WorldWideScience

Sample records for power wireless links

  1. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  2. An Inductive Link-Based Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Adeeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using an inductive link has been demonstrated for implantable sensor applications. The system is composed of two primary blocks: an inductive power transfer unit and a backward data communication unit. The inductive link performs two functions: coupling the required power from a wireless power supply system enabling battery-less, long-term implant operation and providing a backward data transmission path. The backward data communication unit transmits the data to an outside reader using FSK modulation scheme via the inductive link. To demonstrate the operation of the inductive link, a board-level design has been implemented with high link efficiency. Test results from a fabricated sensor system, composed of a hybrid implementation of custom-integrated circuits and board-level discrete components, are presented demonstrating power transmission of 125 mW with a 12.5% power link transmission efficiency. Simultaneous backward data communication involving a digital pulse rate of up to 10 kbps was also observed.

  3. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  4. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevaa Katiravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  5. Design and Optimization of a 3-Coil Inductive Link for Efficient Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-07-14

    Inductive power transmission is widely used to energize implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharge batteries, and energy harvesters. Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key parameters in wireless links, which affect the energy source specifications, heat dissipation, power transmission range, and interference with other devices. To improve the PTE, a 4-coil inductive link has been recently proposed. Through a comprehensive circuit based analysis that can guide a design and optimization scheme, we have shown that despite achieving high PTE at larger coil separations, the 4-coil inductive links fail to achieve a high PDL. Instead, we have proposed a 3-coil inductive power transfer link with comparable PTE over its 4-coil counterpart at large coupling distances, which can also achieve high PDL. We have also devised an iterative design methodology that provides the optimal coil geometries in a 3-coil inductive power transfer link. Design examples of 2-, 3-, and 4-coil inductive links have been presented, and optimized for 13.56 MHz carrier frequency and 12 cm coupling distance, showing PTEs of 15%, 37%, and 35%, respectively. At this distance, the PDL of the proposed 3-coil inductive link is 1.5 and 59 times higher than its equivalent 2- and 4-coil links, respectively. For short coupling distances, however, 2-coil links remain the optimal choice when a high PDL is required, while 4-coil links are preferred when the driver has large output resistance or small power is needed. These results have been verified through simulations and measurements.

  6. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  7. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques...... in enhancing TCP/IP performance depends on the tradeoff between frame transmission delay and residual errors after retransmissions. The paper shows how a truncated power control can be effectively applied to improve that tradeoff so that a higher transmission reliability is provided without increasing...... the frame transmission delay through the radio link layer and without increasing the energy consumption. An analytical framework has been developed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power control. The analytical results, which are carried out assuming a constant multiuser...

  8. Energy Link Optimization in a Wireless Power Transfer Grid under Energy Autonomy Based on the Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization method is proposed for the energy link in a wireless power transfer grid, which is a regional smart microgrid comprised of distributed devices equipped with wireless power transfer technology in a certain area. The relevant optimization model of the energy link is established by considering the wireless power transfer characteristics and the grid characteristics brought in by the device repeaters. Then, a concentration adaptive genetic algorithm (CAGA is proposed to optimize the energy link. The algorithm avoided the unification trend by introducing the concentration mechanism and a new crossover method named forward order crossover, as well as the adaptive parameter mechanism, which are utilized together to keep the diversity of the optimization solution groups. The results show that CAGA is feasible and competitive for the energy link optimization in different situations. This proposed algorithm performs better than its counterparts in the global convergence ability and the algorithm robustness.

  9. Combined Rate and Power Allocation with Link Scheduling in Wireless Data Packet Relay Networks with Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Subhrakanti Dey; Minyi Huang

    2007-01-01

    We consider a joint rate and power control problem in a wireless data traffic relay network with fading channels. The optimization problem is formulated in terms of power and rate selection, and link transmission scheduling. The objective is to seek high aggregate utility of the relay node when taking into account buffer load management and power constraints. The optimal solution for a single transmitting source is computed by a two-layer dynamic programming algorithm which leads to optimal ...

  10. Combined Rate and Power Allocation with Link Scheduling in Wireless Data Packet Relay Networks with Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrakanti Dey

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a joint rate and power control problem in a wireless data traffic relay network with fading channels. The optimization problem is formulated in terms of power and rate selection, and link transmission scheduling. The objective is to seek high aggregate utility of the relay node when taking into account buffer load management and power constraints. The optimal solution for a single transmitting source is computed by a two-layer dynamic programming algorithm which leads to optimal power, rate, and transmission time allocation at the wireless links. We further consider an optimal power allocation problem for multiple transmitting sources in the same framework. Performances of the resource allocation algorithms including the effect of buffer load control are illustrated via extensive simulation studies.

  11. Design and Optimization of Ultrasonic Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Miao; Kiani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (R L ) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (f c ) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE). First, a range of realistic f c s is found based on the Rx thickness constrain. For a chosen f c within the range, the diameter and thickness of the Rx transducer are then swept together to maximize PTE. Then, the diameter and thickness of the Tx transducer are optimized to maximize PTE. Finally, this procedure is repeated for different f c s to find the optimal f c and its corresponding transducer geometries that maximize PTE. A design example of ultrasonic link has been presented and optimized for WPT to a 1 mm 3 implant, including a disk-shaped piezoelectric transducer on a silicon die. In simulations, a PTE of 2.11% at f c of 1.8 MHz was achieved for R L of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. In order to validate our simulations, an ultrasonic link was optimized for a 1 mm 3 piezoelectric transducer mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB), which led to simulated and measured PTEs of 0.65% and 0.66% at f c of 1.1 MHz for R L of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text], respectively.

  12. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35- μ m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm 2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μ F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μ s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%.

  13. Wireless data link for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  14. Optimization of wireless power transmission for two port and three port inductive link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Samnan; Mansor, Hasmah; Khan, Sheroz; Arshad, Atika; Shobaki, Mohammed M; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments have shown that the use of buried electronic devices or body implants has been becoming prevalent. Such low power devices are being powered up through non-contact means utilizing inductive coupling from external powering source. Inductive coupling not only solves the issue of energy availability but helps collecting the sensed data that can be archived or used for subsequent monitoring purposes. This paper analyses the performance of two-port and three-port inductive links in terms of power sent, power received and power transfer efficiency. All the above mentioned parameters have been plotted using analytical approach and obtaining simulation where required. The effect of mutual coupling has been studied in detail for both systems and demonstrated by plotting the power transfer efficiency for different values of the coefficient of coupling (k) using MATLAB. Results show that power transfer efficiency depends highly upon the value of k

  15. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  16. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  17. Wireless transmission of power and information through one high frequency resonant AC link inverter for robot manipulator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Atsuo; Ishioka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Junji.

    1995-01-01

    A contact-less decentralized power supply is proposed with communication capability through only one transformer. A prototype of wireless transmission system of power and information (WTPI system) was built, and the two axis position control for servo motors was achieved by transferring the power and signal through one rotatable high frequency transformer. The proposed concept can be applied for robotics and NC machines

  18. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  19. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment.

  20. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  1. Wireless transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been proven by researchers that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to data have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with litter attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. It is the intent of this research to determine if the Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagated with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission

  2. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  3. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  4. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Minnaert; Nobby Stevens

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this opti...

  5. Wireless Power Transfer, New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Fawzy Mansour Al Zoreiqat

    2016-01-01

    Many configurations representing wireless power transfer have been applied for this purpose. A simple and effective circuit is used in this research that contains components which are easily located for constructing the complete suggested configuration; we were successful in using Li Fi technology in transmitting power from one side to another through air.

  6. Wireless coexistence and interference test method for low-power wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nabi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being increasingly introduced for critical applications such as safety, security and health. One the main characteristic requirements of such networks are that they should function with relative low power. Therefore the wireless links are more vulnerable.

  7. Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alu, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load, which is not easily implemented in near-field WPT. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced wireless power transfer. We show that a principle similar to the on...

  8. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  9. Wireless Power for Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless power transfer allows a convenient, easy to use battery charging of mobile phones and other mobile devices. No hassle with cables and plugs, just place the device on a pad and that’s it. Such asystem even has the potential to become a standard charging solution. Where are the limits for

  10. Wireless Power Transfer Roadway Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles represent a major accomplishment in the energy and transportation industry. Unfortunately, they are restricted to a small travel range because of limited battery life. Successful integration of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems into the infrastructure would remove the range restrictions of EVs. To successfully integrate this technology, several requirements must be met. First, the embedment process cannot interfere with the electrical performance of the inductive power t...

  11. Wireless Power Transfer and Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kai; Ni, Wei; Duan, Lingjie; Abolhasan, Mehran; Niu, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    In a rechargeable wireless sensor network, the data packets are generated by sensor nodes at a specific data rate, and transmitted to a base station. Moreover, the base station transfers power to the nodes by using Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) to extend their battery life. However, inadequately scheduling WPT and data collection causes some of the nodes to drain their battery and have their data buffer overflow, while the other nodes waste their harvested energy, which is more than they need...

  12. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee

    2016-01-19

    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  13. Wireless power transfer via radiowaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara , Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technologies have enabled various engineering applications with potential product implementation. WPT can be utilized to charge batteries in various pieces of equipment without the need for a wired connection. Energy can be harvested from ambient RF and microwave radiation and 1 million kW microwaves can be transmitted from space to the ground.This book covers all the theory and technologies of WPT, such as microwave generators with semi-conductors and microwave tubes, antennas, phased arrays, beam efficiency, and rectifiers (rectenna). The

  14. Impact of Various Parameters on the Performance of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems also known as Free space optics (FSO) are capable of providing high channel bandwidth, high data transmission rates, low power consumption, and high security. OWC links are being considered in different applications such as inter-satellite links, terrestrial links, and inter-aircraft communication links. This paper investigates the impact of different system parameters such as transmission power level, operating wavelength, transmitter pointing error angle, bit transmission rate, atmospheric attenuation, antenna aperture diameter, geometric losses, the responsivity of the photodetector, and link range on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication link.

  15. Wireless Power Transfer Strategies for Implantable Bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kush; Jegadeesan, Rangarajan; Guo, Yong-Xin; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-01-01

    Neural implants have emerged over the last decade as highly effective solutions for the treatment of dysfunctions and disorders of the nervous system. These implants establish a direct, often bidirectional, interface to the nervous system, both sensing neural signals and providing therapeutic treatments. As a result of the technological progress and successful clinical demonstrations, completely implantable solutions have become a reality and are now commercially available for the treatment of various functional disorders. Central to this development is the wireless power transfer (WPT) that has enabled implantable medical devices (IMDs) to function for extended durations in mobile subjects. In this review, we present the theory, link design, and challenges, along with their probable solutions for the traditional near-field resonant inductively coupled WPT, capacitively coupled short-ranged WPT, and more recently developed ultrasonic, mid-field, and far-field coupled WPT technologies for implantable applications. A comparison of various power transfer methods based on their power budgets and WPT range follows. Power requirements of specific implants like cochlear, retinal, cortical, and peripheral are also considered and currently available IMD solutions are discussed. Patient's safety concerns with respect to electrical, biological, physical, electromagnetic interference, and cyber security from an implanted neurotech device are also explored in this review. Finally, we discuss and anticipate future developments that will enhance the capabilities of current-day wirelessly powered implants and make them more efficient and integrable with other electronic components in IMDs.

  16. Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be widely applied for a security system or a smart home system. Since some of the wireless remote sensor nodes may be powered by energy storage devices such as batteries, it is a very important issue to transmit signals at lower power with the consideration of the communication effectiveness. In this paper, we will provide a fuzzy controller with two inputs and one output for received signal strength indicator (RSSI and link quality indicator (LQI to adjust transmission power suitably in order to maintaining a certain communication level with a reduced energy consumption. And we will divide the sampling period of a sensor node into four intervals so that the sensor node radio device does not in receiving or transmission status all the time. Hence the sensor node can adjust transmission power automatically and reduce sensor node power consumption. Experimental results show that the battery life can be extended to about 10 times for the designed sensor node comparing to a normal node.

  17. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    Advancements in wireless communication and electronics improving form factor and hardware capabilities has expanded the applicability of wireless sensor networks. Despite these advancements, devices are still limited in terms of energy which creates the need for duty-cycling and low-power protocols...... peripherals need to by duty-cycled and the low-power wireless radios are severely influenced by the environmental effects causing bursty and unreliable wireless channels. This dissertation presents a communication stack providing services for low-power communication, secure communication, data collection......, and network management which enables construction of low-power wireless sensor network applications. More specifically, these services are designed with the extreme low-power scenarios of the SensoByg project in mind and are implemented as follows. First, low-power communication is implemented with Auto...

  18. Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alù, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and wireless power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load. This condition, however, can be easily affected by changes in the environment, preventing optimal operation of a WPT system. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced WPT that allows us to bypass this difficulty and achieve dynamic control of power transfer. The approach relies on coherent excitation of the waveguide connected to the antenna load with a backward propagating signal of specific amplitude and phase. This signal creates a suitable interference pattern at the load resulting in a modification of the local wave impedance, which in turn enables conjugate matching and a largely increased amount of extracted energy. We develop a simple theoretical model describing this concept, demonstrate it with full-wave numerical simulations for the canonical example of a dipole antenna, and verify experimentally in both near-field and far-field regimes.

  19. Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Transmission Power Control (TPC) techniques are employed. The existing TPC schemes adjust the transmission power mostly reacting to changes at link quality between communicating nodes. Proactive TPC has been proposed in the recent past

  20. Wireless sensors remotely powered by RF energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Hubregt J.; Vullers, Ruud J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Wireless, radiated far-field energy is being employed for charging a battery. This battery, while being recharged, is used to power a commercially of the shelf, low power, wireless sensor node. Propagation conditions in common office and house configurations are investigated experimentally. These

  1. Self-Oscillating Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Ra'di, Younes

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wireless power transfer systems consist of a microwave power generator and transmitter located at one place and a microwave power receiver located at a distance. Here we show that wireless power transfer can be realized as a single distributed microwave generator with an over-the-air feedback, so that the microwave power is generated directly at the place where the energy needs to be delivered. We demonstrate that the use of this paradigm increases efficiency and dramatically red...

  2. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this optimal network as a function of the characteristics of the capacitive wireless link, as well for the series as for the parallel topology. The results are compared with the inductive power transfer system. Introduction of a new concept, the coupling function, enables the description of the compensation network of both an inductive and a capacitive system in two elegant equations, valid for the series and the parallel topology. This approach allows better understanding of the fundamentals of the wireless power transfer link, necessary for the design of an efficient system.

  3. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  4. Wireless power pad with local power activation for portable devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.; Zheglov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless power transfer by magnetic induction offers a simple to use way to recharge mobile devices like e.g. mobile phone, music players or medical sensors. As shown by a previous report and an existing Power Pad demonstrator, wireless inductive power transfer is possible with a good power

  5. Wireless powering of e -swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jérome; Carrara, Serena; Sanchez, Julien; Lannelongue, Jérémy; Loget, Gabriel; Bouffier, Laurent; Fischer, Peer; Kuhn, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Miniaturized structures that can move in a controlled way in solution and integrate various functionalities are attracting considerable attention due to the potential applications in fields ranging from autonomous micromotors to roving sensors. Here we introduce a concept which allows, depending on their specific design, the controlled directional motion of objects in water, combined with electronic functionalities such as the emission of light, sensing, signal conversion, treatment and transmission. The approach is based on electric field-induced polarization, which triggers different chemical reactions at the surface of the object and thereby its propulsion. This results in a localized electric current that can power in a wireless way electronic devices in water, leading to a new class of electronic swimmers (e-swimmers).

  6. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  7. Wireless Power Transfer Impact on Data Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Baikova, Elena N.; Valtchev, Stanimir S.; Melício, R.; Fernão Pires, V.

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado no 23rd International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (Speedam, 2016), 22-24 junho de 2016, Capri, Itália This paper presents measurement results and analysis of the interference produced by the high-power electromagnetic field in a wireless energy transfer system. Through this analysis it is expected to be possible to evaluate the influence of the strong electromagnetic field on the data transmission channel. The wireless power...

  8. Wireless Neural Recording With Single Low-Power Integrated Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reid R.; Kier, Ryan J.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen; Greger, Bradley; Solzbacher, Florian; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2010-01-01

    We present benchtop and in vivo experimental results from an integrated circuit designed for wireless implantable neural recording applications. The chip, which was fabricated in a commercially available 0.6-μm 2P3M BiCMOS process, contains 100 amplifiers, a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 100 threshold-based spike detectors, and a 902–928 MHz frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter. Neural signals from a selected amplifier are sampled by the ADC at 15.7 kSps and telemetered over the FSK wireless data link. Power, clock, and command signals are sent to the chip wirelessly over a 2.765-MHz inductive (coil-to-coil) link. The chip is capable of operating with only two off-chip components: a power/command receiving coil and a 100-nF capacitor. PMID:19497825

  9. Wireless neural recording with single low-power integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reid R; Kier, Ryan J; Chestek, Cynthia A; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen; Greger, Bradley; Solzbacher, Florian; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2009-08-01

    We present benchtop and in vivo experimental results from an integrated circuit designed for wireless implantable neural recording applications. The chip, which was fabricated in a commercially available 0.6- mum 2P3M BiCMOS process, contains 100 amplifiers, a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 100 threshold-based spike detectors, and a 902-928 MHz frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter. Neural signals from a selected amplifier are sampled by the ADC at 15.7 kSps and telemetered over the FSK wireless data link. Power, clock, and command signals are sent to the chip wirelessly over a 2.765-MHz inductive (coil-to-coil) link. The chip is capable of operating with only two off-chip components: a power/command receiving coil and a 100-nF capacitor.

  10. Invisible Bridges: Wireless Technology Links Minds over Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Eight years after Chief Sitting Bull, prophetic chief of the Great Sioux Nation, was assassinated in 1890, Guglielmo Marconi transmitted the first wireless telegraph signals across the Atlantic to England. Although these two events seem unrelated, the names of these two men of vision are linked together today by Marconi's wireless invention. Data,…

  11. Consistent sensor, relay, and link selection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Valles, M.D.R.; Simonetto, A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, where energy is scarce, it is inefficient to have all nodes active because they consume a non-negligible amount of battery. In this paper we consider the problem of jointly selecting sensors, relays and links in a wireless sensor network where the active sensors need

  12. Practical applications of radiative wireless power transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflug, H.; Visser, H.J.; Keyrouz, S.

    2015-01-01

    For practical use of radiative wireless power transfer (WPT), it is necessary to design a system which is able to supply circuits with a dynamic loading characteristic. In this paper we present a practical way to obtain efficiency and dc output power characteristics of a WPT system. An Avago

  13. Free positioning for inductive wireless power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In inductive wireless power transmission system a lateral displacement of the receiver coil to the transmitter coil leads to a change ofthe coupling factor and thus an unwanted variation of the power transfer. Here, an algorithm to determine the turn distribution to achieve homogeneous coupling

  14. TULIP: A Link-Level Protocol for Improving TCP over Wireless Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Christina; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    1999-01-01

    We present the transport unaware link improvement protocol (TULIP), which dramatically improves the performance of TCP over lossy wireless links, without competing with or modifying the transport- or network-layer protocols...

  15. Wireless power delivery for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David C; Williams, Chris E; Allen, Penny J; Bai, Shun; Boyd, Clive S; Meffin, Hamish; Halpern, Mark E; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Delivering power to an implanted device located deep inside the body is not trivial. This problem is made more challenging if the implanted device is in constant motion. This paper describes two methods of transferring power wirelessly by means of magnetic induction coupling. In the first method, a pair of transmit and receive coils is used for power transfer over a large distance (compared to their diameter). In the second method, an intermediate pair of coils is inserted in between transmit and receive coils. Comparison between the power transfer efficiency with and without the intermediate coils shows power transfer efficiency to be 11.5 % and 8.8 %, respectively. The latter method is especially suitable for powering implanted devices in the eye due to immunity to movements of the eye and ease of surgery. Using this method, we have demonstrated wireless power delivery into an animal eye.

  16. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality

  17. Transmission Delay Based Control over Networks with Wireless Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the mobility of computers during communication, the TCP connections between fixed host and mobile host may often traverse wired and wireless networks, and the recovery of losses due to wireless transmission error is much different from congestion control. The paper analyzes the side effect of RTT estimation while making the TCP source to handle congestion and wireless error losses properly. Then present a strategy using information feedback by the last hop acknowledgement and monitoring the queuing level of the wired bottleneck link by calculating the changes in transmission delay along the path. With the identification of the early stage of congestion, it can respond to wired congestion quickly while keeping wireless link more reliable, and make TCP react to the different packets losses more appropriately.

  18. Frequency-division multiplexer and demultiplexer for terahertz wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Karl, Nicholas J; Bretin, Sara; Ducournau, Guillaume; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2017-09-28

    The development of components for terahertz wireless communications networks has become an active and growing research field. However, in most cases these components have been studied using a continuous or broadband-pulsed terahertz source, not using a modulated data stream. This limitation may mask important aspects of the performance of the device in a realistic system configuration. We report the characterization of one such device, a frequency multiplexer, using modulated data at rates up to 10 gigabits per second. We also demonstrate simultaneous error-free transmission of two signals at different carrier frequencies, with an aggregate data rate of 50 gigabits per second. We observe that the far-field spatial variation of the bit error rate is different from that of the emitted power, due to a small nonuniformity in the angular detection sensitivity. This is likely to be a common feature of any terahertz communication system in which signals propagate as diffracting beams not omnidirectional broadcasts.There is growing interest in the development of components to facilitate wireless communications in the terahertz but the characterization of these systems involve an unmodulated input. Here the authors demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams in the terahertz range using a real data link.

  19. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  20. Power Control and Coding Formulation for State Estimation with Wireless Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan; Ahlen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    efficient communication. In this paper, we examine the role of power control and coding for Kalman filtering over wireless correlated channels. Two estimation architectures are considered; initially, the sensors send their measurements directly to a single gateway (GW). Next, wireless relay nodes provide...... additional links. The GW decides on the coding scheme and the transmitter power levels of the wireless nodes. The decision process is carried out online and adapts to varying channel conditions to improve the tradeoff between state estimation accuracy and energy expenditure. In combination with predictive......Technological advances made wireless sensors cheap and reliable enough to be brought into industrial use. A major challenge arises from the fact that wireless channels introduce random packet dropouts. Power control and coding are key enabling technologies in wireless communications to ensure...

  1. Architectural analysis for wirelessly powered computing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapoor, A.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a design framework for wirelessly powered generic computing platforms that takes into account various system parameters in response to a time-varying energy source. These parameters are the charging profile of the energy source, computing speed (fclk), digital supply voltage (VDD), energy

  2. Wireless Power Transfer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gabriel Vazquez; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an implementation for magnetic resonance wireless power transfer for space applications. The analysis includes an equivalent impedance study, loop material characterization, source/load resonance coupling technique, and system response behavior due to loads variability. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit design from analytical equations and simulations using Matlab and SPICE. The theory was validated by a combination of different experiments that includes loop material consideration, resonance coupling circuits considerations, electric loads considerations and a small scale proof-of-concept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The prototype provided about 4.5 W of power to the load at a separation of -5 cm from the source using a power amplifier rated for 7 W.

  3. Impact of a half-space interface on the wireless link between tiny sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penkin, D.; Janssen, G.; Yarovoy, A.

    2014-01-01

    The power budget of a wireless link between two electrically small sensor nodes located close to an interface between two media is studied. The model includes both the propagation channel losses and input impedance of the radio frequency antennas. It is shown that a highly inductive half-space

  4. Transitionless quantum driving based wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Koushik; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2017-01-01

    Shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) techniques have the potential to drive a system beyond the adiabatic limits. Here, we present a robust and efficient method for wireless power transfer (WPT) between two coils based on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm. We show that it is possible to transfer power between the coils significantly fast compared to its adiabatic counterpart. The scheme is fairly robust against the variations in the coupling strength and the coupling dist...

  5. Magnetic resonance for wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, SYR

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance has been a cornerstone of nonradiative wireless power transfer (WPT) since the late 19th century. However, some researchers have the misconception that magnetic resonance for WPT was developed recently. This article traces some early work of Tesla and other researchers related to the use of magnetic resonance in WPT. Included are some examples of magnetic resonance-based WPT projects conducted by researchers in the biomedical and power electronics communities over the last ...

  6. Midfield wireless powering of subwavelength autonomous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghoek; Ho, John S; Poon, Ada S Y

    2013-05-17

    We obtain an analytical bound on the efficiency of wireless power transfer to a weakly coupled device. The optimal source is solved for a multilayer geometry in terms of a representation based on the field equivalence principle. The theory reveals that optimal power transfer exploits the properties of the midfield to achieve efficiencies far greater than conventional coil-based designs. As a physical realization of the source, we present a slot array structure whose performance closely approaches the theoretical bound.

  7. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mude, Kishore Naik

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems transfer electric energy from a source to a load without any wired connection. WPTs are attractive for many industrial applications because of their advantages compared to the wired counterpart, such as no exposed wires, ease of charging, and fearless transmission of power in adverse environmental conditions. Adoption of WPTs to charge the on-board batteries of an electric vehicle (EV) has got attention from some companies, and efforts are being made for ...

  8. Indoor Wireless RF Energy Transfer for Powering Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Visser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For powering wireless sensors in buildings, rechargeable batteries may be used. These batteries will be recharged remotely by dedicated RF sources. Far-field RF energy transport is known to suffer from path loss and therefore the RF power available on the rectifying antenna or rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna will also be very low. By optimizing not only the subsystems of a rectenna but also taking the propagation channel into account and using the channel information for adapting the transmit antenna radiation pattern, the RF energy transport efficiency will be improved. The rectenna optimization, channel modeling and design of a transmit antenna are discussed.

  9. Wireless powering for low-power distributed sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoya B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the field of wireless powering is presented with an emphasis on low-power applications. Several rectenna elements and arrays are discussed in more detail: (1 a 10-GHz array for powering sensors in aircraft wings; (2 a single antenna in the 2.4-GHz ISM band for low-power assisted-living sensors; and (3 a broadband array for power harvesting in the 2-18GHz frequency range.

  10. Optical wireless link between a nanoscale antenna and a transducing rectenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arindam; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Buret, Mickaël; Cazier, Nicolas; Colas-des-Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2018-05-18

    Initiated as a cable-replacement solution, short-range wireless power transfer has rapidly become ubiquitous in the development of modern high-data throughput networking in centimeter to meter accessibility range. Wireless technology is now penetrating a higher level of system integration for chip-to-chip and on-chip radiofrequency interconnects. However, standard CMOS integrated millimeter-wave antennas have typical size commensurable with the operating wavelength, and are thus an unrealistic solution for downsizing transmitters and receivers to the micrometer and nanometer scale. Herein, we demonstrate a light-in and electrical signal-out, on-chip wireless near-infrared link between a 220 nm optical antenna and a sub-nanometer rectifying antenna converting the transmitted optical energy into direct electrical current. The co-integration of subwavelength optical functional devices with electronic transduction offers a disruptive solution to interface photons and electrons at the nanoscale for on-chip wireless optical interconnects.

  11. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  12. Radial transfer of tracking data with wireless links

    CERN Document Server

    Pelikan, Daniel; Brenner, Richard; Dancila, Dragos; Gustafsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Wireless data transfer has revolutionized the consumer mar ket for the last decade giving products equipped with transmitters and receiver for wireless data t ransfer. Wireless technology has fea- tures attractive for data transfer in future tracking detec tors. The removal of wires and connectors for data links is certainly beneficial both for the material b udget and the reliability of the system. One other advantage is the freedom of routing signals which t oday is particularly complicated when bringing the data the first 50 cm outside the tracker. Wit h wireless links intelligence can be built into a tracker by introducing communication betwee n tracking layers within a Region Of Interest which would allow the construction of track primit ives in real time. The wireless signal is transmitted by a passive antenna structure which is a radiat ion hard and much less complex object than an optical link. Due to the requirement of high data rate s in detectors a high bandwidth is required. The frequency band aro...

  13. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F., E-mail: mohamad.imani@gmail.com [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  14. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency

  15. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  16. IO-Link Wireless enhanced factory automation communication for Industry 4.0 applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heynicke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the Industry 4.0 initiative, Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS or Cyber Manufacturing Systems (CMS can be characterized as advanced networked mechatronic production systems gaining their added value by interaction with the ambient Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT. In this context appropriate communication technologies and standards play a vital role to realize the manifold potential improvements in the production process. One of these standards is IO-Link. In 2016 more than 5 million IO-Link nodes have been produced and delivered, still gaining increasing acceptance for the communication between sensors, actuators and the control level. The steadily increasing demand for more flexibility in automation solutions can be fulfilled using wireless technologies. With the wireless extension for the IO-Link standard, which will be presented in this article, maximum cycle times of 5 ms can be achieved with a probability that this limit will be exceeded to be at maximum one part per billion. Also roaming capabilities, wireless coexistence mechanisms and the possibility to include battery-powered or energy-harvesting sensors with very limited energy resources in the realtime network were defined. For system planning, setup, operation and maintenance, the standard engineering tools of IO-Link can be employed so that the backward compatibility with wired IO-Link solutions can be guaranteed. Interoperability between manufacturers is a key requirement for any communication standard, thus a procedure for IO-Link Wireless testing is also suggested.

  17. Dynamic impedance compensation for wireless power transfer using conjugate power

    OpenAIRE

    Suqi Liu; Jianping Tan; Xue Wen

    2018-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) via coupled magnetic resonances has been in development for over a decade. However, the frequency splitting phenomenon occurs in the over-coupled region. Thus, the output power of the two-coil system achieves the maximum output power at the two splitting angular frequencies, and not at the natural resonant angular frequency. According to the maximum power transfer theorem, the impedance compensation method was adopted in many WPT projects. However, it remains a c...

