WorldWideScience

Sample records for power sources a1

  1. Nonsafety loads on glass 1E power sources, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The supply of some nonsafety loads from class 1E power sources is allowed by industry standards (IEEE Standards 308 and 384) and by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides 1.32 and 1.75. This has been questioned as a possible source of degradation of the class 1E system, and this power deals with assessment of the effects of this practice on the reliability of the power supply for engineered safety features (ESF) systems

  2. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    . The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  3. Measurement and diagnosis system for 1.2 MV repetitive pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yawei; Deng Jianjun; Xie Min; Feng Zongming; Liu Yuntao; Ma Chenggang

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the discharge performance and improve the design of the power system, a set of measurement and diagnosis system for the 1.2 MV repetitive pulsed power source, which supplies the drive power for a high power microwave source, has been designed by studying the high-voltage, high-current testing technology, data acquisition, signal processing, fault diagnosis, virtual instruments and electromagnetic compatibility technology, etc. A resistive-capacitive divider and a Rogowski coil are adopted in measurement; ADLINK corporation's PXI chips are used in data acquisition; data transmission system, condition monitoring and data analysis are developed by LabVIEW. This system can realize on-line monitoring and data analysis for the repetitive pulsed power source. (authors)

  4. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  5. Relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator as a power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider: A systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.

    1994-10-01

    A physics, engineering, and costing study has been conducted to explore the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator system as a power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. We present a point design example which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. Preliminary ''bottom-up'' cost estimate yields the full power source system at less than 1 billion dollars. The overall efficiency for rf production is estimated to be 36%

  6. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tyagi, R.; Upadhyay, R.; Bohrey, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  7. The Railgun and Its Power Source,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    inductor 66 3.1.3 The ANU homopolar generator power source 67 3.1.4 Features of an ideal power source 69 3.1.5 Desirable power source pulse energy...3.3.2 Homopolar generators 75 3.3.3 Ordinary large alternators 77 3.3.4 The compulsator 77 3.4 Explosive magnetic flux compression 80 3.5 Minimum mass of...discharge of lead-acid batteries 99 4.4.4 Design and performance of a high rate lead-acid cell 101 4.5 Motor -generator instead of batteries 103 4.5.1

  8. A compact reactor/ORC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for componenet development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500 0 C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370 0 C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analysis have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high

  9. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  10. Voltage resonant inverter as a power source

    OpenAIRE

    Lupenko, Anatoliy; Stakhiv, Petro

    2014-01-01

    The operation mode of a voltage resonant inverter as a power source with variable load is analyzed. In order to reduce load power variations, an approach to development of the inverter’s load power response based on providing similar positive and negative power deviations from its nominal value has been proposed. The design procedure for resonant inverter with open loop structure as a power source has been elaborated. For a high pressure sodium lamp as a load, the power deviation of about 4% ...

  11. How to Integrate Variable Power Source into a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses how to integrate variable power source such as wind power and photovoltaic generation into a power grid. The intermittent renewable generation is expected to penetrate for less carbon intensive power supply system, but it causes voltage control problem in the distribution system, and supply-demand imbalance problem in a whole power system. Cooperative control of customers' energy storage equipment such as water heater with storage tank for reducing inverse power flow from the roof-top PV system, the operation technique using a battery system and the solar radiation forecast for stabilizing output of variable generation, smart charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for load frequency control (LFC), and other methods to integrate variable power source with improving social benefits are surveyed.

  12. Power source system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: When using an external system power source and an exclusive power source in a power source circuit for supplying power to the coils of a nuclear fusion apparatus, to minimize the capacity of the exclusive power source and provide an economical power source circuit construction. Structure: In the initial stage of the power supply, rectifying means provided in individual blocks are connected in parallel on the AC side, and power is supplied to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from an external system power source with the exclusive power source held in the disconnected state. Further, at an instant when the limit of permissible input is reached, the afore-mentioned parallel circuit consisting of rectifying means is disconnected, while at the same time the exclusive power source is connected to the input side of the rectifying means provided in a block corresponding to the exclusive power source side, thereby supplying power to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from both the external system power source and exclusive power source. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Power source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention concerns a power plant, in which power is supplied from an ordinary system battery to an ordinary DC bus system when all of the AC power sources should be lost and a generator is driven by a steam turbine. A generator is connected with an ordinary system battery charger by way of a channel. If all of power sources should be lost, the ordinary system battery charger is driven by using emergency steam turbine generator facilities, and reactor steams are supplied thereby enabling to supply power to the ordinary system DC bus system for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  14. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  15. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  16. An FEL power source for a TeV linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.; Hoyer, E.H.; Halbach, K.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper we consider the design of a power source of a linear collider. We take a conservative approach and hence extrapolate as little as possible from present experience. Thus we establish a ''straw man''; i.e., a design which serves as an ''existence proof'' of a power source for a TeV collider. We take as the parameters to which the power source is designed those presented earlier by R. Palmer; namely: f = 17 GHz, W = 634 MW/m, L = 1.44m, W/sub T/ = 3.87 TW, R = 180 Hz, L/sub c/ = 7.41 km, T/sub p/ = 50 ns, where the quantity f is the desired frequency, W is the power needed per meter (for a gradient of 186 MeV/m), L is the length between feeds, W/sub T/ is the total power required, R is the rep-rate, L/sub c/ is the total length of the collider, and T/sub p/ is the rf pulse width. With no emittance dilution, this collider would produce a luminosity of 7.7 /times/ 10 32 cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ for single bunch operation or 1.6 /times/ 10 34 cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ for multi-bunch operating (i.e., 21 bunches). With realistic dilution and R = 386 Hz these luminosity values would be 5.0 /times/ 10 32 and 1.0 /times/ 10 34 cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/, respectively. 5 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Design and simulation of front end power converter for a microgrid with fuel cells and solar power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevargi, Chetankumar; Lodhi, Anuj; Sateeshkumar, Allu; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    The need for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is increasing due to increased demand for the supply of power and it is also environment friendly.In the recent few years, the cost of generation of the power from the RES has been decreased. This paper aims to design the front end power converter which is required for integrating the fuel cells and solar power sources to the micro grid. The simulation of the designed front end converter is carried out in the PSIM 9.1.1 software. The results show that the designed front end power converter is sufficient for integrating the micro grid with fuel cells and solar power sources.

  18. High power microwave source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, James N.; Miller, Gabriel; Potter, Seth; Ashby, Steve; Smith, Richard R.

    1995-05-01

    The requirements of this project have been to: (1) improve and expand the sources available in the facility for testing purposes and (2) perform specific tasks under direction of the Defense Nuclear Agency about the applications of high power microwaves (HPM). In this project the HPM application was power beaming. The requirements of this program were met in the following way: (1) We demonstrated that a compact linear induction accelerator can drive HPM sources at repetition rates in excess of 100 HZ at peak microwave powers of a GW. This was done for the relativistic magnetron. Since the conclusion of this contract such specifications have also been demonstrated for the relativistic klystron under Ballistic Missile Defense Organization funding. (2) We demonstrated an L band relativistic magnetron. This device has been used both on our single pulse machines, CAMEL and CAMEL X, and the repetitive system CLIA. (3) We demonstrated that phase locking of sources together in large numbers is a feasible technology and showed the generation of multigigawatt S-band radiation in an array of relativistic magnetrons.

  19. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources

  20. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  1. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  2. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwell, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  3. A novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient micro w-EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chen, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the development of a novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient machining of micropart microstructures using micro wire electrical discharge machining (w-EDM). A novel power source based on a pluri resistance–capacitance (pRC) circuit that can generate a high-frequency, high-peak current with a short pulse train is proposed and designed to enhance the performance of micro w-EDM processes. Switching between transistors is precisely controlled in the designed power source to create a high-frequency short-pulse train current. Various microslot cutting tests in both aluminum and copper alloys are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the pRC power source creates instant spark erosion resulting in markedly less material for removal, diminishing discharge crater size, and consequently an improved surface finish. A new evaluation approach for spark erosion ability (SEA) to assess the merits of micro EDM power sources is also proposed. In addition to increasing the speed of micro w-EDM by increasing wire feed rates by 1.6 times the original feed rate, the power source is more appropriate for machining micropart microstructures since there is less thermal breaking. Satisfactory cutting of an elaborate miniature hook-shaped structure and a high-aspect ratio microstructure with a squared-pillar array also reveal that the developed pRC power source is effective, and should be very useful in the manufacture of intricate microparts. (paper)

  4. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports on RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach will be with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. The author pays close attention to electron- positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. Circular machines, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, etc. have usually not been limited by the RF power available and the machine builders have usually had their RF power source requirements met off the shelf. The main challenge for the RF scientist has been then in the areas of controls. An interesting example of this is in the Conceptual Design Report of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) where the RF system is described in six pages of text in a 700-page report. Also, the cost of that RF system is about one-third of a percent of the project's total cost. The RF system is well within the state of the art and no new power sources need to be developed. All the intellectual effort of the system designer would be devoted to the feedback systems necessary to stabilize beams during storage and acceleration, with the main engineering challenges (and costs) being in the superconducting magnet lattice

  5. Evaluation of power transfer efficiency for a high power inductively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Recchia, M.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Gaio, E.; Kraus, W.; Maistrello, A.; Veltri, P.

    2018-04-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) for plasma heating and current drive is necessary for International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) tokamak. Due to its various advantages, a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma source type was selected as a reference ion source for the ITER heating NBI. The ITER relevant RF negative ion sources are inductively coupled (IC) devices whose operational working frequency has been chosen to be 1 MHz and are characterized by high RF power density (˜9.4 W cm-3) and low operational pressure (around 0.3 Pa). The RF field is produced by a coil in a cylindrical chamber leading to a plasma generation followed by its expansion inside the chamber. This paper recalls different concepts based on which a methodology is developed to evaluate the efficiency of the RF power transfer to hydrogen plasma. This efficiency is then analyzed as a function of the working frequency and in dependence of other operating source and plasma parameters. The study is applied to a high power IC RF hydrogen ion source which is similar to one simplified driver of the ELISE source (half the size of the ITER NBI source).

