teoretické části je popsána technologie NetFlow, která se používá pro monitorování počítačové sítě. Dále je nastíněna teorie výpočtu rozložení grafu. Cílem práce je vytvoření nástroje pro vizualizaci dat. Bachelor thesis deals with visualization of network traffic by NetFlow data. In the theoretical part describes NetFlow technology thet is used for monitoring of computer network . Then I introduce theory of graph lay...

  19. Návrh nového řešení těsnění nastavovacího šroubu světlometu

    OpenAIRE

    Lysa, Bohuslav

    2008-01-01

    Bakalářská práce zabývající se problematikou těsnění nastavovacího šroubu světlometu. Obsahuje analýzu uložení těsnícího O-kroužku a analýzu zajištění nastavovacího šroubu v pracovní pozici. Na základě analýzy je vypracován nový návrh rozměrového uložení těsnícího O-kroužku, a nový návrh zajištění nastavovacího šroubu. Vybrané části analýzy byly ověřeny výpočtovými simulacemi MKP v programu SimDesigner využívající 3D modely zpracované v CAD systému Catia v5. Součástí práce je studie provedite...

  20. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    Science.gov (United States)

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  1. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  2. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  3. Whence decentralised TB treatment and whither TB control in Malawi?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB treatment. The results were sufficiently encouraging to expand the scheme countrywide. But strengthening NTP management capacity is a priority. Introduction. The principles ... by Pasteurl, and Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the cause of .... work the following are required: 1) good health centre ...

  4. Holmium dodecaiodidoiron-octahedro-hexaholmium, {FeHo6}I12Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Meyer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of {FeHo6}I12Ho were obtained during the reaction of HoI3 with metallic holmium and iron in a sealed tantalum container. The crystal structure consists of isolated holmium clusters encapsulating a single Fe atom, {FeHo6} (overline{3} symmetry. The rare earth metal atoms are surrounded by 12 edge-capping and six terminal iodide ligands that either connect the clusters to each other directly or via HoI6 octahedra (overline{3} symmetry.

  5. Návrh a optimalizace sacího a výfukového potrubí zážehového motoru

    OpenAIRE

    Chuchma, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na konstrukční návrh a optimalizaci sacího a výfukového potrubí motoru C20XE. Jedná se čtyřválcový zážehový motor o zdvihovém objemu 2 l, jenž byl vyráběn automobilkou Opel. Tento agregát je určen pro zástavbu do automobilu Opel Astra F, který je stavěn k závodním účelům. Pro optimalizaci rozměrových parametrů je použit software Lotus Engine Simulation, jenž simuluje jednorozměrné proudění plynů v potrubí. 3D CAD modely jsou provedeny v programu Pro ENGINEER. Th...

  6. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be grown and tested in a specialized laboratory. Final diagnosis for TB, and especially for XDR TB, may ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  7. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  8. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  9. Curing TB with open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2014-03-01

    There are many funded efforts going on focused on tuberculosis research and drug or vaccine development. There is little if any global coordination or collaboration and subsequently there are likely to be huge data silos and duplication of efforts. We now propose steps to remedy this by fostering more open science in TB research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  11. Studium sterilizačního účinku dielektrického bariérového výboje na prokaryotní mikroorganismy

    OpenAIRE

    Bittnerová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    Předložená bakalářská práce je zaměřena na studium sterilizačního účinku dielektrického bariérového výboje na prokaryotní mikroorganismy. Sterilizace je důležitou biomedicínckou i potravinářskou technologií a plazmová sterilizace je jednou z metod, které vyhovují požadavkům na sterilizaci teplotně senzitivních materiálů a materiálů citlivým na chemické látky. Pro opracování vzorků byl použit dielektrický bariérový výboj pracující za atmosférického tlaku. Výboj byl generován v argonu a dusíku....

  12. Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Projects under Scientific and Technological planning of the education office, Jiangxi Province (GCJ2011-243), domestic visiting scholar of Jiangxi provincial higher education insti- tution, Jiangxi Province Training Programs of Innovation and. Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (201310407028), the. Science Program of ...

  13. Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Matthew K; Irikura, Karl K

    2015-07-09

    Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the atmosphere. It has been suggested (Denis, P. A.; Ornellas, F. R. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2009, 113 (2), 499-506) that the minor product hydrogen tetroxide (HO4H) may act as a reservoir of HO2. Here, we compute the thermochemistry of HO2 self-reactions to determine if either HO4H or the cyclic hydrogen-bound dimer (HO2)2 can act as reservoirs. We computed electronic energies using coupled-cluster calculations in the complete basis set limit, CCSD(T)/CBS[45]//CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. Our model chemistry includes corrections for vibrational anharmonicity in the zero-point energy and vibrational partition functions, core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic effects, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer, spin-orbit splitting, and higher-order corrections. We compute the Gibbs energy of dimerization to be (-20.1 ± 1.6) kJ/mol at 298.15 K (2σ uncertainty), and (-32.3 ± 1.5) kJ/mol at 220 K. For atmospherically relevant [HO2] = 10(8) molecules per cm(3), our thermochemistry indicates that dimerization will be negligible, and thus H2O4 species are atmospherically unimportant. Under conditions used in laboratory experiments ([HO2] > 10(12) molecules per cm(3), 220 K), H2O4 formation may be significant. We compute two absorption spectra that could be used for laboratory detection of HO4H: the OH stretch overtone (near-IR) and electronic (UV) spectra.

  14. Heightened vulnerability to MDR-TB epidemics after controlling drug-susceptible TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, Jason D; Bishai, William R; Bishai, David M

    2010-09-22

    Prior infection with one strain TB has been linked with diminished likelihood of re-infection by a new strain. This paper attempts to determine the role of declining prevalence of drug-susceptible TB in enabling future epidemics of MDR-TB. A computer simulation of MDR-TB epidemics was developed using an agent-based model platform programmed in NetLogo (See http://mdr.tbtools.org/). Eighty-one scenarios were created, varying levels of treatment quality, diagnostic accuracy, microbial fitness cost, and the degree of immunogenicity elicited by drug-susceptible TB. Outcome measures were the number of independent MDR-TB cases per trial and the proportion of trials resulting in MDR-TB epidemics for a 500 year period after drug therapy for TB is introduced. MDR-TB epidemics propagated more extensively after TB prevalence had fallen. At a case detection rate of 75%, improving therapeutic compliance from 50% to 75% can reduce the probability of an epidemic from 45% to 15%. Paradoxically, improving the case-detection rate from 50% to 75% when compliance with DOT is constant at 75% increases the probability of MDR-TB epidemics from 3% to 45%. The ability of MDR-TB to spread depends on the prevalence of drug-susceptible TB. Immunologic protection conferred by exposure to drug-susceptible TB can be a crucial factor that prevents MDR-TB epidemics when TB treatment is poor. Any single population that successfully reduces its burden of drug-susceptible TB will have reduced herd immunity to externally or internally introduced strains of MDR-TB and can experience heightened vulnerability to an epidemic. Since countries with good TB control may be more vulnerable, their self interest dictates greater promotion of case detection and DOTS implementation in countries with poor control to control their risk of MDR-TB.

  15. Heightened vulnerability to MDR-TB epidemics after controlling drug-susceptible TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Bishai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior infection with one strain TB has been linked with diminished likelihood of re-infection by a new strain. This paper attempts to determine the role of declining prevalence of drug-susceptible TB in enabling future epidemics of MDR-TB.A computer simulation of MDR-TB epidemics was developed using an agent-based model platform programmed in NetLogo (See http://mdr.tbtools.org/. Eighty-one scenarios were created, varying levels of treatment quality, diagnostic accuracy, microbial fitness cost, and the degree of immunogenicity elicited by drug-susceptible TB. Outcome measures were the number of independent MDR-TB cases per trial and the proportion of trials resulting in MDR-TB epidemics for a 500 year period after drug therapy for TB is introduced.MDR-TB epidemics propagated more extensively after TB prevalence had fallen. At a case detection rate of 75%, improving therapeutic compliance from 50% to 75% can reduce the probability of an epidemic from 45% to 15%. Paradoxically, improving the case-detection rate from 50% to 75% when compliance with DOT is constant at 75% increases the probability of MDR-TB epidemics from 3% to 45%.The ability of MDR-TB to spread depends on the prevalence of drug-susceptible TB. Immunologic protection conferred by exposure to drug-susceptible TB can be a crucial factor that prevents MDR-TB epidemics when TB treatment is poor. Any single population that successfully reduces its burden of drug-susceptible TB will have reduced herd immunity to externally or internally introduced strains of MDR-TB and can experience heightened vulnerability to an epidemic. Since countries with good TB control may be more vulnerable, their self interest dictates greater promotion of case detection and DOTS implementation in countries with poor control to control their risk of MDR-TB.

  16. Historie sportovního potápění v ČR.

    OpenAIRE

    Široký, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřena na historii sportovního potápění v České republice. Abstract This thesis focuses on the history of sport diving in the Czech republic. Klíčová slova Historie, potápěč, výstroj, potápění, sport Key words History, diver, equipment, diving, sport

  17. Evaluating the electronic structure of formal LnII ions in LnII(C5H4SiMe3)3 1– using XANES spectroscopy and DFT calculations† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The results from quantum chemical ab initio FEFF9.6 code calculations for LnII L3-edges from Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3 x– (Ln = Sm, Tm, Y; x = 0, 1) and second derivative analysis of the lanthanides are in the ESI.† Our branching ratio analysis, the PBE//TZP optimized ground-state geometrical xyz coordinates and XC//TZ2P (XC = PBE, BLYP, B3LYP, BHandHLYP), single-point calculated total bonding energies of Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3 1–/0 (Ln = Sm, Ho), and relative single-point energy difference in kcal mol–1 between 4f10 5d1 and 4f11 5d0 in HoII(C5H4SiMe3)3 1– from different functional results at the PBE//TZP optimized ground-state geometries are also included. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00825b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieser, Megan E.; Ferrier, Maryline G.; Su, Jing; Cary, Samantha K.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Olson, Angela C.; Ryan, Austin J.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Woen, David H.; Vitova, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3], formally containing LnII, for all lanthanides (excluding Pm) was surprising given that +2 oxidation states are typically regarded as inaccessible for most 4f-elements. Herein, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), ground-state density functional theory (DFT), and transition dipole moment calculations are used to investigate the possibility that Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) compounds represented molecular LnII complexes. Results from the ground-state DFT calculations were supported by additional calculations that utilized complete-active-space multi-configuration approach with second-order perturbation theoretical correction (CASPT2). Through comparisons with standards, Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3 1– (Ln = Sm, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) are determined to contain 4f6 5d0 (SmII), 4f13 5d0 (TmII), 4f14 5d0 (YbII), 4f14 5d1 (LuII), and 4d1 (YII) electronic configurations. Additionally, our results suggest that Ln(C5H4SiMe3)3 1– (Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) also contain LnII ions, but with 4fn 5d1 configurations (not 4fn+1 5d0). In these 4fn 5d1 complexes, the C 3h-symmetric ligand environment provides a highly shielded 5d-orbital of a′ symmetry that made the 4fn 5d1 electronic configurations lower in energy than the more typical 4fn+1 5d0 configuration. PMID:28989638

  18. Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, L R; Bollig, C; Esser, M J D; Campbell, R N; Jacobs, C; Preussler, D R

    2009-10-26

    A Ho:YLF laser pumped HBr molecular laser was developed that produced up to 2.5 mJ of energy in the 4 micron wavelength region. The Ho:YLF laser was fiber pumped using a commercial Tm:fibre laser. The Ho:YLF laser was operated in a single longitudinal mode via injection seeding with a narrow band diode laser which in turn was locked to one of the HBr transitions. The behavior of the HBr laser was described using a rate equation mathematical model and this was solved numerically. Good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively between the model and experimental results was obtained.

  19. HoME: a Household Multimodal Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brodeur, Simon; Perez, Ethan; Anand, Ankesh; Golemo, Florian; Celotti, Luca; Strub, Florian; Rouat, Jean; Larochelle, Hugo; Courville, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    We introduce HoME: a Household Multimodal Environment for artificial agents to learn from vision, audio, semantics, physics, and interaction with objects and other agents, all within a realistic context. HoME integrates over 45,000 diverse 3D house layouts based on the SUNCG dataset, a scale which may facilitate learning, generalization, and transfer. HoME is an open-source, OpenAI Gym-compatible platform extensible to tasks in reinforcement learning, language grounding, sound-based navigatio...

  20. Reaction rate constant of HO2+O3 measured by detecting HO2 from photofragment fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, E. R.; Suto, Masako; Lee, Long C.; Coffey, Dewitt, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A room-temperature discharge-flow system investigation of the rate constant for the reaction 'HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2O2' has detected HO2 through the OH(A-X) fluorescence produced by photodissociative excitation of HO2 at 147 nm. A reaction rate constant of 1.9 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the -15th cu cm/molecule per sec is obtained from first-order decay of HO2 in excess O3; this agrees well with published data.

  1. Recoil and conversion electron considerations of the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho in vivo generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, J.R. [North-West Univ., Mmabatho (South Africa). CARST; Szuecs, Z. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Takacs, S.; Jarvis, N. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Jansen, D. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry

    2012-07-01

    The use of radionuclides as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly investigated. An important aspect is the delivery of the radionuclide to the target, i.e. the radionuclide is not lost from the chelating agent. For in vivo generators, it is not only the log K of complexation between the metal ion and the chelator that is important, but also whether the daughter radionuclide stays inside the chelator after decay of the parent radionuclide. In our previous work, we showed that the classical recoil effect is only applicable for decays with a Q value higher than 0.6 MeV (in the atomic mass range around 100). However, Zhernosekov et al. published a result for {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr (Q = 0.222 MeV) which indicated that > 95% of the daughter ({sup 140}Pr) was lost by a DOTA chelator upon decay of {sup 140}Nd. The authors ascribed this to the ''post-effect''. Their experiment was repeated with the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho generator to ascertain whether our calculations were correct. It was found that 72% of the daughter ({sup 166}Ho) was liberated from the DOTA chelator, indicating that the 'post effect' does exist in contrast to our recoil calculations. Upon further investigation, we determined that one should not only consider recoil energy levels but also the mode of decay which was able to explain the partial recoil found for {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho. It is concluded for the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho system that the low recoil energy of the daughter nucleus {sup 166}Ho is not a sufficient reason to rule out release of the nuclide from chelators. On the other hand, we found that the ratio of the {sup 166}Ho that gets released corresponds to the ratio of relaxation of Ho atoms via the Auger process. (orig.)

  2. Návrh monokoku formulového vozidla

    OpenAIRE

    Žídek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem monokoku z uhlíkových vláken vozu Formule Student podle aktuálních pravidel. Úvodní část práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení rámů používaných u vozů Formule Student. Poté je uveden přehled důležitých pravidel pro konstrukci kompozitního monokoku. Následně jsou popsány kompozitní materiály a jejich vlastnosti. Hlavní část práce pojednává o konstrukčním návrhu v CAD programu a výpočtovém modelu pro simulaci zátěžných stavů v MKP programu. Získané výsledky z...

  3. HO-CHUNK: Radiation Transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, J. E.; Cohen, Martin; Wolff, Michael J.

    2017-11-01

    HO-CHUNK calculates radiative equilibrium temperature solution, thermal and PAH/vsg emission, scattering and polarization in protostellar geometries. It is useful for computing spectral energy distributions (SEDs), polarization spectra, and images.

  4. Immunity to TB and targets for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes

    2012-02-01

    For centuries the treatment of TB has presented an enormous challenge to global health. In the 20th century, the treatment of TB patients with long-term multidrug therapy gave hope that TB could be controlled and cured; however, contrary to these expectations and coinciding with the emergence of AIDS, the world has witnessed a rampant increase in hard-to-treat cases of TB, along with the emergence of highly virulent and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Unfortunately, these bacteria are now circulating around the world, and there are few effective drugs to treat them. As a result, the prospects for improved treatment and control of TB in the 21st century have worsened and we urgently need to identify new therapies that deal with this problem. The potential use of immunotherapy for TB is now of greater consideration than ever before, as immunotherapy could potentially overcome the problem of drug resistance. TB immunotherapy targets the already existing host anti-TB immune response and aims to enhance killing of the bacilli. For this purpose, several approaches have been used: the use of anti-Mycobacteria antibodies; enhancing the Th1 protective responses by using mycobacterial antigens or increasing Th1 cytokines; interfering with the inflammatory process and targeting of immunosuppressive pathways and targeting the cell activation/proliferation pathways. This article reviews our current understanding of TB immunity and targets for immunotherapy that could be used in combination with current TB chemotherapy.

  5. Návrh týmového motivačního programu ve firmě FlatEarth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaniaková, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zameriava na vytvorenie návrhu motivačného program v spoločnosti FlatEarth. Návrh tohoto programu sa odvíja od výsledkov výskumu uskutočneného v športových teamoch a medzi bývalými zamestnancami spoločnosti FlatEarth. The diploma thesis concentrates on the presentation of motivational programme in the company of our choice- FlatEarth. The suggestion of the motivational programme is based on the results from research conducted in the sport teams and among previous employe...

  6. The neuroprotective effect of heme oxygenase (HO) on oxidative stress in HO-1 siRNA-transfected HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizaki, Asuka; Tanaka, Sachiko; Ishige, Kumiko; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2006-09-07

    To investigate the role of heme oxygenase (HO) isozymes, we used siRNA technology to suppress HO-1 expression. HO-1 siRNA-transfected HT22 cells were vulnerable to hydrogen peroxide- and 4-hydroxynonenal-induced cytotoxicity. Biliverdin and bilirubin, degradative products of heme catalyzed by HO, protected HT22 cells from the insult of these oxidative stressors. These results suggest that inducible HO-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress in HT22 cells.

  7. Využitie metódy concept cartoons© na hodinách prírodovedy z pohľadu učiteľov prvého stupňa ZŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Minárechová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available V príspevku sa venujeme metóde concept cartoons© a jej aplikácii do vyučovania prírodovedy na I.stupni ZŠ. Okrem toho stručne opisujeme  príručku k metóde concept cartoons© pre  ZŠ, ktorú sme zostavili v rámci našej dizertačnej práce. Pre lepšie posúdenie príručky a možnosti aplikácie metódy concept cartoons© na hodinách prírodovedy sme realizovali rozhovor s tromi učiteľkami primárneho vzdelávania.   Našim cieľom bolo zistiť  ich  názory  na vyučovanie pomocou concept cartoons© a na nami zostavenú metodickú rukoväť k metóde concept cartoons© pre I. stupeň ZŠ.  Prostredníctvom analýzy odpovedí učiteliek sme zistili prevažne pozitívny názor ako na samotnú metódu concept cartoons©, tak aj na zostavenú metodickú príručku k nej.

  8. Návrh konstrukce zadního nárazníku osobního vozidla

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá rešerší problematiky nárazníků osobních automobilů. Soustředí se především na nárazové testy RCAR a v současnosti používané konstrukce nárazníků osobních vozidel. Na základě poznatků z rešerše je navrhován koncept zadního nárazníku k designové studii vozu firmy Swell. The Bachelor thesis deals with search about passenger car bumpers. It focuses especially on RCAR crash tests and currently used constructions of bumpers. There is suggested concept of rear bumper ba...

  9. Measurement of cross sections producing short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutron. Br, Te, Dy, Ho, Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1997-03-01

    Nine neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 2 min and 57 min have been measured at energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV for Br, Te, Dy, Ho, Yb. The cross sections of {sup 81}Br(n,p){sup 81m}Se, {sup 128}Te(n,p){sup 128m}Sb, {sup 128}Te(n,{alpha}){sup 125m}Sn, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb, {sup 165}Ho(n,{alpha}){sup 162}Tb, {sup 176}Yb(n,p){sup 176}Tm were newly obtained at the six energy points between 13.4-14.9 MeV, although the previous results have been obtained at one energy point. {sup 79}Br(n,2n){sup 78}Br, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb are compared with evaluated data of JENDL-3.2. The evaluations for these reactions agree reasonably well with experimental results. The cross sections of (n,p) reaction are compared with systematics by Kasugai et. al. The systematics agrees with experimental results. (author)

  10. Kvalita podnikateľského prostredia a jej vplyv na konkurencieschopnosť podniku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmišin Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Konkurencieschopnosť podniku významným spôsobom závisí od kvality podnikateľského prostredia. V ostatných 15 – 20 rokoch sú podniky vystavené neustálym zmenám v externom prostredí (tzv. relevantnom okolí pre podnikanie, na ktoré je potrebné reagovať. V štúdii sa zameriavame na identifikáciu podstaty týchto zmien a ich odraz v manažérskom myslení a konaní. Na pozadí prehľadu rôznych prístupov k hodnoteniu kvality podnikateľského prostredia je hlavným výsledkom a prínosom príspevku konštrukcia vlastného hodnotiaceho nástroja – indexu konkurencieschopnosti regionálneho podnikateľského prostredia a jeho aplikácia na samosprávne kraje Slovenska.The competitiveness of a business depends significantly on the quality of business environment. In the last 15-20 years, the businesses have been exposed to constant changes in the external environment (so called environment relevant for making business, to which the reaction is needed. In this paper, we focus on the identification of the basis of these changes and their reflection in the managerial thinking and actions. On the background of different approaches towards the evaluation of the quality of business environment, the construction of our own instrument used for evaluation is the main result and contribution of this paper – it is the index of competitiveness of regional business environment and its application in the municipalities in Slovakia.

  11. Possibilities of Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste/ Možnosti Energetického Využití Komunálního Odpadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčík Vladimír

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Příspěvek shrnuje možnosti energetického využití komunálního odpadu. Popsána je historie spalování a energetického využití komunálního odpadu v Československu a poté v České republice. Pozornost je věnována třem v současnosti provozovaným zařízením na energetické využití komunálního odpadu v České republice (ZEVO Malešice, SAKO Brno a TERMIZO Liberec. Dále jsou uvedeny charakteristiky připravovaných zařízení na energetické využití komunálního odpadu v ČR. Všechna uvedená zařízení pracují v zásadě na bázi roštových kotlů s čištěním spalin na nejvyšší možné technické úrovni. Příspěvek také uvádí další technologie, které je možno využít pro energetické využití komunálních odpadů - jedná se o zplyňovací a pyrolýzní jednotky a plazmové technologie. Závěr příspěvku je věnován současné a budoucí situaci v oblasti energetického využití komunálních odpadů v České republice s ohledem na platné právní normy.

  12. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a continuous-wave slab laser utilising both Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF as laser gain media. 30 W of output power at 2 µm was demonstrated in a stable concave-plane resonator while 13 W was achieved in a hybrid stable...

  13. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne von Delft

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB, despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for.

  14. Statická analýza dřevěného krovu

    OpenAIRE

    Cicálková, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Práce “Statická analýza dřevěného krovu“ je zpracována jako statický výpočet tradičního dřevěného krovu. Pro analýzu modelu konstrukce je použit program využívající metody konečných prvků - program Dlubal RFEM 4. Podle skutečného provedení je namodelován prutový výpočtový model, kde jsou jednotlivé konstrukční prvky posouzeny na první i druhý mezní stav, tedy mezní stav únosnosti a mezní stav použitelnosti. Navržen je též hřebíkový spoj připojení kleštin na krokve. Bachelor work is process...

  15. Analýza a implementační model agilního a projektového řízení v softwarovém vývoji

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zaměřuje na vytvoření implementačního modelu agilního a projektového řízení v softwarovém vývoji. Analyzuje tyto dva přístupy ve vývojovém týmu v mezinárodní společnosti a představuje návrh řešení jejich využití pro zdokonalení procesů ve vybraných procesních oblastech modelu CMMI. The diploma thesis deals with an establishment of the agile and project management implementation model in a software development. Thesis analyzes these approaches in a software development te...

  16. Stop TB in My Lifetime: A Call for a World Free of TB - World TB Day 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day, the 2013 slogan and theme.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/13/2012.

  17. Výroba krytu řemenového převodu

    OpenAIRE

    Rösner, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Diplomová práce předkládá návrh výroby krytu řemenového převodu z materiálu s označením dle ČSN 411320.21, o tloušťce 1,5 mm v sérii 10 000 kusů. Na základě způsobu výroby součásti je v práci představena problematika tažení, parametry, používané stroje spolu s konstrukcí nástrojů. Pro operaci hlubokého tažení byly provedeny kontrolní, technologické výpočty, vybrán hydraulický lis CTH 250, navržena sestava tažného nástroje, simulace v programu AutoForm, zpracované technicko-ekonomické zhodnoce...

  18. Aerodynamický výpocet vzduchové části parního kotle

    OpenAIRE

    Kudela, Libor

    2017-01-01

    Cílem této práce je provést rozbor problematiky aerodynamického výpočtu parních kotlů na straně spalovacího vzduchu. Na základě projekční dokumentace provést stanovení dílčích ztrátových součinitelů jednotlivých komponent sacího traktu. Provést výpočet sumární tlakové (tahové) ztráty. Vyspecifikovat komponenty s nejvyšší ztrátou a navrhnout u nich možnosti optimalizace. The aim of this thesis is to realize analysis of problematics of aerodynamic calculations of steam boilers on the part of...

  19. Teplotní analýza asynchronního stroje pomocí programu Ansys Workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Kučera, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je seznámení se s programem Ansys Workbench a výpočet tepelného pole kolem modelu asynchronního stroje. Po seznámení s programem ANSYS Workbench, byl sestaven model asynchronního stroje a na něm byly nasimulovány jednotlivé tepelné výpočty při různých provozních stavech. Ty byly poté proměřeny na reálném elektromotoru v laboratořích. The aim of the master thesis is introduction with software Ansys Workbench and calculate the thermal field arroud the induction machine....

  20. Prevalence of drug resistant TB among outpatients at an HIV/TB clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brian; Gokhale, Runa H; Krysiak, Robert; Kanyemba, Creto; Chikaonda, Tarsizio; Bokosi, Mphatso; Mukuzunga, Cornelius; Saidi, Friday; Phiri, Sam; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2015-12-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of drug resistant TB among outpatients initiating TB treatment in Lilongwe, Malawi. This was a prospective cohort study of patients 18 years and older initiating TB treatment at Martin Preuss Centre, the primary integrated HIV/TB clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, from April 2011 to July 2012. Procedures included questionnaires, physical exam, chest x-ray, full blood count and sputum collection. Sputum samples underwent acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear testing and culture by Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and liquid Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) methods. Drug sensitivity was investigated using the Hain GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay. Of the 702 patients, 219 (31.2%) were female and 653 (93.0%) were presenting for first-time TB treatment. HIV co-infection was present in 420 (59.8%) cases, with 137 (32.6%) of those patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at presentation. TB was culture-confirmed in 375 (53.4%) patients, 349 of which were first time treatment and 26 retreatment. Ten cases of isoniazid-resistant TB (2.9% of culture confirmed cases of newly treated TB), one of rifampin-resistant TB (0.3% culture confirmed cases of newly treated TB) and one of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) (3.8% of culture confirmed cases of retreatment TB) were detected. MDR-TB prevalence is low among outpatients initiating TB treatment in Lilongwe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Interplay between structure and magnetism in HoxPr1-x alloys. 1. Neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    The structural and the magnetic ordering in thin-film HoxPr1-x alloys have been studied using neutron-and x-ray-diffraction techniques. As the concentration of Ho decreases the alloys adopt hexagonal-close-packed (hcp), Sm, and double hexagonal-close-packed (dhcp) crystal structures. The results...... show enhanced occupation of the cubic sites by Pr in the Sm and dhcp phases. The magnetic behavior is found to be very different in the three crystalline phases. The hcp samples form basal-plane spirals and the alloys with the Sm structure form a commensurate magnetic structure with the same...... periodicity as the magnetic order on the hexagonal sites in Sm metal, but the moments are confined to the basal plane. At low temperatures both Ho and Pr are found to adopt their full saturation moments in these phases. A Pr thin film is found to order with a similar magnetic structure to bulk Pr. However...

  2. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  3. Diagnosis of active TB using aptamers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khati, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A lack of simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tools tailored to detect active TB early enough for opportune intervention in high HIV and TB prevalence developing countries is one of defining public health problems of our...

  4. TB in Correctional Facilities Is a Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails TB in Correctional Facilities is a Public Health Concern Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diagnosing ... the community with untreated TB present a serious public health concern. Figure 1 (larger view). TB Control in ...

  5. Conversion of homothallic yeast to heterothallism trough HO gene disruption

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, WH

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was developed for the conversion of homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeaststrains to heterothallism through HO gene disruption. An integrative ho:: neo disrupted allele was constructed by cloning a dominant selectable marker...