  18. Different Frequencies between Power and Efficiency in Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afnan, Habibi; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been recognized as a common power transfer method because it transfers electric power without any cable from source to the load. One of the physical principle of WPT is the law of electromagnetic induction, and the WPT system is driven by alternative current power source under specific frequency. The frequency that provides maximum gain between voltages or currents is called resonance frequency. On the other hand, some studies about WPT said that resonance fr...

  19. Microwave Photonics Techniques Supporting Flexible Wireless Communications Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    Wireless data communication links supporting the next generation 5G and beyond mobile networking face a set of engineering challenges related to the mandatory operation at mmw and higher frequency bands, provide capacities above 10 Gb/s, satisfy latency, robustness, flexibility and low complexity...

  20. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Logistic Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Marojahan Tampubolon; Laskar Pamungkas; Huang-Jen Chiu; Yu-Chen Liu; Yao-Ching Hsieh

    2018-01-01

    The prospect of using robots in warehouses or supply chain processes is increasing due to the growth of the online retail market. This logistic robot is available in the market and uses a battery as energy storage device. However, this battery is large and heavy. Therefore, it needs a long recharging time. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT) can be an alternative to the conventional charging system because of its safety and flexibility that enables in motion charging. DWPT reduces the batt...

  1. RF Wireless Power Transfer: Regreening Future Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ha-Vu; Kaddoum, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Green radio communication is an emerging topic since the overall footprint of information and communication technology (ICT) services is predicted to triple between 2007 and 2020. Given this research line, energy harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer (WPT) networks can be evaluated as promising approaches. In this paper, an overview of recent trends for future green networks on the platforms of EH and WPT is provided. By rethinking the application of radio frequency (RF)-WPT, a new conc...

  2. Wireless-powered electroactive soft microgripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hau Ran; Teo, Choon Yee; Leow, Pei Ling; Lai, Koon Chun; Chee, Pei Song

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a wireless powered single active finger ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) based microgripper that is operated using external radio-frequency (RF) magnetic field for biological cell manipulation application. A unimorph-like active finger is fabricated by integrating the IPMC actuator to the planar resonant LC receiver and DC rectifier circuits (made of flexible double-sided copper clad polyimide). The finger activated when the device is exposed to the external magnetic field generated by transmitter circuit that matches the resonant frequency of LC receiver circuit, ∼13.6 MHz in magnetic resonant coupling power transfer mechanism. The fabricated prototype shows a maximum IPMC deflection of 0.765 mm (activation force of 0.17 mN) at the RF power of 0.65 W with 3.5 VDC supplied from the LC receiver circuit. Three repeated ON-OFF wireless activation cycle was performed with the reported cumulative deflection of 0.57 mm. The cumulative deflection was increased to 1.17 mm, 1.19 mm and 1.24 mm for three different samples respectively at 5 VDC supplied. As a proof of concept, fish egg was used to represent the biological cell manipulation operation. The microgripper successfully gripped the fish egg sample without any damages. The experiments result validates the effectiveness of wireless RF soft microgripper towards the target application.

  3. Wireless power transfer: control algorithm to transfer the maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Urbano, Javier Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This job is developed as part of “Health aware enhanced range wireless power transfer systems", known as ETHER. It is a cooperation project where Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC) research groups are mainly involved. ETHER objective is to develop a wireless power transfer system for medical applications, specifically a pacemaker charger to improve patient’s lifestyle decreasing the number of required operations to replace pacemaker batter...

  4. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5

  5. Optical wireless links with enhanced linearity and selectivity [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Roger J.; Sweet, C.; Idrus, S.

    2005-10-01

    Optical wireless is an attractive medium as an alternative to optical fiber communications, and also to RF, because of its high bandwidth and relative ease of use, especially when it comes to deployment in new physical situations. We describe an optical wireless link approach that offers a performance that gives analog transmission with significantly reduced distortion levels and enhanced reception sensitivity by combining a novel hybrid detector-amplifier technique. Reduction of distortion by 40 dB and improvement in sensitivity of 20-30 dB is possible, using the techniques described.

  6. Link-quality measurement and reporting in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Abdellah; Jeon, Gwanggil; Choi, Byoungjo

    2013-03-04

    Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  7. Link-Quality Measurement and Reporting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjo Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  8. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-09-22

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage probability and optimal power allocation optimizing the system throughput/outage probability. Finally, we complement the FSO link with an additional radio frequency (RF) link to create a hybrid RF-FSO system and reduce the system outage probability. The results show that joint implementation of the RF and FSO links leads to considerable performance improvement, compared to the cases with only FSO-based communication.

  9. Waveform design for wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Clerckx, B; Bayguzina, E

    2016-01-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity ...

  10. Broadband nanophotonic wireless links and networks using on-chip integrated plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanqing; Li, Qiang; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-19

    Owing to their high capacity and flexibility, broadband wireless communications have been widely employed in radio and microwave regimes, playing indispensable roles in our daily life. Their optical analogs, however, have not been demonstrated at the nanoscale. In this paper, by exploiting plasmonic nanoantennas, we demonstrate the complete design of broadband wireless links and networks in the realm of nanophotonics. With a 100-fold enhancement in power transfer superior to previous designs as well as an ultrawide bandwidth that covers the entire telecommunication wavelength range, such broadband nanolinks and networks are expected to pave the way for future optical integrated nanocircuits.

  11. Transmit Power Optimisation in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Terziu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmit power optimisation in wireless networks based on beamforming have emerged as a promising technique to enhance the spectrum efficiency of present and future wireless communication systems. The aim of this study is to minimise the access point power consumption in cellular networks while maintaining a targeted quality of service (QoS for the mobile terminals. In this study, the targeted quality of service is delivered to a mobile station by providing a desired level of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR. Base-stations are coordinated across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system. This study focuses on a multi-cell multi-antenna downlink scenario where each mobile user is equipped with a single antenna, but where multiple mobile users may be active simultaneously in each cell and are separated via spatial multiplexing using beamforming. The design criteria is to minimize the total weighted transmitted power across the base-stations subject to SINR constraints at the mobile users. The main contribution of this study is to define an iterative algorithm that is capable of finding the joint optimal beamformers for all basestations, based on a correlation-based channel model, the full-correlation model. Among all correlated channel models, the correlated channel model used in this study is the most accurate, giving the best performance in terms of power consumption. The environment here in this study is chosen to be Non-Light of- Sight (NLOS condition, where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. Moreover there are many scatterers local to the mobile, and multiple reflections can occur among them before energy arrives at the mobile. The proposed algorithm is based on uplink-downlink duality using the Lagrangian duality theory. Time-Division Duplex (TDD is chosen as the platform for this study since it has been adopted to the latest technologies in Fourth

  12. Millimeter Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for High-Speed Wireless Access and Mobile Fronthaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon

    As the introduction of the fifth generation of mobile services (5G) is set to revolutionize the way people, devices and machines connect, the changes to the underlying networks and technologies are no less drastic. The massive increase in user and data capacity, as well as the decrease in latency...... networks. In summary, the work presented in this thesis has regarded a multitude of aspects of millimeter wave hybrid photonic wireless links, expanding upon the state of the art and showing their feasibility for use in fifth generation mobile and high speed wireless access networks – hopefully bringing...

  13. Robust optical wireless links over turbulent media using diversity solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hassan

    Free-space optic (FSO) technology, i.e., optical wireless communication (OWC), is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency (RF) in many aspects. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems and provide secure, jam-free communication. FSO is license-free and delivers high-speed data rates in the order of Gigabits. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. visible light communication (VLC), for high-speed, secure, indoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 standard. However, conventional optical wireless links demand precise optical alignment and suffer from atmospheric turbulence. When compared with RF, they suffer a low degree of reliability and lack robustness. Pointing errors cause optical transceiver misalignment, adversely affecting system reliability. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence causes irradiance fluctuations and beam broadening of transmitted light. Innovative solutions to overcome limitations on the exploitation of high-speed optical wireless links are greatly needed. Spatial diversity is known to improve RF wireless communication systems. Similar diversity approaches can be adapted for FSO systems to improve its reliability and robustness; however, careful diversity design is needed since FSO apertures typically remain unbalanced as a result of FSO system sensitivity to misalignment. Conventional diversity combining schemes require persistent aperture monitoring and repetitive switching, thus increasing FSO implementation complexities. Furthermore, current RF diversity combining schemes may not be optimized to address the issue of unbalanced FSO receiving apertures. This dissertation investigates two efficient diversity combining schemes for multi-receiving FSO systems: switched diversity combining and generalized selection combining. Both can be exploited to reduce complexity and improve combining efficiency. Unlike maximum

  14. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C

    2011-01-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  15. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  16. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  17. Achievable qualitative parameters of optical wireless links

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolka, Z.; Wilfert, O.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2007), s. 2419-2423 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free-space optical link * Transmission of atmosphere * Optical communication Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007 http://inoe.inoe.ro/joam/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=838&catid=16

  18. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  19. Energy neutral and low power wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Oner

    Wireless sensor nodes are typically designed to have low cost and small size. These design objectives impose restrictions on the capacity and efficiency of the transceiver components and energy storage units that can be used. As a result, energy becomes a bottleneck and continuous operation of the sensor network requires frequent battery replacements, increasing the maintenance cost. Energy harvesting and energy efficient transceiver architectures are able to overcome these challenges by collecting energy from the environment and utilizing the energy in an intelligent manner. However, due to the nature of the ambient energy sources, the amount of useful energy that can be harvested is limited and unreliable. Consequently, optimal management of the harvested energy and design of low power transceivers pose new challenges for wireless network design and operation. The first part of this dissertation is on energy neutral wireless networking, where optimal transmission schemes under different system setups and objectives are investigated. First, throughput maximization for energy harvesting two-hop networks with decode-and-forward half-duplex relays is studied. For a system with two parallel relays, various combinations of the following four transmission modes are considered: Broadcast from the source, multi-access from the relays, and successive relaying phases I and II. Next, the energy cost of the processing circuitry as well as the transmission energy are taken into account for communication over a broadband fading channel powered by an energy harvesting transmitter. Under this setup, throughput maximization, energy maximization, and transmission completion time minimization problems are studied. Finally, source and channel coding for an energy-limited wireless sensor node is investigated under various energy constraints including energy harvesting, processing and sampling costs. For each objective, optimal transmission policies are formulated as the solutions of a

  20. Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.

  1. Distributed Wireless Power Transfer With Energy Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Zhang, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Energy beamforming (EB) is a key technique for achieving efficient radio-frequency (RF) transmission enabled wireless energy transfer (WET). By optimally designing the waveforms from multiple energy transmitters (ETs) over the wireless channels, they can be constructively combined at the energy receiver (ER) to achieve an EB gain that scales with the number of ETs. However, the optimal design of EB waveforms requires accurate channel state information (CSI) at the ETs, which is challenging to obtain practically, especially in a distributed system with ETs at separate locations. In this paper, we study practical and efficient channel training methods to achieve optimal EB in a distributed WET system. We propose two protocols with and without centralized coordination, respectively, where distributed ETs either sequentially or in parallel adapt their transmit phases based on a low-complexity energy feedback from the ER. The energy feedback only depends on the received power level at the ER, where each feedback indicates one particular transmit phase that results in the maximum harvested power over a set of previously used phases. Simulation results show that the two proposed training protocols converge very fast in practical WET systems even with a large number of distributed ETs, while the protocol with sequential ET phase adaptation is also analytically shown to converge to the optimal EB design with perfect CSI by increasing the training time. Numerical results are also provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed distributed EB and training designs as compared to other benchmark schemes.

  2. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  3. Dynamic impedance compensation for wireless power transfer using conjugate power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqi; Tan, Jianping; Wen, Xue

    2018-02-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) via coupled magnetic resonances has been in development for over a decade. However, the frequency splitting phenomenon occurs in the over-coupled region. Thus, the output power of the two-coil system achieves the maximum output power at the two splitting angular frequencies, and not at the natural resonant angular frequency. According to the maximum power transfer theorem, the impedance compensation method was adopted in many WPT projects. However, it remains a challenge to achieve the maximum output power and transmission efficiency in a fixed-frequency mode. In this study, dynamic impedance compensation for WPT was presented by utilizing the compensator within a virtual three-coil WPT system. First, the circuit model was established and transfer characteristics of a system were studied by utilizing circuit theories. Second, the power superposition of the WPT system was carefully researched. When a pair of compensating coils was inserted into the transmitter loop, the conjugate power of the compensator loop was created via magnetic coupling of the two compensating coils that insert into the transmitter loop. The mechanism for dynamic impedance compensation for wireless power transfer was then provided by investigating a virtual three-coil WPT system. Finally, the experimental circuit of a virtual three-coil WPT system was designed, and experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis, which achieves the maximum output power and transmission efficiency.

  4. Dynamic impedance compensation for wireless power transfer using conjugate power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suqi Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT via coupled magnetic resonances has been in development for over a decade. However, the frequency splitting phenomenon occurs in the over-coupled region. Thus, the output power of the two-coil system achieves the maximum output power at the two splitting angular frequencies, and not at the natural resonant angular frequency. According to the maximum power transfer theorem, the impedance compensation method was adopted in many WPT projects. However, it remains a challenge to achieve the maximum output power and transmission efficiency in a fixed-frequency mode. In this study, dynamic impedance compensation for WPT was presented by utilizing the compensator within a virtual three-coil WPT system. First, the circuit model was established and transfer characteristics of a system were studied by utilizing circuit theories. Second, the power superposition of the WPT system was carefully researched. When a pair of compensating coils was inserted into the transmitter loop, the conjugate power of the compensator loop was created via magnetic coupling of the two compensating coils that insert into the transmitter loop. The mechanism for dynamic impedance compensation for wireless power transfer was then provided by investigating a virtual three-coil WPT system. Finally, the experimental circuit of a virtual three-coil WPT system was designed, and experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis, which achieves the maximum output power and transmission efficiency.

  5. Self Adaptive Safe Provisioning of Wireless Power Using DCOPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C.J. van; Yildirim, K.S.; Pawelczak, P.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technologies aim at getting rid of cables used by consumer devices for energy provision. As long distance WPT is becoming mature, the health impact of WPT becomes increasingly important to consider. In this paper we look at how to maximize the wireless power transfer to

  6. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongseog

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment

  7. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  8. Adapting cognitive radio technology for low-power wireless personal area network devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Rohde, John

    2011-01-01

    The application of wireless personal area network (WPAN) and simple point-to-point wireless communication devices has increased drastically both in private household and in our workspaces in general over the last decade. Combined with the fact that the total number of wireless devices...... and associated standards present in the wireless environment is experiencing an extreme growth, the frequency spectrum scarcity is exposed as a severe challenge. Setting up efficient and reliable wireless WPAN links can be challenging even today. This is especially true because of the intensive use...... discusses the challenges associated with the implementation of highly reliable low-power WPAN networks for the future and the adaption of Cognitive Radio technology as a potential solution. A brief status on the maturity of CR technology will be presented as an integral part of this discussion....

  9. High Power Wireless Transfer : For Charging High Power Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Himmat

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is developing with emerging of new technologies that has made it possible to transfer electricity over certain distances without any physical contact, offering significant benefits to modern automation systems, medical applications, consumer electronic, and especially in electric vehicle systems. The goal of this study is to provide a brief review of existing compensation topologies for the loosely coupled transformer. The technique used to simulate a co...

  10. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Guobing; Chen, Jiaoliao; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic

  11. Power control in wireless sensor networks with variable interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Syed, A.A.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counterproductive

  12. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  13. Wirelessly powered sensor networks and computational RFID

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP) is the first of a new class of RF-powered sensing and computing systems.  Rather than being powered by batteries, these sensor systems are powered by radio waves that are either deliberately broadcast or ambient.  Enabled by ongoing exponential improvements in the energy efficiency of microelectronics, RF-powered sensing and computing is rapidly moving along a trajectory from impossible (in the recent past), to feasible (today), toward practical and commonplace (in the near future). This book is a collection of key papers on RF-powered sensing and computing systems including the WISP.  Several of the papers grew out of the WISP Challenge, a program in which Intel Corporation donated WISPs to academic applicants who proposed compelling WISP-based projects.  The book also includes papers presented at the first WISP Summit, a workshop held in Berkeley, CA in association with the ACM Sensys conference, as well as other relevant papers. The book provides ...

  14. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Showail, Ahmad; Levis, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  15. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  16. Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication Using Synchronous Pulse-Controlled Load Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Chunbo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-10-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and wireless data communication are both important problems of research with various applications, especially in medicine. However, these two problems are usually studied separately. In this work, we present a joint study of both problems. Most medical electronic devices, such as smart implants, must have both a power supply to allow continuous operation and a communication link to pass information. Traditionally, separate wireless channels for power transfer and communication are utilized, which complicate the system structure, increase power consumption and make device miniaturization difficult. A more effective approach is to use a single wireless link with both functions of delivering power and passing information. We present a design of such a wireless link in which power and data travel in opposite directions. In order to aggressively miniaturize the implant and reduce power consumption, we eliminate the traditional multi-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), digital memory and data transmission circuits all together. Instead, we use a pulse stream, which is obtained from the original biological signal, by a sigma-delta converter and an edge detector, to alter the load properties of the WPT channel. The resulting WPT signal is synchronized with the load changes therefore requiring no memory elements to record inter-pulse intervals. We take advantage of the high sensitivity of the resonant WPT to the load change, and the system dynamic response is used to transfer each pulse. The transient time of the WPT system is analyzed using the coupling mode theory (CMT). Our experimental results show that the memoryless approach works well for both power delivery and data transmission, providing a new wireless platform for the design of future miniaturized medical implants.

  17. The security energy encryption in wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadzali, M. N.; Ali, A.; Azizan, M. M.; Albreem, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a concept of security in wireless power transfer (WPT) by applying chaos theory. Chaos theory is applied as a security system in order to safeguard the transfer of energy from a transmitter to the intended receiver. The energy encryption of the wireless power transfer utilizes chaos theory to generate the possibility of a logistic map for the chaotic security key. The simulation for energy encryption wireless power transfer system was conducted by using MATLAB and Simulink. By employing chaos theory, the chaotic key ensures the transmission of energy from transmitter to its intended receiver.

  18. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  19. Self-powered wireless disposable sensor for welfare application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douseki, Takakuni; Tanaka, Ami

    2013-01-01

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor consisting of a flexible urine-activated battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The flexible urine-activated battery is embedded in a disposal diaper and makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit supplies the power to a wireless transmitter. A 315-MHz-band wireless transmitter performs low-power operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, we fabricated a prototype sensor system. When 80 cc of urine is poured onto the diaper, the battery outputs a voltage of 1 V; and the sensor can transmit an ID signal over a distance of 5 m.

  20. A wireless acoustic emission sensor remotely powered by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, F; Huang, H

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, wireless sensing of acoustic emission (AE) signals using a battery-free sensor node remotely powered by light is presented. The wireless sensor consists of a piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) for AE signal acquisition and a wireless transponder that performs signal conditioning, frequency conversion, and wireless transmission. For signal conditioning, a voltage follower that consumes less than 2 mW was introduced to buffer the high impedance of the PWAS from the low impedance of the wireless transponder. A photocell-based energy harvester with a stable voltage output was developed to power the voltage follower so that the wireless AE sensor can operate without an external power source. The principle of operation of the battery-free wireless AE sensor node and the sensor interrogation system is described, followed by a detailed description of the hardware implementation. The voltage follower and the wireless channel were characterized by ultrasound pitch–catch and pencil lead break experiments. (paper)

  1. EMI Evaluation on Wireless Computer Devices in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Ki; JI Yeong Hwa; Sung, Chan Ho

    2011-01-01

    Wireless computer devices, for example, mice and keyboards are widely used in various industries. However, I and C (instrumentation and control) equipment in nuclear power plants are very susceptible to the EMI (Electro-magnetic interference) and there are concerns regarding EMI induced transient caused by wireless computer devices which emit electromagnetic waves for communication. In this paper, industrial practices and nuclear related international standards are investigated to verify requirements of wireless devices. In addition, actual measurement and evaluation for the intensity of EMI of some commercially available wireless devices is performed to verify their compatibility in terms of EMI. Finally we suggest an appropriate method of using wireless computer devices in nuclear power plant control rooms for better office circumstances of operators

  2. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Logistic Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Tampubolon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of using robots in warehouses or supply chain processes is increasing due to the growth of the online retail market. This logistic robot is available in the market and uses a battery as energy storage device. However, this battery is large and heavy. Therefore, it needs a long recharging time. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT can be an alternative to the conventional charging system because of its safety and flexibility that enables in motion charging. DWPT reduces the battery requirement size and capacity. Hence the stored energy can be used effectively for load transportation. A compensation with an inductor and two capacitors in the transmitter side, and a series connected capacitor in the receiver side which is named LCC-S compensation type has the capability to maintain the transmitter current with a fixed frequency operation. It provides less variation of the output voltage in response to the load variation. Moreover, the compensation of the receiver side uses only a single series capacitor which is low-cost. The analysis, modeling, and design procedures are discussed in this paper as well as the hardware implementation and verification of a 1.5 kW maximum power DWPT. The experiment shows the capability of the proposed system and shows maximum efficiency can reach 91.02%.

  3. Electrodynamic Wireless Power Transmission to Rotating Magnet Receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Jimenez, J D; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) using a synchronously rotating magnet located in a 3.2 cm 3 receiver. We demonstrate wireless power transmission up to 99 mW (power density equal to 31 mW/cm 3 ) over a 5-cm distance and 5 mW over a 20-cm distance. The maximum operational frequency, and hence maximal output power, is constrained by the magnetic field amplitude. A quadratic relationship is found between the maximal output power and the magnetic field. We also demonstrate simultaneous, power transmission to multiple receivers positioned at different locations

  4. Lifetime Maximizing Adaptive Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Fangting; Shayman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    ...: adaptive power control. They focus on the sensor networks that consist of a sink and a set of homogeneous wireless sensor nodes, which are randomly deployed according to a uniform distribution...

  5. Dynamic power control for wireless backbone mesh networks: a survey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available points of failures, and robust against RF interference, obstacles or power outage. This is because WMRs forming wireless backbone mesh networks (WBMNs) are built on advanced physical technologies. Such nodes perform both accessing and forwarding...

  6. An efficient transmission power control scheme for temperature variation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwook; Chung, Kwangsue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  7. An Efficient Transmission Power Control Scheme for Temperature Variation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwook Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  8. Broadband and High power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-21

    Broadband and High -power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of... available in extremely hostile environments, where FHSS and DSSS are completely defeated by a broadband and high -power reactive jammer. b. Wireless...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS TECHNIQUES IN DATA AND POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATION FOR PARTICLE-PHYSICS DETECTORS

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, R; Dehos, C; De Lurgio, P; Djurcic, Z; Drake, G; Gonzales Gimenez, JL; Gustafsson, L; Kim, DW; Locci, E; Pfeiffer, U; Röhrich, D; Rydberg, D; Schöning, A; Siligaris, A; Soltveit, HK; Ullaland, K; Vincent, P; Vasquez, PR; Wiedner, D; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    In the WADAPT project described in this Letter of Intent, we propose to develop wireless techniques for data and power transmission in particle-physics detectors. Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and are now mature for being considered as a promising alternative to cables and optical links that would revolutionize the detector design. The WADAPT consortium has been formed to identify the specific needs of different projects that might benefit from wireless techniques with the objective of providing a common platform for research and development in order to optimize effectiveness and cost. The proposed R&D will aim at designing and testing wireless demonstrators for large instrumentation systems.

  10. Wireless link and microelectronics design for retinal prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wentai [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    This project focuses on delivering power and data to the artificial retinal implant inside the eye and the implant microstimulator electronics which delivers the current pulses to stimulate the retinal layer to elicit visual perception. Since the use of invasive means such as tethering wires to transmit power and data results in discomfort to the patients which could eventually cause infection due to the abrasion caused by the wire and contact of the internals of the eye to the external environment, a completely wireless approach is used to transfer both power and data. Power is required inside the eye for the microelectronic implant which uses a dual voltage supply scheme (positive and negative) to deliver biphasic (anodic and cathodic) current pulses. Data in the form of digital bits from the data transmitter external to the eye, carries information about the amplitude, phase width, interphase delay, stimulation sequence for each implant electrode. The data receiver unit decodes the digital stream and the microstimulator unit generates the appropriate current stimuli. Since the external unit consisting of the power transmitter can experience coupling a variation with the power receiver due to the patient’s movements, a closed loop approach is used which varies the transmitted power dynamically to automatically compensate for such movements. This report presents the salient features of this research activities and results.

  11. Distributed and Cooperative Link Scheduling for Large-Scale Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swami Ananthram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed and cooperative link-scheduling (DCLS algorithm is introduced for large-scale multihop wireless networks. With this algorithm, each and every active link in the network cooperatively calibrates its environment and converges to a desired link schedule for data transmissions within a time frame of multiple slots. This schedule is such that the entire network is partitioned into a set of interleaved subnetworks, where each subnetwork consists of concurrent cochannel links that are properly separated from each other. The desired spacing in each subnetwork can be controlled by a tuning parameter and the number of time slots specified for each frame. Following the DCLS algorithm, a distributed and cooperative power control (DCPC algorithm can be applied to each subnetwork to ensure a desired data rate for each link with minimum network transmission power. As shown consistently by simulations, the DCLS algorithm along with a DCPC algorithm yields significant power savings. The power savings also imply an increased feasible region of averaged link data rates for the entire network.

  12. Distributed and Cooperative Link Scheduling for Large-Scale Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthram Swami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A distributed and cooperative link-scheduling (DCLS algorithm is introduced for large-scale multihop wireless networks. With this algorithm, each and every active link in the network cooperatively calibrates its environment and converges to a desired link schedule for data transmissions within a time frame of multiple slots. This schedule is such that the entire network is partitioned into a set of interleaved subnetworks, where each subnetwork consists of concurrent cochannel links that are properly separated from each other. The desired spacing in each subnetwork can be controlled by a tuning parameter and the number of time slots specified for each frame. Following the DCLS algorithm, a distributed and cooperative power control (DCPC algorithm can be applied to each subnetwork to ensure a desired data rate for each link with minimum network transmission power. As shown consistently by simulations, the DCLS algorithm along with a DCPC algorithm yields significant power savings. The power savings also imply an increased feasible region of averaged link data rates for the entire network.

  13. Wireless energy transfer: Dielectric lens antennas for beam shaping in wireless power-transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho, Nuno B.; Pinho, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    In the current contest of wireless systems, the last frontier remains the cut of the power cord. In that sense, the interest over wireless energy transfer technologies in the past years has grown exponentially. However, there are still many challenges to be overcome in order to enable wireless energy transfer full potential. One of the focus in the development of such systems is the design of very-high-gain, highly efficient, antennas that can compensate for the propagation loss of radio signals over the air. In this paper, we explore the design and manufacturing process of dielectric lenses, fabricated using a professional-grade desktop 3D printer. Lens antennas are used in order to increase beam efficiency and therefore maximize the efficiency of a wireless power-transfer system operating at microwave frequencies in the Ku band. Measurements of two fabricated prototypes showcase a large directivity, as predicted with simulations. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  15. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad MARSIC; Alessandro GIULIANO; Meiling ZHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimiza...

  16. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  17. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  18. Predictive power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Syed, Aly; Mocanu, D.C.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are affected by dynamic environments, variable signal fluctuations and interference. Thus, prompt actions are necessary to achieve dependable communications and meet quality of service requirements. To this end, the reactive algorithms used in

  19. Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.

  20. Experimental Performance Analysis of Wireless Links for Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless networking is currently being deployed for various applications. However, the application of wireless networking in healthcare remains a challenge mainly because of security and reliability concerns. This paper presents experimental results of performance analysis of a wireless network for healthcare application ...

  1. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  2. Proceedings of Wireless Technology in the Electric Power Industry Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A one-day workshop was conducted at EPRI Charlotte to identify technology issues related to wireless technology in nuclear power plants. The meeting concluded with a roundtable discussion to determine what projects could be conducted to address opportunities and gaps in this technology; the three projects recommended for further investigation were a risk analysis, development of a technology strategy, and development of guidelines for reliable implementation of wireless technologies. The Proceedings CD includes workshop presentations in PowerPoint format. The presentations cover the following topics: (1) Wireless Project at TXU: Integration of Voice, Data, and Video; (2) Radio Upgrade Project at Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE and G) of New Jersey; and (3) Operational Experience with Wireless Communication at Nuclear Plants

  3. The promises and prospects of worldwide wireless power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voorhies, K.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The promise of worldwide wireless power transfer began with the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago. His principal approach is summarized. The viability of such a system must still be demonstrated and many questions remain. Potentially, a wireless system can transfer power more efficiently and flexibly, especially to and from remote regions. This paper includes principle elements of worldwide wireless power transfer: the source: an oscillator/transmitter, the path: the cavity bounded by the earth and the ionosphere, and the receiver: a means of extracting power from the path. The system transfers and stores energy via the resonance modes of the cavity. The key challenges facing demonstration of technical feasibility are in finding an efficient means of coupling power into and out of the earth-ionosphere cavity, and in devising a feasible receiver that is both small and efficient. Along with demonstrating technical feasibility, new research must consider safety, environmental impact, susceptibility to weather, and effects on weather

  4. Optimization of passive low power wireless electromagnetic energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimo, Antwi; Grgić, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M

    2012-10-11

    This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor) resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at -30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna) is built and tested for receiving range performance.