  6. Wave power as a source of energy along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.

    stream_size 16 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Power_Directory_1992_141.pdf.txt stream_source_info Power_Directory_1992_141.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500 0 C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370 0 C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs

  8. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  9. Compact portable electric power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Power generation from low-temperature heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie

    2012-07-01

    The potential of low-temperature heat sources for power production has been discussed for decades. The diversity and availability of low-temperature heat sources makes it interesting for power production. The thermodynamic power cycle is one of the promising technologies to produce electricity from low-temperature heat sources. There are different working fluids to be used in a thermodynamic power cycle. Working fluid selection is essential for the performance of the power cycle. Over the last years, different working fluid screening criteria have been used. In broad speaking the screening criteria can be grouped as thermodynamic performance, component size requirement, economic performance, safety and environmental impact. Screening of working fluids at different heat source temperatures (80-200 Celsius degrees) using thermodynamic performance (power output and exergy efficiency) and component size (heat exchanger and turbine) is investigated. It is found that the 'best' working fluid depends on the criteria used and heat source temperature level. Transcritical power cycles using carbon dioxide as a working fluid is studied to produce power at 100 Celsius degrees. Carbon dioxide is an environmentally friendly refrigerant. The global warming potential of carbon dioxide is 1. Furthermore, because of its low critical temperature (31 Celsius degrees), carbon dioxide can operate in a transcritical power cycle for lower heat source temperatures. A transcritical configuration avoids the problem of pinching which otherwise would happened in subcritical power cycle. In the process, better temperature matching is achieved and more heat is extracted. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical cycle is performed; it is found that there is an optimal operating pressure for highest net power output. The pump work is a sizable fraction of the work produced by the turbine. The effect of efficiency deterioration of the pump and the turbine is compared. When the

  11. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  12. Stirling/hydraulic artificial heart power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Bennett, A.; Emigh, S.G.; Griffith, W.R.; Noble, J.E.; Perrone, R.E.; White, M.A.; Martini, W.R.; Alexander, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The REL power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has been achieved with an engine (2.6 years) and hydraulic actuator/controller (1.6 years). Peak power source efficiency is 15.5 percent on 5 to 10 watts delivered to the blood pump push plate with 33 watts steady thermal input. Planned incorporation of power source output control is expected to reduce daily average thermal input to 18 watts. Animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. Volume and weight are 0.93 liter and 2.4 kg (excluding blood pump) with an additional 0.4 liter of low temperature foam insulation required to preclude tissue thermal damage. Carefully planned development of System 7 is expected to produce major reductions in size

  13. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  14. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a 63 Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 microCi provided a power of ∼0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications

  15. Improvement of active filter for HIMAC power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, Hiroshi; Furuzeki, Shoichiro; Kanazawa, Toru

    1996-03-01

    For the power sources of the synchrotron electromagnets for the heavy particle beam cancer therapy apparatus HIMAC in National Institute of Radiological Science, in order to stabilize the taken-out beam, the ripple property as low as below 1 x 10{sup -6} is required. As for this electromagnet power sources, various devices were applied to lower ripples, and the required specifications have been satisfied. Also the beam spill is stable, but slight variation has been observed, therefore, by improving the performance of the active filter, the ripples were improved. The specifications of the electromagnet power sources and the whole constitution of the power source system are shown. In the HIMAC power sources, the means for having realized the low ripple performance so far are explained. Those are the absorption of the ineffective power generated from the power sources, the control of the ripples of common made due to the transducer thyristor, and the sure compensation of ripples by the control circuit for the power sources. By adding the band pass filters to the active filter, its characteristics were improved. As the result, 1200 Hz ripple component was reduced by 41 db, thus the sufficient effect was obtained. Hereafter, by the high sensitivity measurement of the current of electromagnets and the evaluation of magnetic fields, the validity will be evaluated. (K.I.)

  16. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  17. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  18. Backup power sources for DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

  19. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems

  20. High power pulsed sources based on fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canat, Guillaume; Jaouën, Yves; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Bouzinac, Jean-Pierre; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped fiber laser technologies are currently among the best sources for high power applications. Theses extremely compact and robust sources appoint them as good candidate for aeronautical and space applications. The double-clad (DC) fiber converts the poor beamquality of high-power large-area pump diodes from the 1st cladding to laser light at another wavelength guided in an active single-mode core. High-power coherent MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) sources (several 10W CW or several 100W in pulsed regime) will soon be achieved. Unfortunately it also brings nonlinear effects which quickly impairs output signal distortions. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) have been shown to be strong limitations. Based on amplifier modeling and experiments we discuss the performances of these sources.

  1. Power source roadmaps using bibliometrics and database tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoff, R.N.; Tshiteya, R.; Pfeil, K.M.; Humenik, J.A.; Karypis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Database Tomography (DT) is a textual database analysis system consisting of two major components: (1) algorithms for extracting multi-word phrase frequencies and phrase proximities (physical closeness of the multi-word technical phrases) from any type of large textual database, to augment (2) interpretative capabilities of the expert human analyst. DT was used to derive technical intelligence from a Power Sources database derived from the Science Citation Index. Phrase frequency analysis by the technical domain experts provided the pervasive technical themes of the Power Sources database, and the phrase proximity analysis provided the relationships among the pervasive technical themes. Bibliometric analysis of the Power Sources literature supplemented the DT results with author/journal/institution/country publication and citation data

  2. Reactor Core Design and Analysis for a Micronuclear Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater vehicle is designed to ensure the security of country sea boundary, providing harsh requirements for its power system design. Conventional power sources, such as battery and Stirling engine, are featured with low power and short lifetime. Micronuclear reactor power source featured with higher power density and longer lifetime would strongly meet the demands of unmanned underwater vehicle power system. In this paper, a 2.4 MWt lithium heat pipe cooled reactor core is designed for micronuclear power source, which can be applied for underwater vehicles. The core features with small volume, high power density, long lifetime, and low noise level. Uranium nitride fuel with 70% enrichment and lithium heat pipes are adopted in the core. The reactivity is controlled by six control drums with B4C neutron absorber. Monte Carlo code MCNP is used for calculating the power distribution, characteristics of reactivity feedback, and core criticality safety. A code MCORE coupling MCNP and ORIGEN is used to analyze the burnup characteristics of the designed core. The results show that the core life is 14 years, and the core parameters satisfy the safety requirements. This work provides reference to the design and application of the micronuclear power source.

  3. Tritium power source for long-lived sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, M. S.; Katsis, D. C.; Russo, J. A.; Carroll, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    A tritium-based indirect converting photovoltaic (PV) power source has been designed and prototyped as a long-lived (~15 years) power source for sensor networks. Tritium is a biologically benign beta emitter and low-cost isotope acquired from commercial vendors for this purpose. The power source combines tritium encapsulated with a radioluminescent phosphor coupled to a commercial PV cell. The tritium, phosphor, and PV components are packaged inside a BA5590-style military-model enclosure. The package has been approved by the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) for use by DOD. The power source is designed to produce 100μW electrical power for an unattended radiation sensor (scintillator and avalanche photodiode) that can detect a 20 μCi source of 137Cs at three meters. This beta emitting indirect photon conversion design is presented as step towards the development of practical, logistically acceptable, lowcost long-lived compact power sources for unattended sensor applications in battlefield awareness and environmental detection.

  4. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  5. A systems study of an RF power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.

    1994-11-01

    A systems study, including physics, engineering and costing, has been conducted to assess the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a RF power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. Several key issues associated with a realizable RK-TBA system have been addressed, and corresponding schemes have been developed and examined quantitatively. A point design example has been constructed to present a concrete conceptual design which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. The overall efficiency of RF production for such a power source is estimated to be 36%, and the cost of the full system is estimated to be less than 1 billion dollars

  6. High-power microwave generation from a frequency-stabilized virtual cathode source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Kinross-Wright, J.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of virtual cathode based high-power microwave-source technology has been directed primarily toward achieving higher peak-power levels. As peak powers in excess of 10 GW have been reported, attention has begun to focus on techniques for producing a more frequency- and phase-stable virtual cathode source. Free-running virtual cathode microwave sources characteristically exhibit bandwidths in a single pulse of tens of percent, which makes them unsuitable for many applications such as power sources for phased array antennas and microwave linear accelerators. Presented here are results of an experimental approach utilizing a high-Q, resonant cavity surrounding the oscillating virtual cathode to achieve frequency stabilization and repeatable narrow-band operation. A cylindrical cavity resonator is used with the microwave power being extracted radially through circumferential slot apertures into L-band waveguide

  7. A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system using a strontium heat source of high-level radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system with radioactive strontium in high-level radioactive waste has been proposed. A combination of Alkali Metal Thermo-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and a strontium fluoride heat source can provide a compact and long-lived power supply system. A heat source design with strontium fluoride pin bundles with Hastelloy cladding and intermediate copper has been proposed. This design has taken heat transportation into consideration, and, in this regard, the feasibility has been confirmed by a three-dimensional thermal analysis using Star-CD code. This power supply system with an electric output of 1 MW can be arranged in a space of 50 m 2 and approximately 1.1 m height and can be operated for 15 years without refueling. This compact and long-lived power supply is suitable for powering sources for remote places and middle-sized ships. From the viewpoint of geological disposal of high-level waste, the proposed power supply system provides a financial base for strontium-cesium partitioning. That is, a combination of minor-actinide recycling and strontium-cesium partitioning can eliminate a large part of decay heat in high-level waste and thus can save much space for geological disposal. (author)

  8. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  9. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...... features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding...

  10. A Subtle Source of Power: The Effect of Having an Expectation on Anticipated Interpersonal Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALDWIN, AUSTIN S.; KIVINIEMI, MARC T.; SNYDER, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors tested the hypothesis that having information about another person can be a source of power in interpersonal interactions. In Study 1, the authors randomized participants to receive an expectation about an interaction partner, and the expectation provided an informational advantage for some participants but not for others. Participants with an advantage reported higher perceptions of power than did those who had information that did not confer an advantage; however, the effect was isolated to feelings of informational power. In Study 2, the authors examined whether the effect extended to different types of power when the information did not provide an explicit advantage. In this case, participants who received a more ambiguous expectation reported more diffuse feelings of power. The authors discuss implications for understanding the dynamics of power in social interactions. PMID:19245049

  11. Conventional power sources for colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 μsec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 μsec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 μsec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths

  12. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs

  13. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  14. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  15. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangmei, E-mail: sunberry1211@hotmail.com; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-05-15

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined.

  16. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined

  17. Power source with spark-safe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsesarenko, N P; Alekhin, A V

    1982-01-01

    The invention refers to the technique of electrical monitoring and control in systems operating in a spark-safe medium (for example, in coal mines). A more accurate area of application is mobile objects with autonomous source of electricity (mine diesel locomotives, battery electric locomotives etc.). The purpose of the invention is to simplify and to improve the reliability of the planned device, and also to expand the area of application for conditions when it is powered from an autonomous generator of direct voltage. This goal is achieved because the power source with spark-safe outlet (the source contains a thyristor of advance disconnection, connected by anode to the delimiting throttle, one outlet of which is connected to the capacitor included between the controlling electrode and the anode of the thyristor, and the capacitor is connected through the resistor parallel to the outlet clamps of the source, while the thyristor of emergency protection connected parallel to the inlet clamps of the power source) is additionally equipped with a current sensor, hercon, transistor key (included in series in the power circuit) and optron, whose emitter is connected parallel to the current sensor connected in series to the inlet of the power source, while the receiver of the optron is connected in a circuit for controlling the thyristor of emergency protection. Hercon is built into the core of the delimiting throttle and is connected to the circuit for controlling the transistor key.

  18. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, H.R.; Kim, A.R.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    Power quality enhancement of a renewable energy source power network is performed by a real-toroidal-type SMES coil. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation. The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality. This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  19. High power laser source for space applications. Phase 1 study: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    A study to design a high power laser diode, to manufacture samples, to test them, and to identify the problems raised by the manufacture of such power sources in order to evaluate the effort required to overcome the difficulties in view of a component qualification was initiated. Theoretical modeling, manufacturing and test of samples, and environmental evaluation were completed. To obtain 200 mW monomode, a reversed CSP structure manufactured by chemical vapor deposition is recommended.