  6. 'Z(S)-MDR-TB' versus 'Z(R)-MDR-TB': improving treatment of MDR-TB by identifying pyrazinamide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chiu Chang, Kwok; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Wai Yew, Wing; Gicquel, Brigitte; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla; Chaisson, Richard E; Zhang, Wenhong

    2012-07-01

    Indispensable for shortening treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is also essential in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. While resistance to PZA in MDR-TB is associated with poor treatment outcome, bacillary susceptibility to PZA along with the use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) may predict improved treatment success in MDR-TB. Despite a high prevalence of PZA resistance among MDR-TB patients (10%-85%), PZA susceptibility testing is seldom performed because of technical challenges. To improve treatment of MDR-TB, we propose to: (i) classify MDR-TB into PZA-susceptible MDR-TB (Z(S)-MDR-TB) and PZA-resistant MDR-TB (Z(R)-MDR-TB); (ii) use molecular tests such as DNA sequencing (pncA, gyrA, rrs, etc.) to rapidly identify Z(S)-MDR-TB versus Z(R)-MDR-TB and susceptibility profile for FQ and SLID; (iii) refrain from using PZA in Z(R)-MDR-TB; and (iv) explore the feasibility of shortening the treatment duration of Z(S)-MDR-TB with a regimen comprising PZA plus at least two bactericidal agents especially new agents like TMC207 or PA-824 or delamanid which the bacilli are susceptible to, with one or two other agents. These measures may potentially shorten therapy, save costs, and reduce side effects of MDR-TB treatment.

  7. Understanding social context on TB cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, Y.; Wati, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) nowadays still becomes one of the world’s deadliest communicable disease. More than half were in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, including Indonesia. As developing country, Indonesia remains classic problems in overcoming TB, that is discontinuation on treatment. Most of discontinuation on treatment among TB patients are affected by diagnostic delay that caused by patient delay. These phenomena occur in many areas, rural to suburb, coastal to plantation, and so on, and they are related with social context among community that could be social capital for each community to deal with TB. Jember as one of county in East Java is known as plantation area. It also has a high prevalence of TB. This study focused on understanding about social context among community, especially on plantation area. This cross-sectional study involved in three districts of Jember, those are Tanggul, Pakusari, and Kalisat. The data were obtained directly from the TB patients, local community, and Primary Health Care (PHC) where the patients recorded. Spatial analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were applied to obtain health seeking behavior pattern among the TB patients coincide the community. Most of TB patients had already chosen health professionals to lead the treatment, although some of them remained to choose self-medication. Meanwhile, SNA showed that religious leader was considered as main part of countermeasures of TB. But they didn’t ever become central figures. So it can be concluded that there are other parts among community who can contribute due to combatting on TB.

  8. Modul digitálního signálového procesoru pro ruční RFID čtečku

    OpenAIRE

    Benetka, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací modulu digitálního signálového procesoru pro ruční RFID čtečku pracující v UHF pásmu. Je zde zvoleno řešení, které využívá speciální integrovaný obvod EM4298 pro zpracování RFID signálů. Modul je řízen mikrokontrolérem ATmega32L, který přes sběrnici USB komunikuje s PC. Pomocí obslužného programu je prováděno veškeré nastavování obvodu EM4298 a také jsou zde zpracovávána přijatá identifikační data získaná z odpovídačů. Zdrojové kódy mikrokont...

  9. Spin Waves in Ho2Co17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente

    1980-01-01

    Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....

  10. Vývoj a zavedenie informačného systému pre podporu podnikových procesov

    OpenAIRE

    Volko, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zameriava na vývoj informačného systému určeného pre správu vnútropodnikových procesov spoločnosti IJM Group, s.r.o. Zobrazuje teoretické východiská, na ktoré nadväzuje ťažisková časť diplomovej práce rozoberajúca návrh, vývoj a implementáciu samotného systému. Master’s thesis is focusing on the development of informatic system designed for the intra-enterprise processes of IJM Group s. r. o. company. The main part of the thesis dealing with the development and implement...

  11. Prečo ignorujeme odkaz Komenského?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Huba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 2013-05-30 13:46:30Publikováno 24.05.2013, na webu Obyčajní ochranári(z vystúpenia M. Hubu v rozprave k správe o stave školstva na 19. schôdzi NR SRPriznám sa, že predložená správa o stave školstva vo mne vyvoláva nejednoznačné pocity. Na jednej strane oceňujem jej analytický a takpovediac rekapitulačný prínos. Na druhej strane sa pripájam ku kritickým hlasom, ktoré poukazujú na jej deficity, najmä pri navrhovaní konkrétnych východísk, pričom otázka financovania školstva je len jedna stránka veci.Kolega Viskupič tu – myslím si, že veľmi správne – hovoril o potrebe určitej filozofickej a hodnotovej základnej línie, ktorú by malo naše školstvo sledovať. Veľmi správne zdôraznil aj potrebu komplexnosti a prierezových prístupom v rámci rezortu školstva, ale aj vo vzťahu k iným rezortom i celej spoločnosti. Veď vzdelávanie a vzdelanie nemôže byť záležitosťou len jedného rezortu.V bohatej a košatej rozprave k tejto správe odznelo viacero názorov a návrhov, od čoho by sa spomínaná ústredná línia mala odvíjať. Viackrát sa tu ako nasledovaniahodný dôvod spomínalo Fínsko. Ja nepôjdem tak ďaleko. Často sa – aspoň verbálne – spoločne s bratmi Čechmi bijeme do pŕs, že sme národy Komenského. V skutočnosti sa však jeho odkazu stále viac a viac vzďaľujeme.Takže, ak by som mal niečo celkom všeobecného navrhnúť, tak je to návrat k „nášmu“ Učiteľovi národov, od ktorého akoby sa učili všetci, len nie my.A ešte niečo, o čom som tu už hovoril viackrát: environmentálne vzdelávanie, globálne vzdelávanie, vzdelávanie podporujúce smerovanie k udržateľnejšej budúcnosti: veľké, odvážim sa povedať, že kľúčové výzvy 21. storočia, ale naše školstvo ich adekvátne nereflektuje. A ich kritickú potrebu nereflektuje ani predložená správa.

  12. Etické a právní otázky spojené s IT

    OpenAIRE

    Žila, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Práca pojednáva o probléme softwarového pirátstva. Analyzuje právne hľadisko na problematiku softwarového pirátstva a autorský zákon, popisuje možnosti ochrán proti kopírovaniu a dopad softwarového pirátstva na spoločnosť. Zároveň popisuje formy softwarového pirátstva a uvádza možné riešenia tejto problematiky. This thesis deals with the problem of software piracy. It analyses  the legal issues and copyright law, describes the posibilities of copy protection and the impact software piracy ...

  13. Childhood TB epidemiology and treatment outcomes in Thailand: a TB active surveillance network, 2004 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusuntonsri Pricha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the 9.2 million new TB cases occurring each year, about 10% are in children. Because childhood TB is usually non-infectious and non-fatal, national programs do not prioritize childhood TB diagnosis and treatment. We reviewed data from a demonstration project to learn more about the epidemiology of childhood TB in Thailand. Methods In four Thai provinces and one national hospital, we contacted healthcare facilities monthly to record data about persons diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counseling and testing, and obtain sputum for culture and susceptibility testing. We analyzed clinical and treatment outcome data for patients age Results Only 279 (2% of 14,487 total cases occurred in children. The median age of children was 8 years (range: 4 months, 14 years. Of 197 children with pulmonary TB, 63 (32% were bacteriologically-confirmed: 56 (28% were smear-positive and 7 (4% were smear-negative, but culture-positive. One was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB. HIV infection was documented in 75 (27%. Thirteen (17% of 75 HIV-infected children died during TB treatment compared with 4 (2% of 204 not known to be HIV-infected (p Conclusion Childhood TB is infrequently diagnosed in Thailand. Understanding whether this is due to absence of disease or diagnostic effort requires further research. HIV contributes substantially to the childhood TB burden in Thailand and is associated with high mortality.

  14. Rizika internetového hlasování z hlediska volebního práva

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelíková, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    Remote internet voting is a phenomenon of modern democratic societies. This topic has slowly become an important and frequent subject of political research. Thus, the aim of the thesis was to analyse this inovative, but yet controversial, method of voting from the standpoint of voting rights. The first of the thesis is concern on the general theory of elections and legal concept of voting rights to understand the meaning of elements of voting rights. The second part of the thesis comprises th...

  15. Zásady daňového práva procesního

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrýsek, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis "Principles of fiscal procedure law" is focus on the principles applied in the area of the principles applied in the tax proceedings. Knowledge of basic principles used in the tax process should also minimize the risks associated with the taxing authority. The effort is the sophistication of tax administration, so that tax is always levied the tax in accordance with the law and not in conflict with it, as it often happens. The first part focuses on the concept and import...

  16. Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections of HO2NO2 Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Pernitric acid (also called peroxynitric acid ), HO2 NO2 , is formed in the atmosphere by recombination of HO2 and NO2 radi- cals: HO2 + NO 2 M-- HO2 N02 (1...Jesson, J.P., L.P. Glasgow, D.L. Filkin, and C. Miller (1977), The Stratospheric Abundance of Peroxynitric Acid , Geophys. Res. Lett., 4, 513-516...and J.H. Shaw (1977), The Kinetics and Mechanism of the HO -NO Reactions: The Significance of Peroxynitric Acid Formation in Plotochemical Smog

  17. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in closed or crowded places such as hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals ... TB blood test. And tell the doctor or nurse when you spent time with this person. What ...

  19. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosis and treatment of active TB disease. Xpert MTB/ RIF rapid test is recommended as the initial ... to” considerations for rapid implementation of the Xpert MTB/ RIF diagnostic test which includes an algorithm relating ...

  20. Sušení koksu pro výrobu karbidu vápenatého

    OpenAIRE

    Balko, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá analýzou procesu výroby karbidu vápenatého. Cílem práce je identifikovat a navrhnout možnosti úspor plynoucí z využití energie odpadních plynů, které při výrobě vznikají. V úvodu práce je stručně uvedena historie výroby a použití karbidu vápenatého. Následující část obsahuje hmotovou a energetickou bilanci výroby karbidu vápenatého – bilance je vztažena na 1 tunu produktu. V závěrečné části jsou navrženy možnosti využití odpadních plynů, které vznikají při výrobě pál...

  1. TB contact investigations: 12 years of experience in the National TB Programme, Morocco 1993-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmani, S; Zignol, M; Bencheikh, N; Laâsri, L; Blanc, L; Mahjour, J

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed data collected from 1993 to 2004 as part of the routine activities of the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme (NTP) in Morocco. More than 1 million household TB contacts were identified in approximately 200,000 investigations. On average, 77% of identified contacts were screened every year; overall prevalence was 2.5%. The proportion of TB cases identified in household contacts of registered cases was 5.6%. This was significantly higher in children under 10 years and in patients registered and diagnosed with symptomatic primary complex. Performing TB contact investigations as part of the routine activities of NTP services is feasible in low-middle-income countries.

  2. EDITORIAL Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high-burden countries for tuberculosis paints a very sobering picture for South Africa. In 2015, with the estimated population of 54 million, the incidence rate for TB (including HIV+TB) was. 834 cases per 100 000. Furthermore, the incidence rate for MDR-. TB was 37 cases per 100 000 and the TB treatment coverage.

  3. The effects of Tb 3 doping concentration on luminescence properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is aimed at explaining the effects of Tb3+ concentration on structure and luminescence properties and clarifying the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+. The lattice of BaF2 decreases with the increase of Tb3+ ions concentration. The emission spectrum of BaF2:Tb3+ consists of blue emission band and ...

  4. The effects of Tb 3+ doping concentration on luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper is aimed at explaining the effects of Tb3+ concentration on structure and luminescence properties and clarifying the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+. The lattice of BaF2 decreases with the increase of Tb3+ ions concentration. The emission spectrum of BaF2:Tb3+ consists of blue emission ...

  5. Podpora v rozhodování pro investičního experta na měnových trzích

    OpenAIRE

    Vlček, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Práce se zaměřuje na problematiku automatických obchodních systémů pro obchodování na měnovém trhu. Popisuje teoretické základy analýzy trh a zabývá se návrhem, optimalizací a určení vhodných indikátorů automatického obchodního systému, který je založen na principu Fibonacciho návratu. Ten by měl sloužit jako podpora v rozhodování pro operace obchodníka na měnovém trhu. Dále se tato práce zabývá možností vykrytí kurzovního rizika pomocí obchodování daného měnového páru. The thesis focuses ...

  6. Dopad lidského poznání na zvířata a rostliny

    OpenAIRE

    Richterová, Klaudie

    2013-01-01

    Název práce: Dopad lidského poznání na zvířata a rostliny Vedoucí práce: doc. PhDr. Karel Thein, Ph.D. Vypracovala: Klaudie Richterová Abstrakt anglicky The last century has seen the rise of interest in the welfare of animals and one of the leaders of this movement has been the philosopher Peter Singer. His theory says that animals have their own interests, just like humans, because they are able to feel pleasure and pain. On the basis of this assumption he recurs to the principle of equal co...

  7. 10-W Ho laser for surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutchenkov, Vyatcheslav A.; Utenkov, Boris I.; Antipenko, Boris M.; Berezin, Yuri D.; Malinin, Boris G.; Serebryakov, Victor A.

    1991-07-01

    Practical use of laser tecnique surgery demonstrated the true choice of lasers generating in the long wavelength spectrum. In this field the pigment content of biologic tissues is not noted at absorption spectrum. The latter is generally defined by the percentage of water in tissues. Among the known laser types the nost proved and developed are the lasers generating at 1060 nm, 2090 nm, 2900 nm and 10600 nm. Ho-lasers of 2090 nm radiation wavelength are perspective instruments for surgery purposes due to the high radiation absorption at biologic tissues: 30 cm-1. This value is much higher than the absoptance at 1060 nm and a little bit lower at 1060 nni. An important feature that distinguishes Ho-laser among other types is the possibility of its use with fiber channel made of fused silica for abdominal operations.

  8. TB incidence in an adolescent cohort in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahomed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. RESULTS: A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted. During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.72. Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease.

  9. Tessellation of SoHO Magnetograms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... flux concentrations in solar and heliospheric observatory (SoHO) magnetograms. The mean absolute flux and size of the concentrations at the considered scale is found to be about 1.7 × 1018Mx and 5.2Mm for both polarities. The form of the flux distribution is characterized by a skewness of 3 = 4.9 and a kurtosis of 4, ...

  10. Tessellation of SoHO Magnetograms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    trations in solar and heliospheric observatory (SoHO) magnetograms. The mean absolute flux and size of the concentrations at the considered scale is found to be about 1.7 × 1018Mx and 5.2Mm for both polarities. The form of the flux distribution is characterized by a skewness of α3 = 4.9 and a kurtosis of α4, = 42.8. The fall ...

  11. Návrh rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB

    OpenAIRE

    Prokš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB s nízkou spotřebou a kompenzací zesílení prvního stupně. This work deals with design of rail-to-rail operational amplifier with AB output stage with low disipation and gain compensation of first stage. B

  12. Magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 27; Issue 2. Magnetic properties of ... Amorphous materials; intermetallic compounds; magnetic materials; magnetic properties. Abstract. The magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B were studied by magnetization measurements. X-ray diffraction studies on ...

  13. Magnetic properties of powders LiTbF4 and TbF3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakshin E.M., Klochkov A.V., Korableva S.L., Kuzmin V.V., Nuzhina D.S., Romanova I.V., Savinkov A.V., Tagirov M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples LiTbF4 and TbF3 were synthesized by modified methods of colloidal chemistry. The magnetization of these samples was measured in the external magnetic field at 100 Oe and 1 T and in temperature range 2-300 K. Temperatures of phase transition to the magnetic ordering dipolar ferromagnet state were determined for synthesized samples.

  14. tb diagnostics challenges of tb diagnosis and treatment in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... Director, Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town ... (5 million) of those identified cases should complete anti-TB treatment.2 Subsequently the millennium development goals of .... diagnosis in paediatric TB but is of limited use in adult.

  15. tb diagnostics challenges of tb diagnosis and treatment in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... It is estimated that 2 billion of the world's population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with a resultant 8 - 9 million cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and 1.6 million deaths annually.1 The tools used for diagnosis of TB have remained largely unchanged since the 1880s when sputum ...

  16. Design popelářského vozu

    OpenAIRE

    Běhal, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem popelářského vozu. Vlastní návrh respektuje konstrukční požadavky vozu, ergonomické potřeby obsluhy a estetické nároky na moderní vozidlo určené pro sběr a odvoz odpadu. Návrh vychází ze znalostí získaných v rešeršní části, analýzy historické, technické a designérské. Řešený design je rámcově zasazen do současnosti, respektuje tedy dnešní technologie a výrobní možnosti. This master‘s thesis pertains to the design of a garbage truck. The presented desi...

  17. Near infrared emission of TbAG:Ce3+,Yb3+ phosphor for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Yadav, P. J.; Pathak, A. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Luminescent materials doped with rare earth ions are used for many devices such as optical amplifiers in telecommunication, phosphors for white light emitting diodes (LEDs), displays, and so on. Recently, they also have attracted a great interest for photovoltaic applications to improve solar cell efficiency by modifying solar spectrum. Crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells most effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap. The mis-match between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral response of solar cells is one of the main reasons to limit the cell efficiency. The efficiency limit of the c-Si has been estimated to be 29% by Shockley and Queisser. However, this limit is estimated to be improved up to 38.4% by modifying the solar spectrum by a quantum cutting (down converting) phosphor which converts one photon of high energy into two photons of lower energy. The phenomenon such as the quantum cutting or the down conversion of rare earth ions have been investigated since Dexter reported the possibility of a luminescent quantum yield greater than unity in 1957. In the past, the quantum cutting from a vacuum ultraviolet photon to visible photons for Pr3+, Gd3+,Gd3+-Eu3+, and Er3+-Tb3+ had been studied. Recently, a new quantum cutting phenomenon from visible photon shorter than 500 nm to two infrared photons for Tb3+-Yb3+, Pr3+-Yb3+, and Tm3+-Yb3+ has been reported. The Yb3+ ion is suitable as an acceptor and emitter because luminescent quantum efficiency of Yb3+ is close to 100% and the energy of the only excited level of Yb3+ (1.2 eV) is roughly in accordance with the band gap of Si (1.1 eV). In addition, the Ce3+-doped Tb3Al5O12 (TbAG), used as a phosphor for white LED, has broad absorption bands in the range of 300-500 nm due to strong ligand field and high luminescent quantum efficiency. Therefore, the Ce3+ ions in the TbAG can be suitable as an excellent sensitizing donor for down conversion materials of Si solar cells. In this

  18. Návrh řídicího modulu UAV robotu.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnošt, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce je zaměřena na návrh řídícího softwaru pro bezpilotní letadlo. Jako zástupce bezpilotních letadel byla zvolena kvadrikoptéra Parrot Ar.Drone. Práce popisuje způsob ovládání a komunikace. Na základě těchto informací je vytvořen program pro řízení letu kvadrikoptéry Ar.Drone. This diploma thesis is focused on the design of the control software for the unmanned aerial vehicle. Parrot Ar.Drone quadrocopter was a representative of the unmanned aerial vehicle. This thesis de...

  19. Návrh betonového mostu o jednom poli

    OpenAIRE

    Barkáč, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Cieľom tejto bakalárskej práce je návrh a posúdenie betónového mostu o jednom poli. Nosná konštrukcia je jednopolová predpjatá doska dĺžky 20m. Zaťaženie je vypočítané pomocou programu Scia Enginner a porovnané s ručným výpočtom. Návrh a posúdenie je prevedené podľa európskych noriem. Fázy výstavby v tejto práci neboli uvažované The subject of this bachelor’s thesis is to design and analysis a one-span concrete bridge. The supporting structure is one-span prestressed slab with the lenght o...

  20. Differential nephron HO-1 expression following glomerular epithelial cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Prasun K; Reddy, Sreenivas; Sharma, Mukut; Lianos, Elias A

    2006-01-01

    In proteinuria of glomerular origin there is upregulation of heme-oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme of heme degradation, in the nephron in a segment-specific manner. To better characterize this phenomenon, we employed a model of proteinuria resulting from disruption of the glomerular capillary permeability barrier to protein by administration of the glomerular epithelial cell toxin puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) to rats. In this model, we assessed nephron distribution of the expression of the inducible HO isoform, HO-1, and the role of free radicals in modulating HO-1 expression. Rats were injected with either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) or PAN or the spin trap free radical stabilizer alpha-phenyl-N-tert butyl nitrone (PBN), or with both PAN and PBN. Ten days following the PAN injection, urine protein, creatinine, nitric oxide (NO) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Kidney sections and protein lysates were assessed for changes in HO-1 expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In control animals (DMSO or PBN alone) there was no proteinuria and very weak or absent HO-1 staining in nephron segments. PAN treatment induced proteinuria and increased urine MDA excretion. In these animals, there was a robust HO-1 expression mainly in tubules and in glomerular parietal but not visceral epithelial cells. Unilateral ureteral obstruction to interrupt glomerular filtration in animals treated with PAN abrogated tubular HO-1 expression in the kidney ipsilateral to the obstruction. Administration of PBN to PAN-treated animals reduced proteinuria and MDA excretion while it markedly augmented tubular HO-1 expression. This augmentation was prominent in tubular cells of the inner cortex/outer medulla. These observations indicate that upregulation of nephron HO-1 following disruption of the glomerular permeability barrier occurs at sites downstream of this barrier and is mediated by a filtered HO-1 inducer(s). Scavenging of free radicals potentiates

  1. Výběr informačního systému pro elektronický obchod

    OpenAIRE

    Parimucha, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá výběrem informačního systému pro elektronický obchod Lepime.cz. Předmětem prodeje jsou bytové dekorace - samolepky na zeď vyráběné na míru. V první části je představena firma, výrobek a nastíněna analýza současného stavu informačního systému s důrazem na sestavení specifikace požadavků. Na tomto základě jsou pak porovnány jednotlivé informační systémy, které se dostaly do užšího výběru. Stěžejní částí je ekonomické srovnání informačních systémů, jak z hlediska p...

  2. Návrh řídicího software pro RC soupravu

    OpenAIRE

    Faltičko, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá vývojem řídicího software pro profesionální modelářskou rádiovou soupravu. Jejím výstupem je funkční řešení, které uspokojí požadavky stávajících leteckých i jiných modelářů a je konkurenceschopné vzhledem k ostatním značkám rádiových souprav. V práci je zahrnut návrh a implementace uživatelského rozhraní spolu s požadovanými datovými strukturami. Dále jsou diskutovány možnosti použití základních algoritmů pro řízení leteckých modelů. This document deals with the ...

  3. Vnitřní akustika osobního automobilu

    OpenAIRE

    Prokšová, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Práce se zabývá analýzou akustických vlastnosti vnitřního prostoru osobního automobilu pomocí metody konečných prvků. Součástí práce je analýza budicích účinků od jednotlivých zdrojů vibrací a vyhodnocení odezvy ve vnitřním akustickém prostoru kabiny se zaměřením na pasažéry vozidla a problematika návrhu vhodných konstrukčních úprav za účelem snížení hluku v kabině. The thesis is focused on the analysis of the acoustic properties of the interior of the passenger car by using the finite ele...

  4. Realizace hydraulického obvodu pomocí systému mikro-hydrauliky

    OpenAIRE

    Pitaš, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce má za jeden ze svých hlavních cílů praktickou realizaci hydraulického obvodu pomocí systému mikro-hydrauliky. Celá práce je rozdělena to tří hlavních částí. První část se zabývá rozdělením hydrauliky a výběrem vhodných prvků hydraulického obvodu a také jejich výhodností z hlediska financí. Druhá část je věnována konstrukci upevnění snímače polohy na lineární hydromotor, konstrukcí držáků pro hydraulické rozvaděče a hydrogenerátor. Třetí část popisuje samotný hydraulický ...

  5. PENGENDALIAN DALAM PENERBITAN IZIN GANGGUAN (HO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pebriana Marlinda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak :            Penelitian tentang pengendalian dalam penerbitan izin gangguan (HO di Kecamatan Margahayu Kabupaten Bandung menjelaskan tentang tahap-tahap pengendalian yang dilakukan oleh aparat Kecamatan Margahayu. Pengendalian dilakukan untuk memastikan agar penerbitan izin gangguan (HO berjalan dengan efektif. Namun, masih ada pelaku usaha yang belum memiliki surat izin gangguan (HO ataupun pelaku usaha yang sudah memiliki surat izin gangguan (HO akan tetapi kegiatan usahanya merugkan orang lain seperti sampah yang berserakan, polusi udara, polusi suara, dan lain-lain.                            Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian deduktif kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data melalui studi kepustakaan dan studi lapangan yang meliputi observasi dan wawancara mendalam. Adapun penentuan informan dalam penelitian ini dipilih berdasarkan pertimbangan-pertimbangan dengan pihak-pihak yang terkait dalam pengendalian. Kemudian data yang diperoleh dari hasil wawancara dipaparkan dengan langkah-langkah yang meliputi: reduksi data, penyajian data, menarik kesimpulan/verifikasi. Teori yang digunakan penulis dalam penelitian ini adalah teori dari Stephen P. Robbins tentang tahap-tahap pengendalian yaitu: mengukur kinerja aktual, membandingkan kinerja aktual dengan standar, dan mengambil tindakan manajerial.                            Kesimpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah pengendalian yang dilakukan olehaparat Kecamatan Margahayu telah melalui tahap-tahap pengendalian yaitu: mengukur kinerja aktual, membandingkan kinerja aktual dengan standar, dan mengambil tindakan manajerial. Namun perlu dilakukan penguatan di setiap tahap pengendalian terutama pada tahap mengukur kinerja aktual dan pada tahap mengambil tindakan manajerial                            Penelitian tentang pengendalian dalam penerbitan izin gangguan (HO di Kecamatan

  6. Mass incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2008-09-09

    Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10-0.58%, P incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes, and its effect is exacerbated but not confounded by HIV. Differences in incarceration rates are a major determinant of differences in population TB outcomes among eastern European and central Asian countries, and treatment expansion alone does not appear to resolve the effect of mass incarceration on TB incidence.

  7. Comparison of the emission properties of Ho 3+ :KPb 2 Cl 5 and Ho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties of Ho3+ doped low phonon halides (KPb2 Cl 5 ) with those of their fluoride counterparts. Results show 2 5 that mid-IR emission wavelengths that appeared in the halide hosts were effectively quenched in the fluorides. Furthermore, the emission lifetimes of the halides did not vary significantly with temperature, ...

  8. Systém virtuálního vzdělávání univerzity - analýza a návrh

    OpenAIRE

    Vožda, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Práce analyzuje a navrhuje systém virtuálního vzdělávání univerzity z konceptuálního hlediska. Tento systém je navržen jako portál virtuálního vzdělávání. Zvláštní pozornost je věnována procesům, objektům, uživatelskému rozhraní, komunikaci a také znalostem uvnitř navrhovaného systému. Jsou diskutována specifika různých typů vzdělávacích portálů. Důraz je kladen na flexibilitu a rozšiřitelnost systému.

  9. Podnikatelský plán založení internetového obchodu se sportovní výživou a cvičebními pomůckami

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je návrh realizace internetového obchodu zaměřeného na prodej sportovní výživy a pomůcek. Stěžejní součástí práce, která bude sloužit jako podklad pro návrh sestavení podnikatelského plánu, jsou vybrané analýzy prostředí pro stanovení poptávky a faktorů, tuto poptávku ovlivňujících. Dále bude zmapováno konkurenční prostředí příslušného trhu, ke kterému budou použita data z primárního výzkumu zabývajícím se preferencemi cílové skupiny zákazníků. Návrhy uvedené v této prác...

  10. Fotokatalytická inaktivace kvasinek v průtočném reaktoru

    OpenAIRE

    Lipenská, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá fotokatalytickým účinkem oxidu titaničitého a UV záření. V teoretické části je nastíněn mechanismus působení oxidu titaničitého a jeho aplikace v různých odvětvích. Na kvasince Hansenula anomala byl sledován mikrobicidní účinek oxidu titaničitého ve spojení s UV zářením v průtočném reaktoru. Po zjištění vhodného průtoku byly voleny různé počáteční koncentrace buněk. Pro zvýšení účinku bylo do systému vneseno stříbro, které, jak bylo v mnoha pracech uvedeno, sniž...

  11. Exchange coupling in TbCu and DyCu single-molecule magnets and related lanthanide and vanadium analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Watanabe, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kei; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kojima, Norimichi; Tanaka, Go; Yoshii, Shunsuke; Nojiri, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-28

    Heterometallic coordination compounds [Cu(II)(L)(C(3)H(6)O)Ln(III)(NO(3))(3)] and [V(IV)O(L)(C(3)H(6)O)Ln(III)(NO(3))(3)] (abbreviated as LnCu and LnV, respectively; H(2)L = N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2,2-dimethylpropane; Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) were synthesized, and the X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that their structures are isomorphous for each series. The single-molecule magnet behavior was observed for TbCu and DyCu, and the activation energies of magnetization reversal were 42.3(4) and 11.5(10) K, respectively. The magnetic exchange couplings in LnCu and LnV were precisely evaluated by means of combined high-frequency EPR and pulsed-field magnetization studies, to give J(Tb-Cu)/k(B)≥ 3.3 K, J(Dy-Cu)/k(B) = 1.63(1) K, J(Ho-Cu)/k(B) = 1.09(2) K, and J(Er-Cu)/k(B) = 0.24(1) K. A monotonic decrease of ferromagnetic J(Ln-Cu) was found in the order of the atomic number, (64)Gd to (68)Er. The corresponding exchange parameters in LnV are smaller than those of the Cu derivatives, and J(Gd-V) was antiferromagnetic (-3.0 K determined from the magnetization jump). A possible mechanism for the exchange coupling and chemical trend is discussed.