  5. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Guo, Yujian; Oubei, Hassan M; Ng, Tien Khee; Liu, Guangyu; Park, Ki-Hong; Ho, Kang-Ting; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-10-31

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (~10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  6. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 15 Gbps data rate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-10-24

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (∼10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  7. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 15 Gbps data rate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Guo, Yong; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Liu, Guangyu; Park, Kihong; Ho, Kang-Ting; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (∼10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  8. Power Versus Bandwidth Efficiency in Wireless Communication: The Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtman, Jos; Hanzo, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of a range of wireless network efficiency considerations. Firstly, we explore the properties and the implications of the power- versus bandwidth-efficiency criteria. Secondly, we perform a detailed top-down analysis of a typical commercial wireless network, which emphasizes the inherent differences between the aforementioned two efficiency metrics, while demonstrating that the appropriate choice of the network optimization criterion can have a profound ef...

  9. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  10. mm-Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for Ultra-High Speed Wireless Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Large FCC spectrum allocations for wireless transmission...

  11. Characteristics simulation of wireless power transfer system considering shielding distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Kyeong; Choi, Hyo Sang; Jung, Byung Ik; Jeong, In Sung [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Wireless power transfer technology is using the magnetic resonance recently drawing increased attention. It uses the resonance between transmitter and receiver coils to transfer power. Thus, it can improve the transfer distance and efficiency compared with the existing magnetic induction technique. The authors found from the previous study that the application of the superconductor coil to the magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system improved its efficiency. Its application to real life, however, requires the additional study on the effects of adjacent materials. In this study, the two resonance coils made by superconductor coils were used to aluminum and plastic shielding materials was placed between the coils. S-parameters were analyzed according to the position of the shielding material between the transmitter and receiver coils. As a result, the plastic of shielding material had no effect, but the aluminum of shielding material affected the wireless power transfer due to the shielding effectiveness.

  12. Characteristics simulation of wireless power transfer system considering shielding distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yu Kyeong; Choi, Hyo Sang; Jung, Byung Ik; Jeong, In Sung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transfer technology is using the magnetic resonance recently drawing increased attention. It uses the resonance between transmitter and receiver coils to transfer power. Thus, it can improve the transfer distance and efficiency compared with the existing magnetic induction technique. The authors found from the previous study that the application of the superconductor coil to the magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system improved its efficiency. Its application to real life, however, requires the additional study on the effects of adjacent materials. In this study, the two resonance coils made by superconductor coils were used to aluminum and plastic shielding materials was placed between the coils. S-parameters were analyzed according to the position of the shielding material between the transmitter and receiver coils. As a result, the plastic of shielding material had no effect, but the aluminum of shielding material affected the wireless power transfer due to the shielding effectiveness

  13. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  14. Guidelines for wireless technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Ramesh

    2003-01-01

    As a result of technological breakthroughs, increased demand for the use of wireless technology is common in all industries today, and the electric power industry is no exception. Already, wireless technology has many applications in our industry, including - but not limited to - cellular phone systems, paging systems, two-way radio communication systems, dose management and tracking systems, and operator logs. EPRI has prepared a comprehensive guidelines document to support evaluation of wireless technologies in power plants for integrated (voice/data/video) communication, remote equipment and system monitoring, and to complement an electronic procedures support system (EPSS). The guidelines effort focuses on the development of a rules structure to support the deployment of wireless devices in a plant without compromising continuous, safe, and reliable operation. The guidelines document consists of two volumes. The first volume is introductory in nature and lays out the business case for applying wireless technologies. The intended audience is senior plant management personnel and utility industry executives. This volume contains background information, templates, worksheets, processes, and presentations that will allow internal sponsors to create business cases for piloting wireless projects. The second volume includes guidance on implementation and regulatory issues relevant to plant implementation. It covers the following application areas: implementation of integrated communication capability, equipment monitoring, work quality control, time and knowledge management, and business process automation. It details regulatory issues relevant to the adoption of wireless technology within nuclear power plants and offers guidance on preparing for and executing pilot and implementations of wireless technologies. The paper will cover important aspects on the guidelines. (author)

  15. Designing reliable wireless sensor network for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative method for the monitoring the nuclear power plant. In this field, false detection of the trouble, both 'false negative' and 'false positive' will become a serious problem. In the other hand, since nuclear power plant is such a complicated system, wireless is required for implementing into real field. Considering these backgrounds, we propose a new reliable health monitoring system for nuclear power plant. This is based on an idea, 'a network on a network', such as 'wireless global network' on 'local network with self-maintenance function.' (author)

  16. Research Update: Nanogenerators for self-powered autonomous wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Hinchet, Ronan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Largely distributed networks of sensors based on the small electronics have great potential for health care, safety, and environmental monitoring. However, in order to have a maintenance free and sustainable operation, such wireless sensors have to be self-powered. Among various energies present in our environment, mechanical energy is widespread and can be harvested for powering the sensors. Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been recently introduced for mechanical energy harvesting. Here we introduce the architecture and operational modes of self-powered autonomous wireless sensors. Thereafter, we review the piezoelectric and triboelectric NGs focusing on their working mechanism, structures, strategies, and materials.

  17. NASA Fuel Tank Wireless Power and Signal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Hydro Technologies has developed a custom electronics and mechanical framework for interfacing with off-the-shelf sensors to achieve through barrier sensing solutions. The core project technology relies on Hydro Technologies Wireless Power and Signal Interface (Wi psi) System for transmitting data and power wirelessly using magnetic fields. To accomplish this, Wi psi uses a multi-frequency local magnetic field to produce magnetic fields capable of carrying data and power through almost any material such as metals, seawater, concrete, and air. It will also work through layers of multiple materials.

  18. Ultra low power signal oriented approach for wireless health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). We present the implementation of a novel Wake Up Receiver (WUR) in the context of standardised wireless protocols, in a signal-oriented WBAN environment and present a novel protocol intended for wireless health monitoring (WhMAC). WhMAC is a TDMA-based protocol with very low power consumption. It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level. A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios.

  19. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...... of the radio link power consumption. Based on these description and analysis, we propose power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on the smartphone Nokia N900, which follows a 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSPA data bearers. Further we propose method of parameters selection for 3GPP...... transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on the mobile device....

  20. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, P.; Blaszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  1. A Novel Oscillating Rectenna for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, J. O.; Dickinson, R. M.; Fan, L.; Chang, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new concept for solid state wireless microwave power transmission is presented. A 2.45 GHz rectenna element that was designed for over 85% RF to dc power conversion efficiency has been used to oscillate at 3.3 GHz with an approximate 1% dc to RF conversion efficiency.

  2. Interference mitigation through adaptive power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, M.; Bacchiani, C.; Syed, Aly; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counter-productive

  3. Wireless power transfer inspired by the modern trends in electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina

    2017-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been looking for an effective way to transfer power without wired connections, but the wireless power transfer technology started to attract extensive interest from the industry side only in 2007 when the first smartphone was released and a consumer electronics revolution was triggered. Currently, the modern technology of wireless power transfer already has a rich research and development history as well as outstanding advances in commercialization. This review is focused on the description of distinctive implementations of this technology inspired by the modern trends in electrodynamics. We compare the performances of the power transfer systems based on three kinds of resonators, i.e., metallic coil resonators, dielectric resonators, and cavity mode resonators. We argue that metamaterials and meta-atoms are powerful tools to improve the functionalities and to obtain novel properties of the systems. We review different approaches to enhance the functionality of the wireless power transfer systems including control of the power transfer path and increase of the operation range and efficiency. Various applications of wireless power transfer are discussed and currently available standards are reviewed.

  4. A solar powered wireless computer mouse: industrial design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; Veefkind, M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Silvester, S.

    2009-01-01

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared

  5. Low-power wireless infrared communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, R.; Jong, de L.P.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, wireless infrared transmission has entered our homes, offices, industry and health care, with applications in the field of remote control, telemetry, and local communication. This book is about the underlying technology. As it is an outgrowth of my Ph.D. thesis, the emphasis is on fundamental

  6. Low complexity source and channel coding for mm-wave hybrid fiber-wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of channel and source coding applied for an experimentally realized hybrid fiber-wireless W-band link. Error control coding performance is presented for a wireless propagation distance of 3 m and 20 km fiber transmission. We report on peak signal-to-noise ratio perfor...

  7. Simulative Analysis of Inter-Satellite Optical Wireless Communication (IsOWC) Link with EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab; Singh, Navpreet

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, simulative analysis and performance comparison of different EDFA (Erbium-doped fiber amplifier) configurations in a 10 Gbps inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) link have been reported for a 5,000 km long link and 1,550 nm operating wavelength. The results show that system in which both pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stages are implemented simultaneously outperforms systems with only pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stage. From the results, it can be seen that by deploying a transmission power level of 15 dBm, a link distance of 9,600 km can be achieved with a quality factor of 6.01 dB and BER (Bit error rate) of 1.07×10-9. Also, in this paper, the performance of an 8×7 Gbps WDM-IsOWC link has been reported. The results show that by using both EDFA pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stages, a link distance of 8,000 km for each channel is achievable with desired performance levels (Q≥6 and BER≤10-9). Also, the effect of channel spacing on the performance of WDM-IsOWC link is investigated. The results show that the received signal has acceptable performance levels when the channel spacing is 100 GHz but when the channel spacing is reduced to 80 GHz, the quality of the received signal degrades and link distance decreases.

  8. A Survey on Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, T. D. P.; Jayakody, D. N. K.; De, S.; Ivanov, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study related to simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in different types of wireless communication setups. Harvesting energy using SWIPT is an appealing solution in the context of extending battery life of wireless devices for a fully sustainable communication system. Strong signal power increases power transfer, but also causes more interference in information transfer, causing realization of the SWIPT challenging problem. This article provides an overview of technical evolution of SWIPT. A survey and qualitative comparison of the existing SWIPT schemes is provided to demonstrate their limitations in the current and 5G networks. Open challenges are emphasized and guidelines are provided to adapt the existing schemes in order to overcome these limitations and make them fit for integrating with the modern and emerging next generation communication networks, such as 5G systems.

  9. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Jiang

    Full Text Available In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  10. Electrodynamic wireless power transmission to a torsional receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, K M; Arnold, D P

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transmission (WPT) concept that uses electrodynamic coupling and torsional motion of a permanent magnet in the receiver. The system is shown to transfer an average power of 3.09 mW (power density equal to 143 μW/cm 3 ) over a distance of 1 cm, an average power of 1.98 mW over a distance of 2 cm, and an average power of 126 μW over a distance of 7 cm. We also demonstrate unaltered power transmission through conductive media, including a human hand and an aluminum plate, highlighting a key advantage of the electrodynamic wireless power transmission approach

  11. Power and delay optimisation in multi-hop wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2014-02-05

    In this paper, we study the optimisation problem of transmission power and delay in a multi-hop wireless network consisting of multiple nodes. The goal is to determine the optimal policy of transmission rates at various buffer and channel states in order to minimise the power consumption and the queueing delay of the whole network. With the assumptions of interference-free links and independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel states, we formulate this problem using a semi-open Jackson network model for data transmission and a Markov model for channel states transition. We derive a difference equation of the system performance under any two different policies. The necessary and sufficient condition of optimal policy is obtained. We also prove that the system performance is monotonic with respect to (w.r.t.) the transmission rate and the optimal transmission rate can be either maximal or minimal. That is, the ‘bang-bang’ control is an optimal control. This optimality structure greatly reduces the problem complexity. Furthermore, we develop an iterative algorithm to find the optimal solution. Finally, we conduct the simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. We hope our work can shed some insights on solving this complicated optimisation problem.

  12. Using of wireless communication in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, C. S.; Kim, B. Y.; Jeong, C. H.; Lee, K. B.; Song, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    The using of wireless communication in nuclear power plants have been limited due to the mis-operation of the safety related instrumentation and control system. If some obstacles such as electromagnetic interference are solved, the using of wireless communication in nuclear power plants recommended because of lots of benefit. In this paper, we measured the electric field intensity for the operation of a potable transceiver in the area of the PPS, PCS, CPC and main control room and provided the electric field intensity limits that a portable transceiver can be used safely near by the safety related systems without electromagnetic interference to the safety related equipment

  13. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  14. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  15. 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM Multicarrier THz Wireless Communication Link in the 400 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-speed multicarrier THz wireless communication system operating in the 400 GHz band. The use of spectrally efficient 16-QAM modulation and broadband THz transceivers enable link data rates up to 80 Gbit/s....

  16. Towards Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    SPENZA, DORA

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing aims at creating smart environments in which computational and communication capabilities permeate the word at all scales, improving the human experience and quality of life in a totally unobtrusive yet completely reliable manner. According to this vision, an huge variety of smart devices and products (e.g., wireless sensor nodes, mobile phones, cameras, sensors, home appliances and industrial machines) are interconnected to realize a network of distributed agents that co...

  17. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalko, Matthew J; Shahmohammadi, Mohsen; Sample, Alanson P

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR), which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

  18. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Chabalko

    Full Text Available Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR, which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

  19. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, Mohsen; Sample, Alanson P.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR), which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power. PMID:28199321

  20. Design and Evaluation of 10-Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Nagpal, Shaina

    2017-05-01

    Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) systems can be chosen over existing microwave satellite systems for deploying in space in the future due to their high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost. However, the IsOWC system suffers from various attenuations due to weather conditions, turbulence or scintillations which limit its performance and decreases its availability. So, in order to improve the performance, IsOWC system using directly modulated laser source is proposed in this work. The system is designed and evaluated to be suitable for high data rate transmissions up to 10 Gbps. The performance of the system is investigated in order to reduce the cost and complexity of link and improving the quality of information signal. Further the proposed IsOWC system is analysed using BER analyser, power meter and oscilloscope Visualizer.

  1. A Literature Survey on Wireless Power Transfer for Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Shadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and survey of research on power transfer for biomedical applications based on inductive coupling. There is interest in wireless power transfer (WPT for implantable and wearable biomedical devices, for example, heart pacemaker or implantable electrocardiogram (ECG recorders. This paper concentrates on the applications based on near-field power transfer methods, summarizes the main design features in the recent literature, and provides some information about the system model and coil optimization.

  2. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is ...

  3. Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Manufacturing Research | NREL Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless For Verizon Wireless , NREL tested a new cell-phone tower power system prototype based on DC interconnection and photovoltaics

  4. A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Kirkham, Harold; Clements, Samuel L.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2010-01-27

    A key mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to enhance the security and reliability of the nation’s energy infrastructure. Improving the security of control systems, which enable the automated control of our energy production and distribution, is critical for protecting the energy infrastructure and the integral function that it serves in our lives. The DOE-OE Control Systems Security Program provides research and development to help the energy industry actively pursue advanced security solutions for control systems. The focus of this report is analyzing how, where, and what type of wireless communications are suitable for deployment in the electric power system and to inform implementers of their options in wireless technologies. The discussions in this report are applicable to enhancing both the communications infrastructure of the current electric power system and new smart system deployments. The work described in this report includes a survey of the following wireless technologies: • IEEE 802.16 d and e (WiMAX) • IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) family of a, b, g, n, and s • Wireless sensor protocols that use parts of the IEEE 802.15.4 specification: WirelessHART, International Society of Automation (ISA) 100.11a, and Zigbee • The 2, 3, and 4 generation (G )cellular technologies of GPRS/EDGE/1xRTT, HSPA/EVDO, and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)/HSPA+UMTS.

  5. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  6. Link and route availability for Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available pairs in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks can be evaluated based on the availability and reliability of radio links that form the communication path linking the nodes. This paper presents an analytical study of the link and route availability...

  7. The optimization of wireless power transmission: design and realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Liu, Hua; Wang, Zhiwu; Jiang, Pingping; Shi, Yu

    2012-09-01

    A wireless power transmission system is regarded as a practical way of solving power-shortage problems in multifunctional active capsule endoscopes. The uniformity of magnetic flux density, frequency stability and orientation stability are used to evaluate power transmission stability, taking into consideration size and safety constraints. Magnetic field safety and temperature rise are also considered. Test benches are designed to measure the relevent parameters. Finally, a mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed to improve transmission efficiency. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, various systems for a wireless active capsule endoscope are designed and evaluated. The optimal power transmission system has the capability to supply continuously at least 500 mW of power with a transmission efficiency of 4.08%. The example validates the feasibility of the proposed method. Introduction of novel designs enables further improvement of this method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Thermoelectric Powered Wireless Sensors for Dry-Cask Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Thomas Alan

    This study focuses on the development of self-powered wireless sensors. These sensors can be used to measure key parameters in extreme environments; e.g., temperature monitoring for spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. This study has developed a design methodology for these self-powered monitoring systems. The main elements that constitute this work consist of selecting and testing a power source for the wireless sensor, determination of the attenuation of the wireless signal, and testing the wireless sensor circuitry in an extreme environment. OrigenArp determined the decay heat and gamma/neutron source strength of the spent fuel throughout the service life of the dry-cask. A first principles analysis modeled the temperatures inside the dry-cask. A finite-element heat transfer code calculated the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric and heat sink. The temperature distributions determine the power produced by the thermoelectric. It was experimentally verified that a thermoelectric generator (HZ-14) with a DC/DC converter (Linear Technology LTC3108EDE) can power a transceiver (EmbedRF) at condition which represent prototypical conditions throughout and beyond the service life of the dry-cask. The wireless sensor is required to broadcast with enough power to overcome the attenuation from the dry-cask. It will be important to minimize the attenuation of the signal in order to broadcast with a small transmission power. To investigate the signal transmission through the dry-cask, CST Microwave Studio was used to determine the scattering parameter S2,1 for a horizontal dry-cask. Important parameters that can influence the transmission of the signal are antenna orientation, antenna placement, and transmission frequency. The thermoelectric generator, DC/DC converter, and transceiver were exposed to 60Co gamma radiation (exposure rate170.3 Rad/min) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. The effects of gamma radiation on the

  9. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  10. Scalable power selection method for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of a scalable dynamic power control (SDPC) for wireless mesh networks (WMNs) based on IEEE 802.11 standards. An SDPC model that accounts for architectural complexities witnessed in multiple radios and hops...

  11. In-node cognitive power control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Reliability, interoperability and efficiency are fundamental in Wireless Sensor Network deployment. Herein we look at how transmission power control may be used to reduce interference, which is particularly problematic in high-density conditions. We adopt a distributed approach where every node has

  12. Wireless ultrasound-powered biotelemetry for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Bruce C; Larson, Patrick J; Gulick, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A miniature piezoelectric receiver coupled to a diode is evaluated as a simple device for wireless transmission of bioelectric events to the body surface. The device converts the energy of a surface-applied ultrasound beam to a high frequency carrier current in solution. Bioelectrical currents near the implant modulate the carrier amplitude, and this signal is remotely detected and demodulated to recover the biopotential waveform. This technique achieves millivolt sensitivity in saline tank tests, and further attention to system design is expected to improve sensitivity.

  13. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad MARSIC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimization ensure the system’s energy autonomous capability demonstrated in this paper by presenting the promising testing results achieved following its integration with structural health monitoring and body area network applications.

  14. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  15. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  16. Frequency Splitting Analysis and Compensation Method for Inductive Wireless Powering of Implantable Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Matthew; Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2016-08-04

    Inductive powering for implanted medical devices, such as implantable biosensors, is a safe and effective technique that allows power to be delivered to implants wirelessly, avoiding the use of transcutaneous wires or implanted batteries. Wireless powering is very sensitive to a number of link parameters, including coil distance, alignment, shape, and load conditions. The optimum drive frequency of an inductive link varies depending on the coil spacing and load. This paper presents an optimum frequency tracking (OFT) method, in which an inductive power link is driven at a frequency that is maintained at an optimum value to ensure that the link is working at resonance, and the output voltage is maximised. The method is shown to provide significant improvements in maintained secondary voltage and system efficiency for a range of loads when the link is overcoupled. The OFT method does not require the use of variable capacitors or inductors. When tested at frequencies around a nominal frequency of 5 MHz, the OFT method provides up to a twofold efficiency improvement compared to a fixed frequency drive. The system can be readily interfaced with passive implants or implantable biosensors, and lends itself to interfacing with designs such as distributed implanted sensor networks, where each implant is operating at a different frequency.

  17. Frequency Splitting Analysis and Compensation Method for Inductive Wireless Powering of Implantable Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schormans

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductive powering for implanted medical devices, such as implantable biosensors, is a safe and effective technique that allows power to be delivered to implants wirelessly, avoiding the use of transcutaneous wires or implanted batteries. Wireless powering is very sensitive to a number of link parameters, including coil distance, alignment, shape, and load conditions. The optimum drive frequency of an inductive link varies depending on the coil spacing and load. This paper presents an optimum frequency tracking (OFT method, in which an inductive power link is driven at a frequency that is maintained at an optimum value to ensure that the link is working at resonance, and the output voltage is maximised. The method is shown to provide significant improvements in maintained secondary voltage and system efficiency for a range of loads when the link is overcoupled. The OFT method does not require the use of variable capacitors or inductors. When tested at frequencies around a nominal frequency of 5 MHz, the OFT method provides up to a twofold efficiency improvement compared to a fixed frequency drive. The system can be readily interfaced with passive implants or implantable biosensors, and lends itself to interfacing with designs such as distributed implanted sensor networks, where each implant is operating at a different frequency.

  18. Reliable low-power wireless networks over unstable transmission power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things promises large scale interconnected sensing and actuation capabilities in domains, areas, applications and activities never accessed before by Internet. Besides other technical barriers, wireless network node lifetime impedes its applicability. To reduce the energy cost incurred

  19. A Power Planning Algorithm Based on RPL for AMI Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marcio L F; Jamhour, Edgard; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Penna, Manoel C

    2017-03-25

    The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an architecture for two-way communication between electric, gas and water meters and city utilities. The AMI network is a wireless sensor network that provides communication for metering devices in the neighborhood area of the smart grid. Recently, the applicability of a routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) has been considered in AMI networks. Some studies in the literature have pointed out problems with RPL, including sub-optimal path selection and instability. In this paper, we defend the viewpoint that careful planning of the transmission power in wireless RPL networks can significantly reduce the pointed problems. This paper presents a method for planning the transmission power in order to assure that, after convergence, the size of the parent set of the RPL nodes is as close as possible to a predefined size. Another important feature is that all nodes in the parent set offer connectivity through links of similar quality.

  20. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong M; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J-C

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  1. An ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Demeng; Mei Niansong; Zhang Zhaofeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring system that is dedicated to sensing and transferring intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. Our system is comprised of a capacitive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit, which is designed on the SMIC 180 nm process, and a dipole antenna. The system is wirelessly powered and demonstrates a power consumption of 7.56 μW at 1.24 V during continuous monitoring, a significant reduction in active power dissipation compared to existing work. The input RF sensitivity is −13 dBm. A significant reduction in input RF sensitivity results from the reduction of mismatch time of the ASK modulation caused by FM0 encoding. The system exhibits an average error of ± 1.5 mmHg in measured pressure. Finally, a complete IOP system is demonstrated in the real biological environment, showing a successful reading of the pressure of an eye. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong M. Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu. A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  3. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evaluati...

  4. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evalu...

  5. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... power is able to be delivered to the wireless sensor through the designed MR-WPS, and therefore the theoretical analysis and design is verified....

  6. Wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis devices using printable RF circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wen; Cho, Gyoujin; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-03-21

    We report the first microfluidic device integrated with a printed RF circuit so the device can be wirelessly powered by a commercially available RFID reader. For conventional dielectrophoresis devices, electrical wires are needed to connect the electric components on the microchip to external equipment such as power supplies, amplifiers, function generators, etc. Such a procedure is unfamiliar to most clinicians and pathologists who are used to working with a microscope for examination of samples on microscope slides. The wirelessly powered device reported here eliminates the entire need for wire attachments and external instruments so the operators can use the device in essentially the same manner as they do with microscope slides. The integrated circuit can be fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate at very low cost using a roll-to-roll printing method. Electrical power at 13.56 MHz transmitted by a radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader is inductively coupled to the printed RFIC and converted into 10 V DC (direct current) output, which provides sufficient power to drive a microfluidic device to manipulate biological particles such as beads and proteins via the DC dielectrophoresis (DC-DEP) effect. To our best knowledge, this is the first wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis device. Although the work is preliminary, the device concept, the architecture, and the core technology are expected to stimulate many efforts in the future and transform the technology to a wide range of clinical and point-of-care applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Acoustic power delivery to pipeline monitoring wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziroglou, M E; Boyle, D E; Wright, S W; Yeatman, E M

    2017-05-01

    The use of energy harvesting for powering wireless sensors is made more challenging in most applications by the requirement for customization to each specific application environment because of specificities of the available energy form, such as precise location, direction and motion frequency, as well as the temporal variation and unpredictability of the energy source. Wireless power transfer from dedicated sources can overcome these difficulties, and in this work, the use of targeted ultrasonic power transfer as a possible method for remote powering of sensor nodes is investigated. A powering system for pipeline monitoring sensors is described and studied experimentally, with a pair of identical, non-inertial piezoelectric transducers used at the transmitter and receiver. Power transmission of 18mW (Root-Mean-Square) through 1m of a118mm diameter cast iron pipe, with 8mm wall thickness is demonstrated. By analysis of the delay between transmission and reception, including reflections from the pipeline edges, a transmission speed of 1000m/s is observed, corresponding to the phase velocity of the L(0,1) axial and F(1,1) radial modes of the pipe structure. A reduction of power delivery with water-filling is observed, yet over 4mW of delivered power through a fully-filled pipe is demonstrated. The transmitted power and voltage levels exceed the requirements for efficient power management, including rectification at cold-starting conditions, and for the operation of low-power sensor nodes. The proposed powering technique may allow the implementation of energy autonomous wireless sensor systems for monitoring industrial and network pipeline infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Open-WiSe: a solar powered wireless sensor network platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Apolinar; Aquino, Raúl; Mata, Walter; Ochoa, Alberto; Saldaña, Pedro; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators.

  9. High-Capacity Hybrid Optical Fiber-Wireless Communications Links in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan

    of broadband services access. To realize the seamless convergence between the two network segments, the lower capacity of wireless systems need to be increased to match the continuously increasing bandwidth of fiber-optic systems. The research works included in this thesis are devoted to experimental...... investigations of photonic-wireless links with record high capacities to fulfill the requirements of next generation hybrid optical fiber-wireless access networks. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high speed millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication links......Integration between fiber-optic and wireless communications systems in the "last mile" access networks is currently considered as a promising solution for both service providers and users, in terms of minimizing deployment cost, shortening upgrading period and increasing mobility and flexibility...

  10. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  11. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimo, Antwi; Grgić, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor) resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna) is built and tested for receiving range performance. PMID:23202014

  12. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Grgić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF to direct current (DC power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna is built and tested for receiving range performance.

  13. A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2015-01-01

    The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm 3 , was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent. (paper)

  14. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  15. A vibration powered wireless mote on the Forth Road Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Yan, Jize; Feng, Tao; Du, Sijun; Fidler, Paul; Soga, Kenichi; Middleton, Campbell; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional resonant-approaches to scavenge kinetic energy are typically confined to narrow and single-band frequencies. The vibration energy harvester device reported here combines both direct resonance and parametric resonance in order to enhance the power responsiveness towards more efficient harnessing of real-world ambient vibration. A packaged electromagnetic harvester designed to operate in both of these resonant regimes was tested in situ on the Forth Road Bridge. In the field-site, the harvester, with an operational volume of ∼126 cm3, was capable of recovering in excess of 1 mW average raw AC power from the traffic-induced vibrations in the lateral bracing structures underneath the bridge deck. The harvester was integrated off-board with a power conditioning circuit and a wireless mote. Duty- cycled wireless transmissions from the vibration-powered mote was successfully sustained by the recovered ambient energy. This limited duration field test provides the initial validation for realising vibration-powered wireless structural health monitoring systems in real world infrastructure, where the vibration profile is both broadband and intermittent.

  16. A Wireless Self-Powered Urinary Incontinence Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ami; Utsunomiya, Fumiyasu; Douseki, Takakuni

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor system consisting of a urine-activated coin battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The urine-activated battery makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit and a 1-V surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator reduce the power dissipation of a wireless transmitter. The SAW oscillator quickly responds to the on-off control of the power supply, which is suitable for intermittent operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, the authors fabricated a prototype sensor system. When the volume of urine is 0.2 ml, the battery outputs a voltage of over 1.3 V; and the sensor system can transmit signals over a distance of 5 m.

  17. Power supply for wireless sensor or actuator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reindl, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Portable wireless sensor or actuator systems, like portable phones, remote control, or ID cards play an ever growing role in our industrialized environment. Those systems and many more were enabled due to the steady decreasing power consumption of high integrated ICs. Most such systems are powered by batteries or inductive coupling. In this presentation several concepts for an alternative power supply of wireless sensor or actuator systems are discussed in detail. Batteries, although today mostly used, suffer from a limited storage capacity, which induce a labour and sometimes cost-intensive periodic maintenance, and a problematic ecological impact. The operating range of inductive coupling systems is due to the near ?eld limited to the aperture of the coupling coil. UHF systems operate in the far field and reach higher distances. Their operating range is limited by the distance where the voltage at the feeding point of the antenna becomes too low to drive the rectifier circuit. Larger read out ranges become feasible by omitting the rectifier stage. In this case we need either a passive frequency modulating device to shift the read out signal to a side band, or a resonator with a high quality factor, like a SAW or BAW device, to store the energy until all environmental echoes are feed away. For many applications, both indoor and outdoor, energy harvesting system become feasible which convert ambient power densities like light, RF fields, special or temporal thermal gradients, or mechanical vibrations into electrical supply power of the wireless system. All those systems strongly suffer from a lack of energy. Thus new concepts for low-ering the power consumption of a wireless sensor or actuator system by keeping their features remain extreme important. Herby, a new wake up receiver is presented which operates on a current requirement as low as 3 micro A.

  18. Performance prediction of a synchronization link for distributed aerospace wireless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin; Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link.