  20. Experimental progress on virtual-cathode very high power microwave source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of rf accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing electron sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and have demonstrated operation from 800 MHz to 40 GHz. Pulse length appears to be limited by electron-beam diode closure, and reflexing electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. An experiment is under way to investigate concepts to stabilize the frequency of the virtual cathode source. If one can successfully frequency and phase lock this source to an external signal, then this source can operate as a very high power microwave amplifier making it practical for accelerator applications. The progress on an experiment to test these concepts will be discussed

  1. New developments in RF power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers

  2. Electrochemical Power Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Electrochemical Power Sources - Rechargeable Batteries. A K Shukla S K Martha. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 52-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. The JLab high power ERL light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  4. A New Configuration for Power Sharing of Two Z-Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghani varzaneh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new structure to provide the ability for power sharing of two Z-source inverters. According to the operation principles of Z-source inverters, only one input source supplies the circuit, which is a limitation particularly for the stand alone systems feeded by limited output power such as photovoltaics and feul cells. Furthermore; if one source fails to supply,  the load can't be supplied. This paper covers those via interconnection of impedance network of two Z-source inverters. The operating principles of the proposed topology for the stand-alone and power sharing conditions are described and the relations are derived. The topology is simulated, which the results verify the theoretical analysis and well performance of the system. 

  5. Study of a microwave power source for a two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of a microwave power source suitable for driving a linear e + e - collider is reported. The power source is based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept, is driven by a 5-MeV, 1-kA induction accelerator electron beam, and operates at X-band frequencies. The development of a computer code to simulate the transverse beam dynamics of an intense relativistic electron beam transiting a system of microwave resonant structures is presented. This code is time dependent with self-consistent beam-cavity interactions and uses realistic beam parameters. Simulations performed with this code are compared with analytical theory and experiments. The concept of spacing resonant structures at distances equal to the betatron wavelength of the focusing system to suppress the growth of transverse instabilities is discussed. Simulations include energy spread over the beam to demonstrate the effect of Landau damping and establish the sensitivity of the betatron wavelength spacing scheme to errors in the focusing system. The design of the Reacceleration Experiment is described in detail and includes essentially all the issues related to a full scale RK-TBA microwave source. A total combined power from three output structures in excess of 170 MW with an amplitude stability of ±4% over a 25 ns pulse was achieved. The results of the experiment are compared to simulations used during the design phase to validate the various codes and methods used. The primary issue for the RK-TBA concept is identified as transverse beam instability associated with the excitation of higher order modes in the resonant structures used for extracting microwave power from the modulated beam. This work represents the first successful experimental demonstration of repeated cycles of microwave energy extraction from and reacceleration of a modulated beam

  6. Basis for the power supply reliability study of the 1 MW neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.G.; Fathizadeh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) upgrade to 1 MW requires new power supply designs. This paper describes the tools and the methodology needed to assess the reliability of the power supplies. Both the design and operation of the power supplies in the synchrotron will be taken into account. To develop a reliability budget, the experiments to be conducted with this accelerator are reviewed, and data is collected on the number and duration of interruptions possible before an experiment is required to start over. Once the budget is established, several accelerators of this type will be examined. The budget is allocated to the different accelerator systems based on their operating experience. The accelerator data is usually in terms of machine availability and system down time. It takes into account mean time to failure (MTTF), time to diagnose, time to repair or replace the failed components, and time to get the machine back online. These estimated times are used as baselines for the design. Even though we are in the early stage of design, available data can be analyzed to estimate the MTTF for the power supplies

  7. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  8. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  9. Development of a method to evaluate shared alternate AC power source effects in multi-unit nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Yang, Joon Eun

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate accurately a Station BlackOut (SBO) event frequency of a multi-unit nuclear power plant that has a shared Alternate AC (AAC) power source, an approach has been developed which accommodates the complex inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source under multi-unit Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) conditions. The approach is illustrated for two cases, 2 units and 4 units at a single site, and generalized for a multi-unit site. Furthermore, the SBO frequency of the first unit of the 2-unit site is quantified. The SBO frequency at a target unit of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) could be underestimated if the inter-unit dependency of the shared AAC power source is not properly modeled. The effect of the inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source on the SBO frequency is not negligible depending on the Common Cause Failure (CCF) characteristics among AC power sources. The methodology suggested in the present report is believed to be very useful in evaluating the SBO frequency and the core damage frequency resulting from the SBO event. This approach is also applicable to the probabilistic evaluation of the other shared systems in a multi-unit nuclear power plant

  10. Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming

    2012-01-01

    The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)

  11. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  12. Power scaling of ultrafast mid-IR source enabled by high-power fiber laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Gengji

    2017-11-15

    Ultrafast laser sources with high repetition-rate (>10 MHz) and tunable in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range of 7-18 μm hold promise for many important spectroscopy applications. Currently, these ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources can most easily be achieved via difference-frequency generation (DFG) between a pump beam and a signal beam. However, current ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources feature a low average power, which limits their applications. In this thesis, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to power scaling of DFG-based ultrafast mid-IR laser sources. The essence of this novel approach is the generation of a high-energy signal beam. Both the pump beam and the signal beam are derived from a home-built Yb-fiber laser system that emits 165-fs pulses centered at 1035 nm with 30-MHz repetition rate and 14.5-W average power (corresponding to 483-nJ pulse energy). We employ fiber-optic self-phase modulation (SPM) to broaden the laser spectrum and generate isolated spectral lobes. Filtering the rightmost spectral lobe leads to femtosecond pulses with >10 nJ pulse energy. Tunable between 1.1-1.2 μm, this SPM-enabled ultrafast source exhibits ∝100 times higher pulse energy than can be obtained from Raman soliton sources in this wavelength range. We use this SPM-enabled source as the signal beam and part of the Yb-fiber laser output as the pump beam. By performing DFG in GaSe crystals, we demonstrate that power scaling of a DFG-based mid-IR source can be efficiently achieved by increasing the signal energy. The resulting mid-IR source is tunable from 7.4 μm to 16.8 μm. Up to 5.04-mW mid-IR pulses centered at 11 μm are achieved. The corresponding pulse energy is 167 pJ, representing nearly one order of magnitude improvement compared with other reported DFG-based mid-IR sources at this wavelength. Despite of low pulse energy, Raman soliton sources have become a popular choice as the signal source. We carry out a detailed study on

  13. Power scaling of ultrafast mid-IR source enabled by high-power fiber laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Gengji

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast laser sources with high repetition-rate (>10 MHz) and tunable in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range of 7-18 μm hold promise for many important spectroscopy applications. Currently, these ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources can most easily be achieved via difference-frequency generation (DFG) between a pump beam and a signal beam. However, current ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources feature a low average power, which limits their applications. In this thesis, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to power scaling of DFG-based ultrafast mid-IR laser sources. The essence of this novel approach is the generation of a high-energy signal beam. Both the pump beam and the signal beam are derived from a home-built Yb-fiber laser system that emits 165-fs pulses centered at 1035 nm with 30-MHz repetition rate and 14.5-W average power (corresponding to 483-nJ pulse energy). We employ fiber-optic self-phase modulation (SPM) to broaden the laser spectrum and generate isolated spectral lobes. Filtering the rightmost spectral lobe leads to femtosecond pulses with >10 nJ pulse energy. Tunable between 1.1-1.2 μm, this SPM-enabled ultrafast source exhibits ∝100 times higher pulse energy than can be obtained from Raman soliton sources in this wavelength range. We use this SPM-enabled source as the signal beam and part of the Yb-fiber laser output as the pump beam. By performing DFG in GaSe crystals, we demonstrate that power scaling of a DFG-based mid-IR source can be efficiently achieved by increasing the signal energy. The resulting mid-IR source is tunable from 7.4 μm to 16.8 μm. Up to 5.04-mW mid-IR pulses centered at 11 μm are achieved. The corresponding pulse energy is 167 pJ, representing nearly one order of magnitude improvement compared with other reported DFG-based mid-IR sources at this wavelength. Despite of low pulse energy, Raman soliton sources have become a popular choice as the signal source. We carry out a detailed study on

  14. The low-frequency sound power measuring technique for an underwater source in a non-anechoic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Ming; Tang, Rui; Li, Qi; Shang, Da-Jing

    2018-03-01

    In order to determine the radiated sound power of an underwater source below the Schroeder cut-off frequency in a non-anechoic tank, a low-frequency extension measuring technique is proposed. This technique is based on a unique relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed field and those of the free field, which can be obtained as a correction term based on previous measurements of a known simple source. The radiated sound power of an unknown underwater source in the free field can thereby be obtained accurately from measurements in a non-anechoic tank. To verify the validity of the proposed technique, a mathematical model of the enclosed field is established using normal-mode theory, and the relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed and free fields is obtained. The radiated sound power of an underwater transducer source is tested in a glass tank using the proposed low-frequency extension measuring technique. Compared with the free field, the radiated sound power level of the narrowband spectrum deviation is found to be less than 3 dB, and the 1/3 octave spectrum deviation is found to be less than 1 dB. The proposed testing technique can be used not only to extend the low-frequency applications of non-anechoic tanks, but also for measurement of radiated sound power from complicated sources in non-anechoic tanks.

  15. Production of High Intracavity UV Power From a CW Laser Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R. T.; Chyba, T. H.; Keppel, C. E.; Gaskell, D.; Ent, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to create a prototype high power CW source of ultraviolet (UV) photons for photon-electron scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Hall B. The facility will use optical resonant cavities to produce a high photon flux. The technical approach will be to frequency-double the 514.5 mn light from an Argon-Ion Laser to create 0.1 to 1.0 watt in the UV. The produced UV power will be stored in a resonant cavity to generate an high intracavity UV power of 102 to 103 watts. The specific aim of this project is to first design and construct the low-Q doubling cavity and lock it to the Argon-Ion wavelength. Secondly, the existing 514.5 nm high-Q build-up cavity and its locking electronics will be modified to create high intracavity UV power. The entire system will then be characterized and evaluated for possible beam line use.