  12. Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Aluminoborates RAl3(BO3)4 (R = Th, Er, OR Ho) at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvandikov, O. K.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Shakarov, Kh. O.; Shodiev, Z. M.; Amonov, B. U.

    2016-01-01

    A temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility [χ(T)] of rare-earth borates RAl3(BO3)4 (R = Tb, Er, or Ho) is measured by the Faraday method at temperatures in the interval 20-850°C. Nonlinear anomalies caused by structural transitions are observed in the dependences χ-1(T). It is established that the dependences χ-1(T) for each phase obey the linear Curie-Weiss law. The Curie temperatures and the magnetic moments corresponding to the chemical formula of the compounds have been found.

  13. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  14. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms and Risk Factors Language: English ( ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  15. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  16. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huaqun, E-mail: chenhuaqun@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Li, Chaojun, E-mail: licj@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Model Animal Research Center (MARC) and The School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  17. Sewage, Septage and faecal sludge management profile in Ho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in the Ho District of Ghana. The excreta handling facilities available in Ho District are water closet systems, KVIP, pan/bucket latrines and public latrines. About 71 per cent of the population, especially people in the densely populated and low ...

  18. Návrh číslicového filtru typu pásmová propust

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Cílem práce je vysvětlit problematiku digitálních filtrů IIR, ukázat postup návrhu digitálního filtru v prostředí Matlab a navrhnout model ideálního filtru typu pásmová propust s konkrétními parametry v prostředí Matlab. Tento filtr bude následně sloužit jako referenční model pro verifikaci s filtrem popsaným v jazyce VHDL. The aim of this work is to explain the problems of digital IIR filters, demostrate process of designing digital filters in Matlab and design a model of ideal band-pass ...

  19. Návrh, simulace a řízení robotického pracoviště pro bodové a kontinuální svařování

    OpenAIRE

    Holíček, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Táto práca sa zaoberá modelovaním a simuláciou výrobného procesu, ktorý pozostáva z niekoľkých stacionárnych robotov. Tento model výrobného procesu je vytvorený v programe Tecnomatix Process Simulate. V prvej kapitole je popísaný princíp digitálnej továrne a stručný úvod do virtuálnej výroby. V druhej kapitole je podrobne popísaná práca s programom Tecnomatix Process Simulate a postup potrebný pre návrh výrobnej linky kontinuálneho a bodového zvárania. V tretej kapitole je popísaný riadiaci p...

  20. K2Ho(PO4(WO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina V. Terebilenko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new compound, dipotassium holmium(III phosphate(V tungstate(VI, K2Ho(PO4(WO4, has been obtained during investigation of the K2O–P2O5–WO3–HoF3 phase system using the flux technique. The compound is isotypic with K2Bi(PO4(WO4. Its framework structure consists of flat ∞2[HoPO4] layers parallel to (100 that are made up of ∞1[HoO8] zigzag chains interlinked via slightly distorted PO4 tetrahedra. WO4 tetrahedra are attached above and below these layers, leaving space for the K+ counter-cations. The HoO8, PO4 and WO4 units exhibit 2 symmetry.

  1. Comparison of PPD test in household contacts of smear-positive and -negative tuberculosis (TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Azarkar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The most important way to prevent TB is omission of the disease transmission sources (TB patients by anti-TB treatment. Extensive studies are needed to ensure that contacts of patients with pulmonary TB are identified and appropriately screened.

  2. Prevalence and management out comes of anti TB drugs induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHO designed a strategy of treatment under direct observation (DOTS), but most of the anti TB drugs affect the liver and causes drug-induced hepatitis. This side effect was usually observed in St. Peter TB Specialized Hospital and there was a debate weather to discontinue all anti TB drugs so that drug resistance could be ...

  3. TB in HIV Patients: Strengthening Control Measures | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review, discusses the importance of streghthening different TB control measures both in the community and hos[pital environment to be able to reduce the increases in cases of TB seen in HIV patients and further prevent the emergence of drug resistant TB. Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, ...

  4. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  5. Měření a analýza jednofázového transformátoru s pomocí LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Princ, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Cílem této diplomové práce je simulace transformátoru malého výkonu za pomoci jeho náhradního schématu. Jako prostředek k matematickému popisu modelu a simulaci různých provozních stavů, při různých velikostech a typech zátěže, poslouží program Labview. Ten je zároveň využit k měření reálného transformátoru a k porovnání výsledků z hodnotami vypočtenými. Z připraveného programu je vytvořena i měřící úloha pro studenty. Práce popisuje měřený transformátor i za pomoci konečně prvkové metody v p...

  6. TB diagnostic process management of patients in a referral hospital in Mozambique in comparison with the 2007 WHO recommendations for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jeannet C.; Smalbraak, Lisette; Macome, Augusto C.; Gomes, Ermelinda; van Leth, Frank; Prins, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    In sub-Saharan African countries, the high proportion of smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) contributes to a delay in TB diagnosis and treatment. We evaluated the TB diagnostic process of adult patients with presumptive TB in a referral hospital in Mozambique according

  7. Crystal structure of the TbZnSn{sub 2} and TbZnSn ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlyuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryla and Mefodia Street 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Czestochowa Jan Dlugosz University, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: pavlyuk@franko.lviv.ua; Oshchapovsky, I. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryla and Mefodia Street 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Marciniak, B. [Czestochowa Jan Dlugosz University, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2009-05-27

    The crystal structures of the TbZnSn{sub 2} and TbZnSn compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The TbZnSn{sub 2} compound crystallizes with the HfCuSi{sub 2} structure type (space group P4/nmm) and TbZnSn crystallizes with the YPtAs structure type (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc)

  8. Abandono do tratamento de tuberculose em co-infectados TB/HIV Abandono del tratamiento de la tuberculosis en coinfectados TB/HIV Abandonment of tuberculosis treatment among patinets co-infected with TB/HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaneide Leal Ataide Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar os motivos que levam os pacientes coinfectados TB/HIV a abandonar o tratamento da TB e conhecer a conduta da equipe de saúde frente a esse abandono. A abordagem foi qualitativa. Utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada a quarenta e cinco profissionais que atuam em uma Unidade de Referência no Pará. Após análise temática, foram construídas duas unidades: fatores relacionados aos doentes que dificultam adesão ao tratamento da TB; e fatores relacionados ao serviço que contribuem para o abandono. Mostrou-se, com relação aos pacientes, que a baixa condição socioeconômica foi o fator mais frequente que propicia o abandono. Também efeitos adversos dos medicamentos, uso de drogas lícitas, e pouca motivação pessoal facilitam esse desfecho. Quanto ao Serviço, as questões relacionadas à estrutura física, organização do processo de trabalho e acesso mostraram-se relevantes para não adesão. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de alterar as práticas desenvolvidas nos Serviços.Este estudio objetivó analizar los motivos que llevan a los pacientes coinfectados de TB/VIH a abandonar el tratamiento de la TB y conocer la conducta del equipo de salud frente a dicho abandono. El abordaje fue cualitativo. Se utilizó la entrevista semiestructurada, aplicada a cuarenta y cinco profesionales que actúan en una Unidad de Referencia en Pará. Luego del análisis temático fueron construidas dos unidades: factores relativos a los enfermos que dificultan su adhesión al tratamiento de la TB y factores relativos al servicio que contribuyen al abandono. Se demostró, con respecto a los pacientes, que la baja condición socio-económica fue el factor más frecuente que propicia el abandono. También los efectos adversos de los medicamentos, el uso de drogas lícitas y la poca motivación personal facilitan ese desenlace. Respecto del Servicio, las cuestiones relacionadas a la estructura f

  9. Evaluation of TB and HIV services prior to introducing TB-HIV activities in two rural districts in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hoog, A. H.; Onyango, J.; Agaya, J.; Akeche, G.; Odero, G.; Lodenyo, W.; Marston, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    SETTING: Health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) treatment in two districts in rural western Kenya with a high TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate TB and HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) services at the facilities and identify barriers to

  10. Characteristics and TB treatment outcomes in TB patients with viral hepatitis, New York City, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, G; Stennis, N L; Drobnik, A M; Proops, D C; Ahuja, S D; Bornschlegel, K; Fuld, J

    2015-07-01

    Literature surrounding the burden of and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons with tuberculosis (TB) disease remains limited and focused on populations outside the USA. Cross-matched New York City (NYC) TB and viral hepatitis surveillance data were used to estimate the proportion of NYC adults diagnosed with TB from 2000 to 2010 with a report of viral hepatitis infection and to describe the impact of viral hepatitis infection on TB treatment completion and death. For 9512 TB patients, HCV infection was reported in 4.2% and HBV infection in 3.7%; TB patients had both HCV and HBV infection. The proportion of TB patients with HCV infection to die before TB treatment completion was larger than in TB patients without a viral hepatitis report (21% vs. 9%); this association remained when stratified by HIV status. There was no significant difference in death before treatment completion for TB patients with HBV infection compared to TB patients without a viral hepatitis report when stratified by HIV status. These findings reinforce the importance of hepatitis testing and providing additional support to TB patients with viral hepatitis infection.

  11. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  12. Vývoj a zavedení informačního systému pro podporu podnikových procesů

    OpenAIRE

    Kosturák, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práca je zameraná na problematiku informačných systémov. Jej pozornosť sa zameriava na popísanie nielen poznatkov z oblasti základnej terminológie informačných systémov, definíciu predpokladov nutných pre vývoj informačného systému do podniku, ale aj jeho implementáciu a následnú správu. Praktická časť diplomovej práce vychádza z poznatkov časti teoretickej. Jej hlavná časť sa zameriava na realizáciu informačného systému. Master’s thesis is focused on the issue of information sys...

  13. TB-HIV co-infection in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, M J; Sebhatu, M; Weldegergis, T; Tesfazion, A; Borgdorff, M W

    2007-07-01

    We assessed the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identified risk factors for HIV infection in smear-positive TB patients diagnosed by the TB programme in Eritrea. Of 365 notified TB patients, 220 (60.3%) could be traced and provided a blood sample that was tested. Of these, 26 (11.8%, 95%CI 7.6-16.1) were HIV-infected. Risk factors were age, urban residence and schooling level. The data indicate that, starting with the urban areas, it is time for Eritrea to introduce HIV testing of all TB patients.

  14. Tb drug resistance: is it really a threat to Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Paul; Zignol, Matteo; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Wright, Abigail; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2007-10-01

    In most of the world and particularly in Eastern Europe, China and India, drug resistance is increasingly seen as a major threat to tuberculosis (TB) control and even to public health and health security. What about in Africa? The conditions for creation of drug resistance exist in most, if not all, African countries, as a result of underinvestment in basic TB control, poor management of anti-TB drugs and virtual absence of infection control measures. The severity of drug resistance is increasing--following outbreaks all over the world of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR) in the 1990's, extensive drug resistant (XDR) TB has now been found in 37 countries, including South Africa. (MDR is, in essence, resistance to the most powerful first-line drugs, and XDR-TB is TB resistant to the most powerful second-line drugs as well.) Worse still, the impact of XDR-TB is magnified among those with HIV infection, giving rise to a remarkably high mortality, and exposing significant weaknesses in both HIV and TB control. In particular, the lack of laboratories capable of carrying out culture and drug susceptibility testing severely limits the capacity of countries even to detect the problem in Africa. This paper analyses the threat of TB drug resistance to health and to TB control in Africa, and puts forward measures to diminish this threat.

  15. Technology and tuberculosis control: the OUT-TB Web experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Jennifer L; Alexander, David C; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Furness, Colin; Rea, Elizabeth; Stuart, Rebecca; Lechner, Julia; Varia, Monali; McLean, Jennifer; Jamieson, Frances B

    2017-04-01

    Develop a tool to disseminate integrated laboratory, clinical, and demographic case data necessary for improved contact tracing and outbreak detection of tuberculosis (TB). In 2007, the Public Health Ontario Laboratories implemented a universal genotyping program to monitor the spread of TB strains within Ontario. Ontario Universal Typing of TB (OUT-TB) Web utilizes geographic information system (GIS) technology with a relational database platform, allowing TB control staff to visualize genotyping matches and microbiological data within the context of relevant epidemiological and demographic data. OUT-TB Web is currently available to the 8 health units responsible for >85% of Ontario's TB cases and is a valuable tool for TB case investigation. Users identified key features to implement for application enhancements, including an e-mail alert function, customizable heat maps for visualizing TB and drug-resistant cases, socioeconomic map layers, a dashboard providing TB surveillance metrics, and a feature for animating the geographic spread of strains over time. OUT-TB Web has proven to be an award-winning application and a useful tool. Developed and enhanced using regular user feedback, future versions will include additional data sources, enhanced map and line-list filter capabilities, and development of a mobile app.

  16. Lay beliefs of TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frich Jan C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about lay beliefs of etiology, transmission and treatment of TB, and lay perceptions of the relationship between TB and HIV is important for understanding patients' health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. We conducted a study to explore lay beliefs about TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 15 TB/HIV co-infected patients and 9 health professionals and focus group discussions with 14 co-infected patients in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. We found that a predominant lay belief was that TB was caused by exposure to cold. Excessive sun exposure, exposure to mud, smoking, alcohol, khat and inadequate food intake were also reported as causes for TB. Such beliefs initially led to self-treatment. The majority of patients were aware of an association between TB and HIV. Some reported that TB could transform into HIV, while others said that the body could be weakened by HIV and become more susceptible to illnesses such as TB. Some patients classified TB as either HIV-related or non-HIV-related, and weight loss was a hallmark for HIV-related TB. The majority of patients believed that people in the community knew that there was an association between TB and HIV, and some feared that this would predispose them to HIV-related stigma. Conclusion There is a need for culturally sensitive information and educational efforts to address misperceptions about TB and HIV. Health professionals should provide information about causes and treatment of TB and HIV to co-infected patients.

  17. TB situation in Albania, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, H; Tafaj, S; Bardhi, D; Dilko, E; Aliko, A

    2009-01-01

    Albania, population 3.4 million. To describe DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course chemotherapy) implementation, treatment outcomes and epidemiological situation in Albania from 2001 to 2008. DOTS strategy was introduced in 2001 and gradually expanded. A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes and epidemiological data on TB patients was analyzed for this period. DOTS was expanded to 76% of the country in 2008. Treatment success among new smear-positive patients ranged from 82% in 2001 to 86% in 2007. The incidence of TB in Albania decreased from 17 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001 to 12/100,000 in 2008 and estimated case detection for smear positive cases improved from 42% in 2001 to 75% in 2007. The TB incidence has fallen progressively since DOTS was initiated. Treatment outcome was better in DOTS areas compared to Non-DOTS areas and overall treatment outcome was improved during DOTS implementation. Despite gradually, DOTS was successfully implemented and full expansion is necessary.

  18. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenologica...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure.......The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...... Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...

  19. Crystal fields in Sc, Y, and the heavy-rare-earth metals Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touborg, P.

    1977-01-01

    -field parameters for all these 15 alloy systems deduced. The consistency of the parameters was confirmed by a variety of magnetic measurements, including neutron spectroscopy. Crystal-field parameters have also been derived for the ions in pure magnetic rare-earth metals and their alloys using the results......—with the inaccuracies somewhat increased—are expected to be representative also for the magnetic rare-earth metals. For rare-earth ions in the Sc host the values B40 / β=9.9±1.9 K, B60 / γ=19.8±1.5 K, and B66 / γ=(9.4±0.9)β60 / γ were deduced. B20 / α is a host-sensitive parameter which has the average values of -102.......7, -53.4, and 29.5 K for rare-earth ions in Y, Lu, and Sc, respectively. There is also evidence that this parameter varies with the solute. B20 / α for ions in the pure magnetic rare-earth metals and their alloys shows a linear variation with c / a ratio characteristic of each ion. The results indicate...

  20. High prevalence of TB disease in contacts of adults with extrapulmonary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Tom; MacPherson, Peter; Cleary, Paul; Ormerod, L Peter

    2017-11-16

    UK guidelines no longer recommend routine screening of household contacts of adult patients with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). From 27 March 2012 to 28 June 2016, we investigated the prevalence of active TB disease in household contacts of 1023 EPTB index cases in North West England, and compared estimates with: published new entrant migrant screening programme prevalence (~147/100 000 person-years); London-based contact screening data (700/100 000 contacts screened); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) new entrant TB screening thresholds (TB prevalence >40/100 000 people). Active TB disease prevalence in EPTB contacts was 440/100 000 contacts screened, similar to UK new entrant screening programmes, London EPTB contact prevalence and >10 times NICE's threshold for new entrant screening. The decision to no longer recommend routine screening of EPTB contacts should be re-evaluated and cost-effectiveness analyses of screening strategies for EPTB contacts should be performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Automatické generování pozic optického skeneru pro digitalizaci plechových dílů

    OpenAIRE

    Koutecký, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem metodiky pro automatické generování pozic optického skeneru pro digitalizaci plechových dílů na základě počítačového modelu měřeného dílu. Výroba a s tím související inspekce plechových dílů jsou velmi úzce spojeny s automobilním průmyslem. Kvůli obecným zvyšujícím se nárokům na přesnost je v sériové výrobě kladen požadavek na přesnou kontrolu vyráběných dílů. K tomu se stále častěji začínají využívat optické 3D skenery a průmyslové roboty. V případě zavedení výroby no...

  2. Magnetic properties of HoCoC2, HoNiC2 and their solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michor, H.; Steiner, S.; Schumer, A.; Hembara, M.; Levytskyy, V.; Babizhetskyy, V.; Kotur, B.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline HoCoC2 and the evolution of magnetic and structural features in a series of polycrystalline solid solutions HoCo1-xNixC2 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. The crystal structures of all investigated samples refers to the CeNiC2-type structure (space group Amm 2 and Pearson symbol oS8). Non-isoelectronic substitution of Co by Ni causes a non-linear increase of the unit cell volume and especially a non-monotonous variation of the a and c lattice parameters as well as a pronounced reduction of the C-C bond length of carbon dimers. Temperature dependent magnetization and specific heat measurements reveal a crossover from a ferromagnetic for HoCoC2 with TC = 10.6 (1) K to an antiferromagnetic ground state for HoNiC2 with TN = 2.78 (6) K and a non-monotonous variation of the magnetic ordering temperature with a minimum at intermediate compositions. Crystalline electric field effects of HoCoC2 and HoNiC2 are analysed using combined thermodynamic and magnetic susceptibility data. The electrical resistivity of HoNiC2 displays a distinct anomaly near room temperature which indicates the formation of a charge density wave (CDW) state as earlier reported for several other rare earth nickel dicarbides.

  3. Zavádění nového výrobku na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Karlová, Markéta

    2007-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá procesem zavádění vlákninového doplňku stravy na český trh. Popisuje teoretické postupy zavádění nových výrobků na trh, charakterizuje farmaceutické prostředí a oblast doplňků stravy, specifikuje trh vlákniny a vlákninu, a odhaluje, jak probíhá celý postup v praxi.

  4. Návrh experimentálního zařízení řízeného z prostředí Matlab-Simulink pro měření statických charakteristik akcelerometru.

    OpenAIRE

    Malina, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Cílem této práce je návrh experimentálního zařízení pro měření statických charakteristik akcelerometru řízeného z prostředí Matlab-Simulink. Tím se rozumí zpětná informace z akcelerometru o náklonu plošinky ve stupních a vyobrazení prostorových histogramů. Zařízení je realizováno jako rotační plošinka z jedné strany rotačně uložena na hřídelce krokového motoru a z druhé strany na hřídelce aritmetického potenciometru. Mezi dílčími úkoly práce bylo seznámení se s kartou MF624, Real Time Toolbox...

  5. Strategie "zeleného růstu" a trh práce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tošovská, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 10 (2011), s. 987-1004 ISSN 0013-3035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : green growth strategy * environmental policy * employment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2011

  6. Osobnost pedagoga volného času a smysl jeho práce

    OpenAIRE

    Kučera, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused on personality of free time pedagogue and meaning of his work: The first part examines pedagogy itself and pedagogy of free time having regard to single objective, to education. Also deals with issues of free time pedagogue. The second part is focused on the importance of personality of free time pedagogue from different perspectives. Free time pedagogue is considered charismatically, creative, motivating and unique personality, coach and authority, which leads to the p...

  7. [Tuberculosis annual report 2009--series 2. TB in foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Statistics on tuberculosis (TB) in foreigners in Japan have been collected since 1998. The number of foreign TB patients increased from 739 in 1998 to 938 in 2009. In contrast, the number of Japanese TB patients decreased during this period. Hence, the proportion of foreigners among TB patients increased from 2.1% in 1998 to 4.0% in 2009, excluding those of unknown nationality. Especially, the proportion of foreigners among TB patients aged 20-29 years increased greatly from 9.1% in 1998 to 25.4% in 2009. Although the number of nationalities was 38, the majority of patients in 2009 were from China (28.4%), the Philippines (23.6%) and Korea (13.8%). The number of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years was 427, accounting for 45.5% of all foreign TB patients in 2009. Eighty-one percent of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years had developed TB within 5 years of entering Japan. The equivalent proportions in those aged 30-39 years and 40-49 years were 49% and 29%. Regarding occupation, 37.2% of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years were students, 27.2% were full-time workers and 11.7% were part-time workers.

  8. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-07-01

    Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P MDR-TB; 13.2% for non MDR TB. Multivariable analysis showed the potential factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were presence of HIV infection (AOR, 1.09; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.75; P = 0.001) and previous TB treatment (AOR, 4.87; 95%CI: 2.84, 8.38; P = 0.001). This study revealed that the treatment success rate in patients with non MDR TB infection was higher than MDR-TB. Unsuccessful treatment was seen in MDR-TB associated with potential factors such as history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection.

  9. Uživatelské rozhraní pro mobilního tlumočníka

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrba, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou návrhu, implementace a testování grafického uživatelského rozhraní pro aplikaci Mobilní tlumočník. Tvorba rozhraní je zaměřena na platformu Android. První část vysvětluje pojmy uživatelské rozhraní, zabývá se studiem existujících řešení a platformou Android. Dále jsou navržena dvě uživatelská rozhraní. Poslední část obsahuje vyhodnocení provedeného testování a návrh změn. Cílem testování je také ověřit, zda uživatelské rozhraní může mít vliv na po...

  10. Holmium laser lithotripsy (HoLL) of ureteral calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness and side effects of ureteroscopic HoLL of ureteral stones should be evaluated. In 63 patients (17 female, 46 males) a total of 75 stones of 3-20 mm diameter were treated with ureteroscopic HoLL. 18.7 percent of stones were located in the proximal third, 24.0 percent in the middle third and 57.3 percent in the distal third of the ureter. HoLL was performed with small diameter semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes, 220 or 365 nm flexible laser fibers and a holmium:YAG laser at a power of 5-15 W (0.5-1.0 J, 10- 15 Hz). 47 of 63 patients (74.6 percent) were immediately free of stones, and 8 others (12.6 percent) lost their residual fragments spontaneously within two weeks. Another 2 patients received additional chmolitholysis for uric acid stone fragments, i.e. 90.5 percent of patients were stone free by one sitting of ureterscopic HoLL. Of the remaining 6 patients (9.5 percent) who still had residual calculi 4 weeks after HoLL, 2 asymptomatic patients refused any additional treatment, 2 patients preferred treatment with ESWL, and 2 patients had a successful second HoLL, thereby raising the success rate of ureteroscopic HoLL to 93.7 percent. 2 patients showed contrast medium extravasation on retrograde ureterograms, due to guide wire perforation. No ureteral stricture occurred. In conclusion, transurethral ureteroscopic HoLL proved to be a safe and successful minimal invasive treatment of ureteral calculi.

  11. Optimization of metallic magnetic calorimeters with embedded {sup 163}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Haehnle, S.; Kempf, S.; Krantz, M.; Wegner, M. [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Dorrer, H.; Duellmann, C.E.; Eberhardt, K.; Kieck, T.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Johnston, K. [Physics Department CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Koester, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Tuerler, A. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The Electron Capture in {sup 163}Ho (ECHo) collaboration plans to reach sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass by the analysis of high statistics of {sup 163}Ho electron capture spectra. Large arrays of metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with enclosed {sup 163}Ho read out using microwave SQUID multiplexing will be used for the measurement of the spectrum. With first prototypes of MMCs having the {sup 163}Ho source ion-implanted in the absorbers, operated at 25 mK, an energy resolution ΔE{sub FWHM}=7.6 eV and a signal rise time τ=130 ns have been achieved, paving the way to the first stage of the experiment (ECHo 1k). We present the optimization of MMCs and of the methods to embed the high purity {sup 163}Ho source in detector absorbers. In particular we discuss how to define the optimal activity per pixel considering the limits coming from the allowed unresolved pileup fraction and from the additional contribution of detector heat capacity related to the magnetic moments of {sup 163}Ho.

  12. Optical properties of Ho3+ ions in lead phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, Ch.; Upendra Kumar, K.; Babu, P.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ho3+-doped lead phosphate (P2O5 + K2O + Al2O3 + PbO + Na2O + Ho2O3) glasses have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The optical properties have been characterized through absorption, emission and gain spectra and decay rate analysis. A strong dependence of the Ω2 parameter on the hypersensitive transition has been noticed. Using the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, various radiative properties like transition probabilities, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for various emission levels has been evaluated. The radiative lifetime for the 5S2(5F4) fluorescent level and peak stimulated emission cross-section for the 5S2(5F4) → 5I8 transition are found to be 330 μs and 1.43 × 10-20 cm2, respectively. Using the McCumber theory, absorption and emission cross-sections for the 5I7 → 5I8 transition (˜2.0 μm) of the Ho3+ ion have been obtained and gain spectra are also computed as a function of population inversion. The peak stimulated emission cross-section and gain coefficient for Ho3+-doped lead phosphate glasses have been compared with other reported Ho3+:systems. The analysis indicates that these Ho3+:glasses exhibit relatively better properties for application in mid-infrared lasers at a wavelength of about 2.0 μm.

  13. Viewpoint TB diagnostics: what does the world really need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Karin; Carai, Susanne; Nunn, Paul

    2011-11-15

    Stagnant tuberculosis (TB) case detection and rising TB drug resistance are in part the result of historically neglected laboratory services, slow technology transfer, and a lack of new TB diagnostic tools. The last decade has, however, seen the diagnostic pipeline grow rapidly, with research and investment prompted by concerns about the global spread of drug resistance and transmission in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) settings. The drawbacks of conventional microbiological methods for TB diagnosis and resistance detection have largely been overcome by modern molecular technologies; however, the much needed point-of-care TB test will remain elusive if expectations stay unrealistic and research and funding strategies are not changed. Development of new technologies, better use of existing tools, and adequate treatment capacity to care for the increasing numbers of cases that will be diagnosed with scale-up of TB diagnostics all need to be addressed simultaneously.

  14. Stanovení vagového prahu a možnosti jeho využití Determination of the vagal threshold and changes of it's using

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Gába; Aleš Jakubec; Jakub Krejčí; Pavel Stejskal; Michal Botek

    2008-01-01

    Cílem této studie bylo navrhnout jednoduchý matematický postup, podle kterého by bylo možno stanovit takovou hraniční intenzitu zatížení, nad kterou se redukovaná vagová aktivita dále výrazně nemění a kardiovaskulární systém je dominantně řízen zvyšující se aktivitou sympatoadrenálního systému (vagový práh – TVA). ...

  15. Model práce s dokumenty v elektronickém obchodování

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Tato práce obsahuje model práce s dokumenty elektronického obchodování. Je zde rozebrána možnost elektronických podpisů v účetnictví a popsány vybrané případy bezpečnosti elektronického podpisu. V práci jsou uvedeny vybrané možnosti ochrany dat v elektronickém obchodování. This work is containing a model EDI in e-commerce. There is a situation about electronic signature in the a accounting is taking to parts and chosen cases of safety of electronic signature. In this work are chosen possib...

  16. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  17. Model strategického rozhodování ve vícehráčové hře s prvky kooperativního chování

    OpenAIRE

    Straka, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Práce se zabývá studiem matematických modelů lidského chování v sekvenčních strategických hrách, návrhem strategické situace vykazující prvky kooperace, implementací modelu a experimentováním s modelem. Pro práci byla zvolena hra DarkElf. Jedná se o tahovou strategickou ekonomicko-vojenskou hru, v níž se výsledné akce hráčů aplikují současně v předem známý okamžik. This work concentrates on the study of mathematical models of human behaviour in dynamic games; in particular games with aspec...

  18. Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-adherence to treatment remains a major obstacle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. The dual infection of Tuberculosis and HIV presents further adherence problems because of high pill burden and adverse effects. This poses a risk of increased multi-drug resistant TB. However, the ...

  19. Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaguthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chest radiograph (CXR is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts, a medical officer (M.O, and four clinical officers (C.Os with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighted kappa scores summarized interrater agreement on lymphadenopathy and abnormalities consistent with TB. Sensitivity and specificity of raters were determined using microbiologically confirmed TB as the gold standard (n=8. A total of 691 radiographs were reviewed. Agreement on abnormalities consistent with TB was poor; k=0.14 (95% CI: 0.10–0.18 and on lymphadenopathy moderate k=0.26 (95% CI: 0.18–0.36. M.O [75% (95% CI: 34.9%–96.8%] and C.Os [63% (95% CI: 24.5%–91.5%] had high sensitivity for culture confirmed TB. TB vaccine trials utilizing expert agreement on CXR as a nonmicrobiologically confirmed endpoint will have reduced specificity and will underestimate vaccine efficacy. C.Os detected many of the bacteriologically confirmed cases; however, this must be interpreted cautiously as they were unblinded to clinical features.