  19. Wireless Mobile Computing and its Links to Descriptive Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří; Pardubská, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2008), s. 887-913 ISSN 0129-0541 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : alternating Turing machine * simulation * simultaneous time-space complexity * wireless parallel Turing machine Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2008

  20. Power consumption optimization strategy for wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Kumar, Sanjay; Marchetti, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    in order to reduce the total power consumption in a multi cellular network. We present an algorithm for power optimization under no interference and in presence of interference conditions, targeting to maximize the network capacity. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed if the interference...

  1. RF Energy Harvesting for Ubiquitous, Zero Power Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Saeed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of wireless power transfer (WPT followed by a comparison between ambient energy sources and an overview of different components of rectennas that are used for RF energy harvesting. Being less costly and environment friendly, rectennas are used to provide potentially inexhaustible energy for powering up low power sensors and portable devices that are installed in inaccessible areas where frequent battery replacement is difficult, if not impossible. The current challenges in rectenna design and a detailed comparison of state-of-the-art rectennas are also presented.

  2. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  3. Electromagnetic Interference Issues of A Wireless Power Transmission Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2018-01-01

    field and the leakage current flowing through stray capacitors. In this paper, the EMI of wireless power transmission technology is highlighted and for the first time evaluated from a new perspective. The possible parasitic paths are identified simply. Additionally, effective high-frequency models......Many recent studies have focused on the inductive charging to transfer electrical power from a source to batteries without any electrical interface. The main problem with them is that inductive charging technologies may have electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues caused by the leakage magnetic...... for each part of the inductive charger are presented. At the first, the lowest EMI technology for wireless charging is chosen and simulated. To overcome the EMI and leakage current problems, this paper also suggests using a new passive EMI filter topology. Simulation results show the necessity...

  4. Low power design of wireless endoscopy compression/communication architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitouni Abdelkrim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A wireless endoscopy capsule represents an efficient device interesting on the examination of digestive diseases. Many performance criteria’s (silicon area, dissipated power, image quality, computational time, etc. need to be deeply studied.In this paper, our interest is the optimization of the indicated criteria. The proposed methodology is based on exploring the advantages of the DCT/DWT transforms by combining them into single architecture. For arithmetic operations, the MCLA technique is used. This architecture integrates also a CABAC entropy coder that supports all binarization schemes. AMBA/I2C architecture is developed for assuring optimized communication.The comparisons of the proposed architecture with the most popular methods explained in related works show efficient results in terms dissipated power, hardware cost, and computation speed. Keywords: Wireless endoscopy capsule, DCT/DWT image compression, CABAC entropy coder, AMBA/I2C multi-bus architecture

  5. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  6. Batteryless, wireless sensor powered by a sediment microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Conrad; Dewan, Alim; Heo, Deukhyoun; Beyenal, Haluk

    2008-11-15

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are considered to be an alternative renewable power source for remote monitoring. There are two main challenges to using SMFCs as power sources: 1) a SMFC produces a low potential at which most sensor electronics do not operate, and 2) a SMFC cannot provide continuous power, so energy from the SMFC must be stored and then used to repower sensor electronics intermittently. In this study, we developed a SMFC and a power management system (PMS) to power a batteryless, wireless sensor. A SMFC operating with a microbial anode and cathode, located in the Palouse River, Pullman, Washington, U.S.A., was used to demonstrate the utility of the developed system. The designed PMS stored microbial energy and then started powering the wireless sensor when the SMFC potential reached 320 mV. It continued powering until the SMFC potential dropped below 52 mV. The system was repowered when the SMFC potential increased to 320 mV, and this repowering continued as long as microbial reactions continued. We demonstrated that a microbial fuel cell with a microbial anode and cathode can be used as an effective renewable power source for remote monitoring using custom-designed electronics.

  7. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  8. Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks with Variable Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Chincoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive transmission power control schemes have been introduced in wireless sensor networks to adjust energy consumption under different network conditions. This is a crucial goal, given the constraints under which sensor communications operate. Power reduction may however have counterproductive effects to network performance. Yet, indiscriminate power boosting may detrimentally affect interference. We are interested in understanding the conditions under which coordinated power reduction may lead to better spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation and, thus, have beneficial effects on network performance. Through simulations, we analyze the performance of sensor nodes in an environment with variable interference. Then we study the relation between transmission power and communication efficiency, particularly in the context of Adaptive and Robust Topology (ART control, showing how appropriate power reduction can benefit both energy and spectrum efficiency. We also identify critical limitations in ART, discussing the potential of more cooperative power control approaches.

  9. Transmit coil design for Wireless Power Transfer for medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemdiasov, Rosti; Venkatasubramanian, Arun

    2017-07-01

    A new design approach for the design of transmit coils for Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presented. The theoretical formulation involves a figure of merit that has to be maximized to solve for the surface current. Numerical predictions and comparisons with practical measurements for the coil parameters (inductance. resistance) underscore the success of this approach in terms of achieving strong coupling with a receive coil while maintaining low resistance.

  10. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  11. Experimental Characterization of LTE Wireless Links in High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Domínguez-Bolaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia and data-based services experienced a nonstopping growth over the last few years. People are continuously on the move using devices to access multimedia contents or other data-based services. Due to this, railway companies are showing a great interest in deploying broadband mobile wireless networks in high-speed-trains with the aim of supporting both passenger services provisioning as well as automatic train control and signaling. Nowadays, the most widely used technology for communications between trains and the railway infrastructure is GSM for Railways (GSM-R; however, it has limited capabilities to support such advanced services. Due to its success in the mass market, Long Term Evolution (LTE seems to be the best candidate to substitute GSM-R. In this paper, we experimentally characterize the downlink between an LTE Evolved NodeB (eNodeB and a high-speed train in a commercial high-speed line. We consider two links: the one between the eNodeB and the antennas placed outdoors on the train roof, and the direct link between the eNodeB and a receiver inside the train. Such a characterization consists in assessing the path loss, the Signal to Noise Ratio, the K-Factor, the Power Delay Profile, the delay spread, and the Doppler Power Spectral Density.

  12. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  13. Minimizing SIP Session Re-Setup Delay over Wireless Link in 3G Handover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Bongkyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay in transmitting SIP messages over the wireless link for session resetup at handover is still major bottleneck for interactive multimedia service. In this paper, a proxy agent-based scheme is proposed to minimize the SIP session setup delay over a wireless link in 3G inter-subnet handover scenarios. This scheme is based on the two characteristics. One is that the major factor of SIP session re-setup delay is generally caused by the retransmissions in the unreliable wireless links, and the other is that most of the fields in request messages as well as response messages are duplicated when a set of SIP messages are exchanged during session re-setup procedure. In this scheme, no change is required in the SIP message processing except for the proxy agents in both BS and MH.

  14. What is a missing link among wireless persistent surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    The next generation surveillance system will equip with versatile sensor devices and information focus capable of conducting regular and irregular surveillance and security environments worldwide. The community of the persistent surveillance must invest the limited energy and money effectively into researching enabling technologies such as nanotechnology, wireless networks, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to develop persistent surveillance applications for the future. Wireless sensor networks can be used by the military for a number of purposes such as monitoring militant activity in remote areas and force protection. Being equipped with appropriate sensors these networks can enable detection of enemy movement, identification of enemy force and analysis of their movement and progress. Among these sensor network technologies, covert communication is one of the challenging tasks in the persistent surveillance because it is highly demanded to provide secured sensor nodes and linkage for fear of deliberate sabotage. Due to the matured VLSI/DSP technologies, affordable COTS of UWB technology with noise-like direct sequence (DS) time-domain pulses is a potential solution to support low probability of intercept and low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) data communication and transmission. This paper will describe a number of technical challenges in wireless persistent surveillance development include covert communication, network control and routing, collaborating signal and information processing, and etc. The paper concludes by presenting Hermitian Wavelets to enhance SNR in support of secured communication.

  15. 0.4 THz Photonic-Wireless Link With 106 Gb/s Single Channel Bitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2018-01-01

    To accommodate the demand of exponentially increased global wireless data traffic, the prospective data rates for wireless communication in the market place will soon reach 100 Gb/s and beyond. In the lab environment, wireless transmission throughput has been elevated to the level of over 100 Gb....../s attributed to the development of photonic-assisted millimeter wave and terahertz (THz) technologies. However, most of recent demonstrations with over 100 Gb/s data rates are based on spatial or frequency division multiplexing techniques, resulting in increased system's complexity and energy consumption. Here......, we experimentally demonstrate a single channel 0.4 THz photonic-wireless link achieving a net data rate of beyond 100 Gb/s by using a single pair of THz emitter and receiver, without employing any spatial/frequency division multiplexing techniques. The high throughput up to 106 Gb/s within a single...

  16. Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2018-01-27

    Current trends in interconnecting myriad smart objects to monetize on Internet of Things applications have led to high-density communications in wireless sensor networks. This aggravates the already over-congested unlicensed radio bands, calling for new mechanisms to improve spectrum management and energy efficiency, such as transmission power control. Existing protocols are based on simplistic heuristics that often approach interference problems (i.e., packet loss, delay and energy waste) by increasing power, leading to detrimental results. The scope of this work is to investigate how machine learning may be used to bring wireless nodes to the lowest possible transmission power level and, in turn, to respect the quality requirements of the overall network. Lowering transmission power has benefits in terms of both energy consumption and interference. We propose a protocol of transmission power control through a reinforcement learning process that we have set in a multi-agent system. The agents are independent learners using the same exploration strategy and reward structure, leading to an overall cooperative network. The simulation results show that the system converges to an equilibrium where each node transmits at the minimum power while respecting high packet reception ratio constraints. Consequently, the system benefits from low energy consumption and packet delay.

  17. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-10

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.

  18. Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, John S; Yeh, Alexander J; Neofytou, Evgenios; Kim, Sanghoek; Tanabe, Yuji; Patlolla, Bhagat; Beygui, Ramin E; Poon, Ada S Y

    2014-06-03

    The ability to implant electronic systems in the human body has led to many medical advances. Progress in semiconductor technology paved the way for devices at the scale of a millimeter or less ("microimplants"), but the miniaturization of the power source remains challenging. Although wireless powering has been demonstrated, energy transfer beyond superficial depths in tissue has so far been limited by large coils (at least a centimeter in diameter) unsuitable for a microimplant. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome by a method, termed midfield powering, to create a high-energy density region deep in tissue inside of which the power-harvesting structure can be made extremely small. Unlike conventional near-field (inductively coupled) coils, for which coupling is limited by exponential field decay, a patterned metal plate is used to induce spatially confined and adaptive energy transport through propagating modes in tissue. We use this method to power a microimplant (2 mm, 70 mg) capable of closed-chest wireless control of the heart that is orders of magnitude smaller than conventional pacemakers. With exposure levels below human safety thresholds, milliwatt levels of power can be transferred to a deep-tissue (>5 cm) microimplant for both complex electronic function and physiological stimulation. The approach developed here should enable new generations of implantable systems that can be integrated into the body at minimal cost and risk.

  19. High performance 3-coil wireless power transfer system for the 512-electrode epiretinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Nandra, Mandheerej; Yu, Chia-Chen; Tai, Yu-chong

    2012-01-01

    The next-generation retinal prostheses feature high image resolution and chronic implantation. These features demand the delivery of power as high as 100 mW to be wireless and efficient. A common solution is the 2-coil inductive power link, used by current retinal prostheses. This power link tends to include a larger-size extraocular receiver coil coupled to the external transmitter coil, and the receiver coil is connected to the intraocular electrodes through a trans-sclera trans-choroid cable. In the long-term implantation of the device, the cable may cause hypotony (low intraocular pressure) and infection. However, when a 2-coil system is constructed from a small-size intraocular receiver coil, the efficiency drops drastically which may induce over heat dissipation and electromagnetic field exposure. Our previous 2-coil system achieved only 7% power transfer. This paper presents a fully intraocular and highly efficient wireless power transfer system, by introducing another inductive coupling link to bypass the trans-sclera trans-choroid cable. With the specific equivalent load of our customized 512-electrode stimulator, the current 3-coil inductive link was measured to have the overall power transfer efficiency around 36%, with 1-inch separation in saline. The high efficiency will favorably reduce the heat dissipation and electromagnetic field exposure to surrounding human tissues. The effect of the eyeball rotation on the power transfer efficiency was investigated as well. The efficiency can still maintain 14.7% with left and right deflection of 30 degree during normal use. The surgical procedure for the coils' implantation into the porcine eye was also demonstrated.

  20. Impact of Radio Link Unreliability on the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorce Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works have been devoted to connectivity of ad hoc networks. This is an important feature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs to provide the nodes with the capability of communicating with one or several sinks. In most of these works, radio links are assumed ideal, that is, with no transmission errors. To fulfil this assumption, the reception threshold should be high enough to guarantee that radio links have a low transmission error probability. As a consequence, all unreliable links are dismissed. This approach is suboptimal concerning energy consumption because unreliable links should permit to reduce either the transmission power or the number of active nodes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the contribution of unreliable long hops to an increase of the connectivity of WSNs. In our model, each node is assumed to be connected to each other node in a probabilistic manner. Such a network is modeled as a complete random graph, that is, all edges exist. The instantaneous node degree is then defined as the number of simultaneous valid single-hop receptions of the same message, and finally the mean node degree is computed analytically in both AWGN and block-fading channels. We show the impact on connectivity of two MACs and routing parameters. The first one is the energy detection level such as the one used in carrier sense mechanisms. The second one is the reliability threshold used by the routing layer to select stable links only. Both analytic and simulation results show that using opportunistic protocols is challenging.

  1. Impact of Radio Link Unreliability on the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Gorce

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many works have been devoted to connectivity of ad hoc networks. This is an important feature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs to provide the nodes with the capability of communicating with one or several sinks. In most of these works, radio links are assumed ideal, that is, with no transmission errors. To fulfil this assumption, the reception threshold should be high enough to guarantee that radio links have a low transmission error probability. As a consequence, all unreliable links are dismissed. This approach is suboptimal concerning energy consumption because unreliable links should permit to reduce either the transmission power or the number of active nodes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the contribution of unreliable long hops to an increase of the connectivity of WSNs. In our model, each node is assumed to be connected to each other node in a probabilistic manner. Such a network is modeled as a complete random graph, that is, all edges exist. The instantaneous node degree is then defined as the number of simultaneous valid single-hop receptions of the same message, and finally the mean node degree is computed analytically in both AWGN and block-fading channels. We show the impact on connectivity of two MACs and routing parameters. The first one is the energy detection level such as the one used in carrier sense mechanisms. The second one is the reliability threshold used by the routing layer to select stable links only. Both analytic and simulation results show that using opportunistic protocols is challenging.

  2. Low-power cryptographic coprocessor for autonomous wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna, Jakub; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2013-10-01

    The concept of autonomous wireless sensor networks involves energy harvesting, as well as effective management of system resources. Public-key cryptography (PKC) offers the advantage of elegant key agreement schemes with which a secret key can be securely established over unsecure channels. In addition to solving the key management problem, the other major application of PKC is digital signatures, with which non-repudiation of messages exchanges can be achieved. The motivation for studying low-power and area efficient modular arithmetic algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for low-power devices that can perform under constrained environment like autonomous wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a cryptographic coprocessor tailored to the autonomous wireless sensor networks constraints. Such hardware circuit is aimed to support the implementation of different public-key cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic in GF(p) and GF(2m). Key components of the coprocessor are described as GEZEL models and can be easily transformed to VHDL and implemented in hardware.

  3. Fast and efficient wireless power transfer via transitionless quantum driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Sarma, Amarendra K

    2018-03-07

    Shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) techniques have the potential to drive a system beyond the adiabatic limits. Here, we present a robust and efficient method for wireless power transfer (WPT) between two coils based on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm. We show that it is possible to transfer power between the coils significantly fast compared to its adiabatic counterpart. The scheme is fairly robust against the variations in the coupling strength and the coupling distance between the coils. Also, the scheme is found to be reasonably immune to intrinsic losses in the coils.

  4. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  5. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Huang, Xueliang; Chen, Chen; Tan, Linlin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jinpeng

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS) material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT) is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  6. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  7. Adaptive Power Management for Wireless Base Station in Smart Grid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Niyato, Dusit; Lu, Xiao; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The growing concerns of a global environmental change raises a revolution on the way of utilizing energy. In wireless industry, green wireless communications has recently gained increasing attention and is expected to play a major role in reduction of electrical power consumption. In particular, actions to promote energy saving of wireless communications with regard to environmental protection are becoming imperative. To this purpose, we study a green communication system model where wireless...

  8. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-08-27

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  9. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif; Tarr, Nicholas Garry; Roy, Langis

    2013-01-01

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  10. Invited Article: Channel performance for indoor and outdoor terahertz wireless links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Shrestha, Rabi; Moeller, Lothar; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most exciting future applications of terahertz technology is in the area of wireless communications. As 5G systems incorporating a standard for millimeter-wave wireless links approach commercial roll-out, it is becoming clear that even this new infrastructure will not be sufficient to keep pace with the rapidly increasing global demand for bandwidth. One favorable solution that is attracting increasing attention for subsequent generations of wireless technology is to use higher frequencies, above 100 GHz. The implementation of such links will require significant advances in hardware, algorithms, and architecture. Although numerous research groups are exploring aspects of this challenging problem, many basic questions remain unaddressed. Here, we present an experimental effort to characterize THz wireless links in both indoor and outdoor environments. We report measurements at 100, 200, 300, and 400 GHz, using a link with a data rate of 1 Gbit/s. We demonstrate both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (specular reflection) links off of interior building walls. This work represents a first step to establish the feasibility of using THz carrier waves for data transmission in diverse situations and environments.

  11. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  12. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-10-14

    The fourth quarter of the project was dedicated to the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module and inspection pre assembly of the mechanical components. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of filter control and signal detection software. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Dimensional issues were resolved and revised drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and sent to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) Finalized the requirements and fittings and connections for testing the tool in the Halliburton flow loop. (3) The new acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly will be outsourced for plastic coating in preparation for hostile environment use. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development continued to progress. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the acoustic generator assembly was manufactured and was successfully tested. Spring mandrel design showed increased acoustic output on the pipe and was implemented. (6) PCBA board carrier with board set was tested for function and fit and is 100% complete. (7) Filter control software is complete and software to allow modification of communication parameters dynamically is 50% complete. (8) All mechanical parts to assemble the wireless gauge and power generator have been received and verified to be within specification. (9) Acoustic generator has been assembled in the tool mandrel and tested successfully. (10) The circuit required to harvest the power generated downhole has been designed and the power generator

  13. Optimizing the wireless power transfer over MIMO Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Karsten; Weber, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the optimization of the power transfer over wireless channels having multiple-inputs and multiple-outputs (MIMO) is studied. Therefore, the transmitter, the receiver and the MIMO channel are modeled as multiports. The power transfer efficiency is described by a Rayleigh quotient, which is a function of the channel's scattering parameters and the incident waves from both transmitter and receiver side. This way, the power transfer efficiency can be maximized analytically by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, which is deduced from the Rayleigh quotient. As a result, the maximum power transfer efficiency achievable over a given MIMO channel is obtained. This maximum can be used as a performance bound in order to benchmark wireless power transfer systems. Furthermore, the optimal operating point which achieves this maximum will be obtained. The optimal operating point will be described by the complex amplitudes of the optimal incident and reflected waves of the MIMO channel. This supports the design of the optimal transmitter and receiver multiports. The proposed method applies for arbitrary MIMO channels, taking transmitter-side and/or receiver-side cross-couplings in both near- and farfield scenarios into consideration. Special cases are briefly discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the method.

  14. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J.; Ma, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  15. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenwen; Yan, Guozheng; He, Shu; Ke, Quan; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Pingping

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro. (paper)

  16. Optimizing the wireless power transfer over MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wiedmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimization of the power transfer over wireless channels having multiple-inputs and multiple-outputs (MIMO is studied. Therefore, the transmitter, the receiver and the MIMO channel are modeled as multiports. The power transfer efficiency is described by a Rayleigh quotient, which is a function of the channel's scattering parameters and the incident waves from both transmitter and receiver side. This way, the power transfer efficiency can be maximized analytically by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, which is deduced from the Rayleigh quotient. As a result, the maximum power transfer efficiency achievable over a given MIMO channel is obtained. This maximum can be used as a performance bound in order to benchmark wireless power transfer systems. Furthermore, the optimal operating point which achieves this maximum will be obtained. The optimal operating point will be described by the complex amplitudes of the optimal incident and reflected waves of the MIMO channel. This supports the design of the optimal transmitter and receiver multiports. The proposed method applies for arbitrary MIMO channels, taking transmitter-side and/or receiver-side cross-couplings in both near- and farfield scenarios into consideration. Special cases are briefly discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the method.

  17. 28 GHz Wireless Backhaul Transceiver Characterization and Radio Link Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko E. Leinonen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave communication is one of the main disruptive technologies in upcoming 5G mobile networks. One of the first candidate applications, which will be commercially ready by 2020, is wireless backhaul links or wireless last mile communication. This paper provides an analysis of this use‐case from radio engineering and implementation perspectives. Furthermore, preliminary experimental results are shown for a proof‐of‐concept wireless backhaul solution developed within the EU‐KR 5GCHAMPION project, which will be showcased during the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in Korea. In this paper, we verify system level calculations and a theoretical link budget analysis with conductive and radiated over‐the‐air measurements. The results indicate that the implemented radio solution is able to achieve the target key performance indicator, namely, a 2.5 Gbps data rate on average, over a range of up to 200 m.

  18. Wireless power transfer for medical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.  ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies in...

  19. Research Of The Efficiency Of The Wireless Power Transfer With The Employment Of DD Inductance Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainyukov Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to using of DD inductance coils for the wireless power transfer. The aim of the given research is to determine influence of the parameters of resonance transformer on the efficiency of the wireless power transfer with the use of the DD inductance coils. Experimental installation of the wireless power transfer by a resonance inductive method was constructed. Experiments were performed with it help. Research results show influence of the distance between the coils of inductance, of the resonance transformer frequency, of the storage source voltage and of the temperature conditions on the efficiency of the wireless power transfer.

  20. Power Amplifier Design for E-band Wireless System Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2008-01-01

    E-band wireless communications will become important as the microwave backhaul for high-speed data transmission. One of the most critical components is the front-end power amplifier in this system. The paper analyzes different technologies with potential in the E-band frequency range and present...... a power amplifier design satisfying the E-band system specifications. The designed power amplifier achieves a maximum output power of ges 20 dBm with a state-of-the-art power-added efficiency of 15%. The power is realized using InP DHBT technology. To the best of our knowledge it is the highest output...... power and efficiency reported for an InP HBT power amplifier in this frequency range. The predicted power-added efficiency is higher than that of power amplifiers based on SiGe HBT and GaAs pHEMT technologies. The design shows the capabilities of InP DHBT for power amplifier applications...

  1. Multicoil resonance-based parallel array for smart wireless power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S A; Sawan, M; Gosselin, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel resonance-based multicoil structure as a smart power surface to wirelessly power up apparatus like mobile, animal headstage, implanted devices, etc. The proposed powering system is based on a 4-coil resonance-based inductive link, the resonance coil of which is formed by an array of several paralleled coils as a smart power transmitter. The power transmitter employs simple circuit connections and includes only one power driver circuit per multicoil resonance-based array, which enables higher power transfer efficiency and power delivery to the load. The power transmitted by the driver circuit is proportional to the load seen by the individual coil in the array. Thus, the transmitted power scales with respect to the load of the electric/electronic system to power up, and does not divide equally over every parallel coils that form the array. Instead, only the loaded coils of the parallel array transmit significant part of total transmitted power to the receiver. Such adaptive behavior enables superior power, size and cost efficiency then other solutions since it does not need to use complex detection circuitry to find the location of the load. The performance of the proposed structure is verified by measurement results. Natural load detection and covering 4 times bigger area than conventional topologies with a power transfer efficiency of 55% are the novelties of presented paper.

  2. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Munzer, D J; Althar, M; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm 3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm 3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations. (paper)

  3. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  4. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-03-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W.

  5. Simulation analysis on miniature wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yin, Bo; Chi, Haokun; Du, Panpan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the research on implantable medical devices has become a hot scientific topic, and the power supply of these devices are especially concerned. Generally, these devices are usually powered by disposable batteries. However, for some of the long-term human implant devices, such as pacemakers, once the battery has been exhausted after several years, the patient has to replace the battery by surgery, which increases the patient’s economic burden and pain. Wireless power transfer technology, using non-contact way for power transfer, can be a good solution to this problem. In this paper, a micro induction coil was designed, and the transfer efficiency in the air and human tissue model of two-layers were simulated by Ansoft HFSS. The results showed that the system could achieve the energy transfer in both cases, meanwhile, it indicated that the transfer efficiency was lower in a relative larger permittivity of transmission medium.

  6. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source, which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  7. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  8. Energy-Efficient Link-Layer Jamming Attacks against Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atluri, V.; Samarati, P.; Ning, P.; Du, W.

    2005-01-01

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  9. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz; Svensson, Tommy; Buisman, Koen; Perez, Joaquin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage

  10. E- and W-band high-capacity hybrid fiber-wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along with transm...... in mobile backhaul/fronthaul applications, dense distributed antenna systems and fiber-over-radio scenarios.......In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along...... with transmission over different type of optical fibers and for a number of values for the wireless link distance. Hybrid wireless-optical links can be composed of mature and resilient technology available off-the-shelf, and provide functionalities that can add value to optical access networks, specifically...

  11. Wireless link using on-chip photonic integrated millimeter-wave sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzmán, R. C.; Gordón, C.; Carpintero, G.; Leijtens, X.; Lawniczak, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years wireless link data traffic has drastically increased due to a change in the way today's society creates, shares, and consumes information. Millimeter-waves (30-300 GHz) have a great advantage due to the wide bandwidths available for carrying information, enabling broadband

  12. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  13. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3.

  14. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  15. Applicable approach of the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Do Young; Lee, Soo Ill

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • To apply wireless technology for Korean NPPs, several stipulations are proposed. • WLAN is proposed as the most appropriate wireless technology for Korean NPPs. • WLAN can be applied to the specific fields except in the control system. • An attitude survey on wireless showed that 94.7% agree with the necessity of wireless. - Abstract: Recently, many nuclear power plants (NPPs) over the world use various types of wireless systems for the advantages. Unfortunately, wireless technologies are not currently installed in any Korean NPPs because it is difficult to solve the negative impact of unexpected outcomes or failures from the influence of the wireless technologies, which is electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI). Moreover, a lack of desire on the part of Korean nuclear industry to implement it leads to give up benefit from the wireless technologies. To install the wireless technologies with maximum benefit and minimum risk, a systematic approach, which quantify the negative impact and prevent the influence, is essential; therefore, this paper describes an applicable research result on the wireless technology for Korean NPPs based on regulatory guides and current wireless hardware and software technologies. Also, survey on the needs for the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants was conducted, because the level of awareness of workers in NPPs regarding wireless technologies is very important issue. In this paper, we propose an applicable system to enhance the applicability for the wireless technology for Korean NPPs. The result based on proposed applicable system shows that wireless local area network (WLAN) is the representative candidate for Korean NPPs, which can be applied to the specific fields of radiation monitoring, voice and data communication, component monitoring and instrumentation, and wireless cameras

  16. Applicable approach of the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Do Young, E-mail: kodoyoung@khnp.co.kr; Lee, Soo Ill

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • To apply wireless technology for Korean NPPs, several stipulations are proposed. • WLAN is proposed as the most appropriate wireless technology for Korean NPPs. • WLAN can be applied to the specific fields except in the control system. • An attitude survey on wireless showed that 94.7% agree with the necessity of wireless. - Abstract: Recently, many nuclear power plants (NPPs) over the world use various types of wireless systems for the advantages. Unfortunately, wireless technologies are not currently installed in any Korean NPPs because it is difficult to solve the negative impact of unexpected outcomes or failures from the influence of the wireless technologies, which is electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI). Moreover, a lack of desire on the part of Korean nuclear industry to implement it leads to give up benefit from the wireless technologies. To install the wireless technologies with maximum benefit and minimum risk, a systematic approach, which quantify the negative impact and prevent the influence, is essential; therefore, this paper describes an applicable research result on the wireless technology for Korean NPPs based on regulatory guides and current wireless hardware and software technologies. Also, survey on the needs for the wireless technology for Korean nuclear power plants was conducted, because the level of awareness of workers in NPPs regarding wireless technologies is very important issue. In this paper, we propose an applicable system to enhance the applicability for the wireless technology for Korean NPPs. The result based on proposed applicable system shows that wireless local area network (WLAN) is the representative candidate for Korean NPPs, which can be applied to the specific fields of radiation monitoring, voice and data communication, component monitoring and instrumentation, and wireless cameras.

  17. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  18. Power optimization in body sensor networks: the case of an autonomous wireless EMG sensor powered by PV-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, J; Pop, V; Caballero, L; van de Molengraft, J; van Schaijk, R; Vullers, R; Van Hoof, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-low-power circuits and energy harvesters are making self-powered body sensor nodes a reality. Power optimization at the system and application level is crucial in achieving ultra-low-power consumption for the entire system. This paper reviews system-level power optimization techniques, and illustrates their impact on the case of autonomous wireless EMG monitoring. The resulting prototype, an Autonomous wireless EMG sensor power by PV-cells, is presented.

  19. High capacity hybrid optical fiber-wireless links in 75–300GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Seamless convergence of fiber-optic and the wireless networks is of great interest for enabling transparent delivery of broadband services to users in different locations, including both metropolitan and rural areas. Current demand of bandwidth by end-users, especially using mobile devices......, is seeding the need to use bands located at the millimeter-wave region (30–300 GHz), mainly because of its inherent broadband nature. In our lab, we have conducted extensive research on high-speed photonic-wireless links in the W-band (75–110GHz). In this paper, we will present our latest findings...

  20. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... the performance of the proposed mechanism against traditional congestion control with a simulation study. The results show that the proposed approach can improve the overall performance both by increasing the throughput over the wireless and improving the video quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR...