  16. Magnet power supplies for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.; Lutz, I.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is building an Advanced Light Source (ALS) to produce synchrotron radiation. An electron linear accelerator, and a booster synchrotron are used to accelerate the electron beam to 1.5 GeV to fill the storage ring. This paper describes the power supplies used for the magnets in the booster and the storage ring and the interface requirements for computer control and monitoring the power supplies and magnet currents. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Economic analysis of the need for advanced power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Omberg, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the economic need for an advanced power source, be it fusion, solar, or some other concept. However, calculations were also performed assuming abandonment of the LMFBR program, so breeder benefits are a by-product of this study. The model used was the ALPS linear programming system for forecasting optimum power growth patterns. Total power costs were calculated over a planning horizon from 1975 to 2041 and discounted at 7 1 / 2 percent. The benefit of a particular advanced power source is simply the reduction in total power cost resulting from its introduction. Since data concerning advanced power sources (APS) are speculative, parametric calculations varying introduction dates and capital costs about a hypothetical APS plant were performed. Calculations were also performed without the LMFBR to determine the effect of the breeder on the benefits of an advanced power source. Other data used in the study, such as the energy demand curve and uranium resource estimates, are given in the Appendix, and a list of the 11 power plants used in this study is given. Calculations were performed for APS introduction dates of 2001 and 2011. Estimates of APS capital costs included cases where it was assumed the costs were $50/kW and $25/kW higher than the LMFBR. In addition, cases where APS and LMFBR capital costs are identical were also considered. It is noted that the APS capital costs used in this study are not estimates of potential advanced power system plant costs, but were chosen to compute potential dollar benefits of advanced power systems under extremely optimistic assumptions. As a further example, all APS fuel cycle costs were assumed to be zero

  18. Improvement of ionizer and power supply of 860 A sputtering negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Kun; Yu Lingda; Wu Bingbing; Wang Guangfu

    2014-01-01

    A transmission surface type ionizer was developed with a φ2.5 mm stainless steel sheath core heating cable, and the ion source power supply was also improved. A continuous adjustable DC switching power supply was employed instead of the original AC power supply as the ionizer power supply, and a 0 - -20 kV DC power supply at the ground potential as the power of the immersion lens replaced the original 10 kV DC power supply suspended in -20 kV. The variation of the beam intensity of H"- in the front Faraday cup of the GIC4117 2 × 1.7 MV tandetron with the ionizer heating current was also shown. (authors)

  19. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  20. Target development for the SINQ high-power neutron spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Werner

    2002-01-01

    SINQ is a 1 MW class research spallation neutron source, driven by the PSI proton accelerator system. In terms of beam power, it is, by a large margin, the most powerful spallation neutron source currently in operation worldwide. As a consequence, target load levels prevail in SINQ which are beyond the realm of existing experience. Therefore, an extensive materials irradiation program (STIP) is currently underway which will help to select the proper structural material and make dependable life time estimates accounting for the real operating conditions that prevail in the facility. In parallel, both theoretical and experimental work is going on within the MEGAPIE (MEGAwatt Pilot Experiment) project, to develop a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target for a beam power level of 1MW

  1. Anomalous Power Flow and ``Ghost'' Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, Cesar

    2008-08-01

    It is demonstrated that EM radiation from complex sources can result in real power in restricted regions of space flowing back towards the sources, thereby mimicking “ghost” sources. This counterintuitive mechanism of radiation does not rely on backward waves, as ordinary waves carry the power. Ways to harness the effect by making it directional are presented, together with selected applications, of which deception is a prime example due to the nature of the phenomenon. The concept can be applied to other areas, such as mechanics, acoustics, etc., and can be realized with available technology.

  2. Space power distribution of soft x-ray source ANGARA-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyabilin, K S [High Energy Density Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fortov, V E; Grabovskij, E V; Lebedev, M E; Smirnov, V P [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The contribution deals with the investigation of shock waves in condensed targets generated by intense pulses of soft X radiation. Main attention is paid to the spatial distribution of the soft x-ray power, which influence strongly the shock wave front uniformity. Hot z-pinch plasma with the temperature of 60-100 eV produced by imploding double liner in the ANGARA-5-1 machine was used as a source of x rays. The maximum pinch current was as high as 3.5 MA. In order to eliminate the thermal heating of the targets, thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, or pure Pb targets were used. The velocity of shock waves was determined by means of optical methods. Very uniform shock waves and shock pressures of up to several hundreds of GPa have been achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 2 refs.

  3. Characteristics of the low power cylindrical anode layer ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Tang Deli; Cheng Changming; Geng Shaofei

    2009-01-01

    A low power cylindrical anode layer ion source and its working characteristic, and the beam distribution are introduced. This ion source has two working states, emanative state and collimated state, and the normal parameters of this system are: working voltage 200-1200 V, discharge current 0.1-1.4A, air pressure 1.9 x 10 -2 -1.7 x 10 -1 Pa, gas flow 5-20 sccm. (authors)

  4. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  5. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polack, Jean-Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent...

  6. Review of available power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Klystrons and triodes have been the accepted choice for particle accelerators because they produce high power RF and offer high gain (60 dB) with efficiencies of ∼50%. Although fairly new to the market, inductive output tubes (IOTs) have become available at L-band frequencies and have maintained their high efficiency. The development of superconducting RF at the L-band frequency allows IOTs to become the choice for future accelerator programs. Due to the operational nature of SRF technology in energy recovery mode, there is no longer the requirement for large amounts of RF power from single sources. This report reviews some of the developments in RF power sources suitable for energy recovery linacs (ERLs)

  7. Expert assessment of advanced power sources. Contract report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.L.

    2007-07-01

    Although DRDC published an exhaustive technical report (in August 2001) on technology trends in advanced power sources projected out to the year 2020, the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11, 2001 (and the consequent, augmented and more broadly-based defence and national security posture adopted by the CF/DND), together with rapid developments in power source technologies over the past five years, internationally, prompted DRDC to update the 2001 report, on a selected number of power source technologies or applications and to provide further guidance to DRDC's Advanced Power Source R and D program. Eight wide-ranging, power source technologies or applications were investigated, using the technique of 'expert elicitation' (that is, using independent experts in the various and diverse technological fields), based on a standardized questionnaire, augmented by the contractor's own expertise (and his overall analysis of the experts' responses) in these diverse areas. In addition, each expert was asked about his/her view on the likely role of nanotechnology in each technological area or application. Following collection and analysis of all the data, the contractor made recommendations on the ability of each power source to meet the future requirements of the CF/DND, taking into account the Technology Readiness Level, for each technology or application

  8. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanova, Sofia; Yolina Hubenova; Mario Mitov

    2009-01-01

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  9. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm 2 (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 μA extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 π mm mrad at 15 kV (1σ) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon beams

  10. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie de Grenoble, UJF-CNRS/IN2P3 - INPG, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  11. The JLab high power ERL light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, G.R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160MeV electron beam and an average current of 10mA in 75MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ∼ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100fs pulses with >200W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14μm in 400fs pulses at up to 74.85MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000nm light at up to 3kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and

  12. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is ...

  13. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  14. Relation between source term and emergency planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Yang Ling

    1992-01-01

    Some background information of the severe accidents and source terms related to the nuclear power plant emergency planning are presented. The new source term information in NUREG-0956 and NUREG-1150, and possible changes in emergency planning requirements in U.S.A. are briefly provided. It is suggested that a principle is used in selecting source terms for establishing the emergency planning policy and a method is used in determining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) size in China. Based on the research results of (1) EPZ size of PWR nuclear power plants being built in China, and (2) impact of reactor size and selected source terms on the EPZ size, it is concluded that the suggested principle and the method are suitable and feasible for PWR nuclear power plants in China

  15. Polyolephine waste recycling as source of power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisovski Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolephine waste (polyetilene, polypropilene is the main source of environmental pollution. Depolymerization of waste in reactor under atmospheric pressure yields hydrocarbon mixture C1-C34. In turn, combustion of C1-C7 fraction provides reactor temperature regime. The plant is automated and energetically highly efficient. Small electric power is required for operating the plant. The waste originating from depolymerazation does not pollute the environment. Fraction C7-C34 not only serves for commercial purposes but also as a power energy provider within the waste deploymerization plant.

  16. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  17. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S.; Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented

  18. A Multiagent Energy Management System for a Small Microgrid Equipped with Power Sources and Energy Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska, Weronika; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    An Energy Management System (EMS) for a small microgrid is presented, with both demand and production side management. The microgrid is equipped with renewable and controllable power sources (like a micro gas turbine), energy storage units (batteries and flywheels). Energy load is partially scheduled to avoid extreme peaks of power demand and to possibly match forecasted energy supply from the renewable power sources. To balance the energy in the network on line, a multiagent system is used. Intelligent agents of each device are proactively acting towards balancing the energy in the network, and at the same time optimizing the cost of operation of the whole system. A semi-market mechanism is used to match a demand and a production of the energy. Simulations show that the time of reaching a balanced state does not exceed 1 s, which is fast enough to let execute proper balancing actions, e.g. change an operating point of a controllable energy source. Simulators of sources and consumption devices were implemented in order to carry out exhaustive tests.

  19. Selection of Power Sources for Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, S.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    New power sources emerge very quickly. Implementation of hybrid power sources for portable electronics depends on the knowledge of industrial designers. For now this group has little understanding of fuel cells and especially fuel-cell hybrids. This slows down implementation and increases the chance

  20. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    power chain, which may improve the reliability and performance of the power system. The first part of this paper provides a comprehensive review of the various impedance-source-networks-based power converters and discusses the main topologies from an application point of view. This review paper...... is the first of its kind with the aim of providing a “one-stop” information source and a selection guide on impedance-source networks for power conversion for researchers, designers, and application engineers. A comprehensive review of various modeling, control, and modulation techniques for the impedance...

  1. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  2. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ∼5 x 10 12 cm -3 , from which ∼ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (∼15 to 35kV), and high current (∼ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (∼50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (∼ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall

  3. Morphology and power of radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, P.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses two points: 1. Observations suggest that the hot-spots move about either because the beam precesses or more discontinuously, as in sources like 3C351 that have multiple hot-spots. The natural interpretation is that the hot-spot at the end of the beam slides over the inner surface of a 'cavity' filled with very hot dilute ex-hot-spot material, extending the cavity at various places at different times. 2. Most of the radio emission of most really powerful radio sources comes from their hot spots. Contrariwise, straightforward equipartition calculations on models lead to at least as much emission from the 'cavity' as from the hot-spots. (Auth.)

  4. Study of 1 MW neutron source synchrotron dual frequency power circuit for the main ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed design of the resonant power circuits for the 1-MW neutron source synchrotron's main ring magnets. The synchrotron is to have a duty cycle of 30 Hz with a maximum upper limit of operation corresponding to 2.0 GeV and a maximum design value of 2.2 GeV. A stability of 30 ppM is the design goal for the main bending and focusing magnets (dipoles and quadruples), in order to achieve an overall stabffity of 100 ppm when random field and position errors of the magnets are included. The power circuits of this design are similar to those used in Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) where the energy losses during each cycle are supplied by continuous excitation from modulated multiphase DC power supplies. Since only 50% of the 30-Hz sinewave is used for acceleration, a dual-frequency resonant magnet circuit is used in this design. The 30-Hz repetition rate is maintained with a 20-Hz magnet guide field during acceleration and a 60-Hz reset field when no beam is present. This lengthens the guide-field rise time and shortens the fall time, improving the duty factor for acceleration. The maximum B dot is reduced by 33% during acceleration and hence, the maximum rf voltage/turn is reduced by 56%

  5. Design of 1 MHz solid state high frequency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Singh, N.P.; Gajjar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Power supply is used for various applications, like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources, etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼ 1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50 ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source. (author)

  6. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  7. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  8. Status of R&D activity for ITER ICRF power source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Aparajita; Trivedi, Rajesh; Singh, Raghuraj; Rajnish, Kumar; Machchhar, Harsha; Ajesh, P.; Suthar, Gajendra; Soni, Dipal; Patel, Manoj; Mohan, Kartik; Hari, J.V.S.; Anand, Rohit; Verma, Sriprakash; Agarwal, Rohit; Jha, Akhil; Kazarian, Fabienne; Beaumont, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • R&D program to establish high power RF technology for ITER ICRF source is described. • R&D RF source is being developed using Diacrode & Tetrode technologies. • Test rig (3 MW/3600 s/35–65 MHz) simulating plasma load is developed. - Abstract: India is in-charge for the procurement of ITER Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) sources (1 Prototype + 8 series units) along with auxiliary power supplies and Local Control Unit. As there is no unique amplifier chain able to meet the output power specifications as per ITER requirement (2.5 MW per source at 35–65 MHz/CW/VSWR 2.0), two parallel three-stage amplifier chains along with a combiner circuit on the output side is considered. This kind of RF source will be unique in terms of its stringent specifications and building a first of its kind is always a challenge. An R&D phase has been initiated for establishing the technology considering single amplifier chain experimentation (1.5 MW/35–65 MHz/3600 s/VSWR 2.0) prior to Prototype and series production. This paper presents the status of R&D activity to resolve technological challenges involved and various infrastructures developed at ITER-India lab to support such operation.