  20. Reaction of HO2 with O3 and the effect of water vapor on HO2 kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demore, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of temperature and water vapor concentration on the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2(O2) to the square root of the rate constant for the reaction HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 are determined. Photolysis of H2-O2-O3 mixtures at 253.7 nm was carried out with H2O pressures in the range 0 to 15 torr at a temperature range of -42.5 to 61 C along with 184.9 nm photolysis of H2O-O2-O3 mixtures. It is shown that the rate of O3 photolysis is suppressed by the addition of water vapor and it is suggested that this effect is realized in the HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 reaction. The calculated expression for the temperature dependence of the rate constant ratio is found to be in good agreement with that calculated from separate rate constants. Rate constants determined for the reaction OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 are found to be higher than those previously determined, presumably due to increased pressure, indicating that atmospheric models should take into account the possible pressure dependences of the reactions considered.

  1. REGIONÁLNÍ ASPEKTY SPORTOVNÍHO DIVÁCTVÍ [REGIONAL ASPECTS OF SPORT SPECTATORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Landa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prezentovaná stať přináší výsledky empirického výzkumu zaměřeného na sportovní diváctví jako společenský jev a zabývá se především regionálními charakteristikami sportovního diváctví v České republice. Výzkum probíhal v letech 2007 -2008 na stadionech a ve sportovních halách všech ligových družstev fotbalu, ledního hokeje, házené, basketbalu a volejbalu (a také během několika utkáních florbalu a sledovaný soubor byl tvořen 5629 diváky. Zjištěné údaje poskytují možnost jak celkové charakteristiky populace sportovních diváků v České republice, tak také hlubší analýzu této populace z hlediska regionálního rozložení. Právě regionálním aspektům sportovního diváctví se věnuje tato stať, přičemž hlavním zaměřením jsou sociálně-demografické charakteristiky sportovních diváků. Autoři porovnávají jednotlivé regiony České republiky z hlediska divácké populace a získané údaje konfrontují s obecnou sociální a demografickou situací v těchto regionech. [The text shows results of the scientific research focused on sport spectatorship as a social phenomenon. The research was engaged mainly in regional characteristics of sport spectatorship in the Czech Republic. The research took part through the years 2007 and 2008 in stadium, arenas and sports halls of all football, ice hockey, handball, basketball and volleyball clubs belonging to the highest Czech league. We also realized part of the research on two floorball clubs. The research sample consist of 5629 sport spectators. Our findings offer a posibility of an overall characteristic of a sport spectator's population in the Czech Republic as well as a posibility of deeper analysis of this specator's population from the point of wiev of a regional distribution. This text is devoted just to the regional aspects of the sport spectatorship. The main topic of the text is then social-demographic characteristic of

  2. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  3. Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: retrospective multi-center investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenjie; Tan, Shouyong; Yao, Lan; Li, Fujian; Li, Li; Guo, Xinzhi; Liu, Yidian; Hao, Xiaohui; Li, Yanqiong; Ding, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Zhanjun; Tong, Li; Huang, Jianan

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB is usually more complex, toxic and costly and less effective than treatment of other forms of TB. However, there is little information available on risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in China. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of HIV-negative TB Patients with culture-proven MDR- or XDR-TB who were registered from July 2006 to June 2011 at five large-scale Tuberculosis Specialized Hospitals in China. Among 1662 HIV-seronegative TB cases which were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis complex and had positive sputum-smear microscopy results, 965 cases (58.1%) were DR-TB, and 586 cases (35.3%) were classified as having MDR-TB, accounting for 60.7% of DR-TB. 169 cases (10.2%) were XDR-TB, accounting for 17.5% of DR-TB, 28.8% of MDR-TB. The MDR-TB patients were divided into XDR-TB group (n=169) and other MDR-TB group (non-XDR MDR-TB) (n=417). In total, 240 patients (40.95%) had treatment success, and 346 (59.05%) had poor treatment outcomes. The treatment success rate in other MDR-TB group was 52.2%, significantly higher than that in the XDR-TB group (13%, PMDR-TB and XDR-TB have poor treatment outcomes in China.The presence of extensive drug resistance, low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, comorbidity, cavitary disease and previous anti-TB treatment are independent prognostic factors for poor outcome in patients with MDR-TB.

  4. Tuberculose ativa em pacientes cirúrgicos com baciloscopia negativa no pré-operatório Active tuberculosis in surgical patients with negative preoperative sputum smear results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Cataneo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a proporção de pacientes com baciloscopia negativa no pré-operatório e que apresentaram TB ativa na peça cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de TB ativa ou sequelar e operados entre os anos de 2003 e 2006 em um hospital universitário. Foram pesquisados antecedentes e aspectos clínicos relativos à doença, pesquisa de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes (BAAR, tipo de cirurgia realizada e exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 43 pacientes, com média de idade de 44 ± 19 anos, sendo 27 do sexo masculino. Apresentavam história prévia de TB com tratamento adequado 28 pacientes, e 15 não referiam antecedentes para TB. O principal motivo da procura pelo serviço foi infecção de repetição, seguida por achados em exames de imagem. Dos 43 pacientes, foi pesquisado BAAR no pré-operatório em 35: 32 apresentaram resultados negativos e 3, resultados positivos. Dos 35 pacientes pesquisados, 26 apresentavam diagnóstico histopatológico de TB ativa e 9 de TB sequelar na peça cirúrgica; os outros 8 também foram diagnosticados com TB sequelar. A proporção de TB ativa em doentes com baciloscopia negativa foi de 72% (23/32, e o de baciloscopia negativa em TB ativa foi de 88% (23/26, sendo a pesquisa de BAAR positiva somente em 11,5% (3/26. CONCLUSÕES: A baciloscopia direta tem rendimento muito baixo, e muitos pacientes mesmo já tratados podem permanecer com TB em atividade com baciloscopia negativa. A TB ativa pode ser confundida com infecções secundárias ou com câncer.OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of negative preoperative sputum smear results among patients presenting active TB, as identified through the evaluation of surgical samples. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery between 2003 and 2006 at a university hospital and receiving a histopathological diagnosis of active or latent TB. We

  5. Supporting clinical management of the difficult-to-treat TB cases: the ERS-WHO TB Consilium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia D’Ambrosio

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective of the ERS/WHO TB Consilium is to provide clinical consultation for drug-resistant TB and other difficult-to-treat TB cases, including co-infection with HIV and paediatric cases. Through technical guidance to clinicians managing complex TB cases, the main contribution and outcome of the initiative will be a public health response aimed at achieving correct treatment of affected patients and preventing further development of drug resistance. The Consilum's secondary objective is to ensure monitoring and evaluation of clinical practices on the ground (diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  6. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2009-01-07

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay), and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay) were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2%) were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8%) were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10-1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists). Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47-4.91) and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02-3.98) were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32-13.54). Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for

  7. Možnosti degradace pesticidů pomocí oxidu titaničitého

    OpenAIRE

    Píšťková, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je vybrat pesticidy, u kterých je možné provést degradaci pomocí oxidu titaničitého. První část práce se týká obecné charakteristiky pesticidů, jejich rozdělení, způsobu účinku na cílové činitele a přeměn v životním prostředí - metabolickým i nemetabolickým. Druhá část je věnována heterogenní fotokatalýze s použitím polovodiče TiO2, který se aktivuje využitím UV nebo slunečního záření. Pesticidy se touto metodou mohou přeměnit až na oxid uhličitý, vodu a anorganick...

  8. Transformace realitního odvětví v postkrizovém období

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorská, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Hlavním tématem diplomové práce je realitní odvětví, jeho základní principy fungování, struktura a faktory vlivu. Diplomová práce analyzuje současné postkrizové trendy v realitním sektoru, jejich původ a příčiny se zvláštním důrazem na specifický vývoj realitního odvětví v České republice. V rámci výzkumu míry transformace odvětví je hledán i budoucí potenciál realitního odvětví, tendence vývoje i vhodná opatření vedoucí ke zdravému rozvoji odvětví a dlouhodobé udržitelnosti jeho projektů. Da...

  9. Magnetic state controllable critical temperature in epitaxial Ho/Nb bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Gu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the magnetic properties of Ho thin films with different crystallinity (either epitaxial or non-epitaxial and investigate their proximity effects with Nb thin films. Magnetic measurements show that epitaxial Ho has large anisotropy in two different crystal directions in contrast to non-epitaxial Ho. Transport measurements show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc of Nb thin films can be significantly suppressed at zero field by epitaxial Ho compared with non-epitaxial Ho. We also demonstrate a direct control over Tc by changing the magnetic states of the epitaxial Ho layer, and attribute the strong proximity effects to exchange interaction.

  10. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  11. Měření diverzitního vysílání ve standardu DVB-T2

    OpenAIRE

    Koblischka, Vítězslav

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce porovnává standardy pro digitální pozemní televizní vysílání první generace DVB-T a druhé generace DVB-T2. Zaměřuje se zejména na vliv rušení přenosového prostředí simulovaný přenosovými kanály pro pevný, přenosný a mobilní příjem pozemního digitálního signálu. Dále práce porovnává SISO vysílání s diverzitním vysíláním MISO ve standardu DVB-T2 a vyhodnocuje vliv módu na chybovost v závislosti na zvoleném přenosovém kanále a použitých systémových parametrech. This bachelor ...

  12. Výroba součásti z plechu s využitím technologie hlubokého tažení

    OpenAIRE

    Jurča, Jan

    2009-01-01

    JURČA Jan: Výroba součásti z plechu s využitím technologie hlubokého tažení. Závěrečná práce magisterského studia, 5.roč., ak. rok 2008/2009, ústav strojírenské technologie, odbor technologie obrábění, FSI VUT Brno. Práce se zabývá návrhem výroby dílu karoserie pátých dveří u automobilu pomocí technologie hlubokého tažení. Materiál zvolený na výrobu dílu je pozinkovaný plech HX220YD EN 10292. Mechanické vlastnosti a vhodnost materiálu jsou ověřeny pomocí mechanických zkoušek. Struktura materi...

  13. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-Co-B bonded HDDR magnets with alloying additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguiberto Galego

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-Co-B bonded magnets were investigated. The magnets can be represented by the formulae, Pr14Fe63.9Co16B6M 0.1 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Zr, Nb or Mo, Pr14Fe63.8Co16B6Nb 0.1T0.1 (T/= Al, Si, P, Cu or Ga and Pr14Fe63.6Co16B6Nb 0.1R0.3 (R = Gd, Tb or Dy. The effects of additions on the magnetic properties of PrFeCoB-based magnets have been studied. Magnetically hard powders have been produced from homogenised alloys using the hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR process. The HDDR powders were isostatically pressed and bonded with cyanoacrylate adhesive to form permanent magnets.

  14. Observations of OH and HO2 radicals in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J.-B. Bauguitte

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OH and HO2 radical concentrations have been measured in the boundary layer of coastal Antarctica for a six-week period during the austral summer of 2005. The measurements were performed at the British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station (75° 35' S, 26° 19' W, using the technique of on-resonance laser-induced fluorescence to detect OH, with HO2 measured following chemical conversion through addition of NO. The mean radical levels were 3.9×105 molecule cm−3 for OH, and 0.76 ppt for HO2 (ppt denotes parts per trillion, by volume. Typical maximum (local noontime levels were 7.9×105 molecule cm−3 and 1.50 ppt for OH and HO2 respectively. The main sources of HOx were photolysis of O3 and HCHO, with potentially important but uncertain contributions from HONO and higher aldehydes. Of the measured OH sinks, reaction with CO and CH4 dominated, however comparison of the observed OH concentrations with those calculated via the steady state approximation indicated that additional co-reactants were likely to have been present. Elevated levels of NOx resulting from snowpack photochemistry contributed to HOx cycling and enhanced levels of OH, however the halogen oxides IO and BrO dominated the CH3O2 – HO2 – OH conversion in this environment, with associated ozone destruction.

  15. The electron capture in {sup 163}Ho experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, Clemens [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany); Collaboration: ECHo-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Electron Capture {sup 163}Ho experiment, ECHo, aims to investigate the electron neutrino mass in the sub-eV range by means of the analysis of the calorimetrically measured energy spectrum following the electron capture process of {sup 163}Ho. The {sup 163}Ho spectrum will be measured with array of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). With a first prototype of MMC having the {sup 163}Ho source embedded in the absorber, we performed the first high energy resolution measurement of the EC spectrum. The achieved energy resolution was Δ E{sub FWHM} = 7.6 eV and the signal rise-time was τ = 130 ns. We aim to improve the performance of the detector to reach an energy resolution Δ E{sub FWHM} < 5 eV and a signal rise-time τ < 100 ns. We present the plan for a medium scale experiment, ECHo-1k, in which about 1000 Bq of high purity {sup 163}Ho will be implanted in the optimized detectors. With about one year of measuring time and with a better knowledge of the EC spectral shape, which will be reached thanks to dedicated experiments, we will be able to achieve a sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass below 10 eV/c{sup 2}, improving the present limit of about one order of magnitude.

  16. Impact of insurgency on tuberculosis treatment uptake among TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of insurgency on tuberculosis treatment uptake among TB patients in a tertiary health institution in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. ... recorded during insurgency attacks has a potential of increasing the pool of drug resistant TB that is expensive and difficult to manage, it is also associated with high mortality.

  17. MRI findings in proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) spondylitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRI features of proven TB spondylitis in our setting is needed. Materials and methods. Histologically proven cases of TB spondylitis, with MR imaging performed at Universitas Hospital on a 1.5T scanner, were reviewed. Results. Typical findings of vertebral column involvement were seen in all patients, namely multiple ...

  18. Antiretroviral treatment uptake in patients with HIV- associated TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: M Nglazi (Mweete.Nglazi@hiv-research.org.za). Background. Delivery of integrated care for patients with HIV-associated TB is challenging. We assessed the uptake and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among eligible patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics.

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or...

  20. HIV/TB CO-INFECTION:THE CHALLENGES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... among HIV-infected patients. Common forms of extrapulmonry involvement include extrathoracic lymph node TB, pleural effusion, meningitis and abdominal TB. In advanced HIV/AIDS, lymph node involvement is characterised by poor granuloma formation with abundant AFB, in a background of neutrophils ...

  1. Rapid assessment of a National Tuberculosis (TB) Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NTP) that provides free treatment for TB patients was conducted at Koforidua in eastern Ghana. In 1997, 540 people were clinically suspected with TB and 148 tested positive by laboratory diagnosis. Likewise in the first quarter of 1998, 223 ...

  2. management of pulmonary tb in nurse-based cape town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    *1996 Census data, adjusted according to Dorrington (Table I derived from: Cape Town Metro Annual Reports on TB program — see 'Further reading'). Table II. Cape Town: Cure rates of new smear-positive TB cases (1997 - 2003). Cure rate. Success rate. Interruption rate. Failure rate. Death rate, all causes. 1997. 65. 74.

  3. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in tuberculosis (TB) control. In 2000 the National TB Programme (NTP) in Malawi assessed its usefulness. Routinely collected case-finding data from the 3 previous years (1997 ...

  4. TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, B J; Rabie, H; Cotton, M F

    2011-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has had a major impact on the age and gender profile of adult tuberculosis (TB) patients, resulting in increased exposure of HIV-infected and uninfected children at a very young age. Young and/or HIV-infected children are extremely vulnerable to develop severe forms of TB following recent exposure and infection. There is an urgent need to implement safe and pragmatic strategies to prevent TB in children, especially in TB endemic areas where they suffer the greatest burden of disease. The management of TB in HIV-infected children poses multiple challenges, but recent advances in the implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) strategies and HIV care of infants offer hope. These include HIV testing and access to PMTCT for all pregnant women, routine testing of all HIV exposed infants and rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment irrespective of clinical or immunological disease staging. In addition, careful scrutiny for TB exposure should occur at every health care visit, with provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) following each documented exposure event. Knowing the HIV infection status of child TB suspects is essential to optimize case management. Although multiple difficulties remain, recent advances demonstrate that the management of children with TB and/or HIV can be vastly improved by well focused interventions using readily available resources. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB clinical care consultations in preparation for new treatment trials among susceptible and potential multi- drug resistant TB patients in Kampala. Methods. Study setting: This was a facility-based cross section- al study nested within a study conducted to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Kampala district,.

  6. Confinement in the management of drug-resistant TB: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the context of expanding TB and HIV epidemics in South Africa, the decision to enforce non-voluntary admission for XDR TB raises many ethical and human rights dilemmas, principally because it trades off the human rights of individuals against the public good. However, the dichotomy may also involve competing rights ...

  7. Challenges of TB diagnosis and treatment in South Africa | Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that 2 billion of the world\\'s population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with a resultant 8 - 9 million cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and 1.6 million deaths annually.1 The tools used for diagnosis of TB have remained largely unchanged since the 1880s when sputum microscopy, Mtb ...

  8. When students become patients: TB disease among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about TB-IC has been shown to reduce the odds of a positive TST in medical ... social media (Facebook groups and the TB Proof Facebook page). A lucky-draw .... You have students in the hospital doing the same things that the doctors are ...

  9. 8__Aisha_Detection ofMDR-TB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Among the MDR-TB cases rifampicin resistance was associated with rpoB WT gene and rpoB MUT gene in 100% and 62% of the ... diagnosis of TB patients, and proper treatment and management of the infected cases to minimize the spread and ..... in an amino acid change and concluded that this is one of the reasons ...

  10. Prášková metalurgie a základy procesu slinování

    OpenAIRE

    Foltýnek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá problematikou práškové metalurgie a procesu slinování kovových materiálů. Práce je literární rešerší, která obsahuje základní komplexní náhled na celý průběh výroby konečného výrobku práškovou metalurgií a to od počáteční přípravy práškového materiálu až po hotový produkt. Samotný proces slinování je v práci rozdělen na dvě základní kategorie, slinování v tuhé fázi a slinování v kapalné fázi. The bachelor thesis deals with the powder metallurgy and sintering process of...

  11. The Characteristics of TB Epidemic and TB/HIV Co-Infection Epidemic: A 2007-2013 Retrospective Study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Wei-Sheng, Zhang; Ahan, Alayi; Ci, Yan; Wei-Wen, Zhang; Ming-Qin, Cao

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate. Subsequently, the geocoded address for 82 streets was transformed into a dot map used as the basis of spatial datasets. In addition, the paper also used quantile map and the spatial scan statistic in order to identify the spatial distribution and spatial clusters of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. There was a declining trend of the notification rates of TB epidemic from 2007 to 2009, as well as a rising trend from 2010 to 2013. However, the notification rates of TB/HIV co-infection epidemic showed a rising trend from 2007 to 2010, and a declining trend from 2011 to 2013. Moreover, a significant share of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic happened between the age of 15 to 45 years old, indicating an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. It is worth noting that the risk of HIV infection for male TB patients was 2.947 times (95% CI [2.178, 3.988]) than that of female patients. Han ethnicity and Uygur ethnicity in urban region accounted for a large proportion of total TB and TB/HIV co-infection cases. Most of the TB cases of minorities in Urumqi showed a statistically significant increase in risk of HIV infection than Han ethnicity in Urumqi. In addition, the spatial distribution of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic was highly skewed. Most of the local clusters were located in urban area and rural-urban continuum where showed an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. The

  12. The Characteristics of TB Epidemic and TB/HIV Co-Infection Epidemic: A 2007-2013 Retrospective Study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi.Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate. Subsequently, the geocoded address for 82 streets was transformed into a dot map used as the basis of spatial datasets. In addition, the paper also used quantile map and the spatial scan statistic in order to identify the spatial distribution and spatial clusters of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic.There was a declining trend of the notification rates of TB epidemic from 2007 to 2009, as well as a rising trend from 2010 to 2013. However, the notification rates of TB/HIV co-infection epidemic showed a rising trend from 2007 to 2010, and a declining trend from 2011 to 2013. Moreover, a significant share of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic happened between the age of 15 to 45 years old, indicating an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. It is worth noting that the risk of HIV infection for male TB patients was 2.947 times (95% CI [2.178, 3.988] than that of female patients. Han ethnicity and Uygur ethnicity in urban region accounted for a large proportion of total TB and TB/HIV co-infection cases. Most of the TB cases of minorities in Urumqi showed a statistically significant increase in risk of HIV infection than Han ethnicity in Urumqi. In addition, the spatial distribution of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic was highly skewed. Most of the local clusters were located in urban area and rural-urban continuum where showed an increase in risk of TB and TB

  13. Effectiveness and costeffectiveness of screening immigrants schemes for tuberculosis (TB) on arrival from high TB endemic countries to low TB prevalent countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanneh, A F N S; Al-Shareef, A M

    2014-01-01

    ...) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as "Port of Arrival Screening" (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants through general practices, hospitals, chest-clinics and emergency departments...

  14. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of screening immigrants schemes for tuberculosis (TB) on arrival from high TB endemic countries to low TB prevalent countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanneh, A F N S; Al-Shareef, A M

    2014-01-01

    ...) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as "Port of Arrival Screening" (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants through general practices, hospitals, chest-clinics and emergency departments...

  15. Laser induced ultrafast magnetization reversal in TbCo film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All optical switching is an emerging recording technology by using femtosecond laser to realize ultrafast magnetization manipulation for super-high magnetic storage. TbCo films possess ferrimagnetic structure and large perpendicular anisotropy and thus have the potential to be used as a AOS material. In this paper, we simulate the ultrafast magnetization reversal of TbCo films under 100fs pulse laser with a general theoretical framework and the simulated results show that TbCo films can generate magnetization reversal at the timescale of several ps. Co-sublattice completes demagnetization and subsequently triggers magnetize reversal within 1.0ps, whereas Tb- sublattice begins to magnetize reversal more than 4.0ps. Moreover, large laser power intensity easily induce the complete demagnetization and subsequent magnetization reversal regardless of the composition of TbCo films.

  16. Prevalence of latent TB infection and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Schmidt, Bey-Marrie; Abdullahi, Leila Hussein; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Luabeya, Angelique; Shenje, Justin; Scriba, Thomas; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Wood, Robin; Hatherill, Mark

    2017-03-10

    Almost a third of the world population has latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), ∼10 million of whom develop TB disease annually, despite existence of effective, but lengthy, preventive and curative drug regimens. Although adolescents appear to have a very high force of LTBI, their reported incidence of TB disease is less than that of their corresponding general population. The few available studies on adolescent TB infection and disease prevalence are not sufficient to address the apparent discordance between rates of infection and disease in high TB burden countries in Africa. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review to examine the relationship between adolescent LTBI and TB disease, benchmarked against national TB disease burden data. A comprehensive literature search will be performed for cross-sectional studies and screening data in cohort studies to determine the prevalence of LTBI and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Africa Wide, CINAHL and the Africa Index Medicus. This will be supplemented by a search of reference lists of selected articles for potentially relevant articles. We will restrict our search to articles published in the English language between 1990 and 2016 among adolescents in order to obtain estimates reflective of the mature HIV epidemic in most high TB burden countries in Africa that occurred over this critical period. Primary end points are: prevalence of LTBI and TB disease. We will use the random-effects or fixed-effects modelling for our meta-analysis based on heterogeneity estimates. No ethics approval is required given that this is a systematic review. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). CRD42015023495. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  17. Immunological mimicry of PrPC-PrPSc interactions: antibody-induced PrP misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guest, Will; Huang, Alan; Plotkin, Steven S; Cashman, Neil R

    2009-08-01

    Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to an abnormal protease-resistant conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) by template-directed conversion. The interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) is mediated by specific sites which have been mapped to six putative 'binding and conversion domains' (PrP-BCD) through peptide and antibody competition studies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the bityrosine motif Tyr-Tyr-Arg (YYR) specifically recognize PrP(Sc) and other misfolded PrP species. Here, we report that select bead-bound PrP-BCD mAbs induce exposure of bityrosine epitopes on mouse brain PrP. By competition immunoprecipitation, we show that PrP-BCD mAb-induced bityrosine exposure occurs at alpha-helices 1 and 3. However, PrP-BCD mAb-induced PrP(C) misfolding is not accompanied by beta-sheet dissociation, a key event in PrP(C) conversion to PrP(Sc), and is not associated with acquisition of protease resistance, or the capacity to recruit additional molecules of PrP. Our data suggest that mAb mimics of the physical interaction of PrP(C) with PrP(Sc) can induce unfolding of specific PrP domains, but that subsequent processes (including the energetically unfavorable beta-sheet dissociation) effect isoform conversion in prion disease.

  18. Cross section measurement of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, N.; Kadenko, I.; Gressier, V.; Koning, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    The cross section of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 reaction was measured in four mono-energetic neutron fields of energy 3.7, 4.3, 5.4, and 6.85 MeV, respectively, with the activation technique applied to metal discs of natural composition. To ensure an acceptable precision of the results all major sources of uncertainties were taken into account. Calculations of detector efficiency, incident neutron spectrum and correction factors were performed with the Monte Carlo code (MCNPX), whereas theoretical excitation functions were calculated with the TALYS-1.2 code and compared to the experimental cross section values. This paper presents both measurements and calculation leading to the cross section values.

  19. Childhood tuberculosis in household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srichand Batra

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Childhood tuberculosis (TB, although estimated to account for a major proportion of the global TB disease burden, has a lower public health priority. Reliable research and surveillance data on childhood TB is limited in most regions of the world. This study was conducted to assess the burden of childhood TB among the household contacts of new TB patients in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of children (<15 years who were household contacts of new adult TB patients presenting to Marie Adelaide Leprosy Center (MALC clinics in Karachi during the period of 2008 to 2010 was conducted. RESULTS: Of the household children contacts (n = 6613 screened, 317 were suspected and 121(1.8% diagnosed with TB. These included 89 (73.6% with pulmonary and 32 (26.4% with extra-pulmonary disease. Smear positivity rate in pulmonary cases was 32.6%. Mean age of children diagnosed with TB was 11.7 (± 2.8 years. Within the child-contacts screened, disease was found to be significantly higher among females (2.3% in comparison to males (1.2% (p-value <0.01. The commonest relationship of source cases to diagnosed children was the mother (n = 51, 42.1%. The source case was a female for 66.1% (n = 76 of the children. CONCLUSION: A smear positivity rate of 32.6% amongst pulmonary cases suggests their potential to spread disease and emphasizes a need to review the contribution of children in transmission of TB within communities. Greater vulnerability of the female child and considerable role of mother in disease transmission highlights a need to increase focus on females in TB control programs in Pakistan.

  20. Effect of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime of Tb3+-doped hydroxyapatite (Tb-HA) nanocrystallines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hairong Yin; Yanxiao Li; Jianguang Bai; Mingxin Ma; Jing Liu

    2017-01-01

    ...+ ions were observed in emission spectra of 6 mol.% Tb-HA under 378 nm excitation. The luminescent intensity of Tb-HA, which showed the fluorescence quenching, firstly enhanced and then decreased at 700 °C...

  1. Embedding of $^{163}$Ho and $^{166m}$ Ho in the energy absorbers of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    The calorimetric measurement of the $^{163}$Ho electron capture spectrum is a promising tool to investigate the electron neutrino mass. A suitable method to embed the source in the detectors is the ion-implantation. This process has already been used to embed $^{163}$Ho ions in micro-fabricated low temperature metallic magnetic prototypes. The $^{163}$Ho electron capture spectrum obtained with these first prototypes is presently the most precise with an energy resolution of $\\Delta$$\\textit{E}$$_{FWHM}$ = 7.6 eV. In order to test the performance of the new generation of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters, we propose to perform a $^{163}$Ho ion-implantation on the new chip having two arrays consisting of 32 pixels each. An activity of about 1 Bq per pixel is required. With this new detector array we will be able to achieve a better energy resolution and to acquire a higher statistics which allows for studying the $^{163}$Ho spectral shape. We propose also to perform an ion-implantation of $^{166m}$...

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tung BUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the underlying factors affecting consumer acceptance of functional foods. The contribution of this study is to better understand customer willingness to buy such products in Ho Chi Minh City by shedding light on how socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants affect consumer's choices of foods. We conducted a survey using 217 respondents from Ho Chi Minh City. Next, we develop a binary-probit model to quantify the impact of each factor on consumer acceptance. The results show that having a sick relative, beliefs in health benefits positively affect acceptance level. Other than that, old people in Ho Chi Minh City tend to reject the use of functional foods. However, when they are provided with enough knowledge, they are the most intensive buyers of these products. Implications and further researches are also discussed.

  3. Optimalizace procesorového jádra pro knihovnu OpenCV

    OpenAIRE

    Benna, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá překladem knihovny OpenCV pro procesorové jádro Codix RISC a následnou optimalizací vybraných aplikací implementovaných s použitím této knihovny. Optimalizace je založena na rozšiřitelnosti procesorového jádra, proto je v této práci teoreticky popsáno a na příkladu vysvětleno přidání vektorových instrukcí do instrukční sady procesoru. Nakonec jsou uvedeny dosažené výsledky a jejich porovnání s neoptimalizovanou verzí aplikace. This bachelor's thesis deals wi...