  1. Analysis on the power and efficiency in wireless power transfer system via coupled magnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjie

    2018-06-01

    The analysis of characteristics of the power and efficiency in wireless power transmission (WPT) system is the theoretical basis of magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission (MCR-WPT) technology. The electromagnetic field theory was employed to study the variation of the coupling degree of the two electromagnetic coils with the parameters of the coils. The equivalent circuit was used to analyze the influence of different factors on the transmission power and efficiency of the WPT system. The results show that there is an optimal radius ratio between the two coils, which makes the mutual inductance of the coils the largest. Moreover, when the WPT system operates in the under-coupling state, the transmission power of the system drops sharply, and there is a frequency splitting of the power when in the over-coupling state.

  2. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  3. Optimal Time Allocation in Backscatter Assisted Wireless Powered Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Gui, Guan; Sari, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless powered communication network (WPCN) assisted by backscatter communication (BackCom). This model consists of a power station, an information receiver and multiple users that can work in either BackCom mode or harvest-then-transmit (HTT) mode. The time block is mainly divided into two parts corresponding to the data backscattering and transmission periods, respectively. The users first backscatter data to the information receiver in time division multiple access (TDMA) during the data backscattering period. When one user works in the BackCom mode, the other users harvest energy from the power station. During the data transmission period, two schemes, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and TDMA, are considered. To maximize the system throughput, the optimal time allocation policies are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. PMID:28587171

  4. Robust Wireless Power Transmission to mm-Sized Free-Floating Distributed Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively. We have built several FFI prototypes to conduct accurate measurements and to characterize the performance of the proposed WPT method. Measurement results on 1-mm receivers operating at 60 MHz show power transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load at 2.4% and 1.3 mW, respectively, within 14-18 mm of Tx-Rx separation and 7 cm 2 of brain surface.

  5. Wireless powering for a self-propelled and steerable endoscopic capsule for stomach inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, R; Tortora, G; Thoné, J; Lenaerts, B; Valdastri, P; Menciassi, A; Dario, P; Puers, R

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the integration of an active locomotion module in a wirelessly powered endoscopic capsule. The device is a submersible capsule optimized to operate in a fluid environment in a liquid-distended stomach. A 3D inductive link is used to supply up to 400mW to the embedded electronics and a set of 4 radio-controlled motor propellers. The design takes advantage of a ferrite-core in the receiving coil-set. This approach significantly improves the coupling with the external field source with respect to earlier work by the group. It doubles the power that can be received with a coreless coil-set under identical external conditions. The upper limit of the received power was achieved complying with the strict regulations for safe exposure of biological tissue to variable magnetic fields. The wireless transferred power was proven to be sufficient to achieve the speed of 7cm/s in any directions. An optimized locomotion strategy was defined which limits the power consumption by running only 2 motors at a time. A user interface and a joystick controller allow to fully drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. The device functionalities were successfully tested in a dry and a wet environment in a laboratory set-up.

  6. Wireless Powered Cooperative Communications: Power-Splitting Relaying With Energy Accumulation (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    decreasing power usage, while improving the transmission performance. A key concern of the energy harvesting enabled coop- erative relay communication is the...improving transmission performance via an efficient utiliza- tion of harvested power has been widely studied for conven- tional energy harvesting techniques...can be used as energy sources for cooperative nodes. Moreover, it has been illustrated in [6] that wireless -powered cooperative relay communications

  7. Characterization and design of a low-power wireless power delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, Erez Avigdor

    There is an increased demand for wireless sensors for data gathering and transmission where running wires to power a device or changing/charging batteries is difficult. Often the data is gathered at locations that are difficult to access, that need to be covert, and/or where the sensors cannot be easily maintained. Some examples are implanted sensors for medical diagnostics and therapy, structural monitoring sensors, sensors inside hazardous manufacturing or other hazardous environments, etc. For any low power sensor that operates at a low duty cycle, and in an environment with low levels of light or vibration, RF wireless powering offers the potential for maintenance-free operation. The thesis focuses on a design methodology for low-power non-directional far-field wireless powering. The power receiver consists of one or more antennae which receive plane waves transmitted by the powering source, and deliver the RF power to a rectifying element. The resulting DC power is optimally transferred to the electronic application via a power management circuit. The powering is independent of the electronic application which can include wireless transmission of sensor data. The design and implementation of an integrated rectifier-antenna at low incident power densities (from 25--200 muW/cm2) is presented. Nonlinear source-pull measurements and harmonic balance simulations are used for finding the optimal rectifying device RF and DC impedances for efficient rectification. Experimental results show that an antenna design with a specific complex impedance reaches the highest rectification efficiency. Several examples of the design methodology will be shown. In specific, characterization of a rectifying patch antenna at frequency of 2.45GHz will be detailed, with an optimal RF impedance of 137+j149O and an optimal DC load of 365O resulting in RF to DC conversion efficiency of 63% for the rectifier alone and 56% for the total rectifying antenna.

  8. Software-Based Wireless Power Transfer Platform for Various Power Control Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Han Hwang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a software-based wireless power transfer platform that enables the development of a prototype involving various open- and closed-loop power control functions. Our platform is based on a loosely coupled planar wireless power transfer circuit that uses a class-E power amplifier. In conjunction with this circuit, we implement flexible control functions using a National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI DAQ board and algorithms in the MATLAB/Simulink. To verify the effectiveness of our platform, we conduct two types of power-control experiments: a no-load or metal detection using open-loop power control, and an output voltage regulation for different receiver positions using closed-loop power control. The use of the MATLAB/Simulink software as a part of the planar wireless power transfer platform for power control experiments is shown to serve as a useful and inexpensive alternative to conventional hardware-based platforms.

  9. Interference Cancellation for Coexisting Wireless Data and Power Transmission in the Same Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Keita; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Saruwatari, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Combining wireless transmission of data and power signals enables wireless sensor networks to drive perpetually without changing batteries. To achieve the simultaneous data and power transmission, the present paper proposes power signal interference cancellation for wireless data and power transmission at the same time in the same frequency. We evaluate the performance of the proposed power signal interference cancellation using Universal Software Radio Peripheral N200 (USRP N200) software defined radio. Evaluations show that the proposed interference cancellation is feasible to receive data while transmitting power

  10. A Magnetic-Balanced Inductive Link for the Simultaneous Uplink Data and Power Telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Liu, Dake; Miao, Zhidong; Li, Min

    2017-08-02

    When using the conventional two-coil inductive link for the simultaneous wireless power and data transmissions in implantable biomedical sensor devices, the strong power carrier could overwhelm the uplink data signal and even saturate the external uplink receiver. To address this problem, we propose a new magnetic-balanced inductive link for our implantable glaucoma treatment device. In this inductive link, an extra coil is specially added for the uplink receiving. The strong power carrier interference is minimized to approach zero by balanced canceling of the magnetic field of the external power coil. The implant coil is shared by the wireless power harvesting and the uplink data transmitting. Two carriers (i.e., 2-MHz power carrier and 500-kHz uplink carrier) are used for the wireless power transmission and the uplink data transmission separately. In the experiments, the prototype of this link achieves as high as 65.72 dB improvement of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) compared with the conventional two-coil inductive link. Benefiting from the significant improvement of SIR, the implant transmitter costs only 0.2 mW of power carrying 50 kbps of binary phase shift keying data and gets a bit error rate of 1 × 10 - 7 , even though the coupling coefficient is as low as 0.005. At the same time, 5 mW is delivered to the load with maximum power transfer efficiency of 58.8%. This magnetic-balanced inductive link is useful for small-sized biomedical sensor devices, which require transmitting data and power simultaneously under ultra-weak coupling.

  11. A Magnetic-Balanced Inductive Link for the Simultaneous Uplink Data and Power Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When using the conventional two-coil inductive link for the simultaneous wireless power and data transmissions in implantable biomedical sensor devices, the strong power carrier could overwhelm the uplink data signal and even saturate the external uplink receiver. To address this problem, we propose a new magnetic-balanced inductive link for our implantable glaucoma treatment device. In this inductive link, an extra coil is specially added for the uplink receiving. The strong power carrier interference is minimized to approach zero by balanced canceling of the magnetic field of the external power coil. The implant coil is shared by the wireless power harvesting and the uplink data transmitting. Two carriers (i.e., 2-MHz power carrier and 500-kHz uplink carrier are used for the wireless power transmission and the uplink data transmission separately. In the experiments, the prototype of this link achieves as high as 65.72 dB improvement of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR compared with the conventional two-coil inductive link. Benefiting from the significant improvement of SIR, the implant transmitter costs only 0.2 mW of power carrying 50 kbps of binary phase shift keying data and gets a bit error rate of 1 × 10 − 7 , even though the coupling coefficient is as low as 0.005. At the same time, 5 mW is delivered to the load with maximum power transfer efficiency of 58.8%. This magnetic-balanced inductive link is useful for small-sized biomedical sensor devices, which require transmitting data and power simultaneously under ultra-weak coupling.

  12. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  13. An Overview of Resonant Circuits for Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiang Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing concerns for the safety and convenience of the power supply, there is a fast growing interest in wireless power transfer (WPT for industrial devices, consumer electronics, and electric vehicles (EVs. As the resonant circuit is one of the cores of both the near-field and far-field WPT systems, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop a high-efficiency high-frequency resonant circuit, especially for the mid-range near-field WPT system. In this paper, an overview of resonant circuits for the near-field WPT system is presented, with emphasis on the non-resonant converters with a resonant tank and resonant inverters with a resonant tank as well as compensation networks and selective resonant circuits. Moreover, some key issues including the zero-voltage switching, zero-voltage derivative switching and total harmonic distortion are addressed. With the increasing usage of wireless charging for EVs, bidirectional resonant inverters for WPT based vehicle-to-grid systems are elaborated.

  14. Passive Shielding Effect on Space Profile of Magnetic Field Emissions for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has...... fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications....

  15. Channel coding study for ultra-low power wireless design of autonomous sensor works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Huang, Li; Willems, F.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-low power wireless design is highly demanded for building up autonomous wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for many application areas. To keep certain quality of service with limited power budget, channel coding techniques can be applied to maintain the robustness and reliability of WSNs. In this

  16. Transfer Efficiency Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer System under Frequency Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shoudao; Li, Zhongqi; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) is an emerging technology that may create new applications for wireless power charging. However, low efficiency resulting from resonant frequency drift is a main obstructing factor for promoting this technology. In this paper, the system efficiency...

  17. Joint Design of Control and Power Efficiency in Wireless Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint design method for wireless networked control system (WNCS to balance both the demands of network service and the control performance. Since the problems of power consumption, communication reliability, and system stability exist simultaneously and interdependently in WNCS, most of the achieved results in the wireless network and wired networked control system cannot be used directly. To coordinate the three problems, sampling period is found to be the linking bridge. An adaptive sampling power efficiency algorithm is proposed to manage the power consumption such that it can meet the demands of network life span. The sampling period is designed to update periodically on the constraints of network schedulability and system stability. The convergence of the power efficiency algorithm is further proved. The sampling period is no longer a fixed value, however; thus, increasing the difficulty in modeling and controlling such a complicated time-varying system remains. In this work, a switched control system scheme is applied to model such a WNCS, and the effect of network-induced delay is considered. Switched feedback controllers are introduced to stabilize the WNCS, and some considerations on stability condition and the bounds of the update circle for renewing sampling period are discussed. A numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for Decode-and-Forward MIMO Relay Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for a decode-and-forward (DF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay system where the relay is an energy harvesting node. We consider the ideal scenario where both the energy harvesting (EH) receiver and information decoding (ID) receiver at the relay have access to the whole received signal and its energy. The relay harvests the energy while receiving the signal from the source and uses the harvested power to forward the signal to the destination. We obtain the optimal precoders at the source and the relay to maximize the achievable throughput rate of the overall link. In the numerical results, the effect of the transmit power at the source and the position of the relay between the source and the destination on the maximum achievable rate are investigated. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  20. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  1. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  2. Simulation Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Cong, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, more and more implantable medical devices have been used in the medical field. Some of these devices, such as brain pacemakers, require long-term power support. The WPT(wireless power transmission) technology which is more convenient and economical than replacing the battery by surgery, has become the first choice of many patients. In this paper, we design a WPT system that can be used in implantable medical devices, simulate the transmission efficiency of the system in the air and in the head model, and simulate the SAR value when the system working in the head model. The results show that when implantation depth of the secondary coil is 3 mm, the efficiency of the system can reach 45%, and the maximum average SAR value is 2.19 W / kg, slightly higher than the standard of IEEE.

  3. Wireless Power Transfer System Architectures for Portable or Implantable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the near-field inductive coupling wireless power transfer (WPT at the system level, with detailed analyses on each state-of-the-art WPT output voltage regulation topologies. For device miniaturization and power loss reduction, several novel architectures for efficient WPT were proposed in recent years to reduce the number of passive components as well as to improve the system efficiency or flexibility. These schemes are systematically studied and discussed in this paper. The main contribution of this paper is to provide design guidelines for WPT system design. In addition, possible combinations of the WPT building block configurations are summarized, compared, and investigated for potential new architectures.

  4. Finding Minimum-Power Broadcast Trees for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Payman; Gray, Andrew; Das, Arindam; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Marks, Robert, II

    2004-01-01

    Some algorithms have been devised for use in a method of constructing tree graphs that represent connections among the nodes of a wireless communication network. These algorithms provide for determining the viability of any given candidate connection tree and for generating an initial set of viable trees that can be used in any of a variety of search algorithms (e.g., a genetic algorithm) to find a tree that enables the network to broadcast from a source node to all other nodes while consuming the minimum amount of total power. The method yields solutions better than those of a prior algorithm known as the broadcast incremental power algorithm, albeit at a slightly greater computational cost.

  5. Communication on SWIPT and EH Using Electromagnetic Behaviour for Power Allocation in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohel Rana; Ajij, Sayyad

    2017-12-01

    This review paper focuses on the basic relations between wireless power transfer, wireless information transfer and combined phenomenon of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer. The authors reviewed and discussed electromagnetic fields behaviour (EMB) for enhancing the power allocation strategies (PAS) in energy harvesting (EH) wireless communication systems. Further, this paper presents relations between Friis transmission equation and Maxwell's equations to be used in propagation models for reduction in specific absorption rate (SAR). This paper provides a review of various methods and concepts reported in earlier works. This paper also reviews Poynting vector and power densities along with boundary conditions for antennas and human body. Finally, this paper explores the usage of electromagnetic behaviour for the possible enhancement in power saving methods for electromagnetic behaviour centered-wireless energy harvesting (EMBC-WEH). At the same time, possibilities of PAS for reduction in SAR are discussed.

  6. Development of standard technical report on using and selecting wireless device in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, J. W.

    2011-11-01

    1. Purpose · Development of IEC technical report on wireless device using in nuclear power plants 2. Contents · IEC technical reports of draft for circulation and final draft for next planary meeting · Case study on experiment of wireless devices 3. Implementation methods · Preparation of first draft with experts group, its circulation, discussions on the results of the circulation · Organizing three teams such as preparation, reviews and experiment 4. Results · Maintenance cost will be reduced with application of the wireless technologies in nuclear power plants · Commercial wireless devices will be developed before standard is issued

  7. Wireless Power Transfer for Distributed Estimation in Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Vien V.; Shin, Won-Yong; Ishibashi, Koji

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies power allocation for distributed estimation of an unknown scalar random source in sensor networks with a multiple-antenna fusion center (FC), where wireless sensors are equipped with radio-frequency based energy harvesting technology. The sensors' observation is locally processed by using an uncoded amplify-and-forward scheme. The processed signals are then sent to the FC, and are coherently combined at the FC, at which the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is adopted for reliable estimation. We aim to solve the following two power allocation problems: 1) minimizing distortion under various power constraints; and 2) minimizing total transmit power under distortion constraints, where the distortion is measured in terms of mean-squared error of the BLUE. Two iterative algorithms are developed to solve the non-convex problems, which converge at least to a local optimum. In particular, the above algorithms are designed to jointly optimize the amplification coefficients, energy beamforming, and receive filtering. For each problem, a suboptimal design, a single-antenna FC scenario, and a common harvester deployment for colocated sensors, are also studied. Using the powerful semidefinite relaxation framework, our result is shown to be valid for any number of sensors, each with different noise power, and for an arbitrarily number of antennas at the FC.

  8. Design and optimization of resonance-based efficient wireless power delivery systems for biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakhyani, A K; Mirabbasi, S; Mu Chiao

    2011-02-01

    Resonance-based wireless power delivery is an efficient technique to transfer power over a relatively long distance. This technique typically uses four coils as opposed to two coils used in conventional inductive links. In the four-coil system, the adverse effects of a low coupling coefficient between primary and secondary coils are compensated by using high-quality (Q) factor coils, and the efficiency of the system is improved. Unlike its two-coil counterpart, the efficiency profile of the power transfer is not a monotonically decreasing function of the operating distance and is less sensitive to changes in the distance between the primary and secondary coils. A four-coil energy transfer system can be optimized to provide maximum efficiency at a given operating distance. We have analyzed the four-coil energy transfer systems and outlined the effect of design parameters on power-transfer efficiency. Design steps to obtain the efficient power-transfer system are presented and a design example is provided. A proof-of-concept prototype system is implemented and confirms the validity of the proposed analysis and design techniques. In the prototype system, for a power-link frequency of 700 kHz and a coil distance range of 10 to 20 mm, using a 22-mm diameter implantable coil resonance-based system shows a power-transfer efficiency of more than 80% with an enhanced operating range compared to ~40% efficiency achieved by a conventional two-coil system.

  9. Integration and analysis of neighbor discovery and link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Abd Razak, Shukor

    2014-01-01

    Network connectivity and link quality information are the fundamental requirements of wireless sensor network protocols to perform their desired functionality. Most of the existing discovery protocols have only focused on the neighbor discovery problem, while a few number of them provide an integrated neighbor search and link estimation. As these protocols require a careful parameter adjustment before network deployment, they cannot provide scalable and accurate network initialization in large-scale dense wireless sensor networks with random topology. Furthermore, performance of these protocols has not entirely been evaluated yet. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive simulation study on the efficiency of employing adaptive protocols compared to the existing nonadaptive protocols for initializing sensor networks with random topology. In this regard, we propose adaptive network initialization protocols which integrate the initial neighbor discovery with link quality estimation process to initialize large-scale dense wireless sensor networks without requiring any parameter adjustment before network deployment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide a detailed simulation study on the performance of integrated neighbor discovery and link quality estimation protocols for initializing sensor networks. This study can help system designers to determine the most appropriate approach for different applications.

  10. Integration and Analysis of Neighbor Discovery and Link Quality Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Radi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network connectivity and link quality information are the fundamental requirements of wireless sensor network protocols to perform their desired functionality. Most of the existing discovery protocols have only focused on the neighbor discovery problem, while a few number of them provide an integrated neighbor search and link estimation. As these protocols require a careful parameter adjustment before network deployment, they cannot provide scalable and accurate network initialization in large-scale dense wireless sensor networks with random topology. Furthermore, performance of these protocols has not entirely been evaluated yet. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive simulation study on the efficiency of employing adaptive protocols compared to the existing nonadaptive protocols for initializing sensor networks with random topology. In this regard, we propose adaptive network initialization protocols which integrate the initial neighbor discovery with link quality estimation process to initialize large-scale dense wireless sensor networks without requiring any parameter adjustment before network deployment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide a detailed simulation study on the performance of integrated neighbor discovery and link quality estimation protocols for initializing sensor networks. This study can help system designers to determine the most appropriate approach for different applications.

  11. THz photonic wireless links with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8e-3 with 7% overhead. In addition, we also successfully demonstrate hybrid photonic wireless transmission of 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM signal at carrier frequencies of 400 GHz and 425 GHz over 30 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) between the optical baseband...... signal transmitter and the THz wireless transmitter with negligible induced power penalty.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate THz photonic wireless communication systems with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band. The overall throughput reaches as high as 80 Gbit/s by exploiting four THz channels with 5 Gbaud 16-QAM baseband modulation per channel. We create a coherent optical...

  12. Wireless Power Control for Tactical MANET: Power Rate Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    J; P. Hande; T. Lan; C. W. Tan [2008] Power Control in Cellular Networks, Now Publishers Inc., Hanover, MA. 12. Chaves, Fabiano de Sousa; F. R. P...Asymptotically Fast Convergence, IEEE Selected Areas in Communications, 18(3). 36. Jian, Tao; Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos; Georgios B. Giannakis [2003] Kalman...Power Control and Its Imperfections in CDMA Cellular Systems, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technologies, 48, pages 1706–1777. 75. Tan , Chee Wei

  13. Technical Survey on Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jin; Bari, Ataul; Chen, Dongyi; Hashemian, Hash M.

    2014-01-01

    Even though there is no general consensus on using wireless technologies in nuclear power plants, potential applications of wireless sensor networks within nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been investigated. The topics of interests include potential interaction of wireless sensor networks with the sensitive protection equipment, radiation damage of the electronics on board sensor nodes, optimal placement of relay nodes that collect and forward data in the network, and possible applications, such as radiation dose and level monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring. Several wireless sensor networks have been deployed on site of NPPs on a trial basis to perform these tasks. Different aspects of deployment of such wireless sensor networks in NPPs have also been examined. Industrial standards or guidelines for deployment of WSNs in NPPs are also been considered. This paper examines the state of the art of wireless sensor networks in NPPs

  14. Open-WiSe: A Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Network Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Apolinar; Aquino, Raúl; Mata, Walter; Ochoa, Alberto; Saldaña, Pedro; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators. PMID:22969396

  15. Technical Survey on Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jin; Bari, Ataul [University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Dongyi [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Hashemian, Hash M. [AMS Technology Center, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Even though there is no general consensus on using wireless technologies in nuclear power plants, potential applications of wireless sensor networks within nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been investigated. The topics of interests include potential interaction of wireless sensor networks with the sensitive protection equipment, radiation damage of the electronics on board sensor nodes, optimal placement of relay nodes that collect and forward data in the network, and possible applications, such as radiation dose and level monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring. Several wireless sensor networks have been deployed on site of NPPs on a trial basis to perform these tasks. Different aspects of deployment of such wireless sensor networks in NPPs have also been examined. Industrial standards or guidelines for deployment of WSNs in NPPs are also been considered. This paper examines the state of the art of wireless sensor networks in NPPs.

  16. Open-WiSe: A Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Network Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Edwards

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe. The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators.

  17. Magnetic MIMO Signal Processing and Optimization for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Moghadam, Mohammad R. Vedady; Zhang, Rui

    2017-06-01

    In magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) enabled multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, multiple transmitters (TXs) each with one single coil are used to enhance the efficiency of simultaneous power transfer to multiple single-coil receivers (RXs) by constructively combining their induced magnetic fields at the RXs, a technique termed "magnetic beamforming". In this paper, we study the optimal magnetic beamforming design in a multi-user MIMO MRC-WPT system. We introduce the multi-user power region that constitutes all the achievable power tuples for all RXs, subject to the given total power constraint over all TXs as well as their individual peak voltage and current constraints. We characterize each boundary point of the power region by maximizing the sum-power deliverable to all RXs subject to their minimum harvested power constraints. For the special case without the TX peak voltage and current constraints, we derive the optimal TX current allocation for the single-RX setup in closed-form as well as that for the multi-RX setup. In general, the problem is a non-convex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP), which is difficult to solve. For the case of one single RX, we show that the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) of the problem is tight. For the general case with multiple RXs, based on SDR we obtain two approximate solutions by applying time-sharing and randomization, respectively. Moreover, for practical implementation of magnetic beamforming, we propose a novel signal processing method to estimate the magnetic MIMO channel due to the mutual inductances between TXs and RXs. Numerical results show that our proposed magnetic channel estimation and adaptive beamforming schemes are practically effective, and can significantly improve the power transfer efficiency and multi-user performance trade-off in MIMO MRC-WPT systems.

  18. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  19. Application of wireless monitoring and communication systems in the power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grechikhin V. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some achievements of modern radio electronics, which prove a huge potential of modern wireless engineering for using in the fuel-energy complex. Wireless corporation communication systems, application of short-range radar measuring systems on the power engineering objects, prospects of laser measuring systems, methods of radio thermography and radio spectroscopy, wireless acoustic-electronic sensors are discussed.

  20. Implementation Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Roadway Wireless Power Transfer; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, A.; Markel, T.; Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2015-06-05

    Analysis has been performed on the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) warehouse of collected GPS second-by-second driving profile data of vehicles in the Atlanta, Chicago, Fresno, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and San Francisco Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) to understand in-motion wireless power transfer introduction scenarios. In this work it has been shown that electrification of 1% of road miles could reduce fuel use by 25% for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in these CSAs. This analysis of strategically located infrastructure offers a promising approach to reduced fuel consumption; however, even the most promising 1% of road miles determined by these seven analysis scenarios still represent an impressive 2,700 miles of roadway to electrify. Therefore to mitigate the infrastructure capital costs, integration of the grid-tied power electronics in the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system at the DC-link to photovoltaic and/or battery storage is suggested. The integration of these resources would allow for the hardware to provide additional revenue through grid services at times of low traffic volumes and conversely at time of high traffic volumes these resources could reduce the peak demand that the WPT system would otherwise add to the grid.

  1. Symmetric Link Key Management for Secure Neighbor Discovery in a Decentralized Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY IN A DECENTRALIZED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK by Kelvin T. Chew September 2017 Thesis Advisor...and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...DATE September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYMMETRIC LINK KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR

  2. A study of the impact of frequency selectivity on link adaptive wireless LAN systems

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A; Nix, AR; Bull, DR

    2002-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) supporting broadband multimedia communication are being developed and standardized around the world. The HIPERLAN/2, 802.11a and HiSWANa standards provide channel adaptive data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps in the 5GHz radio band. The link adaptation mechanism is not specified in the standards. In this paper the performance of the HIPERLAN/2 system is evaluated in terms of throughput in a range of test channels with different degrees of frequency selectivity...

  3. A secure wireless mobile-to-server link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Agaian, Sos; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2009-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends indicate continuous growth in mobile phone applications. Nowadays phones are equipped with cameras that can capture still images and video, they are equipped with software that can read, convert, manipulate, communicate and save multimedia in multiple formats. This tremendous progress increased the volumes of communicated sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized access. This paper discusses two general approaches for data protection, steganography and cryptography, and demonstrates how to integrate such algorithms with a mobile-toserver link being used by many applications.

  4. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puers, R; Carta, R; Thoné, J

    2011-01-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules

  5. Bandwidth enhancement of wireless optical communication link using a near-infrared laser over turbid underwater channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee; Guo, Yujian; Ng, Tien Khee; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has been widely studied as a promising alternative to establish reliable short-range marine communication links. Microscopic particulates suspended in various ocean, harbor and natural waters

  6. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V

    2015-04-30

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time.

  7. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Canedo-Rodriguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter’s power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110 working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1 comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2 integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time.

  8. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H; Yoshimi, A; Takemura, K; Tanaka, A; Douseki, T

    2015-01-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs. (paper)

  9. SiGe HBTs Optimization for Wireless Power Amplifier Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marie Mans

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with SiGe HBTs optimization for power amplifier applications dedicated to wireless communications. In this work, we investigate the fT-BVCEO tradeoff by various collector optimization schemes such as epilayer thickness and dopant concentration, and SIC and CAP characteristics. Furthermore, a new trapezoidal base Germanium (Ge profile is proposed. Thanks to this profile, precise control of Ge content at the metallurgical emitter-base junction is obtained. Gain stability is obtained for a wide range of temperatures through tuning the emitter-base junction Ge percent. Finally, a comprehensive investigation of Ge introduction into the collector (backside Ge profile is conducted in order to improve the fT values at high injection levels.

  10. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.

    2017-05-02

    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  11. Investigation of negative permeability metamaterials for wireless power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Xin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer (WPT, a negative permeability metamaterials (NPM with a structure of honeycomb composed by units of hexagon-shaped spirals copper is proposed in this paper. The unit parameters of the NPM are optimized, to make sure the negative permeability at the special frequency. The S-parameters of the designed NPM are measured by a network analyzer and the permeability is extracted, it shows the honeycomb NPM has a negative permeability at 6.43 MHz. A two-coil WPT is setup and the transmission efficiency of WPT embedded with NPM at the different position and with different structure are investigated. The measured results show that the 2-slab honeycomb NPM have a good perform compared with the 1-slab NPM, and the efficiency can be increased up to 51%. The results show that honeycomb NPM embedded in the WPT help to improve the transmission efficiency remarkable.

  12. GaN-Based Laser Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Santi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a potential application of gallium nitride-based optoelectronic devices. By using a laser diode and a photodetector, we designed and demonstrated a free-space compact and lightweight wireless power transfer system, whose efficiency is limited by the efficiency of the receiver. We analyzed the effect of the electrical load, temperature, partial absorption and optical excitation distribution on the efficiency, by identifying heating and band-filling as the most impactful processes. By comparing the final demonstrator with a commercial RF-based Qi system, we conclude that the efficiency is still low at close range, but is promising in medium to long range applications. Efficiency may not be a limiting factor, since this concept can enable entirely new possibilities and designs, especially relevant for space applications.

  13. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  14. Investigation of negative permeability metamaterials for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Mi, Chunting Chris; He, Fei; Jiang, Meng; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-11-01

    In order to enhance the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer (WPT), a negative permeability metamaterials (NPM) with a structure of honeycomb composed by units of hexagon-shaped spirals copper is proposed in this paper. The unit parameters of the NPM are optimized, to make sure the negative permeability at the special frequency. The S-parameters of the designed NPM are measured by a network analyzer and the permeability is extracted, it shows the honeycomb NPM has a negative permeability at 6.43 MHz. A two-coil WPT is setup and the transmission efficiency of WPT embedded with NPM at the different position and with different structure are investigated. The measured results show that the 2-slab honeycomb NPM have a good perform compared with the 1-slab NPM, and the efficiency can be increased up to 51%. The results show that honeycomb NPM embedded in the WPT help to improve the transmission efficiency remarkable.