  9. Status of R&D activity for ITER ICRF power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Aparajita, E-mail: aparajita.mukherjee@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar–382428 (India); Trivedi, Rajesh; Singh, Raghuraj; Rajnish, Kumar; Machchhar, Harsha; Ajesh, P.; Suthar, Gajendra; Soni, Dipal; Patel, Manoj; Mohan, Kartik; Hari, J.V.S.; Anand, Rohit; Verma, Sriprakash; Agarwal, Rohit; Jha, Akhil [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar–382428 (India); Kazarian, Fabienne; Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D program to establish high power RF technology for ITER ICRF source is described. • R&D RF source is being developed using Diacrode & Tetrode technologies. • Test rig (3 MW/3600 s/35–65 MHz) simulating plasma load is developed. - Abstract: India is in-charge for the procurement of ITER Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) sources (1 Prototype + 8 series units) along with auxiliary power supplies and Local Control Unit. As there is no unique amplifier chain able to meet the output power specifications as per ITER requirement (2.5 MW per source at 35–65 MHz/CW/VSWR 2.0), two parallel three-stage amplifier chains along with a combiner circuit on the output side is considered. This kind of RF source will be unique in terms of its stringent specifications and building a first of its kind is always a challenge. An R&D phase has been initiated for establishing the technology considering single amplifier chain experimentation (1.5 MW/35–65 MHz/3600 s/VSWR 2.0) prior to Prototype and series production. This paper presents the status of R&D activity to resolve technological challenges involved and various infrastructures developed at ITER-India lab to support such operation.

  10. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  11. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  12. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must... or sources must be sufficient to supply those services necessary to provide normal operational...

  13. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  14. Use a renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies in the the Republic Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of alternative power in Kazakstan is brought up. Wind-, hydro-, solar power, biogas installation can improve the Republic power base. The main directions of activity of A. Einstein International Power engineering Academy on involving renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies to Republic of Kazakstan's fuel-power balance is given. It should be noted that renewable power engineering usually handles reversible energy sources and reserved power cycles. (author)

  15. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  16. The sound power emitted by a source of low acoustic impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Verholt, Lars M.

    1998-01-01

    Several authors have maintained that a source of low acoustic impedance (which includes standardised reference sources of the aerodynamic type) would radiate less than the free field power in a reverberation room. However, neither computer simulations nor experiments have confirmed this assertion....

  17. Operational experiences of the spallation neutron source superconducting linac and power ramp-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source and designed to provide a 1-GeV, 1.44-MW proton beam to a mercury target for neutron production. Since the commissioning of the accelerator complex in 2006, the SNS has started its operation for neutron production and beam power ramp-up has been in progress toward the design goal. All subsystems of the SNS were designed and developed for substantial improvements compared to existing accelerators because the design beam power is almost an order of magnitude higher compared to existing neutron facilities and the achievable neutron scattering performance will exceed present sources by more than a factor of 20 to 100. In this paper, the operational experiences with the SNS Superconducting Linac (SCL), Power Ramp-up Plan to reach the design goal and the Power Upgrade Plan (PUP) will be presented including machine, subsystem and beam related issues.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 1: Workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.; Leung, K.N.; Alonso, J.

    1994-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the ion-source requirements for high-power accelerator-driven spallation neutron facilities, and the performance of existing ion sources. Proposals for new facilities in the 1- to 5-MW range call for a widely differing set of ion-source requirements. For example, the source peak current requirements vary from 40 mA to 150 mA, while the duty factor ranges from 1% to 9%. Much of the workshop discussion centered on the state-of-the-art of negative hydrogen ion source (H - ) technology and the present experience with Penning and volume sources. In addition, other ion source technologies, for positive ions or CW applications were reviewed. Some of these sources have been operational at existing accelerator complexes and some are in the source-development stage on test stands

  19. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathaiah, R.; Sharma, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  20. Source driven breeding thermal power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1978-03-01

    The feasibility of fusion devices operating in the semi-catalyzed deuterium (SCD) mode and of high energy proton accelerators to provide the neutron sources for driving subcritical breeding light water power reactors is assessed. The assessment is done by studying the energy balance of the resulting source driven light water reactors (SDLWR) and comparing it with the energy balance of the reference light water hybrid reactors (LWHR) driven by a D-T neutron source (DT-LWHR). The conditions the non-DT neutron sources should satisfy in order to make the SDLWR viable power reactors are identified. It is found that in order for a SCD-LWHR to have the same overall efficiency as a DT-LWHR, the fusion energy gain of the SCD device should be at least one half that the DT device. The efficienct of ADLWRs using uranium targets is comparable with that of DT-LWHRs having a fusion energy gain of unity. Advantages and disadvantages of the DT-LWHR, SCD-LWHR and ADLWR are discussed. (aurthor)

  1. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source, which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  2. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  3. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  4. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  5. Final generic environmental statement on the routine use of plutonium-powered cardiac pacemakers. Update of information on power sources for pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The Final Environmental Statement on Routine Use of Plutonium-Powered Cardiac Pacemakers (FES) was issued in July 1976. Supplement 1, prepared in 1978, updates the FES with respect to power sources for pacemakers. Particular attention is given to the non-nuclear lithium batteries as alternatives to 238-Pu power sources in pacemakers. Supplement 1 also considers the current extent of pacemaker use and makeup of the patient population and concludes that the FES' conclusion is still valid that distribution of 238-Pu powered pacemakers for routine use should be authorized subject to specific conditions

  6. Unattended power sources for remote, harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamp, T.R.; Donovan, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10--120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conducted an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistic costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operations reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that continued use of the RTGs is clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to access locations

  7. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Gordon Andrew; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Dropinski, Steven Clark; Hanson, Donald L.; Johnson, William Arthur; York, Mathew William; Lewis, D.F.; Korde, R.; Haslett, C.L.; Wall, D.L.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Ramirez, L.E.; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; McKenney, John Lee; Bryce, Edwin Anthony; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Torres, Jose A.; Mills, Jerry Alan; Leeper, Ramon Joe; McGurn, John Stephen; Fehl, David Lee; Spielman, R. B.; Pyle, John H.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Ives III, Harry Crockett; Seamen, Johann F.; Simpson, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total) energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP) diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38 x 38 square array of 10-(micro)m-diameter pinholes in a 50-(micro)m-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999)RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode's output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation) the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and--on every shot--provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects) of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented

  8. High stabilized power sources for bending and quadrupole magnets of TRISTAN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Noritaka; Ogawa, Shin-ichi; Koseki, Shoichiro; Nagasaka, Saburo.

    1984-01-01

    In the power source exciting the electro-magnets for the electron ring of TRISTAN project being advanced in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, the performance as strict as 10 -4 is required for its long hour stability and pulsating rate of DC output current in order to maintain beam stably. For satisfying such specification, the structure of power source using a high accuracy current detector, an active filter and so on was adopted. In order to verify the performance of this power source, the trial manufacture was carried out independently, and the test combining with actual magnets was performed. As the results, it was confirmed that the power source had the sufficient performance about its output stability, pulsating rate, current-following property and so on. At present, the manufacture of 80 actual power sources is in progress. In this paper, the power source system and the results of performance test of the power source made for trial are reported. The power sources are divide into B power sources for exciting deflecting electro-magnets and Q power sources for exciting quadrupole electro-magnets. (Kako, I.)

  9. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; hide

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  10. Power-Law Template for Infrared Point-Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; hide

    2012-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 approx clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C(sup clust)(sub l) varies as l (sub -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, ?(sup Beta)B(?, T(sub eff) ), with a single emissivity index Beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T(sub eff) = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha(sub 150-220) = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  11. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power capable of supplying all connected loads continuously for at least three hours: (1) Navigation lights; (2... ventilated compartment. The batteries must be protected from falling objects; (4) Each battery tray must be...

  12. Laser power sources and laser technology for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements on laser power sources for advanced accelerator concepts are formidable. These requirements are driven by the need to deliver 5 TeV particles at luminosities of 10/sup 33/ - 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Given that optical power can be transferred efficiently to the particles these accelerator parameters translate into single pulse laser output energies of several kilojoules and rep rates of 1-10 kHz. The average laser output power is then 10-20 MW. Larger average powers will be needed if efficient transfer proves not to be possible. A laser plant of this magnitude underscores the importance of high wall plug efficiency and reasonable cost in $/Watt. The interface between the laser output pulse format and the accelerator structure is another area that drives the laser requirements. Laser accelerators break up into two general architectures depending on the strength of the laser coupling. For strong coupling mechanisms, the architecture requires many ''small'' lasers powering the accelerator in a staged arrangement. For the weak coupling mechanisms, the architecture must feature a single large laser system whose power must be transported along the entire accelerator length. Both of these arrangements have demanding optical constraints in terms of phase matching sequential stages, beam combining arrays of laser outputs and optimizing coupling of laser power in a single accelerating stage

  13. Statistical studies of powerful extragalactic radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, J T

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation is mainly about the use of efficient statistical tests to study the properties of powerful extragalactic radio sources. Most of the analysis is based on subsets of a sample of 166 bright (3CR) sources selected at 178 MHz. The first chapter is introductory and it is followed by three on the misalignment and symmetry of double radio sources. The properties of nuclear components in extragalactic sources are discussed in the next chapter, using statistical tests which make efficient use of upper limits, often the only available information on the flux density from the nuclear component. Multifrequency observations of four 3CR sources are presented in the next chapter. The penultimate chapter is about the analysis of correlations involving more than two variables. The Spearman partial rank correlation coefficient is shown to be the most powerful test available which is based on non-parametric statistics. It is therefore used to study the dependences of the properties of sources on their size at constant redshift, and the results are interpreted in terms of source evolution. Correlations of source properties with luminosity and redshift are then examined.

  14. Power source device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a small sized and economical power source device for a thermonuclear device. That is, the device comprises a conversion device having a rated power determined by a power required during a plasma current excitation period and a conversion device having a rated power determined by a power required during a plasma current maintaining period, connected in series to each other. Then, for the former conversion device, power is supplied from an electric power generator and, for the latter, power is supplied from a power system. With such a constitution, during the plasma electric current maintaining period for substantially continuous operation, it is possible to conduct bypassing paired operation for the former conversion device while the electric power generator is put under no load. Further, since a short period rated power may be suffice for the former conversion device and the electric power generator having the great rated power required for the plasma electric current excitation period, they can be reduced in the size and made economical. On the other hand, since the power required for the plasma current maintaining period is relatively small, the capacity of the continuous rated conversion device may be small, and the power can be received from the power system. (I.S.)