  4. Kalibrace rázového kladívka

    OpenAIRE

    Šafář, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Cílem této práce je praktickým měřením a následným výpočtem ověřit, zda citlivost rázového kladívka ENDEVCO 2302-5 vyhovuje hodnotě, uváděné výrobcem, případně jak se skutečná hodnota od této hodnoty liší. Dále tato práce pojednává o možném ovlivnění experimentu různými negativními vlivy a skutečnostmi. Kalibrace kladívka byla prováděna pomocí tělesa známé hmotnosti na námi sestrojeném kalibračním pracovišti. The aim of this thesis is verification of sensitivity of an impact hammer ENDEVCO...

  5. Návrh a konstrukce audio výkonového zesilovače

    OpenAIRE

    Růžička, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá třídami zesilovačů, zapojením koncových stupňů, ochrannými obvody zesilovačů a konkrétním návrhem zesilovače ve třídě AB, včetně návrhu předzesilovače a koncového zesilovače. Vlastnosti navrţených obvodů byly ověřeny simulacemi v programu PSpice. Návrhy jednotlivých modulů jsou doplněny deskami plošných spojů. Práce obsahuje výsledky měření a fotografie zesilovače. This bachelor’s thesis is concerned with amplifier classes, integration end-level, protective ...

  6. Studie elektromechanického generátoru pro získávaní energie z okolí

    OpenAIRE

    Adámek, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá souhrnem informací současného stavu o získávání elektrické energie z mechanické energie. Dále porovnává jednotlivé konstrukční a fyzikální principy elektro-mechanické přeměny. Následně prezentuje návrh generátoru, který by mohl majitel nosit stále sebou, aniž by ho obtěžoval (např. generátor elektrické energie v botě) a napájel energeticky nenáročná zařízení. This work deals with complex information about state-of-the-art harvesting electric energy from mechanical ener...

  7. Trifluralin: photolysis under sunlight conditions and reaction with HO* radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Person, A; Mellouki, A; Muñoz, A; Borras, E; Martin-Reviejo, M; Wirtz, K

    2007-02-01

    The gas phase atmospheric degradation of trifluralin (a widely used herbicide) has been investigated at the EUPHORE facility. Its photolysis has been studied under sunlight conditions and its reaction rate constant with HO() radicals was measured using the relative rate method. Using 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene as reference compound, the rate constant of HO() reaction with trifluralin was obtained to be [formula: see text] The mean photolysis rate measured under solar radiation was [formula: see text] . The photolysis of trifluralin was found to generate organic aerosols with a yield of (20 +/-10)%. The data obtained enabled us to discuss the atmospheric fate of trifluralin in the gas phase.

  8. Návrh řízení a regulace tepelného systému u RD s využitím systémové instalace LOXONE

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá rozdělením systémové instalace a udává přehled o elektrických spotřebičích a systému vytápění. Podrobněji se zabývá řešením systémové instalace Loxone. Stěžejní částí je projektová dokumentace elektroinstalace, naprogramování ovládání domu a regulace solárního termického systému pro ohřev vody a řízení systému vytápění pro novostavbu rodinného domu. Součástí je jednoduché ekonomické hodnocení navrženého solárního systému. The diploma thesis deals with the division...

  9. Préface

    OpenAIRE

    Cazanove, Olivier de; Scheid, John

    2015-01-01

    Le 8 Mars 1890, au Trinity College de Cambridge, un ethnologue de trente-six ans, James George Frazer, achève et signe la préface de l’œuvre en deux volumes à laquelle il travaille depuis le printemps précédent. Cette première version du Rameau d’Or sera, comme on sait, suivie de plusieurs autres, qui porteront cette « étude séparée » sur « la règle, jusqu’ici inexpliquée, de la prêtrisd’Aricie » aux dimensions monumentales de la troisième édition (1911-1915) en douze volumes. Il nous a sembl...

  10. {sup 166}Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - biocompatibility study of {sup 166}Ho-chitosan in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee Jong Seok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It is been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthrits and other inflammatory arthropathies. We developed the {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex for possible use as a radiation synovectomy agent. Holmium is the more practical isotope based on its higher radioactivity and logner half-life. And isotope based on its higher radioactivity and logner half-life. And chitosan is ideal and suitable particles based on its soluble and biodegradable characteristics. So we investigated the biocompatibility of the {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex to evaluated the suitability as a radiation synovectomy agent. In this study, we performed in vivo and in vitro stability test and biodistribution test. Our results indicate that {sup 166}Ho-chitosan may be an effective radiopharmaceutical for radiation synovectomy. (author). 30 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Řešení výstavby digitalizačního centra na příkladu Knihovny Akademie věd ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Ryšánková, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá popisem vzniku, vývoje a běžného provozu Digitalizačního centra Knihovny AV ČR, v.v.i. V úvodní kapitole je zdůvodněn výběr tématu a struktura celé práce. V druhé kapitole je nastíněna situace v oboru digitalizace v Evropské unii, její projekty pro záchranu a digitalizaci kulturního dědictví a situace v digitalizaci v České republice. V třetí kapitole jsou popsány předpoklady pro vznik digitalizačního centra v Akademii věd, řešené projekty a spolupráce v digitalizaci...

  12. [Tuberculosis annual report 2008--series 2. TB in foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Statistics on tuberculosis (TB) in foreigners have been obtained since 1998 in Japan. The number of foreign TB patients increased from 739 in 1998 to 945 in 2008. In contrast, the number of Japanese TB patients decreased during this period and hence the proportion of foreign TB patients increased from 2.1% in 1998 to 3.9% in 2008, excluding those of unknown nationality. Especially, the proportion of those aged 20-29 years increased greatly from 9.1% in 1998 to 26.3% in 2008. Although the number of nationalities was 47, the majority of patients were from China (27.7%), the Philippines (24.8%) and Korea (10.2%) in 2008. The number of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years was 468, accounting for 49.5% of all foreign TB patients in 2008. Seventy-seven percent of foreign patients aged 20-29 years had developed TB within 5 years of entering Japan. The equivalent proportion was 49% of those aged 30-39 years and 32% of those aged 40-49 years. Regarding occupation, 39.7% of foreign patients aged 20-29 years were full-time workers, 28.6% were students and 13.7% were part-time workers.

  13. TB tracer teams in South Africa: knowledge, practices and challenges of tracing TB patients to improve adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Podewils, Laura Jean; Bronner, Liza Ellen; Bantubani, Nonkqubela; Walt, Martie van der; Peters, Annatjie; Mametja, David

    2013-09-04

    In 2008-2009 the South African National Tuberculosis (TB) Program (NTP) implemented a national pilot project, the TB Tracer Project, aiming to decrease default rates and improve patient outcomes. The current study aimed to inform the NTP by describing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TB program personnel involved with tracing activities. A self-administered written questionnaire was sent to TB staff, managers and tracer team leaders to assess basic TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results and the chi-squared statistic was used to compare responses of staff at facilities that participated in the TB Tracer Project (tracer) and those that followed standard NTP care (non-tracer). Of 560 total questionnaires distributed, 270 were completed and returned (response rate 48%). Total TB knowledge ranged from 70.8-86.3% correct across all response groups. However, just over half (range 50-59.3%) of each respondent group was able to correctly identify the four components of a DOT encounter. A patient no longer feeling sick was cited by 72.1% of respondents as the reason patients fail to adhere to treatment. Tracer teams were viewed as an effective means to get patients to return to treatment by 96.3% of health facility level respondents. Tracer team leaders reported concerns including lack of logistical support (41.7%), insufficient physical safety precautions (41.7%), and inadequate protection from contracting TB (39.1%). Upon patients returning to treatment at the clinic, facilities included in the TB Tracer Project were significantly more likely to discuss alternate DOTS arrangements than non-tracer facilities (79.2 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.03). This study identified key components of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB patient tracing activities in South Africa. Educating patients on the essential need to complete treatment irrespective of clinical symptoms may help improve treatment adherence. Future

  14. PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Goyal, Garima; Bi, Changhao; Poust, Sean; Sharma, Monica; Mutalik, Vivek; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-08-15

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  15. Algoritmy bezsnímačového řízení synchronního motoru s permanentními magnety

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Libor

    2013-01-01

    V rámci disertační práce byly řešeny algoritmy bezsnímačového řízení pro synchronní motory s permanentními magnety. Pro odhad rychlosti a polohy rotoru v oblasti vyšších otáček byl testován algoritmus založený na struktuře MRAS. Dále byl ověřen klasický přístup, využívající algoritmu rozšířené Kalmanovy filtrace pro odhad polohy a otáček za předpokladu konstantních otáček rotoru, jakož i modifikace modelu uvažující proměnné otáčky. Tyto algoritmy nejsou schopny pracovat v pásmu nízkých otáček...

  16. On the Impact of HO2-H2O Complexes in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Possible Sink for HO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas Archibald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the formation of HO2-H2O adducts following reaction between H2O and HO2 and subsequent reaction of this adduct on HOx, H2O2 and O3 as a function of relative humidity in the marine boundary layer has been investigated using a zero-dimensional box model. The results of simulations with different product yields for the reaction of HO2-H2O with HO2 were compared with base case data derived from current recommendations for tropospheric modelling. It is suggested that inclusion of reactions of the HO2-H2O adduct may provide a significant sink for HO2 which has so far not been considered in models of tropospheric chemistry and depending on reaction products may have a significant impact on H2O2 and O3.

  17. The prosecution of Taiwan sexuality researcher and activist Josephine Ho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2004-05-01

    In April 2003, following a newspaper report of a hyperlink to a website on bestiality on the Sexuality Databank website of the Center for the Study of Sexualities, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, 14 conservative NGOs filed charges against the Center's founder, Josephine Ho, for "propagating obscenities that corrupt traditional values." Ho has been researching sexuality and supporting freedom for marginalised sexual minorities for ten years. In a public statement in response to the charges, she said that the work of scholarly research must not be dictated by prejudice and that differences in sexual values should not be arbitrated by law and should be open for public discussion. As the legal process began in January 2004, Ho's supporters in Taiwan have called for the preservation of the Taiwan Constitutional decree on integrity and autonomy of academic research and freedom of expression on the internet, for the University to resist calls to dismiss Ho from her post, and for respect for freedom of speech and expression and the right to create spaces to educate people about non-normative sexualities.

  18. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  19. The electron capture in {sup 163}Ho experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, Clemens [Kirchhoff-Institute of Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany); Collaboration: ECHo-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Electron Capture {sup 163}Ho experiment, ECHo, has the goal to probe the electron neutrino mass on a sub-eV level via the analysis of the calorimetrically measured electron capture spectrum (EC) of {sup 163}Ho. For this metallic magnetic calorimeters will be used. The performance achieved by a first prototype of MMC with embedded {sup 163}Ho already shows that the desired values of an energy resolution of ΔE{sub FWHM} < 3 eV and a signal risetime of τ < 1 μs for ECHo can be reached. Recently the energy available for the decay Q{sub EC} = 2833(30{sub stat})(15{sub sys}) eV/c{sup 2} has been precisely determined by ECHo. Given this Q{sub EC}-value we expect a sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass below 10 eV in the first phase of the ECHo experiment, ECHo-1k. In this phase a high purity {sup 163}Ho source with a total activity of 1 kBq will be measured by about 100 detectors operated in a dedicated cryogenic platform in a reduced background environment. The results from this experiment will define parameters to scale the experiment to the next phase of ECHo-1M. There the total activity of the source will be 1 MBq and it will be measured by using 10{sup 5} detectors. We present the current status of the ECHo experiment.

  20. Experimental dosimetry of Ho-166 bioglass seed polymer-protected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to develop experimental dosimetry of Ho-166 bio glass seed for brachytherapy studies using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 radio chromium films. The methodology consists of placement of radio chromium films in a compressed breast phantom, along with bio glass polymer-protected seeds of [Si: Ca: Ho] and [Si: Ca: Ho: Zr]. The bio glass seeds were encapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol, before being activated and used in the study. The bio glass seeds were introduced into the breast phantom, along with radio chromium films for a period of 2 hours. After the exposure time, radio chromium films were removed from phantom and digitized for analysis in ImageDIG 2.0 program, which quantifies the intensity of RGB (Red, Green, Blue). The dose calculation was evaluated by Monte Carlo technique. Experimental and theoretical data were used to calibrate the dose distribution. The results were plotted on graphs and dose iso curves were obtained. As conclusion it is possible to perform dosimetry in Ho-166 seed brachytherapy using radio chromium films, limited to a short exposure time and small activity. (author)

  1. Temperature Variation of the Magnetic Structure of HoSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Kjems, Jørgen; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used to show that the magnetic moment vector in the antiferromagnet HoSb changes direction as a function of temperature below TN=5.7K. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a recent theoretical prediction by Jensen et al. (1980) which ascribe...

  2. Living with ghosts in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN),Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Arroja, F. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China); Celoria, M. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN),Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Matarrese, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università degli Studi di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN),Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova,Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Pilo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università di L’Aquila,I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,I-67010 Assergi (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We consider the branch of the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz model which exhibits ghost instabilities in the low energy limit. It turns out that, due to the Lorentz violating structure of the model and to the presence of a finite strong coupling scale, the vacuum decay rate into photons is tiny in a wide range of phenomenologically acceptable parameters. The strong coupling scale, understood as a cutoff on ghosts’ spatial momenta, can be raised up to Λ∼10 TeV. At lower momenta, the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity is equivalent to General Relativity supplemented by a fluid with a small positive sound speed squared (10{sup −42}≲) c{sub s}{sup 2}≲10{sup −20}, that could be a promising candidate for the Dark Matter. Despite these advantages, the unavoidable presence of the strong coupling obscures the implementation of the original Hořava’s proposal on quantum gravity. Apart from the Hořava-Lifshitz model, conclusions of the present work hold also for the mimetic matter scenario, where the analogue of the projectability condition is achieved by a non-invertible conformal transformation of the metric.

  3. HO2 and HO2* Radical Chemistry during PROPHET-AMOS: Measurement and Model Comparison HO2 and HO2* Radical Chemistry during PROPHET-AMOS: Measurement and Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Stevens, P. S.; Sigler, P. S. R.

    2016-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals, both the hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In addition to controlling lifetimes of many trace gases important to issues of global climate change, reactions of these radicals can also lead to the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Previous measurements of these radicals in forest environments characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx have shown serious discrepancies with modeled concentrations. These results bring into question our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene and other biogenic VOCs under low NOxconditions. In the summer of 2016, HO2 and HO2* (S HO2 + αRO2) radicals were measured using the Laser-Induced Fluorescence Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique as part of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHtochemistry, Emissions, and Transport- Atmospheric Measurements of Oxidants in Summer (PROPHET-AMOS). This campaign took place in a forested area in northern Michigan characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx. Ambient measurements from this campaign will be compared to previous measurements at this site and to modeled predictions.

  4. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of screening immigrants schemes for tuberculosis (TB) on arrival from high TB endemic countries to low TB prevalent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, A F N S; Al-Shareef, A M

    2014-09-01

    Immigrants to developed countries are a major source of TB. Therefore amongst strategies adopted for TB control in developed countries include; 1) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as "Port of Arrival Screening" (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants through general practices, hospitals, chest-clinics and emergency departments. Evidence of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these strategies is not consistent. Evaluate efficiency of active PoA TB screening for immigrants from TB endemic-regions compared with Passive Screening of immigrant-populations from TB endemic-regions. Major electronic-databases and reference lists of relevant studies were searched. Experts of immigrants' TB screening were contacted for additional studies published or unpublished. Systematic search of major databases identified only retrospective cohort-studies. Their qualities were assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodological checklist for comparative cohort-studies. Systematic electronic searches identified 1443 citations. Of these 74 studies were retrieved for evaluation against the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria (see study inclusion/exclusion criteria). Four studies met the inclusion criteria (figure 2) which were low in the evidence hierarchy of primary effectiveness studies and had heterogeneities between them. Thus descriptive data-synthesis was performed. Proportionately PoA screening had the lowest percentage of receipt of tuberculin skin test (TST) and the highest percentage of non-attendance for TST reading (table 2). Active PoA screening reduced infectiousness by 34% compared to 30% by passive screening and new entrants screened at PoA were 80% less likely to be hospitalised Odds ratio (OR) = 0.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 - 0.2). [Table: see text]. One cost effectiveness analysis was found that compared the costs of; active PoA screening, general practice screening and

  5. Tuberculosis preventive therapy: an underutilised strategy to reduce individual risk of TB and contribute to TB control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchyard, Gavin J; Chaisson, Richard E; Maartens, Gary; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2014-04-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem, and South Africa (SA) has one of the world's worst TB epidemics. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 1999 that one-third of the world's population was latently infected with TB. In SA up to 88% of HIV-uninfected young adults (31 - 35 years) are latently infected with TB. In the most recent meta-analysis, 6 - 12 months of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was associated with a lower incidence of active TB than placebo (relative risk (RR) 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 - 0.85), with the greatest benefit among individuals with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.57). A clinical trial of IPT given with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 12 months reduced TB incidence by 37% compared with ART alone (hazard ratio (HR) 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 - 0.94). The effect of IPT is limited in high-burden countries. IPT for 36 months v. 6 months reduced TB incidence among HIV-positive, TST-positive participants by 74% (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.80). A study of more than 24 000 goldminers confirmed that IPT is safe, with only 0.5% experiencing adverse events. A meta-analysis of studies of IPT since 1951 did not show an increased risk of developing resistance. Alternative TB preventive therapy regimens, including high-dose isoniazid and rifapentine given weekly for 3 months, have been shown to have similar efficacy to IPT. Mathematical modelling suggests that scaling up continuous IPT targeted to HIV-positive persons, when used in combination with other treatment and prevention strategies, may substantially improve TB control.

  6. TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed.

  7. TumorHoPe: a database of tumor homing peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Kapoor

    Full Text Available Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe.TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of identification, peptide receptor, etc. In addition, we have derived various types of information from these peptide sequences that include secondary/tertiary structure, amino acid composition, and physicochemical properties of peptides. Peptides in this database have been found to target different types of tumors that include breast, lung, prostate, melanoma, colon, etc. These peptides have some common motifs including RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg motifs, which specifically recognize tumor angiogenic markers. TumorHoPe has been integrated with many web-based tools like simple/complex search, database browsing and peptide mapping. These tools allow a user to search tumor homing peptides based on their amino acid composition, charge, polarity, hydrophobicity, etc.TumorHoPe is a unique database of its kind, which provides comprehensive information about experimentally validated tumor homing peptides and their target cells. This database will be very useful in

  8. TC4 AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TC4 AMPR Brightness Temperature (TB) dataset consists of brightness temperature data from July 19, 2007 through August 8, 2007. The Tropical Composition, Cloud...

  9. Current developments and future perspectives for TB diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    TB persists as a global epidemic with high morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. It is the only infectious disease ever declared as a global emergency by the WHO. The HIV pandemic and the emergence of drug resistance represent two additional obstacles to better control of the disease. Important progress has been made in the last decade in TB diagnostics. Major needs still exist, such as the availability of a real point-of-care test, a better diagnosis of TB in immune-compromised populations and in children, and the possibility to predict progression to disease in latently infected people. This review will summarize the current developments in TB diagnostics and the perspectives for future developments in the field.

  10. What is Multidrug and Extensively Drug Resistant TB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidemic Larger than Estimated, American Lung Association Continues Tradition of Funding Research to Investigate TB, Save Lives ... Member Center | RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for ...

  11. Neutron scattering study on R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} (R=Ho,Er,Tm) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Fei

    2010-12-14

    Previous studies on the family of inter-metallic rare-earth compounds R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} revealed multifaceted magnetic properties, for instance, spin-glass like behavior. Experimental observations include: Signs of a crystallographic superstructure, complicated magnetic structures both in zero field and in applied magnetic fields as well as a generic phase in applied fields for compounds in the series with the heavy rare-earths R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm. This thesis expands the studies on the magnetic properties of R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} employing mainly neutron scattering on single crystals with the focus on the compounds with R=Ho, Er and Tm. A detailed analysis of the crystallographic superstructure using modulation wave approach and group theory is presented. The resulting structure implies the existence of two different rare-earth sites with reduced symmetry and an arrangement of the different sites according to sequences as determined by the superstructure. It is shown that the reduced symmetry of the rare-earth sites is explicitly observed in the energy spectra of inelastic neutron scattering. The results on the magnetic structures and excitations are shown and discussed in the framework of the superstructure model. Specifically the generic phase in applied fields is interpreted as a direct consequence of the crystallographic superstructure. It is rather unusual that a crystallographic superstructure is playing such a decisive, and through the field dependence also tunable role in determining the magnetic properties as observed in R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3}. The mediating interactions between the crystallographic part and the magnetic part of the system are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Periodic active case finding for TB: when to look?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Dodd

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors influencing the performance and cost-efficacy of periodic rounds of active case finding (ACF for TB.A mathematical model of TB dynamics and periodic ACF (PACF in the HIV era, simplified by assuming constant prevalence of latent TB infection, is analyzed for features that control intervention outcome, measured as cases averted and cases found. Explanatory variables include baseline TB incidence, interval between PACF rounds, and different routine and PACF case-detection rates among HIV-infected and uninfected TB cases.PACF can be cost-saving over a 10 year time frame if the cost-per-round is lower than a threshold proportional to initial incidence and cost-per-case-treated. More cases are averted at higher baseline incidence rates, when more potent PACF strategies are used, intervals between PACF rounds are shorter, and when the ratio of HIV-negative to positive TB cases detected is higher. More costly approaches, e.g. radiographic screening, can be as cost-effective as less costly alternatives if PACF case-detection is higher and/or implementation less frequent.Periodic ACF can both improve control and save medium-term health care costs in high TB burden settings. Greater costs of highly effective PACF at frequent (e.g. yearly intervals may be offset by higher numbers of cases averted in populations with high baseline TB incidence, higher prevalence of HIV-uninfected cases, higher costs per-case-treated, and more effective routine case-detection. Less intensive approaches may still be cost-neutral or cost-saving in populations lacking one or more of these key determinants.

  13. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  14. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwanzia Nguta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time medicinal plant species used by Ghanaian communities to treat TB. These results are a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant-based antimycobacterial drugs.

  15. [Tuberculosis annual report 2009--series 7. Condition of TB (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We report on the TB surveillance data for 2009 in Japan regarding HIV infection, diabetes, and drug susceptibility test results, which were added to the central TB surveillance database from 2007. In the present TB surveillance system, we cannot obtain reliable data about whether or not HIV tests were done in each case. Thus, we report only the number of TB patients diagnosed as having HIV infection. The number of newly notified TB cases reported as having HIV from 2007-2009 is 176. Of those, 155 (88.1%) were male and 21 (11.9%) were female, and 39 (22.2%) were foreigners. The frequency of TB-associated diabetes in newly notified TB cases in 2009 was 12.6% (3,043/24,170) in total, 14.5% in males, and 9.5% in females. Drug susceptibility test results were obtained in 6,920 culture-positive pulmonary TB cases through the surveillance system in 2009. This figure accounted for 63.5% of all culture-positive pulmonary cases. In primary cases, the frequencies of MDR, any INH resistance, and any RFP resistance were 0.5%, 4.4%, and 0.8%, respectively, and in re-treatment cases, they were 3.6%, 11.6%, and 5.0%, respectively. In primary pulmonary cases theses drug resistance rates have been stable over this 3-year period (2007-2009), but in pulmonary cases undergoing re-treatment, the frequency has decreased (for example, the MDR rate in re-treatment pulmonary cases was 7.2% in 2007, 5.1% in 2008, and 3.6% in 2009). Of all MDR pulmonary cases, 17.9% (10/56) were foreigners in 2009.

  16. How do food bloggers and PR practitioners in the hospitality sector view their relationships? A UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yeomans, L; Baxter, H.

    2014-01-01

    Bloggers are increasingly viewed by public relations practitioners as important influencers within the online media environment, yet research that explores relationships between bloggers and PR practitioners, particularly in the UK, is relatively limited. This paper reports on findings from a small-scale, in depth qualitative study of food blogger-practitioner relationships within the hospitality sector in the UK. The study explored why bloggers write about their restaurant experiences and ho...

  17. Management of MDR-TB in HIV co-infected patients in eastern europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, A M W; Schultze, A; Miller, R F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretrovir...

  18. The progression of tb diagnosis in the hiv era: from microscopes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multicentre TB diagnostic trials and a part-time lecturer in the Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town. ... continued clinical skill to enhance and individualise TB management. From microscopy to molecules for the frontline diagnosis of TB. TB, with its wide range of ..... diagnostic yield, e.g. lymph node aspirate.

  19. Multidrug-resistant TB in Zambia: review of national data from 2000 to 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia.

  20. Assessing spatial heterogeneity of MDR-TB in a high burden country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Helen E.; Plesca, Valeriu; Ciobanu, Anisoara; Crudu, Valeriu; Galusca, Irina; Soltan, Viorel; Serbulenco, Aliona; Zignol, Matteo; Dadu, Andrei; Dara, Masoud; Cohen, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major concern in countries of the former Soviet Union. The reported risk of resistance among TB cases in the Republic of Moldova is among the highest in the world. We aimed to produce high-resolution spatial maps of MDR-TB risk and burden in this setting. We analyzed national TB surveillance data collected between 2007 and 2010 in Moldova. High drug susceptibility testing coverage and detailed location data permitted identification of sub-regional areas of higher MDR-TB risk. We investigated whether the distribution of cases with MDR-TB risk factors could explain this observed spatial variation in MDR-TB. 3,447 MDR-TB cases were notified during this period; 24% of new and 62% of previously treated patients had MDR-TB. Nationally, the estimated annual MDR-TB incidence was 54 cases/100,000 persons and >1,000 cases/100,000 persons within penitentiaries. We identified substantial geographic variation in MDR-TB burden and hotspots of MDR-TB. Locations with a higher percentage of previously incarcerated TB cases were at greater risk of being MDR-TB hotspots. Spatial analyses revealed striking geographic heterogeneity of MDR-TB. Methods to identify locations of high MDR-TB risk and burden should allow for better resource allocation and more appropriate targeting of studies to understand local mechanisms driving resistance. PMID:23100496

  1. Nationwide HIV-, MDR-TB survey in Japan and collaborative study in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hattori

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Very low numbers of TB or HIV patients have been observed in Japan. An increasing number of foreign-born MDR-TB patients in the country was found. To combat against these global epidemics, an international collaboration against HIV-TB/MDR-TB is needed.

  2. Semi-Analytic Solution of HIV and TB Co-Infection Model | Bolarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the numerical simulation shows that at high HIV and TB treatment rates; TB, AIDS and HIV/TB co-infection will be eradicated completely in the population. Also, early detection of HIV and TB cases and provision of early treatments can reduce the rate of infection, reduce the rate of progression of HIV infected ...

  3. Neutron Scattering from fcc Pr and Pr3Tl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1972-01-01

    Elastic-neutron-scattering measurements on the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3 Tl are reported. Both exhibit magnetic phase transitions, possibly to a simple ferromagnetic state at 20 and 11.6 °K, respectively. The transitions appear to be of second order although that in fcc Pr ...... is clearly anomalous. Additional information on the inelastic scattering studies of the Γ1-Γ4 excitons in these systems is presented. dhcp Pr is also briefly discussed....

  4. Poverty and the economic effects of TB in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S; Sleigh, A C; Wang, G J; Liu, X L

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the economic effects of illness on individual tuberculosis (TB) cases in rural China and to use a case-control study to show a strong TB-poverty link. In 2002-2004 we studied 160 new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and 320 age- and sex-matched controls living in neighbouring houses in four rural counties of Henan Province. Cases and controls were interviewed 1-3 months after patients were diagnosed. We used matched multivariate logistic regression to compare cases with controls for poverty status using household income, household assets and relative wealth within the village. We conducted follow-up interviews of patients 10-12 months later to assess economic effects by collecting data on treatment costs, income losses, coping strategies and treatment completion. Poverty is strongly associated with TB incidence even after controlling for smoking and other risk factors. Excluding income losses, direct out-of-pocket treatment costs (medical and non-medical) accounted for 55.5% of average annual household income, and most TB cases fell into heavy debt. The DOTS cure rate was 91%. When DOTS was incomplete or not done, mortality was high. Poverty is both a cause and a devastating outcome of TB. Ongoing poverty reduction schemes in China must also include reducing TB.

  5. Měření dechové frekvence z EKG signálu s ohledem na vyšetření aktivit autonomního nervového systému Measurement of breathing frequency from ECG in the examination of autonomous nervous system activities: Suggested methods and their verification

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Krejčí; Simona Gwozdziewiczová; Milan Elfmark; Šárka Theuerová; Pavel Stejskal; Petr Kolisko; Petr Štěpaník; Jiří Salinger

    2005-01-01

    Z celé řady metod měření dechové frekvence se autoři zaměřili na méně používanou metodu diagnostiky dechové frekvence, vycházející z hodnocení změn parametrů EKG signálu, které jsou způsobeny změnami objemu hrudníku v průběhu expiria a inspiria. Hlavním důvodem volby této metody byla skutečnost, že pro diagnostiku aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS) je monitor...