  15. Research on Wireless Power Transfer System via Magnetically Coupled Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Meng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the transmission distance and improve the transmission efficiency of the traditional wireless power transmission(WPTsystem composed with the transmitting and receiving coil resonators based on magnetic resonance coupling,we proposed an effective method to add a magnetic core between repeating coil and receiving coil based on the single repeating three coils mode. This paper deduced a mathematical expression of the transmission efficiency,and built a model by the circuit theory,and also simulated the transmission system added with the magnetic core between repeating and receiving coil. Then we selected the flat magnetic core for test. At last,we verified the feasibility of the proposal by actual experiment.

  16. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  17. Large-Scale Multiantenna Multisine Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Clerckx, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is expected to be a technology reshaping the landscape of low-power applications such as the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency identification (RFID) networks, etc. Although there has been some progress towards multi-antenna multi-sine WPT design, the large-scale design of WPT, reminiscent of massive MIMO in communications, remains an open challenge. In this paper, we derive efficient multiuser algorithms based on a generalizable optimization framework, in order to design transmit sinewaves that maximize the weighted-sum/minimum rectenna output DC voltage. The study highlights the significant effect of the nonlinearity introduced by the rectification process on the design of waveforms in multiuser systems. Interestingly, in the single-user case, the optimal spatial domain beamforming, obtained prior to the frequency domain power allocation optimization, turns out to be Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT). In contrast, in the general weighted sum criterion maximization problem, the spatial domain beamforming optimization and the frequency domain power allocation optimization are coupled. Assuming channel hardening, low-complexity algorithms are proposed based on asymptotic analysis, to maximize the two criteria. The structure of the asymptotically optimal spatial domain precoder can be found prior to the optimization. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated. Numerical results confirm the inefficiency of the linear model-based design for the single and multi-user scenarios. It is also shown that as nonlinear model-based designs, the proposed algorithms can benefit from an increasing number of sinewaves.

  18. A Fully Implantable Pacemaker for the Mouse: From Battery to Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Erik R.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Cui, Sophia X.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice. PMID:24194832

  19. A fully implantable pacemaker for the mouse: from battery to wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, Jacob I; Marrus, Scott B; Zellmer, Erik R; Weinheimer, Carla J; MacEwan, Matthew R; Cui, Sophia X; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.

  20. A fully implantable pacemaker for the mouse: from battery to wireless power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob I Laughner

    Full Text Available Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24 were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14 and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10. Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1% mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10% mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.

  1. Topology control algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on Link forwarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucuo, Cairen; Qi, Ai-qin

    2018-03-01

    The research of topology control could effectively save energy and increase the service life of network based on wireless sensor. In this paper, a arithmetic called LTHC (link transmit hybrid clustering) based on link transmit is proposed. It decreases expenditure of energy by changing the way of cluster-node’s communication. The idea is to establish a link between cluster and SINK node when the cluster is formed, and link-node must be non-cluster. Through the link, cluster sends information to SINK nodes. For the sake of achieving the uniform distribution of energy on the network, prolongate the network survival time, and improve the purpose of communication, the communication will cut down much more expenditure of energy for cluster which away from SINK node. In the two aspects of improving the traffic and network survival time, we find that the LTCH is far superior to the traditional LEACH by experiments.

  2. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  3. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality, and the observation accuracy at the sensor level. In particular, the aim is to reconstruct the estimation parameter with minimum error at a fusion center under a system budget constraint. To achieve this goal, a subset of sensing locations is selected from a large pool of candidate sensing locations. Furthermore, the type of sensor to be placed at those locations is selected from a given set of sensor types (e.g., sensors with different power ratings). We further investigate whether it is better to install a large number of cheap sensors, a few expensive sensors or a combination of different sensor types at the optimal locations.

  4. Cluster-based adaptive power control protocol using Hidden Markov Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinutha, C. B.; Nalini, N.; Nagaraja, M.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents strategies for an efficient and dynamic transmission power control technique, in order to reduce packet drop and hence energy consumption of power-hungry sensor nodes operated in highly non-linear channel conditions of Wireless Sensor Networks. Besides, we also focus to prolong network lifetime and scalability by designing cluster-based network structure. Specifically we consider weight-based clustering approach wherein, minimum significant node is chosen as Cluster Head (CH) which is computed stemmed from the factors distance, remaining residual battery power and received signal strength (RSS). Further, transmission power control schemes to fit into dynamic channel conditions are meticulously implemented using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) where probability transition matrix is formulated based on the observed RSS measurements. Typically, CH estimates initial transmission power of its cluster members (CMs) from RSS using HMM and broadcast this value to its CMs for initialising their power value. Further, if CH finds that there are variations in link quality and RSS of the CMs, it again re-computes and optimises the transmission power level of the nodes using HMM to avoid packet loss due noise interference. We have demonstrated our simulation results to prove that our technique efficiently controls the power levels of sensing nodes to save significant quantity of energy for different sized network.

  5. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained.

  6. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-14

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  7. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-01

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  8. QoE-based transmission strategies for multi-user wireless information and power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehun Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One solution to the problem of supplying energy to wireless networks is wireless power transfer. One such technology–electromagnetic radiation enabled wireless power transfer–will change traditional wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate a transmission strategy for multi-user wireless information and power transfer. We consider a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channel that includes one base station (BS and two user terminals (UT consisting of one energy harvesting (EH receiver and one information decoding (ID receiver. Our system provides transmission strategies that can be executed and implemented in practical scenarios. The paper then analyzes the rate–energy (R–E pair of our strategies and compares them to those of the theoretical optimal strategy. We furthermore propose a QoE-based mode selection algorithm by mapping the R–E pair to the utility functions.

  9. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  10. Optic Nerve Stimulation System with Adaptive Wireless Powering and Data Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To treat retinal degenerative diseases, a transcorneal electrical stimulation-based system is proposed, which consists of an eye implant and an external component. The eye implant is wirelessly powered and controlled by the external component to generate the required bi-polar current pattern for transcorneal stimulation with an amplitude range of 5 μA to 320 μA, a frequency range of 10 Hz to 160 Hz and a duty ratio range of 2.5% to 20%. Power delivery control includes power boosting in preparation for stimulation, and normal power regulation that adapts to both coupling and load variations. Only one pair of coils is used for both the power link and the bi-directional data link. Except for the secondary coil, the eye implant is fully integrated on chip and is fabricated using UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation, Hsinchu, Taiwan 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with a size of 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm. The secondary coil is fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB with a diameter of only 4.4 mm. After coating with biocompatible silicone, the whole implant has dimensions of 6 mm in diameter with a thickness of less than 1 mm. The whole device can be put onto the sclera and beneath the eye’s conjunctiva. System functionality and electrical performance are demonstrated with measurement results.

  11. A 35 GHz wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs micromachining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping

    2012-01-01

    A novel MEMS wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs MMIC technology is presented in this paper. The principle of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is explained. It is designed and fabricated using MEMS technology and the GaAs MMIC process. With the millimeter-wave power range from 0.1 to 80 mW, the sensitivity of the wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is about 0.246 mV mW −1 at 35 GHz. In order to verify the power detection capability, this wireless power sensor is mounted on a PCB which influences the microwave performance of the CPW-fed antenna including the return loss and the radiation pattern. The frequency-dependent characteristic and the degree-dependent characteristic of this wireless power sensor are researched. Furthermore, in addition to the combination of the advantages of CPW-fed antenna with the advantages of the thermoelectric power sensor, another significant advantage of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is that it can be integrated with MMICs and other planar connecting circuit structures with zero dc power consumption. These features make it suitable for various applications ranging from the environment or space radiation detection systems to radar receiver and transmitter systems. (paper)

  12. Power Optimization of Wireless Media Systems With Space-Time Block Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun; Jafarkhani, Hamid; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    2004-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple antennas. We formulate a set of optimization problems aimed at minimizing total power consumption of wireless media systems subject to a given level of QoS and an available bit rate. Our formulation takes in to consideration the power consumption related to source coding, channel coding, and transmission of multiple-transmit antennas. In our study, we consider Gauss-Markov and...

  13. Piezoelectric-nanowire-enabled power source for driving wireless microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Hansen, Benjamin J; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-10-19

    Harvesting energy from irregular/random mechanical actions in variable and uncontrollable environments is an effective approach for powering wireless mobile electronics to meet a wide range of applications in our daily life. Piezoelectric nanowires are robust and can be stimulated by tiny physical motions/disturbances over a range of frequencies. Here, we demonstrate the first chemical epitaxial growth of PbZr(x)Ti(1-x)O(3) (PZT) nanowire arrays at 230 °C and their application as high-output energy converters. The nanogenerators fabricated using a single array of PZT nanowires produce a peak output voltage of ~0.7 V, current density of 4 μA cm(-2) and an average power density of 2.8 mW cm(-3). The alternating current output of the nanogenerator is rectified, and the harvested energy is stored and later used to light up a commercial laser diode. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using nanogenerators for powering mobile and even personal microelectronics.

  14. A solar powered wireless computer mouse. Industrial design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S. [Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628 CE Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared the following: appropriate selection of integrated PV type, battery capacity and type, possible electronic circuitries for PV-battery coupling, and material properties concerning mechanical incorporation of PV into the encasing. Besides technical requirements, ergonomic aspects and design aesthetics with respect to good 'sun-harvesting' properties influenced the design process. This is particularly important as simulations show users can positively influence energy balances by 'sun-bathing' the PV mouse. A total of 15 SPM prototypes were manufactured and tested by actual users. Although user satisfaction proved the SPM concept to be feasible, future research still needs to address user acceptance related to product dimensions and user willingness to pro-actively 'sun-bath' PV powered products in greater detail. (author)

  15. Rf-to-dc power converters for wireless powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2016-12-01

    Various examples are provided related to radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power conversion. In one example, a RF-to-DC converter includes a fully cross-coupled rectification circuit including a pair of forward rectifying transistors and a feedback circuit configured to provide feedback bias signals to gates of the pair of forward rectifying transistors via feedback branch elements. In another example, a method includes receiving a radio frequency (RF) signal; rectifying the RF signal via a fully cross-coupled rectification circuit including a pair of forward rectifying transistors; and providing a DC output voltage from an output connection of the fully cross-coupled rectification circuit, where gating of the pair of forward rectifying transistors is controlled by feedback bias signals provided to gates of the pair of forward rectifying transistors via feedback branch elements.

  16. Link Quality-Based Transmission Power Adaptation for Reduction of Energy Consumption and Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2010-01-01

    Today, many wireless devices are mobile and battery powered. Based on the fact that battery capacity is still limited, energy saving is an important issue in wireless communication.Meanwhile, the number of wireless devices continues to increase and this creates interference problems between wireless

  17. CCM-R: Secure Counter Synchronization for IoT Wireless Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Upal; Yin, Jiachen; Andersen, Birger

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate a new version of the CCM mode of operation, CCM-R, which isan extended and alternate version of the original CBC-MAC with Counter Mode(CCM) that was created to address the problem of counter synchronization. While CCM is considered secure when used/implemente...... it suitable for low-power wireless IoT devices....

  18. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  19. 30 pJ/b, 67 Mbps, Centimeter-to-Meter Range Data Telemetry With an IR-UWB Wireless Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an energy-efficient, impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link operating in 3-5 GHz for data telemetry over centimeter-to-meter range distances at rates extended to tens of Mbps. The link comprises an all-digital, integrated transmitter (TX) fabricated in 90 nm 1P/9M CMOS that incorporates a waveform-synthesis pulse generator and a timing generator for on-off-keying (OOK) pulse modulation and phase scrambling. The link also incorporates an energy-detection receiver (RX) realized with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components that performs radio-frequency (RF) filtering, amplification, logarithmic power detection for data demodulation and automatic level control for robust operation in the presence of distance variations. Employing a miniaturized, UWB, chip antenna for the TX and RX, wireless transmission of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at rates up to 50 Mbps over 10 cm-1 m is shown. Further, employing a high-gain horn antenna for the RX, wireless transmission of PRBS data at rates up to 67 Mbps over 50 cm-4 m is shown with a TX energy consumption of 30 pJ/b (i.e., power consumption of 2 mW) from 1.2 V. The measured bit error rate (BER) in both cases is wireless recording of the background current of a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) in one fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) scan using the IR-UWB link are also included, exhibiting excellent match with those obtained from a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link at ~433 MHz.

  20. Power and delay optimisation in multi-hop wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    in order to minimise the power consumption and the queueing delay of the whole network. With the assumptions of interference-free links and independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel states, we formulate this problem using a semi

  1. Analysis and Optimization of Three-Resonator Wireless Power Transfer System for Predetermined-Goals Wireless Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-resonator wireless power transfer (WPT systems have been proposed to improve the power transfer efficiency (PTE and power delivered to the load (PDL in recent years. However, analysis formulas of a three-resonator WPT system are complicated, and the parameters for clarifying the transfer characteristics of this system are difficult to extract. In this paper, concise formulas for analyzing PTE and PDL of the three-resonator system are derived by introducing three factors. Diagram discriminance based on the derived formulas is proposed to obtain the frequency splitting criterions of PTE and PDL in this system. Further, at the transfer distances, where the PTE and PDL are low at original frequency due to frequency splitting phenomenon, the two predetermined-goals of maximizing PTE and PDL are achieved by optimizing coupling strength between the three resonators. The third predetermined-goal of obtaining a constant amount of PDL transfer at maximum PTE is also implemented based on basic algorithms in numerical software. Finally, Simulation and measurement results verify the correctness of analyzing the transfer characteristics of three-resonator WPT system using the presented concise formulas and discriminance. Moreover, effectiveness of realizing the three predetermined-goals via the proposed optimization method is confirmed with experiments.

  2. Phased Array Focusing for Acoustic Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victor Farm-Guoo; Bedair, Sarah S; Lazarus, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) through acoustic waves can achieve higher efficiencies than inductive coupling when the distance is above several times the transducer size. This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasonic phased arrays to focus power to receivers at arbitrary locations to increase the power transfer efficiency. Using a phased array consisting of 37 elements at a distance nearly 5 times the receiver transducer diameter, a factor of 2.6 increase in efficiency was achieved when compared to a case equivalent to a single large transducer with the same peak efficiency distance. The array has a total diameter of 7 cm, and transmits through air at 40 kHz to a 1.1-cm diameter receiver, achieving a peak overall efficiency of 4% at a distance of 5 cm. By adjusting the focal distance, the efficiency can also be maintained relatively constant at distances up to 9 cm. Numerical models were developed and shown to closely match the experimental energy transfer behavior; modeling results indicate that the efficiency can be further doubled by increasing the number of elements. For comparison, an inductive WPT system was also built with the diameters of the transmitting and receiving coils equivalent to the dimensions of the transmitting ultrasonic phased array and receiver transducer, and the acoustic WPT system achieved higher efficiencies than the inductive WPT system when the transmit-to-receive distance is above 5 cm. In addition, beam angle steering was demonstrated by using a simplified seven-element 1-D array, achieving power transfer less dependent on receiver placement.

  3. Circuits and Systems for Low-Power Miniaturized Wireless Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Manohar

    The field of electronic sensors has witnessed a tremendous growth over the last decade particularly with the proliferation of mobile devices. New applications in Internet of Things (IoT), wearable technology, are further expected to fuel the demand for sensors from current numbers in the range of billions to trillions in the next decade. The main challenges for a trillion sensors are continued miniaturization, low-cost and large-scale manufacturing process, and low power consumption. Traditional integration and circuit design techniques in sensor systems are not suitable for applications in smart dust, IoT etc. The first part of this thesis demonstrates an example sensor system for biosignal recording and illustrates the tradeoffs in the design of low-power miniaturized sensors. The different components of the sensor system are integrated at the board level. The second part of the thesis demonstrates fully integrated sensors that enable extreme miniaturization of a sensing system with the sensor element, processing circuitry, a frequency reference for communication and the communication circuitry in a single hermetically sealed die. Design techniques to reduce the power consumption of the sensor interface circuitry at the architecture and circuit level are demonstrated. The principles are used to design sensors for two of the most common physical variables, mass and pressure. A low-power wireless mass and pressure sensor suitable for a wide variety of biological/chemical sensing applications and Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) respectively are demonstrated. Further, the idea of using high-Q resonators for a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is proposed and a low-noise, wide bandwidth FBAR-based VCO is presented.

  4. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  5. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  6. A Low-input-voltage Wireless Power Transfer for Biomedical Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hao; Bai, Kangjun; Zhu, Weijie

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transfer is an essential technology to increase implants' longevity. A pair of inductivelycoupled coils operating at radio-frequency is extensively used to deliver electrical power to implants wirelessly. In this system, a power conditioning circuit is required convert the induced...... in the rectifier for the efficient AC to DC conversion. This requirement results in larger coil size, shorter operating distance or more stringent geometrical alignment between the two coils. In this paper, a low-input-voltage wireless power transfer has been demonstrated. In this system, the opencircuit voltage...... time-varying AC power harvested by the receiving coil to a stable DC power that is needed for powering circuits and sensors. Most existing power conditioning circuits require the induced voltage of the receiving coil to be significantly higher than the turn-on voltage of the diodes used...

  7. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...

  8. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  9. Optimal Design and Analysis of the Stepped Core for Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key of wireless power transfer technology rests on finding the most suitable means to improve the efficiency of the system. The wireless power transfer system applied in implantable medical devices can reduce the patients’ physical and economic burden because it will achieve charging in vitro. For a deep brain stimulator, in this paper, the transmitter coil is designed and optimized. According to the previous research results, the coils with ferrite core can improve the performance of the wireless power transfer system. Compared with the normal ferrite core, the stepped core can produce more uniform magnetic flux density. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to analyze the system. The simulation results indicate that the core loss generated in the optimal stepped ferrite core can reduce about 10% compared with the normal ferrite core, and the efficiency of the wireless power transfer system can be increased significantly.

  10. Lessons learned on solar powered wireless sensor network deployments in urban, desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    The successful deployment of a large scale solar powered wireless sensor network in an urban, desert environment is a very complex task. Specific cities of such environments cause a variety of operational problems, ranging from hardware faults

  11. Prediction and comparison of down-link electric field and uplink localised SAR values for realistic indoor wireless planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vanhecke, Kris; Vermeeren, Guenter; Martens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time a heuristic network calculator for both whole-body exposure due to indoor base station antennas or access points (down-link exposure) and localised exposure due to the mobile device (uplink exposure) in indoor wireless networks is presented. As an application, three phone call scenarios are investigated (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) macro-cell, UMTS femto-cell and WiFi voice-over-IP) and compared with respect to the electric-field strength and localised specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution. Prediction models are created and successfully validated with an accuracy of 3 dB. The benefits of the UMTS power control mechanisms are demonstrated. However, dependent on the macro-cell connection quality and on the user's average phone call connection time, also the macro-cell solution might be preferential from an exposure point of view for the considered scenario. (authors)

  12. On the Use of Tunable Power Splitter for Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Quddious

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a tunable power splitter (PS as a constituent component of a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT system is discussed. Two varactor diodes are used to achieve a tunable output power ratio P2 : P3 varying from 1 : 1 to 1 : 10 under good matching conditions. The SWIPT system that operates at 2.4 GHz consists of a typical patch antenna, cascaded with the tunable PS, and a voltage doubler rectifier. The constituent components were implemented and tested as stand-alone devices and were subsequently combined in a measurement system using interconnectors. The effect of the tunable PS was explored with respect to the SNR measurements on the port that is intended for the information decoding receiver and the DC voltage measurements on the termination load of the rectifier that is connected directly on the energy harvesting port of the tunable PS. A spectrum analyzer is used for the SNR measurements while the input power is controlled using a signal generator. Both wireless power transmission and on-board measurements verify that the harvested energy can be maximized by using the minimum SNR at the information decoding branch at the expense of DC power consumption required for the biasing of the varactor diodes.

  13. Optimal resonance configuration for ultrasonic wireless power transmission to millimeter-sized biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao Meng; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions, ultrasonic WPT links have recently been proposed. Operating both transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) ultrasonic transducers at their resonance frequency (fr) is key in improving power transmission efficiency (PTE). In this paper, different resonance configurations for Tx and Rx transducers, including series and parallel resonance, have been studied to help the designers of ultrasonic WPT links to choose the optimal resonance configuration for Tx and Rx that maximizes PTE. The geometries for disk-shaped transducers of four different sets of links, operating at series-series, series-parallel, parallel-series, and parallel-parallel resonance configurations in Tx and Rx, have been found through finite-element method (FEM) simulation tools for operation at fr of 1.4 MHz. Our simulation results suggest that operating the Tx transducer with parallel resonance increases PTE, while the resonance configuration of the mm-sized Rx transducer highly depends on the load resistance, Rl. For applications that involve large Rl in the order of tens of kΩ, a parallel resonance for a mm-sized Rx leads to higher PTE, while series resonance is preferred for Rl in the order of several kΩ and below.

  14. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  15. Highly Efficient Wireless Powering for Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring and Test/Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    of this work is to improve the efficiency, range, and safety (in terms of EMI/EMC and signature) of wireless powering of sensors using the recently...this work is to improve the efficiency, range, and safety (in terms of EMI/EMC and signature) of wireless powering of sensors using the recently...Force and DoD, such as, smart runways, nano-satellites, smart skins for hypersonic vehicles , autonomous portable devices, integrated circuits, and

  16. Underwater wireless optical MIMO system with spatial modulation and adaptive power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiping; Tao, Linwei; Niu, Yilong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of underwater wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output communication system combining spatial modulation (SM-UOMIMO) with flag dual amplitude pulse position modulation (FDAPPM). Channel impulse response for coastal and harbor ocean water links are obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Moreover, we obtain the closed-form and upper bound average bit error rate (BER) expressions for receiver diversity including optical combining, equal gain combining and selected combining. And a novel adaptive power allocation algorithm (PAA) is proposed to minimize the average BER of SM-UOMIMO system. Our numeric results indicate an excellent match between the analytical results and numerical simulations, which confirms the accuracy of our derived expressions. Furthermore, the results show that adaptive PAA outperforms conventional fixed factor PAA and equal PAA obviously. Multiple-input single-output system with adaptive PAA obtains even better BER performance than MIMO one, at the same time reducing receiver complexity effectively.

  17. Security For Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Singh,; Dr. Harsh Kumar Verma

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is highly vulnerable to attacks because it consists of various resourceconstrained devices with their low battery power, less memory, and associated low energy. Sensor nodescommunicate among themselves via wireless links. However, there are still a lot of unresolved issues in wireless sensor networks of which security is one of the hottest research issues. Sensor networks aredeployed in hostile environments. Environmental conditions along with resource-constraints give...

  18. Wireless Power Transfer to Millimeter-Sized Nodes Using Airborne Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-10-01

    We propose the use of airborne ultrasound for wireless power transfer to mm-sized nodes, with intended application in the next generation of the Internet of Things (IoT). We show through simulation that ultrasonic power transfer can deliver 50 [Formula: see text] to a mm-sized node 0.88 m away from a ~ 50-kHz, 25-cm 2 transmitter array, with the peak pressure remaining below recommended limits in air, and with load power increasing with transmitter area. We report wireless power recovery measurements with a precharged capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer, demonstrating a load power of 5 [Formula: see text] at a simulated distance of 1.05 m. We present aperture efficiency, dynamic range, and bias-free operation as key metrics for the comparison of transducers meant for wireless power recovery. We also argue that long-range wireless charging at the watt level is extremely challenging with existing technology and regulations. Finally, we compare our acoustic powering system with cutting edge electromagnetically powered nodes and show that ultrasound has many advantages over RF as a vehicle for power delivery. Our work sets the foundation for further research into ultrasonic wireless power transfer for the IoT.

  19. Wireless Power Transmission via Sheet Medium Using Automatic Phase Adjustment of Multiple Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Oota, Toshifumi; Kado, Youiti; Zhang, Bing

    The wireless power transmission via sheet medium is a novel physical form of communication that utilizes the surface as a medium to provide both data and power transmission services. To efficiently transmit a relatively-large amount of electric power (several watts), we have developed a wireless power transmission system via sheet medium that concentrates the electric power on a specific spot by using phase control of multiple inputs. However, to find the optimal phases of the multiple inputs making the microwave converge on a specific spot in the sheet medium, the prior knowledge of the device's position, and the pre-experiment measuring the output power, are needed. In wireless communication area, it is known that the retrodirective array scheme can efficiently transmit the power in a self-phasing manner, which uses the pilot signals sent by the client devices. In this paper, we apply the retrodirective array scheme to the wireless power transmission system via sheet medium, and propose a power transmission scheme using the phase-adjustment of multiple inputs. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposal scheme, we evaluate its performance by computer simulation and realistic measurement. Both results show that the proposal scheme can achieve the retrodirectivity over the wireless power transmission via sheet medium.

  20. Scintillation index and performance analysis of wireless optical links over non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence based on generalized atmospheric spectral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu

    2011-09-26

    Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Real-time 2.5  Gbit/s spatial circuit switching on W-band wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A spatial circuit switching system based on a beam steering application for W-band wireless links is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system enables two simultaneous transmissions of a 2.5 Gbit∕s data signal over a carrier of 81 GHz, while allowing the receiver to dynamically switch...... between them. The performance of the system is tested with the real-time measurements of the BER, achieving values below the FEC limit for 7% of overhead and serving to prove the viability of wireless spatial circuit switching in the next generation of wireless access networks....

  2. Securing the communication of medical information using local biometric authentication and commercial wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir I; Yu, Paul L; Baras, John S

    2010-09-01

    Medical information is extremely sensitive in nature - a compromise, such as eavesdropping or tampering by a malicious third party, may result in identity theft, incorrect diagnosis and treatment, and even death. Therefore, it is important to secure the transfer of medical information from the patient to the recording system. We consider a portable, wireless device transferring medical information to a remote server. We decompose this problem into two sub-problems and propose security solutions to each of them: (1) to secure the link between the patient and the portable device, and (2) to secure the link between the portable device and the network. Thus we push the limits of the network security to the edge by authenticating the user using their biometric information; authenticating the device to the network at the physical layer; and strengthening the security of the wireless link with a key exchange mechanism. The proposed authentication methods can be used for recording the readings of medical data in a central database and for accessing medical records in various settings.

  3. Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Kim, Beomjoon; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Kim, Dae-Kwang; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2017-12-14

    Prolonged monitoring by cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors is useful for patients with emergency heart conditions. However, implant monitoring systems are limited by lack of tissue biocompatibility. Here, we developed an implantable ECG sensor for real-time monitoring of ventricular fibrillation and evaluated its biocompatibility using an animal model. The implantable sensor comprised transplant sensors with two electrodes, a wireless power transmission system, and a monitoring system. The sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area and operated for 1 h/day for 5 days using a wireless power system. Importantly, the sensor was encapsulated by subcutaneous tissue and induced angiogenesis, inflammation, and phagocytosis. In addition, we observed that the levels of inflammation-related markers increased with wireless-powered transmission via the ECG sensor; in particular, levels of the Th-1 cytokine interleukin-12 were significantly increased. The results showed that induced tissue damage was associated with the use of wireless-powered sensors. We also investigated research strategies for the prevention of adverse effects caused by lack of tissue biocompatibility of a wireless-powered ECG monitoring system and provided information on the clinical applications of inflammatory reactions in implant treatment using the wireless-powered transmission system.

  4. Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged monitoring by cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG sensors is useful for patients with emergency heart conditions. However, implant monitoring systems are limited by lack of tissue biocompatibility. Here, we developed an implantable ECG sensor for real-time monitoring of ventricular fibrillation and evaluated its biocompatibility using an animal model. The implantable sensor comprised transplant sensors with two electrodes, a wireless power transmission system, and a monitoring system. The sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area and operated for 1 h/day for 5 days using a wireless power system. Importantly, the sensor was encapsulated by subcutaneous tissue and induced angiogenesis, inflammation, and phagocytosis. In addition, we observed that the levels of inflammation-related markers increased with wireless-powered transmission via the ECG sensor; in particular, levels of the Th-1 cytokine interleukin-12 were significantly increased. The results showed that induced tissue damage was associated with the use of wireless-powered sensors. We also investigated research strategies for the prevention of adverse effects caused by lack of tissue biocompatibility of a wireless-powered ECG monitoring system and provided information on the clinical applications of inflammatory reactions in implant treatment using the wireless-powered transmission system.

  5. Optimization of output power and transmission efficiency of magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.

  6. Evaluation of a microwave high-power reception-conversion array for wireless power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Initial performance tests of a 24-sq m area array of rectenna elements are presented. The array is used as the receiving portion of a wireless microwave power transmission engineering verification test system. The transmitting antenna was located at a range of 1.54 km. Output dc voltage and power, input RF power, efficiency, and operating temperatures were obtained for a variety of dc load and RF incident power levels at 2388 MHz. Incident peak RF intensities of up to 170 mW/sq cm yielded up to 30.4 kW of dc output power. The highest derived collection-conversion efficiency of the array was greater than 80 percent.

  7. Digital Photonic Receivers for Wireless and Wireline Optical Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    services. The experimental demonstration supported the following transmissions systems: a baseband, 5 Gbps, intensity modulation system employing a directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a baseband 20 Gbps non-return-to-zero quadrature phase-shift keying (NRZ-QPSK) system...... receivers in hybrid wireless and wireline optical fiber transmission links. Furthermore, the digital signal processing framework presented in this thesis can be extended to design probabilistic-based digital photonic receivers that can find applications in cognitive heterogeneous reconfigurable optical...