  15. Operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources. Proceedings of a Specialist Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The reliability of on-site electric power sources of nuclear power plants usually consisting of diesel generators, gas turbine generators and DC power sources, has been a matter of concern during reactor operations. The frequent recurrence and the important consequences of failures relating to on-site electric power sources have led to a general consensus that they form one of the most significant features influencing the total performance of the safety Systems. This has also been confirmed by surveys performed on the incidents reported through the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Accordingly, a recommendation to organise a Specialist Meeting on the subject was made at the third annual meeting of CSNI Principal Working Group No. 1 (Operating Experience and Human Factors). At the 12. meeting of the CSNI held in November 1984. the Committee endorsed the proposal and accepted an offer by the United Kingdom to host and organise the Specialist Meeting. The Specialist Meeting, sponsored by the CSNI, was held in London, United Kingdom from 16 to 18 October 1985. It was hosted by H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive. The purpose of the meeting was to promote the exchange of Information on operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources and to look for measures to further improve their reliability In the areas of design, operation and licensing. The meeting was organised by a Programme Group which included nominated members of CSNI PWG No. 1. the Programme Group met in May and June 1985 in Paris to agree on the programme and practical arrangements for the meeting. As a result of the review of the abstracts which had been contributed in response to the Call for Papers, 28 papers were accepted for presentation during the meeting. Approximately 60 delegates from 13 Member countries, and the NEA Secretariat, attended the meeting. Session summaries prepared by the respective session chairmen are Included prior to the

  16. Operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources. Proceedings of a Specialist Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-15

    The reliability of on-site electric power sources of nuclear power plants usually consisting of diesel generators, gas turbine generators and DC power sources, has been a matter of concern during reactor operations. The frequent recurrence and the important consequences of failures relating to on-site electric power sources have led to a general consensus that they form one of the most significant features influencing the total performance of the safety Systems. This has also been confirmed by surveys performed on the incidents reported through the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Accordingly, a recommendation to organise a Specialist Meeting on the subject was made at the third annual meeting of CSNI Principal Working Group No. 1 (Operating Experience and Human Factors). At the 12. meeting of the CSNI held in November 1984. the Committee endorsed the proposal and accepted an offer by the United Kingdom to host and organise the Specialist Meeting. The Specialist Meeting, sponsored by the CSNI, was held in London, United Kingdom from 16 to 18 October 1985. It was hosted by H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive. The purpose of the meeting was to promote the exchange of Information on operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources and to look for measures to further improve their reliability In the areas of design, operation and licensing. The meeting was organised by a Programme Group which included nominated members of CSNI PWG No. 1. the Programme Group met in May and June 1985 in Paris to agree on the programme and practical arrangements for the meeting. As a result of the review of the abstracts which had been contributed in response to the Call for Papers, 28 papers were accepted for presentation during the meeting. Approximately 60 delegates from 13 Member countries, and the NEA Secretariat, attended the meeting. Session summaries prepared by the respective session chairmen are Included prior to the

  17. WWER type reactors used as multipurpose nuclear power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, J.; Mulak, J.

    1976-01-01

    Safety aspects are assessed of the siting of nuclear power installations in the vicinity of large housing estates and in areas with a high population density, mainly the aspect of the liquidation of the consequences of the maximum credible accident, i.e., the transversal rupture of the primary coolant circuit. The application of WWER type reactors as multipurpose nuclear power sources in Czechoslovakia is justified. It is shown that such a multipurpose nuclear power source differs from a purely condensation nuclear power plant mainly in the design of the secondary stage. The possibilities of such projects are indicated with a view to power and heat operation. (F.M.)

  18. Sound power emitted by a pure-tone source in a reverberation room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    Energy considerations are of enormous practical importance in acoustics. In "energy acoustics," sources of noise are described in terms of the sound power they emit, the underlying assumption being that this property is independent of the particular environment where the sources are placed. Howev...

  19. A power transformer as a source of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieska, Wiktor Marek

    2007-01-01

    This article presents selected results of analyses and simulations carried out as part of research performed at the Central Institute of Labor Protection - the National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) in connection with the development of a system for active reduction of noise emitted by high power electricity transformers. This analysis covers the transformer as a source of noise as well as a mathematical description of the phenomenon of radiation of vibroacoustic energy through a transformer enclosure modeled as a vibrating rectangular plate. Also described is an acoustic model of the transformer in the form of an array of loudspeakers.

  20. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported

  1. Biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerator as a life-time designed implantable power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Yalan; Liu, Zhuo; Shi, Bojing; Wang, Xinxin; Jin, Yiming; Ouyang, Han; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-01

    Transient electronics built with degradable organic and inorganic materials is an emerging area and has shown great potential for in vivo sensors and therapeutic devices. However, most of these devices require external power sources to function, which may limit their applications for in vivo cases. We report a biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerator (BD-TENG) for in vivo biomechanical energy harvesting, which can be degraded and resorbed in an animal body after completing its work cycle without any adverse long-term effects. Tunable electrical output capabilities and degradation features were achieved by fabricated BD-TENG using different materials. When applying BD-TENG to power two complementary micrograting electrodes, a DC-pulsed electrical field was generated, and the nerve cell growth was successfully orientated, showing its feasibility for neuron-repairing process. Our work demonstrates the potential of BD-TENG as a power source for transient medical devices.

  2. Pulsed power sources based on MHD generators (A state-of-art review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    pulsed Power sources are finding increased applications in powering plasma experiments, CTF devices, investigations of structure of earth's crust or self-contained compact power supplies for military applications. This report reviews the development of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems for pulsed power applications. The major critical components, which are analysed in detail, include the combustor, high energy fuel development, high field magnet, high power density channel and power conditioning unit. The report concludes that the MHD research has now reached a stage, where it is possible to design and achieve requisite performance from short duration high power compact MHD generators. (author)

  3. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  4. Performances of a Compact, High-Power WB Source with Circular Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmote, P.; Pinguet, S.; Bieth, F.

    This paper presents the design and the performances of an embedded high-power microwave (HPM) wideband source, developed and built at the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis. The system was intended for dual use, homeland security, and military applications. It is powered by a 400 kV compact Marx generator with specificities in coaxial design and low energy. The slow monopolar signal from the Marx is sharpened using a pulse-forming stage, made of a switching module pressurized with nitrogen, followed by a monopulse-to-monocycle converter. The duration and rise times of this signal could be adjusted by varying the pressure and space between electrodes. Repetitive operations were performed up to 100 Hz during 10 s without a gas flow. Two kinds of antennas can be connected to the source. The first one is a TEM horn, with an optional dielectric lens, that radiates a vertically polarized UWB short pulse. The second one is a nine-turn helix, working in Kraus monopolar axial mode and radiating a circularly polarized wideband signal along the main axis. A dedicated conical reflector increases its directivity and bandwidth. The whole source is designed to be embedded inside an aluminum trailer, powered by batteries and remote controlled through an optical fiber.

  5. Powerful warm infrared sources in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS far-infrared sources have been identified with 129 S0, Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies in a statistically complete sample of 738 galaxies brighter than 14.5 mag and smaller than 4.0 arcmin. In most cases, the far-IR colors and the ratios of far-IR flux to radio flux density are those of normal galactic disks and/or starbursts. The most powerful far-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are just as powerful as the strongest far-IR sources in Sb and Sc galaxies. Bright-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are warm; those in Sc galaxies are cool. Sb galaxies have both warm and cool IR sources. Bright warm IR sources occur much more frequently in barred galaxies than in galaxies without bars for types S0, Sa, and Sb. Bright, cool IR sources are found with increasing frequency along the Hubble sequence, regardless of the presence or absence of a bar. At least some S0 galaxies with warm, bright IR sources have peculiar morphologies and ambiguous classifications. 22 references

  6. The role of fusion as a future power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.E.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Nations of western Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States are working together to demonstrate the practicality of fusion power early in the 21st century. Many difficult engineering problems make fusion development one of the most formidable scientific and technological challenges ever attempted. However, the outlook is promising for achieving an inexhaustible energy source that is safe, economic, and with acceptable environmental effects. The United States magnetic fusion power development program aims at producing fusion energy experimentally in the early 1980's and demonstrating power production on a commercial scale before 2000. This prognosis reflects the confidence gained in scientific successes of the late 1960's through the present. However, many physics problems remain to be solved and many complex engineering problems without obvious solutions await attention. In response to experimental successes and the perceived importance of the fusion energy alternative, the United States effort has grown rapidly. Scientific investigations of plasma physics continue while planned engineering studies lead toward the practical goal of a commercial technology that will take a prominent place among available energy sources of the next century. Development of laser and electron beam fusion proceeds. Alternative fusion devices are investigated for their potential feasibility while the tokamak configuration is used for principal experimental devices. A national program plan and budget coordinates the efforts of federal laboratories, universities and industry. The utilities industry conducts an independent program which is increasingly coordinated with government-sponsored activity. Fusion energy programs of several nations benefit one another and should cooperate more closely in specific problem areas. Achievement of practical fusion power could be advanced through more effective mutually supporting fusion development programs. The economic and technical

  7. An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Thomas B. H.; Guha, Anirvan; Lamoureux, Aaron; Vanrenterghem, Gloria; Sept, David; Shtein, Max; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Progress towards the integration of technology into living organisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere. Here we introduce an electric-eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems.

  8. An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Thomas B H; Guha, Anirvan; Lamoureux, Aaron; VanRenterghem, Gloria; Sept, David; Shtein, Max; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2017-12-13

    Progress towards the integration of technology into living organisms requires electrical power sources that are biocompatible, mechanically flexible, and able to harness the chemical energy available inside biological systems. Conventional batteries were not designed with these criteria in mind. The electric organ of the knifefish Electrophorus electricus (commonly known as the electric eel) is, however, an example of an electrical power source that operates within biological constraints while featuring power characteristics that include peak potential differences of 600 volts and currents of 1 ampere. Here we introduce an electric-eel-inspired power concept that uses gradients of ions between miniature polyacrylamide hydrogel compartments bounded by a repeating sequence of cation- and anion-selective hydrogel membranes. The system uses a scalable stacking or folding geometry that generates 110 volts at open circuit or 27 milliwatts per square metre per gel cell upon simultaneous, self-registered mechanical contact activation of thousands of gel compartments in series while circumventing power dissipation before contact. Unlike typical batteries, these systems are soft, flexible, transparent, and potentially biocompatible. These characteristics suggest that artificial electric organs could be used to power next-generation implant materials such as pacemakers, implantable sensors, or prosthetic devices in hybrids of living and non-living systems.