  6. Hodnocení vodního stresu porostu pomocí metod dálkového průzkumu povrchu

    OpenAIRE

    ERBEN, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis deals with evaluation of crop water stress by means of remote sensing. The first part of the research is focused on the assessment of water stress of sunflowers in a laboratory environment using spectral analysis of the reflected radiation and thermography. Leaf of suflowers temperature were evaluated and using them, the index of water stress CWSI were calculated. Reflection of leaf was evaluated in the wavelengths 350 -2500 nm. From these wavelengths spectral indexes were ...

  7. Význam pozitivního pracovního prostředí v práci sestry

    OpenAIRE

    PULZOVÁ, Alena

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of a positive working environment in the work of nurses. At present, this issue is widely discussed, since there are large changes in the health sector. The problem concerns the lack of nurses, which is caused by nurses leaving to foreign countries to seek better working conditions. A lack of nurses is also caused by increasing demands on nurses, which is due to a reduced quality of health and nursing care. Furthermore, nurses are very badly paid. Another re...

  8. Komfort rodičky v průběhu spontánního a indukovaného porodu

    OpenAIRE

    BERANOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with comfort of a mother-to-be during spontaneous and induced labour. Spontaneous labour has assumed on the basis of natural mechanisms of a woman´s organism and was going on without obstetrician´s interventions. In the opposite we understand with the induced labour an artificial evocation of the womb activity in order to end pregnancy with a vaginal delivery. Comfort is closely connected with the delivery; it is defined as situation of physical, psychic and social well-...

  9. Ochranná známka v kontextu evropského a amerického práva

    OpenAIRE

    Fischerová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with trademark protection in the system of Community and US law by using the scientific comparative method. The Community trademark is used as the comparatum and the federal trademark as the comparandum. The main goal of the thesis is the comparison of the EU and US perspective on the trademark as one of the subjects of industrial rights. To reach the set goal, the key aspects of the trademark protection are fully discussed in compared legal systems. The first part of...

  10. Temperature evolution of magnetic structure of HoFeO3 by single crystal neutron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chatterji

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the temperature evolution of the magnetic structures of HoFeO3 by single crystal neutron diffraction. The three different magnetic structures werevfound as a function of temperature for HoFeO3. In all three phases the fundamental coupling between the Fe sub-lattices remains the same and only their orientation and the degree of canting away from the ideal axial direction varies. The magnetic polarisation of the Ho sub-lattices in these two higher temperature regions, in which the major components of the Fe moment lie along x and y, is very small. The canting of the moments from the axial directions is attributed to the antisymmetric interactions allowed by the crystal symmetry. In the low temperature phase two further structural transitions are apparent in which the spontaneous magnetisation changes sign with respect to the underlying antiferromagnetic configuration. In this temperature range the antisymmetric exchange energy varies rapidly as the the Ho sub-lattices begin to order. So long as the ordered Ho moments are small the antisymmetric exchange is due only to Fe-Fe interactions, but as the degree of Ho order increases the Fe-Ho interactions take over whilst at the lowest temperatures, when the Ho moments approach saturation the Ho-Ho interactions dominate. The reversals of the spontaneous magnetisation found in this study suggest that in HoFeO3 the sums of the Fe-Fe and Ho-Ho antisymmetric interactions have the same sign as one another, but that of the Ho-Fe terms is opposite.

  11. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  12. PR, Lobbyism and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida; Pedersen, Leif Hemming

    2017-01-01

    The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector. In this st......The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector....... In this study, we have constructed a data set of all members of the Danish Parliament who have left politics from 1981 to 2015 (n= 613) and identified the number and type of job positions they have taken up subsequently (n= 1094). We find that especially from the 1990s we can register revolving door activity...

  13. The experience of implementing a 'TB village' for a pastoralist population in Cherrati, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler-Smith, K; Khogali, M; Keiluhu, K; Jemmy, J-P; Ayada, L; Weyeyso, T; Issa, A M; De Maio, G; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R

    2011-10-01

    In Cherrati District, Somali Regional State (SRS), Ethiopia, despite a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), TB control activities are virtually absent. The majority of the population is pastoralist with a mobile lifestyle. TB care and treatment were offered using a 'TB village' approach that included traditional style residential care, community empowerment and awareness raising, provision of essential social amenities and essential food and non-food items. To describe 1) key aspects of the implementation of the TB village approach, 2) TB treatment outcomes and 3) the lessons learnt during implementation. Descriptive study. A total of 297 patients entered the TB village between September 2006 and October 2008; 271 (91%) patients were treated successfully, nine (3%) defaulted and 13 (4%) died. For pastoralist populations, a TB village approach may be effective for improving access to TB care, ensuring proper adherence to treatment and achieving good overall TB outcomes. The successes and challenges of this approach are discussed.

  14. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay), and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay) were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2%) were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8%) were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists). Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91) and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98) were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54). Extra-pulmonary TB was

  15. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra

  16. Návrh prototypového dílu s využitím technologií reverzního inženýrství a rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luňák, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na postup výroby součásti blinkru pro motocykl s využitím technologií reverzního inženýrství a Rapid Prototyping. Práce obsahuje stručný popis dostupných metod těchto technologií. V následujících částech se práce zabývá návrhem součásti a přípravou pro odlévání. Výroba součásti se provádí metodou FDM. Následně probíhá kontrola součásti 3D skenerem ATOS. Součást se porovná s původním návrhem součásti. Pro součást se vyrobí silikonová forma. Forma slouží pro odléván...

  17. Treating the invisible: Gaps and opportunities for enhanced TB control along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Thi, Sein Sein; Swe, Lei Lei; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2017-01-13

    In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance. In this study we conducted 13 interviews with key informants working in public health or TB treatment provision to elicit information on TB treatment availability and TB surveillance practices. In addition we organized 15 focus group discussions with refugee and migrant TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB patients and non-patients to discuss treatment access. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis and created treatment availability maps with Google maps. The study identified surveillance, treatment, and funding gaps. Migrant TB cases are underreported in the provincial statistics due to jurisdictional interpretations and resource barriers. Our results suggest that TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment options are limited for migrants and a heavy reliance on donor funding may lead to potential funding gaps for migrant TB services. We identified several opportunities that positively contribute to TB control in Tak province: improved diagnostics, comprehensive care, and collaboration through data sharing, planning, and patient referrals. The various organizations providing TB treatment to migrant and refugee populations along the border and the Tak Provincial Public Health Office are highly collaborative which offers a strong foundation for future TB control initiatives. Our findings suggest the need to enhance the surveillance system to include all migrant TB patients who seek treatment in Tak province and

  18. Bayesian adaptive randomization in a clinical trial to identify new regimens for MDR-TB: the endTB trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellamare, M; Milstein, M; Ventz, S; Baudin, E; Trippa, L; Mitnick, C D

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based optimization of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), including integration of new drugs, is urgent. Such optimization would benefit from efficient trial designs requiring fewer patients. Implementation of such innovative designs could accelerate improvements in and access to MDR-TB treatment. To describe the application, advantages, and challenges of Bayesian adaptive randomization in a Phase III non-inferiority trial of MDR-TB treatment. endTB is the first Phase III non-inferiority trial of MDR-TB treatment to use Bayesian adaptive randomization. We present a simulation study with assumptions for treatment response at 8, 39, and 73 weeks after randomization, on which sample size calculations are based. We show differences between Bayesian adaptive randomization and balanced randomization designs in sample size and number of patients exposed to ineffective regimens. With 750 participants, 27% fewer than required by balanced randomization, the study had 80% power to detect up to two (of five) novel treatment regimens that are non-inferior (margin 12%) to the control (70% estimated efficacy) at 73 weeks post randomization. Comparing Bayesian adaptive randomization to balanced randomization, up to 25% more participants would receive non-inferior regimens. Bayesian adaptive randomization may expose fewer participants to ineffective treatments and enhance the efficiency of MDR-TB treatment trials.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF MDR - TB/TB ON SOCIAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ECONOMIC WELL BEING OF PATIENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with social stigma attached to it. Various problems which are social and economic in nature are faced by TB patient. Therefore , it is essential to explore the overall effect of MDR - TB/TB on health and patients perception of Well - being. AIMS : To Document the effect of MDR - TB/TB on social , functional and economic well - being of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A Cross - sectional study , Conveniently Recruited 68 MDR - TB Patients and 136 non - MDR - TB Patients (from Rural as well as urban Area of Surat District diagnosed by CBNAAT were interviewed for investigating the effect of Tuberculosis. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A pre - tested standardized semi - structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected about socio - demographic profile of patients and interpreted in table. Data about effect of MDR - TB/TB was collected on Likert Scale and Frequency was calculated and Data wa s plotted on multiple bar charts. RESULTS : As compared to healthy status in the past , 93% MDR - TB and 82% TB patients have decreased ability to do work , about half of MDR - TB Patients and TB Patients have detiorated relations with family members , 67% of stud y participants have developed disharmonious relations with neighbor’s , 55% of Study participants have decreased income , 88% of study participants have decreased performance in day to day activities and 78% of study participants have faced discordial and di srespectful behavior from co - workers. CONCLUSION : Working ability more detiorated in MDR - TB patients while rest of the effect on social , functional and economic well - being is same in both TB and Multi Drug Resistant TB patients. This study emphasizes very clearly that social stigma still persist in community about Tuberculosis which needs to be eliminated in community by behavior change communication by health workers at all levels of health care.

  20. Distribuce syntetických vonných látek do vodního ekosystému

    OpenAIRE

    Freithová, Štěpánka

    2016-01-01

    Syntetické vonné látky jsou součástí mnoha výrobků spotřebního charakteru. Z těchto výrobků se látky dostávají do odpadních vod a při nedokonalém vyčištění dále i do vodního recipientu. Musk sloučeniny se nacházejí ve všech složkách životního prostředí. Cílem této bakalářské práce bylo stanovení vybraných zástupců lineárních musk sloučenin, konkrétně citronellolu, isobornyl acetátu, allyl cyklohexyl propionát a hexylcinnamic aldehydu. Tyto analyty byly stanovovány v odpadních vodách z čistírn...

  1. Ho:YLF & Ho:LuLF slab amplifier system delivering 200 mJ, 2 µm single-frequency pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-frequency single-pass amplifier based on Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF in a scalable slab architecture delivering up to 210 mJ at 2064 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was end-pumped by a 1890 nm Tm:YLF slab laser and was seeded with a 69 mJ single...

  2. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosick, Peter A; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W; Moore, Kyle H; Stec, David E

    2017-03-11

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males.

  3. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  4. Magnetic phase diagram of Ho/Er alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, R.A.; Simpson, J.A.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.

    1998-01-01

    are found, arising from the competition between the exchange and anisotropic crystal-field interactions, the latter of which are of opposite sign for Ho and Er. The magnetic phase diagram has five distinct phases with long-range magnetic order: basal-plane helical, tilted helical, cycloidal, c......-axis longitudinally modulated, and conical. The cycloid and tilted helix have both incommensurate and commensurate q = 1/4c* forms, and all of the thin films have a conical structure at low temperatures, even though corresponding films of pure Ho and Er do not exhibit this phase. There is a pentacritical point......, and probably a disordered phase which is completely surrounded in the phase diagram by magnetic phases with long-range order. A Landau theory is developed to describe these results....

  5. Identical gamma-vibrational bands in {sup 165}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Janzen, V.P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The structure of {sup 165}Ho at moderate spins has been investigated by means of Coulomb excitation. Two {gamma}-vibrational bands (K{sup {pi}} = 11/2{sup {minus}} and K{sup {pi}} = 3/2{sup {minus}}) are observed, with very nearly identical in-band {gamma}-ray energies. Gamma-ray branching ratios are analyzed to extract information on Coriolis mixing, and the role of the K quantum number in identical bands is discussed.

  6. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  7. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Haber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Les articles réunis dans ce dossier de la revue Astérion portent sur la première génération de la Théorie critique (dont Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse et Erich Fromm constituent sans doute les figures principales. Ils se concentrent plus précisément sur les contributions philosophiques qui marquèrent la période ouverte par l’accession de Horkheimer à la direction de l’Institut de recherches sociales (1931 et close par la publication en 1944 de Dialektik...

  8. Prólogo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pin, Víctor

    1999-01-01

    Prólogo del número dedicado a Descartes Múltiples instituciones culturales y académicas del mundo entero (la UNESCO en primer lugar) celebraron en 1996 un singular acontecimiento: el nacimiento en 1596 del universalmente conocido como matemático y filósofo René Descartes. Escribo intencionalmente "universalmente conocido", en lugar de umversalmente reconocido por la sencilla razón de que no está claro que Descartes goce de lo que se entiendo por universal reconocimiento. Una simple encuest...

  9. Prólogo

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    2003-01-01

    Prólogo al libro: Cabezas Pérez, Francisco (2003): Las fuentes y el agua en Aguilar de la Frontera. (S. XVI al XIX). Aguilar, Excma. Diputación Provincial de Córdoba e Ilustrísimo Ayuntamiento de Aguilar, págs. 11-16 El contenido del libro que se prologa se desarrolla mediante un amplio recorrido histórico por las fuentes y manantiales históricos de Aguilar de la Frontera (Córdoba), con referencia asimismo a los problemas de abastecimiento que, en cada momento, se fueron produciendo. Ad...

  10. Separation and implantation of the rare isotope {sup 163}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieck, Tom; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Dorrer, Holger; Kormannshaus, Stefan; Schmidt, Sebastian; Schneider, Fabian; Wendt, Klaus [JGU Mainz (Germany); Duellmann, Christoph [JGU Mainz (Germany); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Gamer, Lisa; Gastaldo, Loredana [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ECHo-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ECHo collaboration aims at measuring the electron neutrino mass by recording the spectrum following electron capture of {sup 163}Ho. To reach a sub-eV sensitivity, a large number of individual microcalorimeters is needed, into which the isotope must be implanted in a well-controlled manner. The necessary amount of {sup 163}Ho is produced by neutron irradiation of enriched {sup 162}Er in the ILL high flux reactor. This introduces significant contaminations of other radioisotopes, which have to be quantitatively removed both, by chemical and mass spectrometric separation. The application of resonance ionization at the RISIKO mass separator guarantees the required isotope selectivity for purification and suitable energy for ion implantation. The efficiency and stability of the laser ion source was improved by Finite-Element Analysis of the thermal processes. For optimum implantation into the detector pixels (170 x 170 μm{sup 2}) with minimum losses a small ion beam spot at the implantation site is needed. For this purpose, post focusing ion optics were installed. Simulations were performed in order to optimize the homogeneous distribution of the implanted ions. The necessity to alternate implantation phases with deposition of a thin metallic layer for {sup 163}Ho activities larger than 10 Bq is being discussed.

  11. Spectroscopic investigations on Ho 3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakaram, Y. C.; Srihari, N. V.; Naidu, D. Thirupathi; Vijayakumar, A.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2008-06-01

    Optical absorption and emission properties of Ho3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses of the type 69.5NH4H2PO4 · xLi2CO3 · (30 - x)K2CO3 and 69.5NH4H2PO4 · xNa2CO3 · (30 - x)K2CO3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) were studied. Racah (E1, E2, E3), spin-orbit (ξ4f) and configuration interaction (α, β) parameters are calculated and these values are compared for different x values in the glass matrix. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) are calculated for all the Ho3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses. From these parameters and from the spectral profiles of the hypersensitive transition structural studies have obtained. Radiative transition probabilities (A), radiative lifetimes (τ), branching ratios (β) and integrated absorption cross-sections (Σ) are obtained from the intensity parameters. Emission cross-sections (σ) are calculated for the two transitions, 5F4, 5S2 → 5I8 and 5F5 → 5I8 of Ho3+ in these two mixed alkali phosphate glasses. Optical band gaps (Eopt) for both direct and indirect transitions are reported.

  12. Decentralisation and TB control in Nepal: understanding the views of TB control staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, James Nicholas; Collins, Charles D; Baral, Sushil C; Omar, Maye A; Pande, Shanta B

    2005-08-01

    Experience shows that planners need to consider the effect of the process of decentralisation on national health programmes. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between decentralisation and a national disease control programme by seeking to understand the views and attitudes of staff working in a national TB control programme on the process of change and their involvement in that change. The study to which this paper refers was performed in Nepal, where, in common with several low- and middle-income countries, a Local Self Governance Act has been passed and decentralisation is in the process of being introduced in the health sector. The aim of the study was to develop a process of initial dialogue among programme staff with a view to exemplifying those enabling and disabling factors which could influence the process and content of health systems development and its impact on health and health care. The study used individual interviews and group discussions to increase our understanding of the experience of different stakeholders at both national and district levels. Important problems identified include: confused lines of authority, difficulties of integrated supervision, poor career paths and promotion possibilities, unclear performance management, lack of priority to be given to health and TB control, lack of local accountability, lack of capacity and the risk to the drug supply. The study highlights the need to (a) develop consensus techniques, achieve a balanced appreciation and include all stakeholders in the process of change and (b) define central and local responsibilities, limiting political bias, maintaining quality control, organising different lines of authority, maintaining priorities and programme integration.

  13. FAKTOR DETERMINAN BUDAYA KESEHATAN DALAM PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: TB DO TS Strategy policy as the government's efforts in order to decrease TB patients is facilitated through the state budget cost resources, budget, global foreign aid fund, and the WHO. This qualitative study aimed to determinan poeing on cultural efforts in the prevention of pulmonary TB disease. Method of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews in patients with pulmonary TB and families, health care workers in the provinces, and districts. FGD on public figures, cross-sector and NGOs. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The results showed cultural determinants of health factors on the prevalence of pulmonary TB disease is a public perception of ilness Roe Ndao district, that of pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, infectious disease and "Hosse". Norma betel nut as a treat for guests, custom home Sel, Sei traditional beliefs of newborns who smoked for 40 days with ground floor houses almost 50% of the population. Norms, stigma society in urban areas Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because Tamakan, due to use-for others who are not happy, as evidenced by the habits, behavior of people carelessly throw spit spot. In western Sumatra, the city of Pariaman norms, fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of pain as a disease of old Cough, cough 40 days, dry cough, and asthma. Confidence/belief communities in the western province of NTB Lombok district who think if drinking water used Kiai progenitor Ishmael receive healing. Supervisory personnel selection as taking medication/PMO less in accordance with existing social structures in local communities, tribes sasak NTB, Rote tribe. Recommendalion: is required from a variety of participatory other NGOs, in an integrated cross-sector to perform the preventive, promotive control TB disease of the housing ministry, social

  14. TMC207 becomes bedaquiline, a new anti-TB drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

    2013-09-01

    TB still represents a serious public health problem. The latest reports estimate an incidence of 8.7 million cases in 2011 and 1.4 million deaths. Drug resistance contributed an estimated 630,000 cases of multidrug-resistant TB, making control of the disease harder. Recent reports show cases of TB that were almost resistant to all available antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-TB drugs with the potential of reducing the current length of treatment. Bedaquiline, formerly TMC207, is a new diarylquinoline antibiotic with specific activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and several nontuberculous mycobacteria. It acts by inhibiting ATP synthase, interfering with the energy generation needed by the bacterial cell. Based on clinical evaluations for safety, tolerability and efficacy, bedaquiline has recently received accelerated approval for the treatment of pulmonary multidrug-resistant TB in adults. This article will review the main aspects related to the chemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability of bedaquiline.

  15. EXAFS study of Tb-doped silica xerogels

    CERN Document Server

    Rocca, F; Kuzmin, A; Dalmaso, A; Pasqualini, D

    1999-01-01

    The modification of the local environment of Tb/sup 3+/ ions in optically active silica xerogels as a function of concentration (from 400 ppm to 40000 ppm) and thermal treatment (which induces densification) was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Tb L/sub 3/ edge. Quantitative analysis of the first Tb-O coordination shell was performed using the experimental signal from Tb/sup 3+/ ions in water solution as a reference. The radial distribution functions (RDF) of the non-thermally treated (NT) gels are characterized by a nearly Gaussian shape, as for the reference sample. On the contrary, the RDF of the densified gels (T) are asymmetric having the main peak at a shorter distance, with a reduced coordination number (N=4-5) and a secondary peak, with N=1-2, at a longer distance. The local environment of Tb in the low concentration sample (400 ppm) is different from that at higher concentrations, both in the NT- and in the T-gels. (15 refs).

  16. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Lala

    Full Text Available Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB, is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa.Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts.Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3% self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9% of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1% caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0% caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341, the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART.In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  17. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Sanjay G; Little, Kristen M; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Moore, David P; Msandiwa, Reginah; van der Watt, Martin; Chaisson, Richard E; Martinson, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB), is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa. Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years) with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts. Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3%) self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9%) of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1%) caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0%) caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341), the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART. In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  18. Piloting Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF Testing on Various Specimens under Programmatic Conditions for Diagnosis of TB & DR-TB in Paediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Khaparde, Sunil D; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Khanna, Ashwani; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, Mahmud; Sethi, Gulshan Rai; Umadevi, K R; Keshav Chander, G; Saha, Brojakishore; Shah, Amar; Parmar, Malik; Ghediya, Mayank; Jaju, Jyoti; Boehme, Catharina; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan

    2015-01-01

    India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incidence. While the exact burden of childhood TB is not known, TB remains one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in India. Bacteriological confirmation of TB in children is challenging due to difficulty in obtaining quality specimens, in the absence of which diagnosis is largely based on clinical judgement. While testing multiple specimens can potentially contribute to higher proportion of laboratory confirmed paediatric TB cases, lack of high sensitivity tests adds to the diagnostic challenge. We describe here our experiences in piloting upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing, for diagnosis of TB in paediatric population in respiratory and extra pulmonary specimens, as recently recommended by WHO. Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all paediatric (0-14 years) presumptive TB cases (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) seeking care at public and private health facilities in the project areas covering 4 cities of India. Under this pilot project, 8,370 paediatric presumptive TB & presumptive DR-TB cases were tested between April and-November 2014. Overall, 9,149 specimens were tested, of which 4,445 (48.6%) were non-sputum specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF gave 9,083 (99.2%, CI 99.0-99.4) valid results. Of the 8,143 presumptive TB cases enrolled, 517 (6.3%, CI 5.8-6.9) were bacteriologically confirmed. TB detection rates were two fold higher with Xpert MTB/RIF as compared to smear microscopy. Further, a total of 60 rifampicin resistant TB cases were detected, of which 38 were detected among 512 presumptive TB cases while 22 were detected amongst 227 presumptive DR-TB cases tested under the project. Xpert MTB/RIF with advantages of quick turnaround testing-time, high proportion of interpretable results and feasibility of rapid rollout, substantially improved the diagnosis of bacteriologically confirmed TB in children, while simultaneously detecting rifampicin resistance.

  19. Ab initio thermal rate calculations of HO + HO = O(3P) + H2O reaction and isotopologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F

    2013-04-04

    The forward and reverse reactions, HO + HO ⇌ O((3)P) + H2O, which play roles in both combustion and laboratory studies, were theoretically characterized with a master equation approach to compute thermal reaction rate constants at both the low and high pressure limits. Our ab initio k(T) results for the title reaction and two isotopic variants agree very well with experiments (within 15%) over a wide temperature range. The calculated reaction rate shows a distinctly non-Arrhenius behavior and a strong curvature consistent with the experiment. This characteristic behavior is due to effects of positive barrier height and quantum mechanical tunneling. Tunneling is very important and contributes more than 70% of total reaction rate at room temperature. A prereactive complex is also important in the overall reaction scheme.

  20. Risk factors for TB and HIV coinfection in Scotland, 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, E; Smith-Palmer, A; Wallace, L A; Blatchford, O

    2015-03-19

    The number of patients with tuberculosis (TB) increased steadily in Scotland between 2005 and 2010. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a contributory factor to increases in TB in a number of comparable industrialised countries. This study investigated the extent of, and risk factors for, TB and HIV coinfection in Scotland from 2001 to 2010. Patients with TB in the national TB database were linked to those in the national HIV database using probabilistic data linkage. Patient records were anonymised to maintain confidentiality. From 2001 to 2010, 106/4, 097 (2.6%, 95% CI: 2.1 to 3.1) TB patients matched with HIV patients, equating to a 10-year incidence of 2.1 cases per million population. Patients with both TB and HIV were more often born outside the United Kingdom,were of black African ethnicity, had refugee status and had extra-thoracic lymph node involvement or cryptic/disseminated TB disease. Individuals with TB and HIV coinfection were younger and symptomatic for a shorter time before their diagnosis of TB, compared with TB patients without HIV. TB and HIV coinfection was relatively uncommon in Scotland in the study period. Clinicians should recognise the potential for HIV infection among TB patients and the importance of offering an HIV test to all TB patients.

  1. Interferon gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in HIV-infected individuals in a low TB burden country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheallaigh, Clíona Ní

    2013-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.

  2. Implications of iodine chemistry for daytime HO2 levels at Rishiri Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Yokouchi, Yoko; Matsumoto, Jun; Nakamura, Kenji; Kato, Shungo; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Furutani, Hiroshi; Toyota, Kenjiro; Akimoto, Hajime

    2002-04-01

    The observed midday maximum in the mixing ratio of HO2 at Rishiri Island in June 2000 was ~10 pptv, but photochemical box model simulations overpredicted HO2 at this location by an average of 70%. This overestimation was significant only when the mixing ratio of NO was lower than 300 pptv, and was coincident with overprediction of the NO/NO2 ratio. We detected several organoiodines, presumably emitted from seaweeds, and propose the presence of the IO radical. IO could reduce HO2 mixing ratios via the formation of HOI that may subsequently be scavenged by aerosols or lost by photolysis and may also convert NO to NO2 directly. Model calculations with known iodine chemistry could reproduce the observed HO2 with 12-25 pptv of IO. Although iodine chemistry is unlikely to explain the entire discrepancy in HO2, several pptv of IO could significantly reduce HO2 mixing ratios and NO/NO2 ratios.

  3. Kinetics of the reaction of iodine atoms with HO sub 2 radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, M.E.; Cox, R.A. (Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire (England)); Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Poulet, G. (CNRS, Orleans (France))

    1990-04-05

    The rate coefficient (k{sub 7}) for the reaction of iodine atoms with HO{sub 2} radicals, I + HO{sub 2} {yields} HI + O{sub 2}, has been measured directly with use of the discharge-flow/EPR technique, and the molecular-modulation/UV-absorption spectroscopy technique. Discharge-flow measurements were made under pseudo-first-order conditions with iodine atoms in large excess over HO{sub 2}. Molecular-modulation measurements were made with iodine atoms in excess over HO{sub 2}, but the I + HO{sub 2} reaction was occurring in competition with the self-reaction of HO{sub 2}. The potential significance of this reaction as a sink for iodine in the troposphere and other aspects of tropospheric iodine chemistry are considered with a simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  4. KEMANDIRIAN MASYARAKAT DALAM PERILAKU PENCEGAHAN PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Prevention of tuberculosis, particularly pulmonary tuberculosis in lndonesia was started in 1969, but the number of pulmonary TB patients is increasing. Methods:Ethnographic qualitative study aims to assess the independence of the community effort in preventing pulmonary TB disease transmission. Methods: of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews with informants pulmonary TB patients and families. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The analysis of four independent indicators of the knowledge society is stilllow considering that most of the informants consider pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, and infectious diseases as the people in the district Hossa Rote Ndao. Illness perceptions of people in the city of Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because "ismeken", due to use-for others who are not happy ln the town of West Lombok fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of illness as a disease of old cough, dry cough of 40 days, and asthma. Confidence/trust society still depends on health workers, yet there are cadres who provide direct counseling on prevention of transmission. Capability community is lacking, people still believe in the health care workers to provide counseling. Selection of the PMO staff (Supervisors taking medication were not appropriate to the social structures that exist in society Lobar districts with 'sasak' social structure, then the host teacher, 'Kyai' can be as social support surrounding communities. 'Kyai' expected to affect the mindset of people, motivate people to air PHBs. Rote Ndao district as a social support from church leaders as well as the city of Pariaman, a descendant of the king, can motivate people. Participatory community by providing prevention counseling in a variety of pulmonary TB disease or group of containers carried on a

  5. Analýza životního stylu vysokoškolských studentů - time management

    OpenAIRE

    Andrlová, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na analýzu životního stylu studentů vysokých škol z hlediska Time Managementu. Hodnotí časové pojetí dne studentů a jeho využití z pohledu pohybu, jak studenti tráví volný čas, kolik hodin denně stráví ve škole nebo práci, jaké dopravní prostředky užívají a zda je užívají apod. The bechelor’s thesis focuses on the analysis of the lifestyle of university students in time management. It considers spending of time of the day and spending of the free time. I will a...

  6. Přenos nízkofrekvenčního signálu po síti Ethernet v LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Khait, Ranny

    2009-01-01

    Hlavním tématem předkládané práce je přenos nízkofrekvenčního signálu po síti Ethernet v LabVIEW. Práce obsahuje teoretický úvod, ve kterém jsou popsány typy přenosových protokolů, metody komprese, Ethernet, popis programu LabVIEW a jeho použití a biosignály. Praktická část je zaměřená na realizaci odesílání a přijmu dat po síti Ethernet. The main topic of presented thesis is LabVIEW based audio signal transmision via Ethernet. This thesis contains theoretical part, in which are described ...