  8. Assistance System for Disabled People: A Robot Controlled by Blinking and Wireless Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Lara; Jiménez, María I.; Alonso, Alonso; de La Rosa, Ramón; Izquierdo, Alberto; Carrera, Albano

    Disabled people already profit from a lot of technical assistance that improves their quality of life. This article presents a system which will allow interaction between a physically disabled person and his environment. This system is controlled by voluntary muscular movements, particularly those of face muscles. These movements will be translated into machine-understandable instructions, and they will be sent by means of a wireless link to a mobile robot that will execute them. Robot includes a video camera, in order to show the user the environment of the route that the robot follows. This system gives a greater personal autonomy to people with reduced mobility.

  9. Long reach and enhanced power budget DWDM radio-over-fibre link supported by Raman amplification and coherent detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Fernandez, Amaya

    2009-01-01

    We report on a scalable and enhanced power budget radio-over-fibre system for hybrid-wireless access networks operating at 12.5 GHz DWDM spacing for 5 GHz RF carriers over a 60 km fibre link with Raman amplification....

  10. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  11. A wirelessly powered microspectrometer for neural probe-pin device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, whether done invasively or not, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. We have developed a micro-spectrometer for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The micro-spectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) to enable operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, enable real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  12. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier.

  13. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lyou, Joon [Dept. of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  14. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hae Ye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard, Internet Protocol (IP phones, personal digital assistant (PDA for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  15. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs

  16. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    ; secondly, the increasing density of the wireless devices makes cooperation possible; last, the cost of information exchange (i.e. transmission power, transmission time, spectrum, etc.) is very low if information exchange over short-range link is needed. Cooperation changes the way of information delivery......Although wireless networks have achieved great success in the lastest two decades, the current wireless networks have difficulties to fulll users' ever-increasing expectations and needs. It is mainly due to available spectrum resource scarcity, limited battery capacity of wireless device......, unreliable wireless radio link, etc. To tackle these issues, a new telecommunication paradigm has been proposed, referred to as cooperative wireless networking [1]. The basic idea of cooperative wireless networking is that wireless devices work together to achieve their individual goals or one common goal...

  17. Optimal Analytical Solution for a Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with One Transmitter and Two Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system with one transmitter and two receivers. We determine the optimal solution for two design requirements: (i maximum power transfer, and (ii maximum system efficiency. We derive the optimal loads and provide the analytical expressions for the efficiency and power. We show that the optimal load conductances for the maximum power configuration are always larger than for the maximum efficiency configuration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that if the receivers are coupled, this can be compensated for by introducing susceptances that have the same value for both configurations. Finally, we numerically verify our results. We illustrate the similarities to the inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT solution and find that the same, but dual, expressions apply.

  18. Optimization of Multiresonant Wireless Power Transfer Network Based on Generalized Coupled Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transfer network (MCRWPTN system can realize wireless power transfer for some electrical equipment real-time and high efficiency in a certain spatial scale, which resolves the contradiction between power transfer efficiency and the power transfer distance of the wireless power transfer. A fully coupled resonant energy transfer model for multirelay coils and ports is established. A dynamic adaptive impedance matching control based on fully coupling matrix and particle swarm optimization algorithm based on annealing is developed for the MCRWPTN. Furthermore, as an example, the network which has twenty nodes is analyzed, and the best transmission coefficient which has the highest power transfer efficiency is found using the optimization algorithm, and the coupling constraints are considered simultaneously. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by the simulation results.

  19. Power Management for A Distributed Wireless Health Management Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed wireless architectures for prognostics is an important enabling step in prognostic research in order to achieve feasible real-time system health...

  20. Self-powered autonomous wireless sensor node using vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torah, R; Glynne-Jones, P; Tudor, M; Beeby, S; O'Donnell, T; Roy, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of an energy aware autonomous wireless condition monitoring sensor system (ACMS) powered by ambient vibrations. An electromagnetic (EM) generator has been designed to harvest sufficient energy to power a radio-frequency (RF) linked accelerometer-based sensor system. The ACMS is energy aware and will adjust the measurement/transmit duty cycle according to the available energy; this is typically every 3 s at 0.6 m s −2 rms acceleration and can be as low as 0.2 m s −2 rms with a duty cycle around 12 min. The EM generator has a volume of only 150 mm 3 producing an average power of 58 µW at 0.6 m s −2 rms acceleration at a frequency of 52 Hz. In addition, a voltage multiplier circuit is shown to increase the electrical damping compared to a purely resistive load; this allows for an average power of 120 µW to be generated at 1.7 m s −2 rms acceleration. The ACMS has been successfully demonstrated on an industrial air compressor and an office air conditioning unit, continuously monitoring vibration levels and thereby simulating a typical condition monitoring application

  1. Performance Evaluation of Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links in the Presence of Different Air Bubble Populations

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Elafandy, Rami T.; Park, Kihong; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links in the presence of different air bubbles. Air bubbles of different sizes and densities are generated by using an air pipe in conjunction with a submersible water pump of variable flow rate that help break up large bubbles into smaller bubbles. Received signal intensity measurements show that bubbles significantly degrade the performance of UWOC links. Large bubbles completely obstruct the optical beam and cause a deep fade. However, as the bubble size decreases, the level of deep fade also decreases because the optical beam is less susceptible to complete obstruction and more light reaches the detector. We also show that beam expansion could help mitigate the performance degradation due to the deep fade caused by air bubbles scatters in the channel.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links in the Presence of Different Air Bubble Populations

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-03-16

    We experimentally evaluate the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links in the presence of different air bubbles. Air bubbles of different sizes and densities are generated by using an air pipe in conjunction with a submersible water pump of variable flow rate that help break up large bubbles into smaller bubbles. Received signal intensity measurements show that bubbles significantly degrade the performance of UWOC links. Large bubbles completely obstruct the optical beam and cause a deep fade. However, as the bubble size decreases, the level of deep fade also decreases because the optical beam is less susceptible to complete obstruction and more light reaches the detector. We also show that beam expansion could help mitigate the performance degradation due to the deep fade caused by air bubbles scatters in the channel.

  3. [Design and optimization of wireless power and data transmission for visual prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuping; Wu, Kaijie; Zhao, Lei; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-11-01

    Boosting spatial resolution of visual prostheses is an effective method to improve implant subjects' visual perception. However, power consumption of visual implants greatly rises with the increasing number of implanted electrodes. In respond to this trend, visual prostheses need to develop high-efficiency wireless power transmission and high-speed data transmission. This paper presents a review of current research progress on wireless power and data transmission for visual prostheses, analyzes relative principles and requirement, and introduces design methods of power and data transmission.

  4. MAC layer power management schemes for efficient energy- delay tradeoffs in wireless local area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Mahasweta

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize power consumption and thereby prolong the system lifetime of battery powered wireless devices, it makes sense for such devices to transit to a very low power "Sleep" state when they are not communicating with their peers. However the main challenge of the sleep mechanism lies in the wireless nodes inability to "wake up" as soon as a packet arrives for it during its sleep state. This leads to an obvious tradeoff between power saving and packet delay. In this dissertation w...

  5. Near field wireless power transfer using curved relay resonators for extended transfer distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Clare, L; Stark, B H

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a near field wireless power transfer system that uses curved relay resonator to extend transfer distance. Near field wireless power transfer operates based on the near-field electromagnetic coupling of coils. Such a system can transfer energy over a relatively short distance which is of the same order of dimensions of the coupled coils. The energy transfer distance can be increased using flat relay resonators. Recent developments in printing electronics and e-textiles have seen increasing demand of embedding electronics into fabrics. Near field wireless power transfer is one of the most promising methods to power electronics on fabrics. The concept can be applied to body-worn textiles by, for example, integrating a transmitter coil into upholstery, and a flexible receiver coil into garments. Flexible textile coils take on the shape of the supporting materials such as garments, and therefore curved resonator and receiver coils are investigated in this work. Experimental results showed that using curved relay resonator can effectively extend the wireless power transfer distance. However, as the curvature of the coil increases, the performance of the wireless power transfer, especially the maximum received power, deteriorates. (paper)

  6. Up to 35 Gbps Ultra-Wideband Wireless Data Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    For the first time Ultra-Wideband record data transmission rates up to 35.1 Gbps and 21.6 Gbps are achieved, compliant with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee......, respectively. To achieve these record bit rates, the multi-band approach of Carrierless Amplitude Phase modulation scheme was employed. Wireless transmissions were achieved with a BER below the 7% FEC threshold of 3.8·10-3 ....

  7. The Application of RPL Routing Protocol in Low Power Wireless Sensor and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer information technology, wireless sensor has been successfully changed the mode of human life, at the same time, as one of the technologies continues to improve the future life, how to better integration with the RPL routing protocols together become one of research focuses in the current climate. This paper start from the wireless sensor network, briefly discusses the concept, followed by systematic exposition of RPL routing protocol developed background, relevant standards, working principle, topology and related terms, and finally explore the RPL routing protocol in wireless sensor low power lossy network applications.

  8. Cavity Resonator Wireless Power Transfer System for Freely Moving Animal Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Henry; Thackston, Kyle A; Bercich, Rebecca A; Jefferys, John G R; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to create a large wireless powering arena for powering small devices implanted in freely behaving rodents. We design a cavity resonator based wireless power transfer (WPT) system and utilize our previously developed optimal impedance matching methodology to achieve effective WPT performance for operating sophisticated implantable devices, made with miniature receive coils (powering fidelity of 93.53% over nine recording sessions across nine weeks, indicating nearly continuous device operation for a freely behaving rat within the large cavity resonator space. We have developed and demonstrated a cavity resonator based WPT system for long term experiments involving freely behaving small animals. This cavity resonator based WPT system offers an effective and simple method for wirelessly powering miniaturized devices implanted in freely moving small animals within the largest space.

  9. Modelling Wireless Power Transfer Using an Array of Tesla Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Casey Thomas

    Wireless power transmission, or WPT, is a well-demonstrated property in electrical science and physics. Coil-and-wave transmission (CWT) consists of two Tesla coils, one powered by a controlled voltage source v src and one connected across a generic load Z 0 , at a mid- to long range distance apart with spherical capacitors at each of their top loads. The literature on the different methods of WPT varies widely, but research of CWT is sparse, lacking especially in the area of computer simulation. Recently, a physical experiment was conducted by Marzolf et al. in [1], and yielded surprising resonant frequencies in the high frequency range. The goal of this research is to answer the question of whether these reosnant frequencies originate in unexplained field effects or in non-ideal circuit behavior, and establish a formal model to indicate at what frequencies the resonant peaks occur as a first approximation. By carefully constructing a simulation of the most geometrically simple, power efficient design in the work of Marzolf et al. using the scientific software Octave, we investigate these frequencies computationally: first, an ideal scenario that has no flux leakage or exterior losses is modelled mathematically and simulated, and then, a non-ideal scenario that accounts for losses in the coils and surroundings is modelled mathematically and simulated. Both models utilize a simple formula for spherical capacitance for the top loads. After running these simulations through detailed sampling up to 4 MHz, the ideal model could not account for the resonant peaks, while the non-ideal model indicated the resonant peaks near the exact frequency ranges that were observed. An unexpected characteristic of these results was that coupling coefficients between the coils of the transmitter and receiver played a noticeable part in the indication of resonant peaks. This demonstrates that unknown field effects are not the primary driver of resonance in the ideal or non

  10. Opportunities and challenges for optical wireless: the competitive advantage of free space telecommunications links in today's crowded marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Theresa H.; Wisely, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Never before has the opportunity for terrestrial optical wireless communications links been so great. The high data rates attainable, up to OC-24, make it a very attractive and cost effective alternative to traditional fiber optic and microwave links. With today's demand for interactive multimedia-based applications, such as video conferencing and telemedicine, optical wireless products are the only ones that can provide the needed bandwidth in situations when it is too costly or impossible to install fiber optic cable. Recent developments in laser and optics technologies, in addition to auto beam tracking, permit transmission units to achieve excellent performance rates in all weather conditions.

  11. Development of a Novel Wireless Electric Power Transfer System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VazquezRamos, Gabriel; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper will introduce a new implementation for wireless electric power transfer systems: space applications. Due to the risks that constitute the use of electrical connector for some space missions/applications, a simple wireless power system design approach will be evaluated as an alternative for the use of electrical connectors. This approach takes into consideration the overall system performance by designing the magnetic resonance elements and by verifying the overall system electrical behavior. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit and analytical simulations using Matlab(TradeMark) and LTSpiceIV(TradeMark) software packages. The design methodology was validated by two different experiments: frequency consideration (design of three magnetic elements) and a small scale proof-ofconcept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The proof-of-concept prototype provided approx.4 W of wireless power to the load (light bulb) at a separation of 3 cm from the source. In addition. a resonant circuit was designed and installed to the battery terminals of a handheld radio without batteries, making it tum on at a separation of approx.5 cm or less from the source. It was also demonstrated by prototype experimentation that multiple loads can be powered wirelessly at the same time with a single electric power source.

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Coexistence of Microwave Wireless Communication and Power Transfer Technologies for Battery-Free Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental demonstrations of a wireless power transfer system equipped with a microwave band communication function. Battery charging using the system is described to evaluate the possibility of the coexistence of both wireless power transfer and communication functions in the C-band. A battery-free wireless sensor network system is demonstrated, and a high-power rectifier for the system is also designed and evaluated in the S-band. We have confirmed that microwave wireless power transfer can coexist with communication function.

  13. LSコイルを用いたWireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    吉川, 隆; 更谷, 翔太

    2014-01-01

    The wireless power transmission is widely studied for many kinds of application, for example, power supply for cell phone or power source of EV. The supplying power of those applications is always over mW. But it is impossible to transmit for longer distance under the index of regulation of protection from radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Then many of such applications are considered with restriction of narrow area. Then we have surveyed low power demanding application the suitable appl...

  14. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure.

  15. A high-power versatile wireless power transfer for biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Jun Min; Liou, Shy Shenq; Fechter, Richard; Hirose, Shinjiro; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2010-01-01

    Implantable biomedical actuators are highly desired in modern medicine. However, how to power up these biomedical implants remains a challenge since most of them need more than several hundreds mW of power. The air-core based radio-frequency transformer (two face-to-face inductive coils) has been the only non-toxic and non-invasive power source for implants for the last three decades [1]. For various technical constraints, the maximum delivered power is limited by this approach. The highest delivered power reported is 275 mW over 1 cm distance [2]. Also, the delivered power is highly vulnerable to the coils' geometrical arrangement and the electrical property of the medium around them. In this paper, a novel rotating-magnets based wireless power transfer that can deliver ∼10 W over 1 cm is demonstrated. The delivered power is significantly higher than the existing start-of-art. Further, the new method is versatile since there is no need to have the impedance matching networks that are highly susceptible to the operating frequency, the coil arrangement and the environment.

  16. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Henaut, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved

  17. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Henaut, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved.

  18. Low wireless power transfer using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareq, M; Fitra, M; Irwanto, M; Hasan, Syafruddin; Arinal, M

    2014-01-01

    A wireless power transfer (WPT) using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger is studied. The project is offer to study and fabricate WPT using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger that will give more information about distance is effect for WPT performance and WPT is not much influenced by the presence of hands, books and types of plastics. The components used to build wireless power transfer can be divided into 3 parts components, the transceiver for power transmission, the inductive coils in this case as the antenna, receiver and the rectifier which act convert AC to DC. Experiments have been conducted and the wireless power transfer using inductive coupling is suitable to be implemented for mobile phone charger.

  19. A wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope for colon inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Shi, Yu; Zhu, Bingquan

    2012-07-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes (ACE) have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a double-layer solenoid pair primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. At least 500 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions and the safety restraints in a volume of Φ13 × 13 mm. The wireless power transmission system is integrated to an ACE and applied in animal experiments. The designed wireless power transmission is proved to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application.

  20. In Vivo Self-Powered Wireless Cardiac Monitoring via Implantable Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Bojing; Xue, Xiang; Liu, Zhuo; Jin, Yiming; Ma, Ye; Zou, Yang; Wang, Xinxin; An, Zhao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lang, Xilong; Xu, Zhiyun; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo is an important route in obtaining sustainable electric energy for powering implantable medical devices. Here, we demonstrate an innovative implantable triboelectric nanogenerator (iTENG) for in vivo biomechanical energy harvesting. Driven by the heartbeat of adult swine, the output voltage and the corresponding current were improved by factors of 3.5 and 25, respectively, compared with the reported in vivo output performance of biomechanical energy conversion devices. In addition, the in vivo evaluation of the iTENG was demonstrated for over 72 h of implantation, during which the iTENG generated electricity continuously in the active animal. Due to its excellent in vivo performance, a self-powered wireless transmission system was fabricated for real-time wireless cardiac monitoring. Given its outstanding in vivo output and stability, iTENG can be applied not only to power implantable medical devices but also possibly to fabricate a self-powered, wireless healthcare monitoring system.

  1. Powering a wireless sensor node with a vibration-driven piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Elizabeth K; Wright, Paul; Burghardt, Fred; Fain, Romy

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the direct application of scavenged energy to power a wireless sensor platform. A trapezoidal piezoelectric harvester was designed for a specific machine tool application and tested for robustness and longevity as well as performance. The design focused on resonant performance and distributed strain concentrations at a given resonant frequency and acceleration. Critical issues of power coupling and conditioning between harvester and wireless platform were addressed. The wireless platform consisted of a sensor, controller, power conditioning circuitry, and a custom low power radio. The system transmitted a sensor sample once every 10 s in a scavenging environment of 0.25 g and 100 Hz for a system duty cycle of approximately 0.2%

  2. Gait-Cycle-Driven Transmission Power Control Scheme for a Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Weilin; Li, Ye

    2018-05-01

    In a wireless body area network (WBAN), walking movements can result in rapid channel fluctuations, which severely degrade the performance of transmission power control (TPC) schemes. On the other hand, these channel fluctuations are often periodic and are time-synchronized with the user's gait cycle, since they are all driven from the walking movements. In this paper, we propose a novel gait-cycle-driven transmission power control (G-TPC) for a WBAN. The proposed G-TPC scheme reinforces the existing TPC scheme by exploiting the periodic channel fluctuation in the walking scenario. In the proposed scheme, the user's gait cycle information acquired by an accelerometer is used as beacons for arranging the transmissions at the time points with the ideal channel state. The specific transmission power is then determined by using received signal strength indication (RSSI). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed G-TPC based on a CC2420 platform. The results reveal that compared to the original RSSI/link-quality-indication-based TPC, G-TPC reduces energy consumption by 25% on the sensor node and reduce the packet loss rate by 65%.

  3. The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-09-01

    Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor ( Q ) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory.

  4. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  5. Coupled optic-thermodynamic analysis of a novel wireless power transfer system using concentrated sunlight for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Liang; Li, Yun-Ze; Mao, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yi-Hao; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel space wireless power transfer system is proposed. • Concentrated sunlight is used as the medium to avoid multiple conversions. • Fresnel lens and optical fiber bundle make the system compact and space-qualified. • Coupled optic-thermodynamic model is developed to analyze link efficiencies. • End-to-end efficiency achieved is as twice as that of microwave or laser system. - Abstract: The energy generation and supply for in-orbit spacecraft have become an urgent problem concerning efficient and economical utilization of spacecraft formation flying. To fill the gap between the requirement of inter-spacecraft energy transfer and the development of wireless power transfer, this paper presents a novel wireless power transfer system whose transmission medium is concentrated sunlight. The system concentrates sunlight using a Fresnel lens, and changes the direction of concentrated sunlight beam with optical fibers. The light energy is converted to thermal form by a heat collector, and then it is utilized to generate electricity by a Stirling engine integrated with linear alternator. Equipments employed on fractionated spacecraft shall be supported by this electric energy. A coupled optic-thermodynamic model was developed to analyze system link efficiencies. This system offers characteristics such as high flexibility, relatively low cost for launch and maintenance, and most importantly, high end-to-end efficiency. Simulation results show that the geometric concentration ratio and the temperature ratio of expansion and compression spaces are two key parameters of this system. Output power of 234.3 W was achieved on the distance of 100 m, and the end-to-end efficiency of the system was above 20%.

  6. Design and development of Solar Powered Wireless Telemetering System (SPWTS) for Environmental Radiation Monitoring (ERM) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan, Bhuvaneswari; Ramachandran, Shanmugalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the real time environmental radiation monitoring system installed in the nuclear power plant is based on LAN. Generally data from the surveillance instrument are collected at regular intervals using a lap-top or system/units and taken to the laboratory for downloading the archival data. So a need was felt to design and develop Solar powered Wireless Telemetering System (SPWTS) for Environmental Radiation Monitoring (ERM) of Nuclear Power Plants. SPWTS is used for real-time monitoring and wireless transmission of the on-line data to the Central Control Unit (CCU) to investigate the history of monitored data. Thus, in this paper a wireless mode using Zigbee is proposed, thereby improving scalability, flexibility and continuous radiological surveillance along with data archival facility. The proposed Solar Powered Wireless Telemetering System (SPWTS) comprising of transmitter, intermediate devices and receiver units transmits the ERM data to Central Control Unit (CCU) for storage and display to RADAS unit. In order to meet the coverage distance without data loss, suitable number of repeaters/routers are configured and joined in the network. The entire wireless telemetry system is powered up by solar cells with rechargeable battery backup facility, SPWTS suitable for ERM data transmission module will replace the wired Ethernet environment by wireless mode thereby improving scalability, flexibility and continuous radiological surveillance of the gamma dose monitoring. This module also proposes solutions for wireless transmission of safety related critical data to a remote control unit. Finally, this module promotes interoperability within hierarchical framework by reducing the amount of changes that could be introduced into the existing system. (author)

  7. Investigation of Improved Methods in Power Transfer Efficiency for Radiating Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antenna is proposed, firstly. And then several improving power transfer efficiency (PTE methods for wireless power transfer (WPT systems composed of the proposed antenna in the radiating near-field region are investigated. Method one is using a proposed antenna as a power retriever. This WPT system consisted of three proposed antennas: a transmitter, a receiver, and a retriever. The system is fed by only one power source. At a fixed distance from receiver to transmitter, the distance between the transmitter and the retriever is turned to maximize power transfer from the transmitter to the receiver. Method two is using two proposed antennas as transmitters and one antenna as receiver. The receiver is placed between the two transmitters. In this system, two power sources are used to feed the two transmitters, respectively. By adjusting the phase difference between the two feeding sources, the maximum PTE can be obtained at the optimal phase difference. Using the same configuration as method two, method three, where the maximum PTE can be increased by regulating the voltage (or power ratio of the two feeding sources, is proposed. In addition, we combine the proposed methods to construct another two schemes, which improve the PTE at different extent than classical WPT system.

  8. Efficiency optimization of class-D biomedical inductive wireless power transfer systems by means of frequency adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Matthew; Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Inductive powering for implanted medical devices is a commonly employed technique, that allows for implants to avoid more dangerous methods such as the use of transcutaneous wires or implanted batteries. However, wireless powering in this way also comes with a number of difficulties and conflicting requirements, which are often met by using designs based on compromise. In particular, one aspect common to most inductive power links is that they are driven with a fixed frequency, which may not be optimal depending on factors such as coupling and load. In this paper, a method is proposed in which an inductive power link is driven by a frequency that is maintained at an optimum value f(opt), to ensure that the link is in resonance. In order to maintain this resonance, a phase tracking technique is employed at the primary side of the link; this allows for compensation of changes in coil separation and load. The technique is shown to provide significant improvements in maintained secondary voltage and efficiency for a range of loads when the link is overcoupled.

  9. Promoting Wired Links in Wireless Mesh Networks: An Efficient Engineering Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes. PMID:25793516

  10. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  11. Broadband Microwave Wireless Power Transfer for Weak-Signal and Multipath Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the potential benefits of using relatively broadband wireless power transmission WPT strategies in both weak-signal and multipath environments where traditional narrowband strategies can be very inefficient. The paper is primarily a theoretical and analytical treatment of the problem that attempts to derive results that are widely applicable to many different WPT applications, including space solar power SSP.

  12. Radio frequency energy harvesting and low power data transmission for autonomous wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Mansano, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Since the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to be the new technology to drive the semiconductor industry, significant research efforts have been made to develop new circuit and system techniques for autonomous/very low-power operation of wireless sensor nodes. Very low-power consumption of

  13. Front end power dissipation minimization and optimal transmission rate for wireless receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.H.C.; Wu, Y.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Most wireless battery-operated devices spend more energy receiving than transmitting. Hence, minimizing the power dissipation in the receiver front end, which, in many cases, is the prominent power consuming part of the receiver, is an important challenge. This paper addresses this challenge by

  14. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  15. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). In this paper, researchers present a range based dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified...

  16. Ultra low-power integrated circuit design for wireless neural interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Holleman, Jeremy; Otis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Presenting results from real prototype systems, this volume provides an overview of ultra low-power integrated circuits and systems for neural signal processing and wireless communication. Topics include analog, radio, and signal processing theory and design for ultra low-power circuits.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW POWER WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM USING RESONANCE PRINCIPLE WITH SECURITY FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan Nataraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a resonance principle-based low power Wireless Power Transfer (WPT system. The reflective impedance model is derived to evaluate the resonance coupling between coils. Additionally, Cockroft Walton voltage boosting circuit is incorporated to boost up the received voltage to the appropriate level, instead of using traditional conditioning circuits. The prototype model, operating at 130 kHz, is demonstrated experimentally and analysed graphically to validate the performance of designed circuit. For an overall span of 100 mm coil separation distance, the maximum efficiency of 60% with no load and 36% loaded system, is observed at a distance of 55 mm with the approximate (e.g., manual axial orientation of coils. It can be supported widely for the portable electronic products and biomedical devices. As an added contribution, the WPT circuit were enabled by a password security feature using an arduino nicrocontroller.

  18. Power requirements and battery life measurement for wireless transmission between two nodes in different mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Karli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of the wireless sensor networks (WSN is to avoid wiring costs, be self-sustainable and be able to function for several years. However, due to the slow progress in battery technology, power continues to be a limited resource in wireless sensor communication and electric energy storage remains to be an important issue. On the other hand, if batteries must be replaced often, many remote sensing applications may become impractical. Therefore, batteries with long life on the order of several years are needed. This paper is an extension of work originally presented in The 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications to investigate further the power requirements for wireless data transfer between two nodes using batteries with different capacities (55 mAh, 550 mAh and 5500 mAh. In particular, the effect of a propagation medium such as air, distilled water and engine oil on the wireless communication inside a one meter long metallic pipe was investigated. Our first result shows a successful transmission of wireless signal through air, distilled water and oil medium with very low transmission losses. The second result shows that an increase in the battery capacity will increase the two-node wireless sensor operation time even in different propagation medium. This result can be used to determine the required battery capacity for extending the WSN operation time.

  19. Delay-Tolerant, Low-Power Protocols for Large Security-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. Malavenda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the analysis, implementation, and experimental testing of a delay-tolerant and energy-aware protocol for a wireless sensor node, oriented to security applications. The solution proposed takes advantages from different domains considering as a guideline the low power consumption and facing the problems of seamless and lossy connectivity offered by the wireless medium along with very limited resources offered by a wireless network node. The paper is organized as follows: first we give an overview on delay-tolerant wireless sensor networking (DTN; then we perform a simulation-based comparative analysis of state-of-the-art DTN approaches and illustrate the improvement offered by the proposed protocol; finally we present experimental data gathered from the implementation of the proposed protocol on a proprietary hardware node.

  20. Bandwidth enhancement of wireless optical communication link using a near-infrared laser over turbid underwater channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee

    2017-11-30

    Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has been widely studied as a promising alternative to establish reliable short-range marine communication links. Microscopic particulates suspended in various ocean, harbor and natural waters will alter the propagation characteristics of the optical signals underwater. In this paper, we demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared (NIR)-based UWOC link using an 808-nm laser diode, to examine the feasibility of the proposed system in mitigating the particle scattering effect over turbid waters. We show that the NIR wavelengths presents greater resilience to the aqueous suspension of these micro-sized particles with a smaller scattering effect due to its longer wavelength, as evident by the smaller variations in the optical beam transmittance. It is also observed that the error performance is improved at higher concentrations albeit the significant reduction in received signal power. We further demonstrate that the overall frequency response of the system exhibits a bandwidth enhancement up to a few tens of MHz with increasing concentrations.

  1. Low power radio communication platform for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are predicted to be the most versatile, popular and useful technology in the near future. A large number of applications are targeted which will hugely benefit from a network of tiny computers with few sensors, radio communication platform, intelligent networking and

  2. Self-learning power control in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Current trends in interconnecting myriad smart objects to monetize on Internet of Things applications have led to high-density communications in wireless sensor networks. This aggravates the already over-congested unlicensed radio bands, calling for new mechanisms to improve spectrum management and

  3. Transmission power control for wireless home and building automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchiani, C.