  9. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  10. Analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle using a low temperature source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayer, Emmanuel; Galanis, Nicolas; Desilets, Martin; Nesreddine, Hakim; Roy, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle using an industrial low-grade stream of process gases as its heat source is presented. The methodology is divided in four steps: energy analysis, exergy analysis, finite size thermodynamics and calculation of the heat exchangers' surface. The results have been calculated for fixed temperature and mass flow rate of the heat source, fixed maximum and minimum temperatures in the cycle and a fixed sink temperature by varying the high pressure of the cycle and its net power output. The main results show the existence of an optimum high pressure for each of the four steps; in the first two steps, the optimum pressure maximises the thermal or exergetic efficiency while in the last two steps it minimises the product UA or the heat exchangers' surface. These high pressures are very similar for the energy and exergy analyses. The last two steps also have nearly identical optimizing high pressures that are significantly lower that the ones for the first two steps. In addition, the results show that the augmentation of the net power output produced from the limited energy source has no influence on the results of the energy analysis, decreases the exergetic efficiency and increases the heat exchangers' surface. Changing the net power output has no significant impact on the high pressures optimizing each of the four steps

  11. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Sawyer, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source is described which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, including a power regulator that maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit that drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear fucntion of the current, and which drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal

  12. Social and legal aspects of preparing the construction and operation of a nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curin, K.

    1989-01-01

    The main activities are described involved in creating territorial, technical and economic conditions for the building of nuclear power plants. The basic precondition is the prognostic evaluation of national requirements for power in each planning time stage. From this proceeds the need of a range of power sources with a definition of their types and their incorporation in the power system and of possible power supply to the district heating system. As for nuclear power plants the building should be divided into three stages: from planning investments to the issuance of an investment intent, the stage of construction and that of operation. A detailed description is presented of the activities of all participants in building nuclear power plants in Czechoslovak conditions. Attention is devoted to the aspects of reliability and safety of nuclear power plants and to the effect of the respective activities on reliability and safety. (Z.M.). 1 tab

  13. RF power source for the compact linear collider test facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, G; Brown, Peter; Carron, G; Hanni, R; Mourier, J; Rossat, G; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L; Thorndahl, L

    2004-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility will test and demonstrate many vital components of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider). This paper describes the pulsed RF power source at 2998.55 MHz for the drive-beam accelerator (DBA), which produces a beam with an energy of 150 MeV and a current of 3.5 Amps. Where possible, existing equipment from the LEP preinjector, especially the modulators and klystrons, is being used and upgraded to achieve this goal. A high power RF pulse compression system is used at the output of each klystron, which requires sophisticated RF phase programming on the low level side to achieve the required RF pulse. In addition to the 3 GHz system two pulsed RF sources operating at 1.5 GHz are being built. The first is a wide-band, low power, travelling wave tube (TWT) for the subharmonic buncher (SHB) system that produces a train of "phase coded" subpulses as part of the injector scheme. The second is a high power narrow band system to produce 20 MW RF power to the 1.5 GHz RF deflectors in the delay loop situate...

  14. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  15. Development of the power supplies of the prototype ion source for the EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhimin; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Xie Yahong; Sheng Peng

    2011-01-01

    For the neutral beam injector (NBI) of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), a test stand of a high-current ion source has been in construction. The NBI power supply system includes the plasma generator power supply, plasma electrode power supply, high voltage power divider, negative high voltage power supply, and the transmission lines and the snubber. A multi-megawatt prototype ion source was developed. The arc discharge of the prototype ion source was obtained in the test. The test results for the ion source power supplies and the arc discharge of the ion source are presented. (authors)

  16. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources

  17. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  18. Radioisotope power sources in the terrestrial and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, T.J.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    In response to user agency needs, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Division of Nuclear Research and Applications (NRA), has undertaken a variety of research and development efforts to insure the availability of highly reliable, long-lived nuclear power sources for special purpose terrestrial missions planned for the late 1970's and early 1980's. One such effort currently being pursued is the development of a 1kW(e) Stirling Radioisotope Power System for integration into an Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible (UFSS) demonstration vehicle now under development by the Naval Research Laboratory. Another important effort which NRA has undertaken is a study to evaluate both isotope fueled and non-isotope fueled unattended power systems in the 2kW(e) range for application in cold regions. In the lower power ranges of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, NRA continues to support new development efforts and new application areas. The Division is providing assistance to the Navy on a 1 / 2 W(e) RTG for use in various underwater applications. The various efforts are briefly discussed

  19. Long-pulse neutral beam power supply system for LBL 20 kV, 10 A sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey, V.J.; Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.

    1976-05-01

    A description is given of the power supplies and control system for the LBL 20 kV, 10 A, 10 sec long-pulse neutral beam source test facility, now in operation. Such sources are used in a number of existing and planned fusion power experiments

  20. InP MMIC Chip Set for Power Sources Covering 80-170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We will present a Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chip set which provides high output-power sources for driving diode frequency multipliers into the terahertz range. The chip set was fabricated at HRL Laboratories using a 0.1-micrometer gate-length InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process, and features transistors with an f(sub max) above 600 GHz. The HRL InP HEMT process has already demonstrated amplifiers in the 60-200 GHz range. In this paper, these high frequency HEMTs form the basis for power sources up to 170 GHz. A number of state-of-the-art InP HEMT MMICs will be presented. These include voltage-controlled and fixed-tuned oscillators, power amplifiers, and an active doubler. We will first discuss an 80 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with 5 GHz of tunability and at least 17 mW of output power, as well as a 120 GHz oscillator providing 7 mW of output power. In addition, we will present results of a power amplifier which covers the full WRIO waveguide band (75-110 GHz), and provides 40-50 mW of output power. Furthermore, we will present an active doubler at 164 GHz providing 8% bandwidth, 3 mW of output power, and an unprecedented 2 dB of conversion loss for an InP HEMT MMIC at this frequency. Finally, we will demonstrate a power amplifier to cover 140-170 GHz with 15-25 mW of output power and 8 dB gain. These components can form a power source in the 155-165 GHz range by cascading the 80 GHz oscillator, W-band power amplifier, 164 GHz active doubler and final 140-170 GHz power amplifier for a stable, compact local oscillator subsystem, which could be used for atmospheric science or astrophysics radiometers.

  1. Absolute measurement of LDR brachytherapy source emitted power: Instrument design and initial measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Martha J; Palmer, Benjamin R; DeWerd, Larry A

    2016-02-01

    Energy-based source strength metrics may find use with model-based dose calculation algorithms, but no instruments exist that can measure the energy emitted from low-dose rate (LDR) sources. This work developed a calorimetric technique for measuring the power emitted from encapsulated low-dose rate, photon-emitting brachytherapy sources. This quantity is called emitted power (EP). The measurement methodology, instrument design and performance, and EP measurements made with the calorimeter are presented in this work. A calorimeter operating with a liquid helium thermal sink was developed to measure EP from LDR brachytherapy sources. The calorimeter employed an electrical substitution technique to determine the power emitted from the source. The calorimeter's performance and thermal system were characterized. EP measurements were made using four (125)I sources with air-kerma strengths ranging from 2.3 to 5.6 U and corresponding EPs of 0.39-0.79 μW, respectively. Three Best Medical 2301 sources and one Oncura 6711 source were measured. EP was also computed by converting measured air-kerma strengths to EPs through Monte Carlo-derived conversion factors. The measured EP and derived EPs were compared to determine the accuracy of the calorimeter measurement technique. The calorimeter had a noise floor of 1-3 nW and a repeatability of 30-60 nW. The calorimeter was stable to within 5 nW over a 12 h measurement window. All measured values agreed with derived EPs to within 10%, with three of the four sources agreeing to within 4%. Calorimeter measurements had uncertainties ranging from 2.6% to 4.5% at the k = 1 level. The values of the derived EPs had uncertainties ranging from 2.9% to 3.6% at the k = 1 level. A calorimeter capable of measuring the EP from LDR sources has been developed and validated for (125)I sources with EPs between 0.43 and 0.79 μW.

  2. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  3. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  4. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  5. Possible power source found for fiber optic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-01-01

    Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory are researching ways to use a new semiconductor alloy, indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), as as photovoltaic power source for lasers in fiber optics and space communication satellites. The efficiency of electricity-generating solar cells utilizing InGaAsN is predicted to be 40%-nearly twice the efficiency rate of a standard silicon solar cell. The use of InGaAsN in solar cells is a potential power source for satellites and other space systems. (AIP) (c)

  6. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  7. The Concept of Autonomous Power Supply System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Fedak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires the use of renewable energy sources in a rational and thoughtful way. In Polish conditions the use of several types of renewable energy sources on a single setup is a new issue. In particular, hybrid devices in conjunction with intelligent energy systems, such as lighting systems are generally not used. Therefore, the Polish energy production still relies on the burning of coal. Despite their advantages, renewable energy sources are characterized by seasonality and considerable instability. Access to renewable energy varies daily and seasonally, hence activities promoting the use of autonomous, hybrid power systems must be intensified. The presented research aims at the development of the Autonomous Power Supply (APS system based on the so-called energy mix. Such a system works in an isolated arrangement and serves to reliably supply electricity from renewable sources for small residential or public utility devices in an urban area. Systems with up to 3 kW power consist of modules, whose modular design allows the combination of various power configurations and types of renewable energy used. The basic system consists of a primary power source, additional power source, emergency power source, energy storage device, weather station and controller. The energy mix depends on the geographical location of the system. The emergency source can be implemented as an on-grid connector or fuel power generator with the participation of 100% until the primary or accessory power source failure is removed. The energy storage system consists of batteries or supercapacitors. The proposed system can be combined to create a local network that automatically responds to energy shortages in various network nodes by adjusting the supply of electricity within the network depending on its needs. For Poland realistic solutions in this article are the new and modern answer to these requirements.

  8. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  9. Source driven breeding thermal power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misulovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1978-03-01

    Improvements in the performance of fission power reactors made possible by designing them subcritical driven by D-T neutron sources are investigated. Light-water thermal systems are found to be most promising, neutronically and energetically, for the source driven mode of operation. The range of performance characteristics expected from breeding Light Water Hybrid Reactors (LWHR) is defined. Several promising types of LWHR blankets are identified. Options opened for the nuclear energy strategy by four types of the LWHRs are examined, and the potential contribution of these LWHRs to the nuclear energy economy are discussed. The power systems based on these LWHRs are found to enable a high utilization of the energy content of the uranium resources in all forms available - including depleted uranium and spent fuel from LWRs, while being free from the need for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation capabilities. (author)

  10. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (''acoustic-power halos'') at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency ''acoustic-emission halo'', or ''seismic glory'' surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the ''acoustic halos'' and the ''seismic glories'' are prominent at high frequencies 5–8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15'' region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 – 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  11. Decentralized and Real-Time Power Dispatch Control for an Islanded Microgrid Supported by Distributed Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsun Ahn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids can deploy traditional and/or renewable power sources to support remote sites. Utilizing renewable power sources requires more complicated control strategies to achieve acceptable power quality and maintain grid stability. In this research, we assume that the grid stability problem is already solved. As a next step, we focus on how the power can be dispatched from multiple power sources for improved grid efficiency. Isolated microgrids frequently require reconfigurations because of the grid expansion or component failures. Therefore, the control strategies ideally should be implemented in a plug-and-play fashion. Moreover, these strategies ideally require no pre-knowledge of the grid structure, and as little communication with neighboring power sources as possible. The control objective is to minimize a cost function that can be adjusted to reflect the desire to minimize energy cost and/or losses. An algorithm is designed to satisfy a derived necessary condition of function optimality. Such conditions are obtained by formulating Lagrange functions. An equivalent grid model approximates the grid structure which was later confirmed to represent the grid behavior adequately. For decentralized operations, we execute the distributed control sequentially using a simple token communication protocol. The performance of the combined system identification-Lagrange function minimization algorithm is demonstrated through simulations.