  7. Effects of Tb3+ concentration on the La2Sr3(BO3)4: X% Tb3+ polycrystalline nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotswa, D. V.; Madihlaba, R. M.; Koao, L. F.; Onani, M. O.; Dejene, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    A new green phosphor, La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ was fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as a fuel and ammonium nitrate as an oxidizer. The phosphor was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL. The results exhibit that La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ phosphor has the strongest excitation at 209 nm with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm, and can emit bright green light at 545 nm under 209 nm excitation. The optimum concentration for Tb3+ in La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ is 0.033 mol%. The prominent green luminescence was due to the 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ ion. Herein, the green phosphors are promising good candidates employed in tri-color lamps.

  8. Difference in TB10.4 T-cell epitope recognition following immunization with recombinant TB10.4, BCG or infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Grandal, Michael V; Poulsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    vaccine Ag, TB10.4, in a recombinant form, or when expressed by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), or by the current anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. We showed that BCG and M.tb induced a similar CD4(+) T-cell specific TB10.4 epitope-pattern, which differed completely from...... that induced by recombinant TB10.4. This difference was not due to post-translational modifications of TB10.4 or because TB10.4 is secreted from BCG and M.tb as a complex with Rv0287. In addition, BCG and TB10.4/CAF01 were both taken up by DC and macrophages in vivo, and in vitro uptake experiments revealed...... that both TB10.4 and BCG were transported to Lamp(+)-compartments. BCG and TB10.4 however, were directed to different types of Lamp(+)-compartments in the same APC, which may lead to different epitope recognition patterns. In conclusion, we show that different vectors can induce completely different...

  9. Insights into the photochemical transformation pathways of triclosan and 2′-HO-BDE-28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xie, Qing; Chen, Jingwen, E-mail: jwchen@dlut.edu.cn; Li, Yingjie; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Direct photolysis of anionic HO-PXDEs occurs through excited singlet states. • Dioxin products are formed from excited singlet states of HO-PXDEs. • Self-sensitized photolysis is involved in the phototransformation of HO-PXDEs. • {sup 1} O{sub 2} and ·OH can be generated in energy or electron transfer reactions between excited HO-PXDEs and dissolved O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Hydroxylated polyhalogenated diphenyl ethers (HO-PXDEs) have been recognized as a group of widely detected emerging contaminants in natural waters. Photolysis was proved to be an important transformation pathway for these compounds and their direct phototransformation results in highly toxic dioxins. However, the roles of excited states and reactive oxygen species in the photochemical transformation of these compounds are still unclear. In this study, 2′-HO-2,4,4′-trichlorodiphenyl ether (triclosan) and 2′-HO-2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (2′-HO-BDE-28) were selected as model compounds to investigate their phototransformation processes. Results showed that the direct photolysis reactions of both triclosan and 2′-HO-BDE-28 occurred via their respective excited singlet states, leading to the generation of dioxins. In addition, the energy and electron transfer reactions between excited states of model compounds and molecular O{sub 2} can lead to the generation of {sup 1}O{sub 2} and ·OH, which results in self-sensitized photolysis. We also found that both the k, Φ dioxin yield for anionic triclosan were higher than those of anionic 2′-HO-BDE-28. This study revealed the roles of the excited states in direct photolysis and the generation pathway of reactive oxygen species in self-sensitized photolysis of HO-PXDEs, which is important for understanding the phototransformation mechanisms of HO-PXDEs.

  10. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M.; Sarzyński, J.; Głuchowska, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K ...

  11. Energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu3+ through Tb3+ chain in YPO4:Ce3+/Tb3+/Eu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuguo; Lv, Xianshun; Wei, Lei; Xu, Jianhua; Yu, Huajian; Hu, Yanyan; Zhang, Huadi; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xuping; Li, Qinggang

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized a series of YPO4:Ce3+/Tb3+/Eu3+ phosphors by a solid state reaction. All of phosphors have a single phase, showing that the doping ions could not change the phase of YPO4 host. The emission intensities of Ce3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions clearly depend on the Tb3+ concentrations in YPO4:Ce3+/Tb3+/Eu3+ phosphors. The emission intensity of Ce3+ emission decreases gradually but the emission intensity of Eu3+ emission increases continuously with the increasing Tb3+ concentration because of the energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu3+ through Tb3+. On the basis of the luminescent properties of YPO4:Ce3+/Tb3+/Eu3+ phosphors, the possible energy transfer mechanism was speculated.

  12. Understanding and managing bTB risk: perspectives from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J; Good, Margaret

    2015-04-17

    There is substantial variation in herd risk for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Ireland, with most herds playing little to no role in the ongoing endemic. In infected areas, bTB persistence (affecting one or a group of herds) is a key feature of the infection. In this paper, we present our current understanding and management of bTB risk in Ireland, based on a detailed review of research and policy. There is close interaction between science and policy in Ireland, seeking both to understand and effectively manage bTB risk. Detailed research on bTB persistence is presented, including current understanding of the relative importance of different infection sources, which can include residual infection in cattle and/or re-infection, either from local sources or following cattle introduction. In recent years, there have been three primary drivers for policy change, including scientific advances, ongoing improvements to programme supports, and ongoing programme review. In this review, three key future programme challenges are identified. Although good progress is being made, eradication has not yet been achieved. Firstly, a key question concerns the additional effort that will be required, to move towards final eradication. Secondly, a percentage of non-infected animals are falsely positive to current testing methods. This is an ongoing challenge, given the imperfect specificity of test methods but will become more so, as the positive predictive value falls with reducing bTB prevalence. Finally, there is a need to re-engage with the farming community, so that they play a much greater role in programme ownership. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamic Study of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Ye, R.; Chen, Y. Y.; Su, X. H.; Wang, S. L.; Fu, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of rare earth elements on Sn-Bi-based alloy, and to study the phase equilibrium of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems by means of establishing the thermodynamic database. Combined with the thermodynamic parameters of relevant binary systems, the thermodynamic database of the Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems has been developed to present the significant information for the design of low-temperature lead-free solder alloys.

  14. Protective Effects of Inducible HO-1 on Oxygen Toxicity in Rat Brain Endothelial Microvessel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Yoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReperfusion in ischemia is believed to generate cytotoxic oxidative stress, which mediates reperfusion injury. These stress conditions can initiate lipid peroxidation and damage to proteins, as well as promote DNA strand breaks. As biliverdin and bilirubin produced by heme oxygenase isoform 1 (HO-1 have antioxidant properties, the production of both antioxidants by HO-1 may help increase the resistance of the ischemic brain to oxidative stress. In the present study, the survival effect of HO-1 was confirmed using hemin.MethodsTo confirm the roles of HO-1, carbon monoxide, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate further in the antioxidant effect of HO-1 and bilirubin, cells were treated with cycloheximide, desferoxamine, and zinc deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis glycol, respectively.ResultsHO-1 itself acted as an antioxidant. Furthermore, iron, rather than carbon monoxide, was involved in the HO-1-mediated survival effect. HO-1 activity was also important in providing bilirubin as an antioxidant.ConclusionOur results suggested that HO-1 helped to increase the resistance of the ischemic brain to oxidative stress.

  15. [hHO-1 structure prediction and its mutant construct, expression, purification and activity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhen Wei; Cui, Wen Jun; Zhou, Wen Pu; Zhang, Xue Hong; Shen, Qing Xiang; Li, Yun Zhu; Yu, Shan Chang

    2004-10-01

    Human Heme Oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism reaction of heme, which directly regulates the concentration of bilirubin in human body. The mutant structure was simulated by Swiss-pdbviewer procedure, which showed that the structure of active pocket was changed distinctly after Ala25 substituted for His25 in active domain, but the mutated enzyme still binded with heme. On the basis of the results, the expression vectors, pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M), were constructed, induced by IPTG and expressed in E. coli DH5alpha strain. The expression products were purified with 30%-60% saturation (NH4)2SO4 and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. The concentration of hHO-1 in 30%-60% saturation (NH4)2SO4 components and in fractions through twice column chromatography was 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher than that in initial product, respectively. The activity of wild hHO-1 (whHO-1) and mutant hHO-1 (deltahHO-1) showed that the activity of deltahHO-1 was reduced 91.21% compared with that of whHO-1. The study shows that His25 is of importance for the mechanism of hHO-1, and provides the possibility for effectively regulating the activity to exert biological function.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE THERMOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HoCdx INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillejo, Yolanda; Oduber, Fernanda; Barrado, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The electrode reaction of Ho(III)/Ho couple in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, at Cd liquid electrodes (i.e a Cd pool and a Cd coated W electrodes) was investigated in the temperature range of 673-823K. In both electrodes, the electrochemical reduction of Ho(III) was observed at less cathodic potential values than at the surface of an inert W electrode, due to the decrease of Ho activity in the metal phase. Junta de Castilla y León Proyecto VA171U14

  17. Development of 166Ho-zoledronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsaeed Nikzad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of 166Ho-zoledronate have been presented as a possible bone marrow ablative agent. Ho-166 chloride was produced by thermal neutron irradiation of natural 165Ho(NO33 samples. 166Ho-zoledronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of zoledronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/ml in 1 M NaOH to appropriate amount of the 166HoCl3 solution.  Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The biodistribution of 166Ho-zoledronate and 166HoCl3 in wild-type mice was checked up to 72 h. 166Ho-zoledronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. The major accumulation of radiolabelled complex was observed in the bone tissue. These findings suggest 166Ho-zoledronatehas can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  18. Near infrared emission of TbAG:Ce{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+} phosphor for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Shri. Mathuradas Mohota College of Science, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India); Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, Nagpur University campus, Nagpur-440010 (India); Pathak, A. A., E-mail: aapathak@yahoo.com [National power Training Institute, South ambazari road, Nagpur-440022 (India); Joshi, C. P., E-mail: charusheela-4253@yahoo.co.in [Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Katol road, Gittikhadan Nagpur-440012 (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Nagpur University campus, Nagpur-440010 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Luminescent materials doped with rare earth ions are used for many devices such as optical amplifiers in telecommunication, phosphors for white light emitting diodes (LEDs), displays, and so on. Recently, they also have attracted a great interest for photovoltaic applications to improve solar cell efficiency by modifying solar spectrum. Crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells most effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap. The mis-match between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral response of solar cells is one of the main reasons to limit the cell efficiency. The efficiency limit of the c-Si has been estimated to be 29% by Shockley and Queisser. However, this limit is estimated to be improved up to 38.4% by modifying the solar spectrum by a quantum cutting (down converting) phosphor which converts one photon of high energy into two photons of lower energy. The phenomenon such as the quantum cutting or the down conversion of rare earth ions have been investigated since Dexter reported the possibility of a luminescent quantum yield greater than unity in 1957. In the past, the quantum cutting from a vacuum ultraviolet photon to visible photons for Pr{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+},Gd{sup 3+}–Eu{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+} had been studied. Recently, a new quantum cutting phenomenon from visible photon shorter than 500 nm to two infrared photons for Tb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+}, and Tm{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} has been reported. The Yb{sup 3+} ion is suitable as an acceptor and emitter because luminescent quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} is close to 100% and the energy of the only excited level of Yb{sup 3+} (1.2 eV) is roughly in accordance with the band gap of Si (1.1 eV). In addition, the Ce{sup 3+}-doped Tb{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (TbAG), used as a phosphor for white LED, has broad absorption bands in the range of 300–500 nm due to strong ligand field and high luminescent quantum efficiency. Therefore, the

  19. Anerkennung der Religionsfreiheit: ein Prüfstein der kirchlichen Menschenrechtsrezeption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Heimbach-Steins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uznání náboženské svobody – prubířský kámen recepce lidských práv v církvi Uznáním moderních lidských práv v encyklice Pacem in terris byla připravena cesta pro pozitivní recepci náboženské svobody na druhém vatikánském koncilu (deklarace Dignitatis humanae. Příspěvek se zamýšlí nad tím, co nového znamenalo pro život církve přijetí občanského práva na náboženskou svobodu. V souvislosti s tím je reflektován vztah mezi pravdou a svobodou, respektive mezi „právem na pravdu“ a „právem na svobodu“. Na tomto pozadí je poukázano na důsledky, které pro církev z uznání náboženské svobody plynou. Zvláštní pozornost je přitom věnována souvisejícímu tématu svobody svědomí.

  20. Vybudování efektivního Competitive intelligence systému v společnosti XXX

    OpenAIRE

    Michalko, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce vychází z předpokladu potřeby konkurenčního zpravodajství jako systému sběru, analýzy a vyhodnocovaní informací o konkurenci, sledující získání konkurenční výhody. Práce si klade za cíl zanalyzovat stávající proces získávání informací o konkurenci a jejich využití při strategickém rozhodování v společnosti XXX. Po obecných teoretických předpokladech jsou popsané různé metody a přístupy k řešení konkurenčního zpravodajství. Metody jsou zhodnoceny a následně jsou vybrané ne...

  1. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ménard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La piraterie est un phénomène fort complexe qui remonte à la nuit des temps. Déjà 5 000 ans avant J.-C., des exactions sont mentionnées en mer Egée et Méditerranée. Jules César en sera même l’une des célèbres victimes, mais saura prendre, au moment voulu, sa revanche. Tout au long des siècles, le processus restera récurrent (Atlantique, Antilles…, trouvant son apogée dans le premier quart du XIXe siècle avec l’intervention directe de l’U.S. Navy sous la férule de Thomas Jefferson, Président ...

  2. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Petite

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux auteurs, depuis une quinzaine d’années, n’ont cessé de diagnostiquer une inflation patrimoniale (Choay, 1996 ; Rautenberg, 2003 ; Heinich, 2009 qu’ils ont attribué à l’élargissement considérable tant des types d’objets susceptibles d’être patrimonialisés que du champ temporel que ceux-ci pouvaient représenter. Ce numéro spécial de la Revue de géographie alpine s’intéresse à cet élargissement typologique et chronologique du patrimoine. Plus précisément, les quatre contributions s’...

  3. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le changement climatique revêt en ce début de millénaire les habits de « mal du siècle » prédisant, à l’horizon 2100, un véritable cataclysme pour les sociétés humaines et leur organisation. Par delà le catastrophisme, les bouleversements induits par l’évolution du climat sur nos pratiques de gestion des territoires sont une réalité. Plus que de céder aux sirènes d’un discours alarmiste, il devient indispensable de se doter d’une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes de ces changements et d’e...

  4. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arondel Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En juillet 2001, s’est tenu à Strasbourg un colloque de recherche sur les lipides des plantes. Nous présentons ici des articles correspondant à cinq des conférences qui y ont été données. Un point déterminant la qualité des huiles de plantes réside dans leur degré d’insaturation. Cette caractéristique est déterminée par des enzymes appelées désaturases et les gènes codant pour ces enzymes peuvent être utilisés comme marqueurs moléculaires….

  5. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh N’Guirane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le 18 Mars 2011, une journée d’étude sur le thème : « Le parti Libéral au Royaume-Uni hier et aujourd’hui / The Liberal Party in Britain 1906-­1924 Past and Present » était organisée conjointement par le MIMMOC (Université de Poitiers et le Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Américaines de Tours (GRAAT. Nous en proposons ci-dessous un compte rendu qui ne restitue qu’une partie seulement des nombreuses et riches échanges de cette journée.À partir d’une brève présentation des intervenants, Susan Find...

  6. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Duvillard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le moment est opportun, la question foncière est de retour, légitimée par presque une décennie (2001-2008 d’augmentation continue des prix de l’immobilier. De « sommets » , en articles de presse, la montagne et les Alpes en particulier font l’objet, dans ce domaine, d’une attention toute particulière. Le contexte est ici délicat. Les sociétés alpines sont partagées entre désir de préservation d’une forte identité montagnarde et crainte d’une « déprise » économique (agricole, touristique et/...

  7. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Monod Becquelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches présentées dans ce volume sont issues des travaux de chercheurs qui se réunissent régulièrement depuis 2005 sur le thème de l’« Agentivité ». Ce groupe rassemble des ethnologues et des linguistes du Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (umr 7186, cnrs/université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, du Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale (umr 7130, Collège de France/ehess Paris/cnrs, de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, de l’Institut des hautes étude...

  8. STRATEGIJSKA ULOGA PR U SPORTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Tomić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PR in the modern world are developed with rapid speed and become important aspect of strategic management. Modern menagers are very interesting in PR and they observe that there is not successful strategy without experiance theory and practice in PR. The goals must be defined, basic phylosophy to, and managers must take responsability and describe everithing what they have to do. It must be financial fond and evaluation must be done

  9. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leger Claude-Louis

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce qui frappe aujourd’hui, c’est une évolution rapide des connaissances sur les quatre vitamines liposolubles qui font l’objet des revues générales présentées dans ce dossier, et plus particulièrement peut-être sur les vitamines A, D et E. On savait ces vitamines indispensables en raison de leur implication dans les réactions cellulaires, pas uniquement métaboliques d’ailleurs, mais on ne pouvait les soupçonner d’intervenir dans des phénomènes complexes touchant aux régulations cellulaires et à l’expression des gènes avant l’explosion des techniques de biologie moléculaire. Ces trois vitamines ont ainsi, entre autres, la capacité de réguler la prolifération et la différenciation cellulaire selon des mécanismes qui peuvent paraître différents aujourd’hui dans certains cas (pour la vitamine E par exemple, ou souvent proches (cas des vitamine A et D. Les quatre vitamines sont capables en revanche d’intervenir dans la mort cellulaire programmée (apoptose. Dans le cas du tissu osseux, ce sont les vitamines A, D et K qui agissent sur l’accrétion calcique. La vitamine E, quant à elle, pourrait prévenir, au moins théoriquement, l’ostéoporose.

  10. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Alcohol use, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior are of increasing concern in Russian TB patients. DESIGN: A prevalence study of alcohol use and HIV risk behavior was conducted in a sample of 200 adult men and women admitted to TB hospitals in St Petersburg and Ivanovo, Russia. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 72% were men. The mean age was 41. Active TB was diagnosed using a combination of chest X-ray, sputum smears and sputum cultures. Sixty-two per cent met DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse or dependence. Drug use was uncommon, with only two patients reporting recent intravenous heroin use. There was one case of HIV infection. The mean total risk assessment battery score was 3.4. Depression was present in 60% of the sample, with 17% severely depressed. Alcohol abuse/dependence was associated with an eight-fold increase in drug resistance (OR 8.58; 95% CI 2.09-35.32). Patients with relapsing or chronic TB were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.0-6.54). CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common in patients being treated for active TB, and are associated with significant morbidity. Additional surveys are needed to examine the relationship between alcohol use disorders and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. CONTEXTE: Chezles patients tuberculeux russes, l’utilisation d’alcool, la résistance aux médicaments antituberculeux et un comportement à risque pour le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) sont des sujets croissants d’inquiétude. SCHÉMA: Une étude: de prévalence de l’utilisation d’alcool et du comportement à risque pour le VIH a été menée sur un échantillon de 200 hommes et femmes adultes, admis dans des hôpitaux pour la tuberculose (TB) de Saint-Pétersbourg et d’Ivanovo en Russie. RÉSULTATS: Il y avait 72% d’hommes dans l’échantillon. L’âge moyen est de 41 ans. On a diagnostiqué la TB active par l

  11. Crystal structures of the compounds Sm{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3} and Tb{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nyk, I. [Department of Crystallography, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 2, PL-20-031 Lublin (Poland); Kuprysyuk, V. [Department of Physicochemistry of Solid Surface, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 2, PL-20-031 Lublin (Poland); Gladyshevskii, R. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, vul. Kyryla i Mefodiya 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: roman.gladyshevskii@franko.lviv.ua; Pikus, S. [Department of Crystallography, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 2, PL-20-031 Lublin (Poland); Staszczuk, P. [Department of Physicochemistry of Solid Surface, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 2, PL-20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-07-19

    The structures of two new rare-earth aluminum germanides, Sm{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3} and Tb{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3}, were determined from X-ray powder diffraction data (R {sub B} = 0.066 and 0.064, respectively). These R{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3} compounds crystallize with orthorhombic structures of the Y{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3} type, oP24 (62) Pnma - c {sup 6}, a = 6.8153(4), b = 4.2723(3), c = 17.9491(10) A (R = Sm) and a = 6.7749(4), b = 4.1980(3), c = 17.7222(10) A (R = Tb), Z = 4. Two-thirds of the Ge atoms are situated at the centers of R{sub 6} trigonal prisms, whereas the other Ge atoms occupy the centers of R{sub 4} tetrahedra. Four other compounds are known to crystallize with the same structure type, R = Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, but Sm{sub 2}AlGe{sub 3} is the first example of an isotypic compound where R is a light rare-earth element.

  12. Silné a slabé stránky malého a stredného podnikania v Slovenskej republike na príklade vybraného samosprávneho kraja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Smiščíková

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: SMEs play an important role as producers of new goods and services, as carriers of innovation. They are promoters of intense competition, creating a culture of entrepreneurial energy, and also have the ability to establish and improve relations between enterprises. The remarkable feature is constantly creating new ideas, what innovative companies liquidate stagnant firms during economic cycles. Methodology/methods: In formulating the scientific paper was used scientific methods of research, based on the classification of data from domestic and foreign sources, using conventional scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis and comparison. We also used the statistical method to query and scaling. Scientific aim: The scientific paper is to determine the status of SMEs in the region of Bratislava. The main focus is on strengths and weaknesses of the business through empirical research. The focus of work will consist of a comparison of results in the diapason from 2002–2010. In the design of the proposed measures will improve the condition. The aim of our study was to detect the possibility of obtaining external funds for business. Findings: Small and Medium Enterprises provides for the creation of new jobs. In the Slovak Republic, especially in the Bratislava region is business on increase evidenced by what also increase the number of businesses. Bridge financing used sources of business loans are. The most important criterion for obtaining funds from external sources for businesses is the interest rate. Conclusions: The business community is crucial for competitiveness in a market economy at all levels. Because it has an important role in coping with competitive pressures of market forces. Businesses are carriers of stabilization, development and employment. The primary source of regional competitiveness, the competitiveness of its business units, which is determined by factors in the general environment, specific environmental factors of the region in which businesses operate and place-specific factors, internal and external business environment. Convenient location of the Bratislava region provides favorable conditions for building a position economically the most important region in Slovakia. The other positives are educated workforce, many universities and financial institutions.

  13. Analýza finančního hospodaření obce jako samosprávného prvku (případ obce Proboštov)

    OpenAIRE

    Řiháček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Proces decentralizace veřejné správy patří ke klíčovým procesům přechodu od centrálně řízené ekonomiky k ekonomice tržní. Práce uchopuje postavení obce, jakožto základního kamene územní samosprávy, vymezuje její právní postavení, působnost, orgány a majetek. Detailněji se zaměřuje na finanční hospodaření obce, charakteristiku rozpočtu, rozpočtový proces, rozpočtovou skladbu a samotný obsah rozpočtu. V praktické části je finanční hospodaření obce analyzováno na konkrétním případu obce Probošto...

  14. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  15. TB and HIV integration: obstacles and possible solutions to implementation in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loveday, Marian; Zweigenthal, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To identify key obstacles to operational integration of TB and HIV services and to suggest strategies to promote integration in the prevention, treatment and care of patients with TB and HIV. Methods...

  16. TB/HIV-related training, knowledge and attitudes of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With its emphasis on task shifting and multi-trained and skilled outreach teams the primary healthcare (PHC) re-engineering strategy in South Africa depends on the training, knowledge and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs) to provide a variety of TB/HIV services. The aim of this exploratory research was to ...

  17. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  18. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess treatment ...

  19. Changes in utilization of TB health services in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohan, C. I.; Bishai, D.; Kumar, S.; ten Asbroek, G.; Niessen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nepal. To assess the impact of community mobilization and health worker training on tuberculosis (TB) health services utilization. Questionnaire. The Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Nepal Ministry of Health launched a set of interventions to increase awareness and availability of

  20. The K-Forbidden Beta Decay of Tb160

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Johnson, N. R.; Nielsen, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    The β decay of the odd nucleus Tb160(Iπ = 3−) is shown to populate the 2+ and 4+ states of the ground-state band of Dy160 in intensities of 0.34% and 0.12%, respectively. The ratio of the reduced transition probabilities and the absolute transition strength are both compared with theoretical esti...

  1. Is anatomical distribution helpful for differentiating TB spondylitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 16 children between the ages of 4 months and 14.2 years who had magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of the spine consecutively were analysed retrospectively. Results. A wide variety of neoplasms demonstrated an anatomical site and compartment on MRI that s 'characteristic\\' of TB spondylitis. Conclusion.

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of TB spine in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also of increasing importance, because of the resurgence of. TB in association with AIDS. This paper is designed to evaluate the applicability of CT in the diagnosis and definition of tuberculosis of the spine in Ibadan. Method:- A restrospective study of the Computed. Tomographic examination of 22 cases of spinal ...

  3. The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2009;23(1). Table 1: The distribution of different forms of TB and prevalence of HIV infection by area of resident in Oromia Region, Ethiopia, 2006/2007. Zone or town. Population. Smear Positive. Smear Negative. EPTB. Retreatment cases. All forms. HIV positive. N. Case/. 1000. N. Case/. 1000. N. Case/.

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo, oil fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, fresh water, feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, and persons...

  5. Oxidative stress and TB outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wing Wai; Leung, Chi Chiu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, TB treatment outcomes are poorer. Most parameters, when measured, reflect the slower bacteriological conversion from positivity to negativity and higher risks of disease relapse and mortality, as well as a greater propensity to develop drug-resistant TB. Aside from the well-known immunological dysfunction inherent to patients with diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress is likely a major underlying mechanism adversely impacting their TB treatment outcomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis persisters, formed as a result of the core dormancy response to stress, possibly play a central role in this hypothesis. This hypothetical model also underscores the paramount importance of programmatic management of TB and diabetes mellitus, in collaboration, to improve the outcomes of patients with both diseases. The validity of these ideas could be further ascertained by laboratory and clinical research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. EDITORIAL South Africa and national TB control: Are we making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Cape provinces had the highest incidence rates of. 692, 685 and 681 per 100,000 respectively. The most ... South Africa's unemployment rate was reported to be. 27.7 percent in the third quarter of 2017, the ... Global Tuberculosis Control 2016, WHO, Geneva, 2016. Available at www.who.int/ tb/en [accessed on 26 ...

  7. gender lens on TB, HIV and malaria in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shapes (1) vulnerability to TB, HIV/AIDS and malaria, (2) access and ... Malawi has a population of about 10 million people'. It is one of .... We stayed at home... ” (in-depth interview, male guardian) . Financial and opportunity costs of accessing care have been identified to be major barriers to early diagnosis and treatment.

  8. When students become patients: TB disease among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and permanent ototoxicity). Most participants cited poor TB infection-control practices at their training hospitals as a major risk factor for ..... controls (opening windows, mechanical ventilation) were infrequently used. 'Some windows ... psychological impact, weak support structures and poor infection control). Despite severe ...

  9. HIV/TB CO-INFECTION:THE CHALLENGES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... Several factors influence the transmission of TB, including delayed or failed diagnosis in the source case; closed, re-circulating air systems with minimal fresh air ventilation; exposure of highly vulnerable .... scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have facilitated the detection and characterisation of ...

  10. Computed tomographic evaluation of TB spine in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:- Tuberculosis still remains a major problem in the developing countries. The involvement of the spine is also of increasing importance, because of the resurgence of TB in association with AIDS. This paper is designed to evaluate the applicability of CT in the diagnosis and definition of tuberculosis of the spine ...

  11. Anti-TB activity of Evodia elleryana bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Louis R.; Powan, Emma; Pond, Christopher D.; Matainaho, Teatulohi

    2009-01-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of bark from Evodia elleryana produced significant growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentrations only minimally inhibitory to human T cells. The crude extract yielded 95% inhibition of TB at 50 μg/ml. The crude extract yielded 29 % growth inhibition of human T-cells in culture at that concentration. PMID:17350179

  12. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB control. Thomas Nyirenda, Matthew Boxshall, John Kwanjana, Felix Salaniponi, Julia Kemp. Abstract. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in ...

  13. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  14. Interaction of 3-Hydroxypicolinamide with Tb III and its Sensitizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of 3-Hydroxypicolinamide with Tb III and its Sensitizing Effect on Terbium Luminescence as a Function of pH and Medium. ... The complex formed exists asML2 species in which HPA behaves as anO,O,N,N-chelating ligand. The solid complex is isolated from aqueous medium and characterized employing ...

  15. When students become patients: TB disease among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape ... Students with DR-TB interrupted their studies and experienced severe side-effects (hepatotoxicity, depression and permanent ototoxicity).

  16. Predicting Efficient Antenna Ligands for Tb(III) Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P.S.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-06

    A series of highly luminescent Tb(III) complexes of para-substituted 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (5LI-IAM-X) has been prepared (X = H, CH{sub 3}, (C=O)NHCH{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}, OCH{sub 3}, F, Cl, Br) to probe the effect of substituting the isophthalamide ring on ligand and Tb(III) emission in order to establish a method for predicting the effects of chromophore modification on Tb(III) luminescence. The energies of the ligand singlet and triplet excited states are found to increase linearly with the {pi}-withdrawing ability of the substituent. The experimental results are supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations performed on model systems, which predict ligand singlet and triplet energies within {approx}5% of the experimental values. The quantum yield ({Phi}) values of the Tb(III) complex increases with the triplet energy of the ligand, which is in part due to the decreased non-radiative deactivation caused by thermal repopulation of the triplet. Together, the experimental and theoretical results serve as a predictive tool that can be used to guide the synthesis of ligands used to sensitize lanthanide luminescence.