    2015-01-01

    Home and building automation can provide significant improvements in comfort and energy efficiency of buildings. However, its diffusion is hindered by the complexity of installation and maintenance. Wireless connectivity can simplify this process, reducing installation time and cost, but it requires

  4. Wireless (Power Transfer Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  5. Characteristic of wireless power transmission S-Parameter for a superconductor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Jung, Byung Ik; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2015-01-01

    Many studies are being conducted to implement wireless charging, for example, for cellular phones or electronic tooth brushes, via wireless power transmission technique. However, the magnetic induction method had a very short transmission distance. To solve this problem, the team of Professor Marin Soljacic proposed a magnetic resonance system that used two resonance coils with the same resonance frequency. It had an approximately 40% efficiency at a 2m distance. The system improved the low efficiency and short distance problems of the existing systems. So it could also widen the application range of wireless power transmission. Many studies on the subject are underway. In this paper, the superconductor coil was used to improve the efficiency of magnetic resonance wireless power transmission. The resonance wireless power transmission system had a source coil, a load coil, and resonance coils (a transmitter and a receiver). The efficiency and distance depended on the characteristics of the transmitter and receiver coils that had the same resonance frequency. Therefore, two resonance coils were fabricated by superconductors. The current density of the superconductor was higher than that of the normal conductor coil. Accordingly, it had a high quality-factor and improved efficiency

  6. Characteristic of wireless power transmission S-Parameter for a superconductor coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Jung, Byung Ik; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Many studies are being conducted to implement wireless charging, for example, for cellular phones or electronic tooth brushes, via wireless power transmission technique. However, the magnetic induction method had a very short transmission distance. To solve this problem, the team of Professor Marin Soljacic proposed a magnetic resonance system that used two resonance coils with the same resonance frequency. It had an approximately 40% efficiency at a 2m distance. The system improved the low efficiency and short distance problems of the existing systems. So it could also widen the application range of wireless power transmission. Many studies on the subject are underway. In this paper, the superconductor coil was used to improve the efficiency of magnetic resonance wireless power transmission. The resonance wireless power transmission system had a source coil, a load coil, and resonance coils (a transmitter and a receiver). The efficiency and distance depended on the characteristics of the transmitter and receiver coils that had the same resonance frequency. Therefore, two resonance coils were fabricated by superconductors. The current density of the superconductor was higher than that of the normal conductor coil. Accordingly, it had a high quality-factor and improved efficiency.

  7. Magnetic Field Emissions for Ferrite and Non-Ferrite Geometries for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced. For geo......Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced...... for vertical separation between the coils in range of 100-180 mm. It is observed that lower vertical separation results in higher overlapping of the zones and the coils behave as they are effectively placed close to center of air gap. The analysis in this work provides a better understanding of the space...... profile of magnetic field emissions (with and without ferrite) for wireless power transfer to vehicles....

  8. A simple levitation system using wireless power supply system and Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tanaka, Masako

    2016-01-01

    A new type of magnetic levitation mechanism has been proposed. The feature of this mechanism is using wireless power supply system and Lorentz forces for levitation. The stability of levitation is performed by passive control by magnetic flux configuration between permanent magnets and active control of electromagnets. In this paper, the concept of levitation mechanism is introduced, FEM analyses for levitation force and wireless power supply performance is examined. In concept two types of levitation systems which are different on the point of active control directions are introduced. In FEM analyses, the required current for levitation and the directions of generating forces are calculated. In the study of wireless power supply system, the required voltage for the levitation is expected. Finally the feasibility of the proposed levitation system will be verified. (paper)

  9. 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission with an MMF access and an indoor optical wireless link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission, over a 4.4-km multimode fiber (MMF) in combination with an indoor optical wireless (OW) link, which could provide limited mobility. Due to MMF's advantages, such as lower installation costs and easy maintenance, it is

  10. Converged wireline and wireless signal transport over optical fibre access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Prince, Kamau; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality.......This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality....

  11. Compact resonator on leather for nonradiative inductive power transfer and far-field data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, G.; Corchia, L.; De Benedetto, E.; Tarricone, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a wearable resonator suitable to be used for both power and data transmission is presented. The basic element is a complementary split ring resonator that has been optimized to operate both as a dipole-like antenna at 2.45 GHz and as the receiver of a resonant energy link operating at 915 MHz when coupled with an identical external resonator connected to a power source. Experimental data referring to a prototype fabricated by using a conductive adhesive fabric on a leather substrate are reported and discussed. With regard to the wireless resonant energy link (WREL), it is demonstrated that at 915 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 78.1%. As for the performance obtained when the resonator is used as an antenna, a gain of approximately -0.43 dB was obtained. Additionally, the performance of the proposed link when connected to a Power Management Unit (PMU) that converts the radio frequency (RF) energy received by the wearable resonator into DC energy that can be directly used for recharging a thin-film battery was also investigated. Experimental tests were performed in order to evaluate both the total efficiency of the wireless charger (i.e., the WREL link connected to the PMU) and the time necessary to recharge a THINERGY MEC201 battery. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed WREL for implementing a battery charger; in particular, by providing an input power higher than 8 dBm, the time necessary to recharge the considered thin-film battery is shorter than 38 min.

  12. Bidirectional 3.125 Gbps downstream / 2 Gbps upstream impulse radio ultrawide-band (UWB) over combined fiber and wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate bidirectional fiber and wireless transmission of impulse radio ultra-wideband at 3.125 Gbps downstream and 2 Gbps upstream. After transmission over 50 km fiber and 1.85 m wireless link both signals are recovered without errors.......We demonstrate bidirectional fiber and wireless transmission of impulse radio ultra-wideband at 3.125 Gbps downstream and 2 Gbps upstream. After transmission over 50 km fiber and 1.85 m wireless link both signals are recovered without errors....

  13. Position and Orientation Insensitive Wireless Power Transmission for EnerCage-Homecage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yaoyao; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Wang, Zheyuan; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Madsen, Teresa E; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new headstage architecture as part of a smart experimental arena, known as the EnerCage-HC2 system, which automatically delivers stimulation and collects behavioral data over extended periods with minimal small animal subject handling or personnel intervention in a standard rodent homecage. Equipped with a four-coil inductive link, the EnerCage-HC2 system wirelessly powers the receiver (Rx) headstage, irrespective of the subject's location or head orientation, eliminating the need for tethering or carrying bulky batteries. On the transmitter (Tx) side, a driver coil, five high-quality (Q) factor segmented resonators at different heights and orientations, and a closed-loop Tx power controller create a homogeneous electromagnetic (EM) field within the homecage 3-D space, and compensate for drops in power transfer efficiency (PTE) due to Rx misalignments. The headstage is equipped with four small slanted resonators, each covering a range of head orientations with respect to the Tx resonators, which direct the EM field toward the load coil at the bottom of the headstage. Moreover, data links based on Wi-Fi, UART, and Bluetooth low energy are utilized to enables remote communication and control of the Rx. The PTE varies within 23.6%-33.3% and 6.7%-10.1% at headstage heights of 8 and 20 cm, respectively, while continuously delivering >40 mW to the Rx electronics even at 90° rotation. As a proof of EnerCage-HC2 functionality in vivo, a previously documented on-demand electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus, eliciting consistent head rotation, is demonstrated in three freely behaving rats.

  14. Optimal Design of a Resonance-Based Voltage Boosting Rectifier for Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Lee, Byunghun; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the design procedure for a new multi-cycle resonance-based voltage boosting rectifier (MCRR) capable of delivering a desired amount of power to the load (PDL) at a designated high voltage (HV) through a loosely-coupled inductive link. This is achieved by shorting the receiver (Rx) LC-tank for several cycles to harvest and accumulate the wireless energy in the RX inductor before boosting the voltage by breaking the loop and transferring the energy to the load in a quarter cycle. By optimizing the geometries of the transmitter (Tx) and Rx coils and the number of cycles, N , for energy harvesting, through an iterative design procedure, the MCRR can achieve the highest PDL under a given set of design constraints. Governing equations in the MCRR operation are derived to identify key specifications and the design guidelines. Using an exemplary set of specs, the optimized MCRR was able to generate 20.9 V DC across a 100 kΩ load from a 1.8 V p , 6.78 MHz sinusoid input in the ISM-band at a Tx/Rx coil separation of 1.3 cm, power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 2.2%, and N = 9 cycles. At the same coil distance and loading, coils optimized for a conventional half-wave rectifier (CHWR) were able to reach only 13.6 V DC from the same source.

  15. Outage Probability Analysis in Power-Beacon Assisted Energy Harvesting Cognitive Relay Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Phuc Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performance of the secondary relay system in a power-beacon (PB assisted energy harvesting cognitive relay wireless network. In our system model, a secondary source node and a relay node first harvest energy from distributed PBs. Then, the source node transmits its data to the destination node with the help of the relay node. Also, fading coefficients of the links from the PBs to the source node and relay node are assumed independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d Nakagami-m random variables. We derive exact expressions for the power outage probability and the channel outage probability. Based on that, we analyze the total outage probability of the secondary relay system. Asymptotic analysis is also performed, which provides insights into the system behavior. Moreover, we evaluate impacts of the primary network on the performance of the secondary network with respect to the tolerant interference threshold at the primary receiver as well as the interference introduced by the primary transmitter at the secondary source and relay nodes. Simulation results are provided to validate the analysis.

  16. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  17. Application of wireless sensor networks in personnel dosage monitoring system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Jiang Wei; Chen Dengke

    2007-01-01

    Aim to meet the need of personnel dosage monitoring of nuclear power plant, a monitoring system was designed which based on wireless sensor network. First, the basic concept was described; the characteristics of the wireless sensor network applied in the monitoring system of nuclear power plant were also been analyzed; the structure of the system was built too. Finally, the special technologies like the choice of communication mode, the security of communication network and orientation that used in the monitoring system were discussed. (authors)

  18. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption

  19. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T., E-mail: ktchau@eee.hku.hk; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  20. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  1. Load characteristics of wireless power transfer system with different resonant types and resonator numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Zhao, Zhengming; Chen, Kainan; Fan, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been the research focus and applied in many fields. Normally power is transferred wirelessly to charge the battery, which requires specific load characteristics. The load characteristics are essential for the design and operation of the WPT system. This paper investigates the load characteristics of the WPT system with different resonant types and resonator numbers. It is found that in a WPT system with series or LCL resonance under a constant voltage source, the load characteristic is determined by the number of inductors. Even number of inductors results in a constant current characteristic and odd number constant voltage characteristic. Calculations, simulations, and experiments verify the analysis.

  2. Load characteristics of wireless power transfer system with different resonant types and resonator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Power Transfer (WPT has been the research focus and applied in many fields. Normally power is transferred wirelessly to charge the battery, which requires specific load characteristics. The load characteristics are essential for the design and operation of the WPT system. This paper investigates the load characteristics of the WPT system with different resonant types and resonator numbers. It is found that in a WPT system with series or LCL resonance under a constant voltage source, the load characteristic is determined by the number of inductors. Even number of inductors results in a constant current characteristic and odd number constant voltage characteristic. Calculations, simulations, and experiments verify the analysis.

  3. Wireless, Ultra-Low-Power Implantable Sensor for Chronic Bladder Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve J A; Garverick, Steven L; Suster, Michael A; Fletter, Paul C; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-06-01

    The wireless implantable/intracavity micromanometer (WIMM) system was designed to fulfill the unmet need for a chronic bladder pressure sensing device in urological fields such as urodynamics for diagnosis and neuromodulation for bladder control. Neuromodulation in particular would benefit from a wireless bladder pressure sensor which could provide real-time pressure feedback to an implanted stimulator, resulting in greater bladder capacity while using less power. The WIMM uses custom integrated circuitry, a MEMS transducer, and a wireless antenna to transmit pressure telemetry at a rate of 10 Hz. Aggressive power management techniques yield an average current draw of 9 μ A from a 3.6-Volt micro-battery, which minimizes the implant size. Automatic pressure offset cancellation circuits maximize the sensing dynamic range to account for drifting pressure offset due to environmental factors, and a custom telemetry protocol allows transmission with minimum overhead. Wireless operation of the WIMM has demonstrated that the external receiver can receive the telemetry packets, and the low power consumption allows for at least 24 hours of operation with a 4-hour wireless recharge session.

  4. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  5. Power-Efficient Beacon Recognition Method Based on Periodic Wake-Up for Industrial Wireless Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Soonyong; Lee, Donghun; Jang, Ingook; Choi, Jinchul; Son, Youngsung

    2018-04-17

    Energy harvester-integrated wireless devices are attractive for generating semi-permanent power from wasted energy in industrial environments. The energy-harvesting wireless devices may have difficulty in their communication with access points due to insufficient power supply for beacon recognition during network initialization. In this manuscript, we propose a novel method of beacon recognition based on wake-up control to reduce instantaneous power consumption in the initialization procedure. The proposed method applies a moving window for the periodic wake-up of the wireless devices. For unsynchronized wireless devices, beacons are always located in the same positions within each beacon interval even though the starting offsets are unknown. Using these characteristics, the moving window checks the existence of the beacon associated withspecified resources in a beacon interval, checks again for neighboring resources at the next beacon interval, and so on. This method can reduce instantaneous power and generates a surplus of charging time. Thus, the proposed method alleviates the problems of power insufficiency in the network initialization. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated using computer simulations of power shortage in various energy-harvesting conditions.

  6. Ultra Reliable Short Message Relaying with Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    López, Onel L. Alcaraz; Alves, Hirley; Souza, Richard Demo; Fernández, Evelio Martín García

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We consider a dual-hop wireless network where an energy constrained relay node first harvests energy through the received radio-frequency signal from the source, and then uses the harvested energy to forward the source’s information to the destination node. The throughput and delay metrics are investigated for a decode-and-forward relaying mechanism at finite blocklength regime and delay-limited transmission mode. We consider ultra-reliable communication scenarios under discussio...

  7. Power Analysis of an Enterprise Wireless Communication Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    command and control, C2, Internet of Things , IoT, model based systems engineering, MBSE, marine air-ground task force, MAGTF, command control and...Electronics Engineers InTop Integrated Topside IPS Instructions per Second IoT Internet of Things JTNC Joint Tactical Networking Center L-RTac...wireless communications in the military increases the amount of energy needed for missions. The Internet of Things (IoT) movement (Thomas, McPherson, and

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Termination Impedance Effects in Wireless Power Transfer via Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Puccetti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the transmitted power in a wireless power transfer system that employs a metamaterial. Metamaterials are a good means to transfer power wirelessly, as they are composed of multiple inductively-coupled resonators. The system can be designed and matched simply through magneto-inductive wave theory, particularly when the receiver inductor is located at the end of the metamaterial line. However, the power distribution changes significantly in terms of transmitted power, efficiency and frequency if the receiver inductor slides along the line. In this paper, the power distribution and transfer efficiency are analysed, studying the effects of a termination impedance in the last cell of the metamaterial and improving the system performance for the resonant frequency and for any position of the receiver inductor. Furthermore, a numerical characterisation is presented in order to support experimental tests and to predict the performance of a metamaterial composed of spiral inductor cells with very good accuracy.

  9. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao

    2017-09-26

    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  10. A Frequency-Tracking and Impedance-Matching Combined System for Robust Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges to power embedded devices using magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system is that the amount of power delivered to the load is very sensitive to load impedance variations. Previous adaptive impedance-matching (IM technologies have drawbacks because adding IM networks, relay coils, or other compensating components in the receiver-side will significantly increase the receiver size. In this paper, a novel frequency-tracking and impedance-matching combined system is proposed to improve the robustness of wireless power transfer for embedded devices. The characteristics of the improved WPT system are investigated theoretically based on the two-port network model. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out to validate the proposed system. The results suggest that the frequency-tracking and impedance-matching combined WPT system can quickly find the best matching points and maintain high power transmission efficiency and output power when the load impedance changes.

  11. Micro-intestinal robot with wireless power transmission: design, analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Wenwen; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-11-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a useful tool for noninvasive intestinal detection, but it is not capable of active movement; wireless power is an effective solution to this problem. The research in this paper consists of two parts: the mechanical structure which enables the robot to move smoothly inside the intestinal tract, and the wireless power supply which ensures efficiency. First, an intestinal robot with leg architectures was developed based on the Archimedes spiral, which mimics the movement of an inchworm. The spiral legs were capable of unfolding to an angle of approximately 155°, which guaranteed stability of clamping, consistency of surface pressure, and avoided the risk of puncturing the intestinal tract. Secondly, the necessary power to operate the robot was far beyond the capacity of button batteries, so a wireless power transmission (WPT) platform was developed. The design of the platform focused on power transfer efficiency and frequency stability. In addition, the safety of human tissue in the alternating electromagnetic field was also taken into consideration. Finally, the assembled robot was tested and verified with the use of the WPT platform. In the isolated intestine, the robot system successfully traveled along the intestine with an average speed of 23 mm per minute. The obtained videos displayed a resolution of 320 × 240 and a transmission rate of 30 frames per second. The WPT platform supplied up to 500 mW of energy to the robot, and achieved a power transfer efficiency of 12%. It has been experimentally verified that the intestinal robot is safe and effective as an endoscopy tool, for which wireless power is feasible. Proposals for further improving the robot and wireless power supply are provided later in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ubiquitous wireless ECG recording: a powerful tool physicians should embrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    The use of smart phones has increased dramatically and there are nearly a billion users on 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Nearly 60% of the U.S. population uses smart phones to access the internet, and smart phone sales now surpass those of desktop and laptop computers. The speed of wireless communication technology on 3G and 4G networks and the widespread adoption and use of iOS equipped smart phones (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) provide infrastructure for the transmission of wireless biomedical data, including ECG data. These technologies provide an unprecedented opportunity for physicians to continually access data that can be used to detect issues before symptoms occur or to have definitive data when symptoms are present. The technology also greatly empowers and enables the possibility for unprecedented patient participation in their own medical education and health status as well as that of their social network. As patient advocates, physicians and particularly cardiac electrophysiologists should embrace the future and promise of wireless ECG recording, a technology solution that can truly scale across the global population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lurgio, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Djurcic, Z., E-mail: zdjurcic@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Drake, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hashemian, R. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Kreps, A.; Oberling, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pearson, T. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Sahoo, H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  14. Additively Manufactured IN718 Components with Wirelessly Powered and Interrogated Embedded Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, Paul [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Bajekal, Sanjay [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Klecka, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Wu, Xin [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Savulak, Steve [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Viens, Dan [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Carey, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Miano, John [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Rioux, William [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zacchio, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dunst, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-07-14

    A methodology is described for embedding commercial-off-the-shelf sensors together with wireless communication and power circuit elements using direct laser metal sintered additively manufactured components. Physics based models of the additive manufacturing processes and sensor/wireless level performance models guided the design and embedment processes. A combination of cold spray deposition and laser engineered net shaping was used to fashion the transmitter/receiving elements and embed the sensors, thereby providing environmental protection and component robustness/survivability for harsh conditions. By design, this complement of analog and digital sensors were wirelessly powered and interrogated using a health and utilization monitoring system; enabling real-time, in situ prognostics and diagnostics.

  15. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils.

  16. Development of Wireless Techniques in Data and Power Transmission - Application for Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, E.; Dehos, C.; De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Gimenez, J. L. Gonzalez; Gustafsson, L.; Kim, D.W.; Roehrich, D.; Schoening, A.; Siligaris, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Ullaland, K.; Vincent, P.; Wiednert, D.; Yang, S.; Brenner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and using them for data and power transmission in particle physics detectors is not science- fiction any more. During the last years several research groups have independently thought of making it a reality. Wireless techniques became a mature field for research and new developments might have impact on future particle physics experiments. The Instrumentation Frontier was set up as a part of the SnowMass 2013 Community Summer Study [1] to examine the instrumentation R&D for the particle physics research over the coming decades: {\\guillemotleft} To succeed we need to make technical and scientific innovation a priority in the field {\\guillemotright}. Wireless data transmission was identified as one of the innovations that could revolutionize the transmission of data out of the detector. Power delivery was another challenge mentioned in the same report. We propose a collaboration to identify the specific needs of different projects that m...

  17. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system

  18. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils

  19. Wirelessly powered electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) by planar receiver coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sang Hyun; Yuan, Junqi; Yoon, Myung Gon; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is one of the most versatile methods used to control the wettability of liquids using electrical input. In most applications, EWOD is applied using physical wiring, which may restrict its application to implantable EWOD devices. In order to resolve this issue, we have studied and developed a wirelessly powered EWOD by using planar coils at the receiver that are fabricated out of a printed circuit board (PCB) by means of standard micro photolithography. Unlike conventional, bulky, spool coil type, the planar coil type lends itself to compact design and easy integration with EWOD chips. The present wireless powering principle is based on magnetic induction, which is very efficient when the transmitter and receiver coils are close to each other. The voltage obtained at the receiver is much higher than typically required EWOD voltages (>50 V) using a high transmission frequency (~MHz). The span of the EWOD contact angle is over 40°. In addition, amplitude modulation (AM) is implemented in the present wireless powering setup, followed by demodulation, in order to oscillate droplets at low frequency. This technique ensures smooth and reliable droplet movements. The wirelessly powered EWOD is used to transport a droplet and is mounted in a mini-boat which it powers and propels.

  20. Power Link Optimization for a Neurostimulator in Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines system optimization for wirelessly powering a small implant embedded in tissue. For a given small receiver in a multilayer tissue model, the transmitter is abstracted as a sheet of tangential current density for which the optimal distribution is analytically found. This proposes a new design methodology for wireless power transfer systems. That is, from the optimal current distribution, the maximum achievable efficiency is derived first. Next, various design parameters are determined to achieve the target efficiency. Based on this design methodology, a centimeter-sized neurostimulator inside the nasal cavity is demonstrated. For this centimeter-sized implant, the optimal distribution resembles that of a coil source and the optimal frequency is around 15 MHz. While the existing solution showed an efficiency of about 0.3 percent, the proposed system could enhance the efficiency fivefold.

  1. Impact of Nonlinear Power Amplifier on Link Adaptation Algorithm of OFDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra S.; Tariq, Faisal; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur

    2007-01-01

    The impact of non linear distortion due to High Power Amplifier (HPA) on the performance of Link Adaptation (LA) - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based wireless system is analyzed. The performance of both Forward Error Control Coding (FEC) en-coded and uncoded system is evaluated....... LA maximizes the throughput while maintaining a required Block Error Rate (BLER). It is found that when OFDM signal, which has high PAPR, suffers non linear distortion due to non ideal HPA, the LA fails to meet the target BLER. Detailed analysis of the distortion and effects on LA are presented...

  2. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  3. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Falk

    Full Text Available Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor, and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  4. A low-frequency versatile wireless power transfer technology for biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Junmin; Lan, Di; Chao; Liou, Shyshenq; Shahnasser, Hamid; Fechter, Richard; Hirose, Shinjiro; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2013-08-01

    Implantable biomedical sensors and actuators are highly desired in modern medicine. In many cases, the implant's electrical power source profoundly determines its overall size and performance . The inductively coupled coil pair operating at the radio-frequency (RF) has been the primary method for wirelessly delivering electrical power to implants for the last three decades . Recent designs significantly improve the power delivery efficiency by optimizing the operating frequency, coil size and coil distance . However, RF radiation hazard and tissue absorption are the concerns in the RF wireless power transfer technology (RF-WPTT) , . Also, it requires an accurate impedance matching network that is sensitive to operating environments between the receiving coil and the load for efficient power delivery . In this paper, a novel low-frequency wireless power transfer technology (LF-WPTT) using rotating rare-earth permanent magnets is demonstrated. The LF-WPTT is able to deliver 2.967 W power at  ∼ 180 Hz to an 117.1 Ω resistor over 1 cm distance with 50% overall efficiency. Because of the low operating frequency, RF radiation hazard and tissue absorption are largely avoided, and the power delivery efficiency from the receiving coil to the load is independent of the operating environment. Also, there is little power loss observed in the LF-WPTT when the receiving coil is enclosed by non-magnetic implant-grade stainless steel.

  5. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

  6. Cyber Security Evaluation of the Wireless Communication for the Mobile Safeguard Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.S.; Ye, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces cyber security evaluation results and a design of the wireless communication technology to apply to safeguard systems in nuclear power plants. While wireless communication technologies can generally make mobility and efficiency on plant operation, those have seldom been installed on the nuclear I&C systems due to the negative concern of unexpected outcomes that stem from electromagnetic interference and cyber attack. New design of advanced digital safeguard and I&C systems uses computer-based systems for the safeguard and safety functions. On the other hand, those are being exposed to various types of new and existing cyber threats, vulnerabilities and risks which significantly increase the likelihood that those could be compromised. In order to employ the wireless communication technology in safeguard function, licencees assess and manage the potential for adverse effects on safeguard and safety functions so as to provide high assurance that critical functions are properly protected cyber attack. It is expected that the safeguard function, specifically on the area of real-time monitoring, logging, can be enhanced by employing the mobile safeguard devices (: smart phone, laptop, smart pad, etc). In this paper, we deal with the cyber security evaluation, which consists of threat analysis, vulnerability test, establishment of security plan, and design solutions for the wireless communication on the basis of IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi) protocol. Proposed evaluation and design solution could be a basis for the design of wireless communication and mobile safeguard systems in nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a 3 kW wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles. First, the LCL-LCL topology and LC-LC series topology are analyzed, and their transfer efficiencies under the same transfer power are compared. The LC-LC series topology is validated to be more efficient than the LCL-LCL topology and thus is more suitable for the system design. Then a novel q-Zsource-based online power regulation method which employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source is proposed. By controlling the shoot-through state of the H Bridge, the charging current can be adjusted, and hence, transfer power. Finally, a prototype is implemented, which can transfer 3 kW wirelessly with ~95% efficiency over a 20 cm transfer distance.

  9. A smart mobile pouch as a biomechanical energy harvester towards self-powered smart wireless power transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Sudhakaran, M S P; Mok, Young Sun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-07-20

    A Smart Mobile Pouch Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SMP-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for scavenging biomechanical energy for powering next generation intelligent devices and smart phones. This is a cost-effective and robust method for harvesting energy from human motion, by utilizing worn fabrics as a contact material. The SMP-TENG is capable of harvesting energy in two operational modes: lateral sliding and vertical contact and separation. Moreover, the SMP-TENG can also act as a self-powered emergency flashlight and self-powered pedometer during normal human motion. A wireless power transmission setup integrated with SMP-TENG is demonstrated. This upgrades the traditional energy harvesting device into a self-powered wireless power transfer SMP-TENG. The wirelessly transferred power can be used to charge a Li-ion battery and light LEDs. The SMP-TENG opens a wide range of opportunities in the field of self-powered devices and low maintenance energy harvesting systems for portable and wearable electronic gadgets.

  10. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  11. A transmission power optimization with a minimum node degree for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks with full-reachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-03-20

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments.

  12. A Transmission Power Optimization with a Minimum Node Degree for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Full-Reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments. PMID:23519351

  13. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  14. Low-power analog integrated circuits for wireless ECG acquisition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Hong, Jia-Hua; Wang, Liang-Hung; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents low-power analog ICs for wireless ECG acquisition systems. Considering the power-efficient communication in the body sensor network, the required low-power analog ICs are developed for a healthcare system through miniaturization and system integration. To acquire the ECG signal, a low-power analog front-end system, including an ECG signal acquisition board, an on-chip low-pass filter, and an on-chip successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter for portable ECG detection devices is presented. A quadrature CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator and a 2.4 GHz direct-conversion transmitter with a power amplifier and upconversion mixer are also developed to transmit the ECG signal through wireless communication. In the receiver, a 2.4 GHz fully integrated CMOS RF front end with a low-noise amplifier, differential power splitter, and quadrature mixer based on current-reused folded architecture is proposed. The circuits have been implemented to meet the specifications of the IEEE 802.15.4 2.4 GHz standard. The low-power ICs of the wireless ECG acquisition systems have been fabricated using a 0.18 μm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) CMOS standard process. The measured results on the human body reveal that ECG signals can be acquired effectively by the proposed low-power analog front-end ICs.

  15. Multihop Capability Analysis in Wireless Information and Power Transfer Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in multihop wireless cooperative networks, where the multihop capability that denotes the largest number of transmission hops is investigated. By utilizing the broadcast nature of multihop wireless networks, we first propose a cooperative forwarding power (CFP scheme. In CFP scheme, the multiple relays and receiver have distinctly different tasks. Specifically, multiple relays close to the transmitter harvest power from the transmitter first and then cooperatively forward the power (not the information towards the receiver. The receiver receives the information (not the power from the transmitter first, and then it harvests the power from the relays and is taken as the transmitter of the next hop. Furthermore, for performance comparison, we suggest two schemes: cooperative forwarding information and power (CFIP and direct receiving information and power (DFIP. Also, we construct an analysis model to investigate the multihop capabilities of CFP, CFIP, and DFIP schemes under the given targeted throughput requirement. Finally, simulation results validate the analysis model and show that the multihop capability of CFP is better than CFIP and DFIP, and for improving the multihop capabilities, it is best effective to increase the average number of relay nodes in cooperative set.

  16. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  17. UD-WCMA: An Energy Estimation and Forecast Scheme for Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Claudel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -WCMA) to estimate and predict the variations of the solar power in a wireless sensor network. The presented approach combines the information from the real-time measurement data and a set of stored profiles representing the energy patterns in the WSNs location

  18. Analisa Compact Wireless Power Transfer (CWPT menggunakan Metode Magnetic Resonator Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sudibya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonator Coupling banyak dipergunakan untuk berbagai aplikasi Wireless Power Transfer (WPT. Pada penelitian ini berhasil dirancang WPT dengan tegangan sebesar 5 V. Jika Tx dan Rx diposisikan saling berhadapan, tegangan maksimum 4,7 volt pada jarak 1 cm. Sementara itu, jika Tx dan Rx diposisikan berdampingan, tegangan yang dihasilkan dari 3.5V.

  19. Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of the laser wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, V. V.; Matsak, I. S.; Tugaenko, V. Yu.; Blank, A. V.; Suhareva, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    Application of adaptive correction is necessary to control wandering of the laser beam in wireless power transfer (WPT) system. In this paper we describe experimental results of using different adaptive correction techniques for both weak and strong turbulence conditions. All experiments were performed over a 1.5 km near-horizontal atmospheric path. Some criteria for choosing parameters of adaptive correction are given.

  20. A Solar Powered Wireless Computer Mouse: Design, Assembly and Preliminary Testing of 15 Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Reich, N.H.; Alsema, E.A.; Netten, M.P.; Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S.; Elzen, B.; Verwaal, M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept and design of a solar powered wireless computer mouse has been completed, and 15 prototypes have been successfully assembled. After necessary cutting, the crystalline silicon cells show satisfactory efficiency: up to 14% when implemented into the mouse device. The implemented voltage