  17. Missed appointments among rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. With the implementation of outpatient (ambulatory) decentralised rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment in South Africa (SA) since late 2011, the high rates of loss from treatment are a significant concern. Missed appointments lead to treatment interruptions and may contribute to amplification of ...

  18. Sex-specific performance of routine TB diagnostic tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivihya-Ndugga, L. E. A.; van Cleeff, M. R. A.; Ng'ang'a, L. W.; Meme, H.; Odhiambo, J. A.; Klatser, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    City Council Chest Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya. To determine to what extent the performance of smear microscopy is responsible for sex differences in notification rates. Three sputum samples from TB suspects were subjected to smear microscopy with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and auramine (FM) staining.

  19. The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional National State, Ethiopia in 2006/7. A Bekele, K Fleming, Z Habtamu, A Fogarty. Abstract. Background: Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an established risk factor for tuberculosis infection. Population-based data on associations between HIV ...

  20. Distribuição de Polimorfismos de Base única (SNPs no gene de TNF-alfa (-238/-308 entre pacientes com TB e outras pneumopatias: marcadores genéticos de susceptibilidade a ocorrência de TB? Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs of the TNF-alpha (-238/-308 gene among TB and nom TB patients: susceptibility markers of TB occurrence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria de Oliveira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fatores genéticos podem desempenhar um importante papel na susceptibilidade à tuberculose (TB ativa, e polimorfismos de base única (SNPs em diferentes genes que codificam para citocinas têm sido descritos e associados com doenças. OBJETIVOS: Investigar o quanto polimorfismo na região promotora do gene que codifica para TNF-alfa (-238 e -308 estão associados a ocorrência de TB ativa. MÉTODOS: SNPs dentro do gene de TNF-alfa foram analisados por PCR- RFLP em dois grupos de indivíduos: pacientes com TB (n = 234 e pacientes com pneumopatias não TB (n = 113. RESULTADOS: Neste estudo, o alelo -238A esteve associado significantemente com susceptibilidade à ocorrência de TB e gravidade das formas clínicas (p = 0,00002; OR = 0,15; IC = 0,06-0,36. Por outro lado, o alelo -308A esteve associado significantemente com a proteção a outras formas de doença pulmonar (p = 0,02; OR = 1,95; IC = 1,07-3,58. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados preliminares sugerem a importância de estudos genéticos na ocorrência da TB. São necessários outros estudos para melhorar a compreensão sobre a patogênese do M. tb.BACKGROUND: Host genetic factors may play a role in the susceptibility to active tuberculosis (TB, and several polymorphisms in different cytokine coding genes have been described and associated with diseases to date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether polymorphisms within the promoter region of the TNF-alpha (-238/-308 coding genes are associated to the occurrence of active TB. METHODS: SNPs within the TNF-alpha gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP among two groups of individuals: patients with TB (n = 234, and patients non TB (n = 113. RESULTS: In this study, the presence of the -238A allele was associated with susceptibility to TB disease occurrence and severity (p = 0,00002; OR = 0,15; IC = 0,06-0,36. On the contrary, the -308A allele was associated with protection to the occurrence of another pulmonary diseases. CONCLUSIONS: These

  1. "I can also serve as an inspiration": a qualitative study of the TB&Me blogging experience and its role in MDR-TB treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Horter

    Full Text Available In 2011, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF established a blogging project, "TB&Me," to enable patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB to share their experiences. By September 2012, 13 MDR-TB patients had blogged, either directly or with assistance, from the UK, Australia, Philippines, Swaziland, Central African Republic, Uganda, South Africa, India, and Armenia. Due to the lack of research on the potential for social media to support MDR-TB treatment and the innovative nature of the blog, we decided to conduct a qualitative study to examine patient and staff experiences. Our aim was to identify potential risks and benefits associated with blogging to enable us to determine whether social media had a role to play in supporting patients with MDR-TB.Participants were identified and selected purposively. TB&Me bloggers, project staff, MSF headquarters staff involved with TB and WHO European Region TB policy advisors were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Twenty interviews were conducted (five with bloggers. Data analysis drew upon principles of grounded theory, with constant comparison of data, cases and categories, and attention to deviant cases. We found that the TB&Me blog was associated with identified health benefits, with no reported instances of harm. There were three main findings: blogging was reported as useful for adherence to DR-TB treatment and supportive of the treatment-taking process by all bloggers and project staff; blogging provided support to patients (peer support, shared experience and reduction in isolation; and the blog was perceived as giving patients strength and voice.The TB&Me blog was seen to be associated with positive identified health and emotional benefits. Component 5 of the Stop TB Global Plan highlights the importance of empowering TB patients and communities. Blogging could be a useful tool to help achieve that ambition.

  2. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ho:YLF Laser Pumped by TM:Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-micron Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by 1.94-micron Tm:fiber laser is described. A ring resonator of 3m length is adopted for the oscillator. The laser is a master oscillator and an amplifier system. It is operated at high repetition rate of 200-5000 Hz in room temperature. The laser outputs were about 9W in CW and more than 6W in Q-switched operation. This laser was developed to be used for wind and CO2 measurements.

  4. Lifshitz holographic superconductor in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-08-10

    We study the holographic phase transition of superconductor dual to a Lifshitz black brane probed by an anisotropic scalar field in the probe limit in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. With the use of numerical and analytical method, we investigate how the critical temperature of the condensation is affected by the Lifshitz exponent z, α-correction term in the action as well as the dimensions of the gravity. We also numerically explore the condensation of the dual operator and optical conductivity of the holographic system. Various interesting properties of the holographic condensation affected by the parameters of model are discussed.

  5. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Gupta, Radhey Shayam; Thakur, Rahul; Parmar, Malik; Gray, Christen; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Vadera, Bhavin; Ekka, Shobha; Dhawan, Shikha; Babre, Ameet; Ghedia, Mayank; Alavadi, Umesh; Dewan, Puneet; Khetrapal, Mini; Khanna, Ashwini; Boehme, Catharina; Paramsivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India. The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU), with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB)) accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm. 4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8) pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2) of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4) who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9), with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment. Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising solution to

  6. Multidrug-resistant TB in Zambia: review of national data from 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia. Retrospective review of national surveillance of MDR-TB data, TB programme and laboratory reports between 2000 and 2011. The total number of DSTs performed during this 11-year period was 2,038 and accounted for 2.6% (2,038/78,639) of all the retreatment cases notified. The total number of diagnosed MDR-TB cases for this period was 446, of which 56.3% (251/446) were male and 41.7% (186/446) female. Only one child was found to have MDR-TB. Poly-drug resistance accounted for 18.9% (172/911) of the DR-TB cases and 8.4% of the total DSTs. 8.8% (80/911) of the DR-TB cases showed either rifampicin mono- or poly-resistance other than MDR-TB. No XDR-TB was reported. There were no data available on DR-TB and HIV co-infection. Only 65 MDR-TB patients were notified and put on second-line treatment according to WHO guidelines. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may be an emerging challenge in Zambia. There is a need to invest in improving the capacity of the TB programme to detect and manage MDR-TB. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The health workforce crisis in TB control: a report from high-burden countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström Karin; Blanc Leopold; Dal Poz Mario; Palmer Karen; Figueroa-Munoz José; Raviglione Mario

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Human resources (HR) constraints have been reported as one of the main barriers to achieving the 2005 global tuberculosis (TB) control targets in 18 of the 22 TB high-burden countries (HBCs); consequently we try to assess the current HR available for TB control in HBCs. Methods A standard questionnaire designed to collect information on staff numbers, skills, training activities and current staff shortages at different health service levels was sent to national TB control ...

  8. PR's involvement in International Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1995-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the Research Station for Cattle, Sheep and Horse Husbandry (in Dutch abbreviated as PR) bridges the gap between more basic and disciplinary research done at universities and research institutes on the one hand and the extension service and the farmers on the other hand. The PR

  9. The second Geneva Consensus: Recommendations for novel live TB vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K B; Brennan, M J; Ho, M M; Eskola, J; Thiry, G; Sadoff, J; Dobbelaer, R; Grode, L; Liu, M A; Fruth, U; Lambert, P H

    2010-03-08

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be a major public health burden in most developing parts of the world and efforts to develop effective strategies for containing the disease remain a priority. It has long been evident that effective mass vaccination programmes are a cost effective and efficient approach to controlling communicable diseases in a public health setting and tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major target. One approach with increasing acceptance is based upon on live mycobacterial vaccines, either as recombinant BCG or rationally attenuated M. tuberculosis, thus generating a new live TB vaccine. The Geneva Consensus published in March 2005 set out the opinion on priorities and requirements for developing live mycobacterial vaccines for Phase I trials. In the intervening period much progress has been made in both preclinical and clinical development of new TB vaccines and has provided the impetus for organising the second Geneva Consensus (held at WHO headquarters, April 2009) to discuss issues, including: i. Explore the regulatory requirements for live TB vaccines to enter Phase I trials, in particular those based on attenuated M. tuberculosis. Particular attention was paid to the characterisation and safety package likely to be required, including issues of attenuation, the presence of antibiotic resistance markers in live vaccines and the nature of any attenuated vaccine phenotype. ii. To identify the general criteria for further clinical development from Phase I through to Phase III. iii. Obtain a perspective of the regulatory landscape of developing countries where Phase II and III trials are to be held. iv. Review manufacturing considerations for live TB vaccines and relevance of the WHO and European Pharmacopeia guidelines and requirements for BCG vaccine. v. Consider requirements and associated issues related to the use of these new vaccines within an existing BCG vaccination programme. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier

  10. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  11. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  12. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  13. HIV/TB: When is it safe to start HAART? | Wood | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infected.1 HIV testing of TB cases has been encouraged by the WHO and testing has resulted in identification of increasing numbers of HIV-infected individuals ... The HIV/TB case mortality has been reported to be as high as 16 - 35%2 prior to the introduction of HAART, with both HIV and TB contributing to this mortality.

  14. The time delay of patients presenting with symptoms of TB at TC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in South Africa. The early detection and treatment of TB cases are essential. The impression of senior staff working at the TC Newman Community Health Centre (TCN), Paarl was that there often is an unnecessary time delay between the presentation of TB symptoms and the ...

  15. Targeting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by therapeutic vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabowo, Satria A.; Groeschel, Matthias I.; Schmidt, Ed D. L.; Skrahina, Alena; Mihaescu, Traian; Hasturk, Serap; Mitrofanov, Rotislav; Pimkina, Edita; Visontai, Ildik; de Jong, Bouke; Stanford, John L.; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; van der Werf, Tjipke

    Tuberculosis (TB) has scourged humankind for millennia, and latent infection affects nearly one-third of today's world population. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB is a major global threat and reflects treatment failure of drug-sensitive disease. MDR-TB management is a burden for

  16. The prevalence of HIV among adults with pulmonary TB at a population level in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Grobusch, Martin P.; Cobelens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause of death among individuals with HIV. Improving case detection of TB/HIV co-infection has

  17. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based optimization of levofloxacin administration in the treatment of MDR-TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, Samiksha; van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Natasha; Akkerman, Onno W.; de Lange, Wiel C. M.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Wilffert, Bob; Touw, Daniel J.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB has complicated TB treatment success. Among many factors that contribute to the development of resistance, low drug exposure is not the least important. This review summarizes the available information on pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in relation to

  18. Addressing diabetes mellitus as part of the strategy for ending TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Kumar, Ajay M V; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Lin, Yan; Zachariah, Rony; Lönnroth, Knut; Kapur, Anil

    2016-03-01

    As we enter the new era of Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has committed to ending the TB epidemic by 2030 through implementation of an ambitious strategy to reduce TB-incidence and TB-related mortality and avoiding catastrophic costs for TB-affected families. Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of TB and increases the probability of adverse TB treatment outcomes such as failure, death and recurrent TB. The rapidly escalating global epidemic of DM means that DM needs to be addressed if TB-related milestones and targets are to be achieved. WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease's Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes, launched in 2011, provides a template to guide policy makers and implementers to combat the epidemics of both diseases. However, more evidence is required to answer important questions about bi-directional screening, optimal ways of delivering treatment, integration of DM and TB services, and infection control. This should in turn contribute to better and earlier TB case detection, and improved TB treatment outcomes and prevention. DM and TB collaborative care can also help guide the development of a more effective and integrated public health approach for managing non-communicable diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.A.; Vu, H.D.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Postma, M.J.

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in

  20. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlapping epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) is expected in Nigeria that is ranked 10th amongst the 22 countries that bears the burden of TB worldwide. This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) in a CD4 cell count ...

  1. Epidemiology of MDR-TB in a Belgian infectious diseases unit: a 15 years review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heurck, R; Payen, M C; De Wit, S; Clumeck, N

    2013-01-01

    For the last 20 years the world has seen the emergence of a growing epidemic of MDR-TB, followed by the appearance of XDR-TB. Both require longer, more expensive and more toxic treatments. MDR-TB and especially XDR-TB are associated with a lower cure rate than non MDR-TB. We reviewed retrospectively all cases of MDR-and XDR-TB managed at St Pierre University Hospital between 1996 and 2010. Epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological, treatment, follow up and outcome were collected and analysed. We recorded 73 instances of MDR-TB and 11 XDR-TB for a total of 78 patients. All but 4 patients were of non Belgian origin. 10 patients were co-infected with HIV. A median of 4 active drugs (1-5) were used for a median of 448 days (329-616). 41 MDR-TB (56%) and 1 XDR-TB (1%) were considered as cured and 20 are still on treatment. Since 2007, increasing resistance to second line injectable drugs, fluoroquinolones and even linezolid (1 case) is observed. Extensive resistance was mainly found in patients who had previously been mismanaged with second line agents. This study illustrates the growing epidemic of MDR and XDR-TB, it emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis and adequate management of TB in patients at risk for resistance and stresses the need for new therapies.

  2. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number...

  3. Photoluminescence properties of Ho3+/Tm3+-doped YAGG nano-crystalline powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sameera, V. Sravani; Babu, P.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2017-10-01

    Y3Al4GaO12 (YAGG):(Tm3+, Ho3+) nanoparticles have been synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and characterised their X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscope image, energy dispersive and photoluminescence spectra. From XRD results, phase purity and structure have been confirmed. Excitation spectra reveal that 363 nm excitation is suitable to excite the co-doped samples. Under ultraviolet excitation at 363 nm, the characteristic emissions of Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions have been observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Concentration dependent luminescence and energy transfer between Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions have been studied. The CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature values have been obtained from the emission spectra. Moreover, the emission colour of the YAGG:TmHo nano-powders was slightly shifted to red colour while increasing the Ho concentration and can be tuned from blue/green to white by adjusting the Tm3+/Ho3+ ions concentration. The optimum concentration of Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions were found to be 1:1 ratio in the YAGG host. The optimized single component white light emitting YAGG:TmHo phosphors could be a potential candidate for phosphor-converted white light emitting diode and full colour display applications.

  4. Q-switched Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:GdVO4 laser.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have, through careful analysis of spectroscopic data, designed and demonstrated a diode-end-pumped, quasicontinuous wave Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1892 nm in order to pump a Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The Ho:YLF maximum output energy...

  5. Neutron diffraction studies of Ho1-xYxNi2B2C compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, L.J.; Tomy, C.V.; Paul, D.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to investigate the nature of magnetic ordering in Ho(1-x)Y(x)Ni(2)B(2)C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) compounds. HoNi(2)B(2)C shows a complex type of magnetic ordering below the superconducting transition, with a commensurate antiferromagnetic ordering...

  6. Paracrine action of HO-1-modified mesenchymal stem cells mediates cardiac protection and functional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Ren, Xiaofeng; Lin, Guosheng; Zhu, Chengang; Chen, Honglei; Yin, Jiechao; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Bo; Ding, Danhua

    2008-10-01

    The aim has been to determine whether the supernatants of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with adenovirus carrying human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. We have found that hHO-1 infected MSCs (hHO-1-MSCs) increased expression of hHO-1 protein. Apoptosis of cultured hHO-1-MSCs exposed to hypoxia was suppressed. Several cytokines, including HGF, bFGF, TGF-beta, VEGF and IL-1beta, were produced by hHO-1-MSCs, some being significantly enhanced under hypoxia stimulation. Meanwhile, those cytokines reduced caspase-3 level and activity in cultured adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVCs) exposed to hypoxia. Supernatants obtained from hHO-1-MSCs improved left ventricular function, limited myocardial infarct size, increased microvessel density, and inhibited apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in rat myocardial infarction. It can be concluded hHO-1-modified MSCs prevent myocardial cell injury via secretion of paracrine-acting mediators.

  7. HO-1-mediated macroautophagy: a mechanism for unregulated iron deposition in aging and degenerating neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukor, Hillel; Song, Wei; Liberman, Adrienne; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Fillebeen, Carine; Pantopoulos, Kostas; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Schipper, Hyman M

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative stress, deposition of non-transferrin iron, and mitochondrial insufficiency occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). We previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is up-regulated in AD and PD brain and promotes the accumulation of non-transferrin iron in astroglial mitochondria. Herein, dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and other techniques were employed to ascertain (i) the impact of HO-1 over-expression on astroglial mitochondrial morphology in vitro, (ii) the topography of aberrant iron sequestration in astrocytes over-expressing HO-1, and (iii) the role of iron regulatory proteins (IRP) in HO-1-mediated iron deposition. Astroglial hHO-1 over-expression induced cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial membrane damage, and macroautophagy. HO-1 promoted trapping of redox-active iron and sulfur within many cytopathological profiles without impacting ferroportin, transferrin receptor, ferritin, and IRP2 protein levels or IRP1 activity. Thus, HO-1 activity promotes mitochondrial macroautophagy and sequestration of redox-active iron in astroglia independently of classical iron mobilization pathways. Glial HO-1 may be a rational therapeutic target in AD, PD, and other human CNS conditions characterized by the unregulated deposition of brain iron.

  8. Compact fibre-laser-pumped Ho:YLF oscillator-amplifier system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ho:YLF is an attractive laser material for 2 µm high energy sources since it has a much longer upper laser level lifetime (~14 ms) and higher emission cross section than Ho:YAG. In addition, the very weak thermal lens on the polarisation helps...

  9. Efficient Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:fiber laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . It is shown that Ho:YLF based lasers can deliver high average powers and optical-to-optical efficiencies, comparing favourably to Ho:YAG lasers. The best performing laser delivered an average power in excess of 45 W with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 53...

  10. Efficient Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:fiber laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thulium fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser delivering 45.1 W in a near diffraction limited beam when pumped with 84.7 W is demonstrated. The optical-to-optical efficiency of 53 % compares favorably with similar Ho:YAG lasers....

  11. Analýza a vyhodnocení provozních nákladů autobusové linky č. 67 Dopravního podniku města Brna

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce analyzuje a vyhodnocuje provozní náklady autobusové linky č. 67 Dopravního podniku města Brna. První část se zabývá historií a současným stavem Dopravního podniku města Brna a autobusové dopravy. Druhá část se věnuje autobusové lince č. 67. Poslední část se zabývá provozními náklady a ukazateli, které ovlivňují spotřebu pohonných hmot. This diploma thesis analysis and evaluates operating costs of the bus line no. 67 provided by the Brno transport company. The first par...

  12. Alternativní zdroje energie a jejich právní úprava v kontextu českého a komunitárního práva

    OpenAIRE

    Walas, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Alternative sources of energy and their legal regulation in the context of the Czech and the Community law The purpose of my thesis is to analyze alternative or renewable sources of energy. The aim of the thesis is to examine the legal background of renewable sources in the law of European Union and the Czech law. Renewable sources of energy are fundamental instrument to deal with such challenges as environmental protection, climate change and energy security. Author outlines importance of th...

  13. Vybrané aspekty problematiky základního lidského práva dle čl. 6 Listiny základních práv a svobod

    OpenAIRE

    Niklová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the selected aspects of the dilemma of the basic human right according to Declaration of Basic Rights, paragraph 6. It focuses mainly on controversial themes such as euthanasia, abortion and death penalty. It provides readers with the definition of the conflict of these three perspectives with breaking the right to life. It shows historical development of the enactment in the Czech Republic and also in the international context. Last but not least, it describes t...

  14. Výstavba a provoz sportovního areálu pro jízdu v terénu na MTB typu single trek.

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se věnuje projektu výstavby sportovního areálu jízdy na horských kolech v terénu pro širokou veřejnost. První část práce se zabývá obecným rozdělením pohybových aktivit a jejím zdravotním přínosem. Dále se práce zabývá významem horské cyklistiky a novým trendem MTB cyklistiky single trek. V dalším kroku práce rozebírá podnikatelský záměr výstavby single trek a přínosem pro danou lokalitu. This bachelor's thesis deals project construction of mountain bikes facilities in ter...

  15. Minimally invasive scoliosis treatment with a Ho:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Christian G.; Lang, Robert D.; Goetz, Marcus H.

    2000-11-01

    Today most surgical treatment of spinal deformations is concentrated on invasive mechanical techniques with long operation times and major effects on the patient's mobility. The proposed minimally invasive technique using laser light for tissue ablation offers a possibility of gentle scoliosis treatment. It is thought that an early removal of the epiphysial growth zone on the convex side over several vertebrae results in a straightening of the spine. In a first evaluation, four different laser systems including argon ion, Nd:YAG (Q-switched), Nd:YAG (cw), and Ho:YAG laser were compared with respect to thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ablation rates, efficiency and laser handling. For in-vivo investigation, fresh lamb spine was used. Comparison showed that the Ho:YAG laser is the most appropriate laser for the given goal, providing efficient photoablation with moderate thermal effects on the adjacent tissue. In a second step the proposed minimally invasive operation technique was performed in in-vivo experiments on young foxhounds using 3D- thoracoscopic operation techniques. During these operations temperature mapping was done using fiber-optic fluorescent probes. After 12 months of normal growth the animals were sacrificed and x-ray as well as MRI was performed on the spine. First results show a positive effect of scoliotic growth in two cases. Being able to produce a scoliosis by hemiepiphysiodesis on the vertebra, It is thought that this technique is successful for a straightening of the spine on patients with scoliosis.

  16. Experimentální analýza proudu vzduchu z vyústky přístrojové desky osobního vozu s využitím kouřové metody a návrh hodnocení kvality vyústky

    OpenAIRE

    Krška, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Cílem této práce byla analýza proudu vzduchu z pravé vyústky s použitím kouřové metody a nalezení řešení, jak je aplikovat. Dalším úkolem bylo vytvoření metodiky pro zjištění dolního a horního úhlu mezního vertikálního směrování, úhlů vybočení (ß) a sklonu (?) proudu vzduchu. Experiment byl veden tak, aby se přiblížil co nejvíce reálným podmínkám ve vozidle. Po sestavení tratě s ofukovačem (vyústkou) v laboratoři a určení souřadného systému vozu byl proud vzduchu podroben vizualizaci v pěti p...

  17. TB or not TB? Difficulties in the diagnosis op tuberculosis in HIV-negative immigrants to Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants to Germany and their children are at particular risk for tuberculosis (TB. Methods 35 Patients (10 male/25 female aged 2 - 59 years (median 33 years originating mostly from high incidence countries in Asia (19 [54.3%] in Africa (14 [40.0%] and East Europe (2 [5.7%], attended at the Tropical Medicine unit were analysed. Results Primary clinical presentation was most frequently lymphadenitis (13 [37.1%]. other organs involved included bones (7 [20.0%], central nervous system (5 [14.3%], urogenital organs (3 [8.6%], lung (3 [8.6%], mediastinum, (2 [5.7%] and abdomen (2 [5.7%]. ESR was abnormal in 21/28 (75.0%, CRP in 20/35 (57.1%, and protein electrophoresis in 22/26 (84.6% cases. The tuberculin skin test was strongly positive in all 15 cases where the test had been performed. Tuberculosis interferon gamma release assay (TB-IGRA was positive in all 35 cases (100%. PCR for nucleic acids of Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis complex was positive in only 7/20 (35.0% cases. M. tuberculosis was identified in 32/35 (91.4%, M. bovis in 2 (5.7% cases. 1 case was diagnosed clinically. All patients were negative for HIV. Typical histopathology was seen in the 29 cases, where biopsies had been taken. Chest-X-ray did not reveal specific pulmonary lesions in the majority of cases (22/35 [62.9%]. Diagnosis of TB was mostly delayed (4 to 299 weeks, [median 8]. The most frequent primary suspicion was a malignancy (17/35 [48.6%] while TB was initially suspected in 5 cases only. Diagnosis of TB is impeded by its multifaceted presentation especially in immigrants.

  18. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, Tayssir

    2005-05-01

    Né simultanément à Mulhouse et à Beyrouth en 1996 dans le cadre d'une collaboraiion franco-libanaise sur une initiative personnelle de Monsieur Tayssir HAMIEH. le Colloque Franco-Libanais sur la Science des Matériaux (CSM), qui s'inscrit dans le cadre des relations étroites entre la France et le Liban, est très vite devenu une occasion très importante de rencontre entre scientifiques de haut niveau, non seulement, du contour méditerranéen mais également des pays européens, américains et arabes. La quatrieme édition CSM4 est une véritable réussite grâce à la participation des chercheurs confirmés dans tous les domaines des sciences de matériaux et venant de plusieurs pays tels que la France, I'Algérie, Le Liban, la Syrie, le Maroc, la Tunisie, l'Italie, l'Espagne, le Portugal, le Royaume Uni, les États-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne, le Japon et I'Inde ; pour présenter plus de 350 communications orales et par affiche et couvrant presque toutes les disciplines des systèmes des matériaux. Le choix des diffèrents thèmes du colloque sur la science des matériaux a été dicté par l'importance capitale de cette discipline dans notre civilisation moderne. En fait, les matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication artisanale ou industrielle d'objets, de produits et de systèmes ainsi que pour la réalisation de constructions et d'équipements ont de tout temps défini le niveau de notre civilisation technique. La réalisation des objectifs communs de notre monde en plein développement, pour ne pas dire en pleine mutation, est en grande partie tributaire de la mise au point de nouveaux matériaux et de procédés de transformation et d'assemblages nouveaux, présentant des performances et des qualités améliorées. Le colloque a illustré et traduit, de manière remarquables, l'excellente collaboration entre chercheurs libanais et français. Le partenariat est exemplaire par la qualité des laboratoires impliqués et par le niveau scientifique des r

  19. Thermoelectric properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} in C15- laves phase: Spin-polarized DFT+U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies - Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, Pilsen 306 14 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01007 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Thermoelectric properties of materials are intimately related to their electronic band structure. Combining first- and second-principles calculations, we have obtained the transport properties for the spin-up and spin-down electrons of the laves phase TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} compounds. The unique band structure feature and the density of states at Fermi level (E{sub F}) promote the E{sub F} to a point where carriers are in energetic proximity to these features. The non-zero density of states at E{sub F} for the spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) electrons leads to unusual transport properties because both the (↑) and (↓) densities contributes to the states at E{sub F}. The parabolic bands in the vicinity of E{sub F} enhance the carriers mobility and hence the transport properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2}. Calculations show that the spin-up/down transport coefficients are temperature-dependent. It has been found that TbCo{sub 2} possess larger Seebeck coefficient than that of TbFe{sub 2} and hence the power factor. The calculated Seebeck coefficient of TbCo{sub 2} agree well with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • The transport properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} are obtained. • The non-zero density of states at E{sub F} leads to unusual transport properties. • Spin-up/down transport coefficients are temperature-dependent. • The calculated Seebeck coefficient of TbCo{sub 2} agree with the experimental data. • TbCo{sub 2} possesses larger Seebeck coefficient than that of TbFe{sub 2}.

  20. Prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Suzzane Hooker Blandford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen No. 20, presenta una compilación estructurada en 5 secciones, las cuales comprenden 9 artículos, en el área de Educación: Estrategias de evaluación en la enseñanza de los algoritmos de factorización en noveno grado de Educación Secundaria. La segunda sección, en Ciencias Sociales: 2 Alianza estratégica entre Venezuela y Nicaragua para la construcción de una refinería petrolera; 3 Breves consideraciones sobre el código aduanero del MERCOSUR (CAM. Fuentes y antecedentes de creación; 4. Plan de Desarrollo Municipal como herramienta de gestión pública de la ciudad de Siuna, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua. En la tercera sección, Salud: 5 Hombres creole y cáncer de próstata en Bluefields, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua. En la cuarta sección, Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente: 6 Calidad del agua potable y su efecto en la salud de la comunidad de Kamla, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua; 7 Gobernanza forestal en el territorio Twi Waupasa, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua. En la quinta sección, Agropecuaria: 8 Germinación del coco (Cocos nucifera, utilizando tres tipos de cortes en Sandy Bay Sirpi, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua; 9 Manejo de pastizales en sistemas de producción ganaderos de Nueva Guinea, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua  Los resultados de estas investigaciones aportan significativamente a la praxis in- novadora de la comunidad universitaria, y constituyen un medio educativo y de comunicación para compartir con la comunidad de profesores, investigadores y estudiantes del mundo, en una expresión crítica, autónoma y de emancipación en un ambiente de interculturalidad.