  12. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  13. Model predictive control for Z-source power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of impedance-source (commonly known as Z-source) power converter. Output voltage control and current control for Z-source inverter are analyzed and simulated. With MPC's ability of multi- system variables regulation, load current and voltage...

  14. On-line measurement of microwave power in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang; Li Xiaoyun

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology to apply an ECR ion source to the neutron generator. Because of the structure limitation, working state of the ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharge chamber. Therefore, it was hard to estimate if the ECR ion source was working properly in the neutron generator. The method to resolve the problem was described in this paper. The microwave power was measured on-line by a directional coupler and a small microwave power meter. The ion beam current could be educed from the measured incidence microwave power, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be determined. (authors)

  15. High-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, all-periodically-poled, near-infrared source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-12-15

    We report a high-power, single-frequency, continuous-wave (cw) source tunable across 775-807 nm in the near-infrared, based on internal second harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Yb-fiber laser. The compact, all-periodically-poled source employs a 48-mm-long, multigrating MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal for the OPO and a 30-mm-long, fan-out grating MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal for intracavity SHG, providing as much as 3.7 W of near-infrared power at 793 nm, together with 4 W of idler power at 3232 nm, at an overall extraction efficiency of 28%. Further, the cw OPO is tunable across 3125-3396 nm in the idler, providing as much as 4.3 W at 3133 nm with >3.8  W over 77% of the tuning range together with >3  W of near-infrared power across 56% of SHG tuning range, in high-spatial beam-quality with M2<1.4. The SHG output has an instantaneous linewidth of 8.5 MHz and exhibits a passive power stability better than 3.5% rms over more than 1 min.

  16. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  17. Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2006-01-01

    Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment

  18. Proposal for implementation of alternative source term in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan L, A.; Lopez L, M.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J. B.

    2009-10-01

    In 2010 the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will implement the extended power upbeat in both units of the plant. Agree with methodology of NEDC-33004P-A, (constant pressure power up rate), and the source term of core, for accidents evaluations, were increased in proportion to the ratio of power level. This means that for the case of a design basis accident of loss of coolant an increase of power of 15% originated an increase of 15% in dose to main control room. Using the method of NEDC-33004P-A to extended power upbeat conditions was determined that the dose value to main control room is very near to regulatory limit established by SRP 6.4. By the above and in order to recover the margin, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will calculate an alternative source term following the criteria established in RG 1.183 (alternative radiological source term for evaluating DBA at nuclear power reactor). This approach also have a more realistic dose value using the criterion of 10-CFR-50.67, in addition is predicted to get the benefit of additional operational flexibilities. This paper present the proposal of implementing the alternative source term in Laguna Verde. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Rationale for a spallation neutron source target system test facility at the 1-MW Long-Pulse Spallation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1995-12-01

    The conceptual design study for a 1-MW Long-Pulse Spallation Source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center has shown the feasibility of including a spallation neutron test facility at a relatively low cost. This document presents a rationale for developing such a test bed. Currently, neutron scattering facilities operate at a maximum power of 0.2 MW. Proposed new designs call for power levels as high as 10 MW, and future transmutation activities may require as much as 200 MW. A test bed will allow assessment of target neutronics; thermal hydraulics; remote handling; mechanical structure; corrosion in aqueous, non-aqueous, liquid metal, and molten salt systems; thermal shock on systems and system components; and materials for target systems. Reliable data in these areas are crucial to the safe and reliable operation of new high-power facilities. These tests will provide data useful not only to spallation neutron sources proposed or under development, but also to other projects in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies such as the production of tritium

  1. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  2. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Tokuchi, A

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 microH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A x 140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 micros x 25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 micros and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  3. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 μH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 μsx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H - ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 μs and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  4. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  5. A combined source of electron bunches and microwave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J.L.; Wang, F.Y.; Yang, X.P.; Shen, B.; Gu, W.; Zhang, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the possibility of using a high power klystron amplifier simultaneously as a microwave power source as usual and an electron bunches source by extracting the spent beam with a magnet and also as an oscillator by feedback is investigated. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a very compact electron linear accelerator or for other applications of electron bunches. The feasibility of the idea was first examined by computer simulation of the electron motion in a 5 MW klystron and the characteristics of the klystron spent beam. Experimental study was then carried out by installing a radio frequency cavity and a Faraday cage in sequence at the exit end of a bending magnet located at the top of the klystron collector. The energy and current of the chopped spent electron beam can then be measured. By properly choosing the feedback circuit elements, the frequency stability of the klystron in oscillator mode was proved to be good enough for linac operation. According to the results presented in this article, it is evident that an extremely compact linac for research and education with better affordability can be constructed to promote the applications of linacs

  6. POWER-LAW TEMPLATE FOR INFRARED POINT-SOURCE CLUSTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Hincks, Adam D.; Page, Lyman A.; Staggs, Suzanne T. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Viero, Marco [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Reese, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Wollack, Edward [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 {approx}< l {approx}< 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 1000 {approx}< l {approx}< 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C{sup clust}{sub l}{proportional_to}l{sup -n} with n = 1.25 {+-} 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, {nu}{sup {beta}} B({nu}, T{sub eff}), with a single emissivity index {beta} = 2.20 {+-} 0.07 and effective temperature T{sub eff} = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be {alpha}{sub 150-220} = 3.68 {+-} 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  7. Radiation Tolerant Low Power Precision Time Source, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The availability of small, low power atomic clocks is now a reality for ground-based and airborne navigation systems. Kernco's Low Power Precision Time Source...

  8. High-power beam-based coherently enhanced THz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Li (李跃林

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a compact Smith-Purcell radiation device that can potentially generate high average power THz radiation with high conversion efficiency. The source is based on a train of short electron bunches from an rf photoemission gun at an energy of a few MeV. Particle tracking simulation and analysis show that, with a beam current of 1 mA, it is feasible to generate hundreds of watts of narrow-band THz radiation at a repetition rate of 1 MHz.

  9. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhawa, Z. M.; Dvorsky, E.

    2012-01-01

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  10. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. M., E-mail: jared.johnson@ttu.edu; Reale, D. V.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Krile, J. T. [Department of Electromagnetics and Sensor Systems, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  11. Experiences with on-site power sources at KCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijnen, B. M.A. [Borssele Nuclear Power Station, N.V. P.Z.E.M., Postbus 48, 4330 AA Middleburg (Netherlands)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the nuclear power station is of the late sixties. The experiences with the on-site power sources, signal processing and some of the resulting modifications of the design of the power plant are mentioned. In order to let the design satisfy as much as possible present ideas about safety, it was decided to realize a total new and Independent decay heat removal System. With this system a second independent on-site power System is at disposal in case of accident situations. (author)

  12. Combined Source-Channel Coding of Images under Power and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossorier Marc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for combined source-channel coding for a power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel. The framework is applied to progressive image transmission using constant envelope -ary phase shift key ( -PSK signaling over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. First, the framework is developed for uncoded -PSK signaling (with . Then, it is extended to include coded -PSK modulation using trellis coded modulation (TCM. An adaptive TCM system is also presented. Simulation results show that, depending on the constellation size, coded -PSK signaling performs 3.1 to 5.2 dB better than uncoded -PSK signaling. Finally, the performance of our combined source-channel coding scheme is investigated from the channel capacity point of view. Our framework is further extended to include powerful channel codes like turbo and low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. With these powerful codes, our proposed scheme performs about one dB away from the capacity-achieving SNR value of the QPSK channel.

  13. Comparing costs of power and heat production by prospective and present sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1979-01-01

    Capital and running costs are compared of power and heat production from different sources. The lowest capital costs were found for coal-fired power plants followed by light water reactor power plants. The capital costs of other types of power plants, such as wind, geothermal, solar, thermonuclear power plants are significantly higher. The estimated specific cost for electric power production in 1985 for a nuclear power plant is lower than for a fossil-fuel power plant. It is estimated that in 1985 coal will be the cheapest heat source. (Ha)

  14. Record power, ultra-broadband supercontinuum source based on highly GeO2 doped silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sidharthan, R.; Moselund, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    the potential of germania based photonic crystal fiber or a step-index fiber supercontinuum source for high power ultra-broad band emission being by pumped a 1060 nm or a 1550 nm laser source. To the best of our knowledge, this is the record power, ultra-broadband, and all-fiberized supercontinuum light source...... based on silica and germania fiber ever demonstrated to the date. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America......We demonstrate highly germania doped fibers for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. Experiments ensure a highest output power of 1.44 W for a broadest spectrum from 700 nm to 3200 nm and 6.4 W for 800 nm to 2700 nm from these fibers, while being pumped by a broadband Erbium-Ytterbium doped...

  15. Modeling and analysis of a transcritical rankine power cycle with a low grade heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian

    efficiency, exergetic efficiency and specific net power output. A generic cycle configuration has been used for analysis of a geothermal energy heat source. This model has been validated against similar calculations using industrial waste heat as the energy source. Calculations are done with fixed...

  16. Use assessment of electronic power sources for SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the efficacy of the use of modern technologies for power supplies in Shielded Metal Are Welding (SMAW. Coupon tests were welded by using a series of five different classes of commercial electrodes, covering their current ranges. Both a conventional electromagnetic and an electronic (inverter power sources were employed. Fusion rate, deposition efficiency, bead finish and weld geometry were measured at each experiment. Current and voltage signals were acquired at a high rate to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the power sources. The static performances of both power sources were also determined. The results showed that despite the remarkable differences between the power supplies, based on static and dynamic characterizations, no significant difference was noticed in the operational behavior of the electrodes, in the given conditions, apart from a better anti-stick performance obtained with the electronic power source.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del uso de tecnologías modernas para fuentes de energía en soldaduras con electrodo revestido (Shielded Metal Are Welding -SMAW-. Los materiales de ensayo se soldaron usando una serie de cinco clases diferentes de electrodos comerciales, cubriendo sus rangos de corriente. Para esto se utilizó una fuente de energía electromagnética convencional y una fuente de energía electrónica (inversora. La tasa de fusión, eficiencia de deposición, terminación del cordón así como el diseño de la soldadura se midieron en cada experimento. Las señales de corriente y voltaje se obtuvieron a una proporción alta para evaluar el comportamiento dinámico de las fuentes de energía. También se determinó la actuación estática de ambas fuentes. Los resultados mostraron que a pesar de las diferencias notables entre los suministros de energía, no se nota diferencia alguna significante en la conducta de trabajo de los electrodos, en

  17. Short-term power sources for tokamaks and other physical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Jaromír; Žáček, František; Brettschneider, Zbyněk; Lejsek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2007), s. 369-379 ISSN 0920-3796 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * Impulse power sources * Energy accumulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.058, year: 2007 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09203796

  18. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrentt problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zero-sequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse conditions. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC sources....

  19. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  20. A multichannel frequency response analyser for impedance spectroscopy on power sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL J. L. BRETT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost multi-channel frequency response analyser (FRA has been developed based on a DAQ (data acquisition/LabVIEW interface. The system has been tested for electric and electrochemical impedance measurements. This novel association of hardware and software demonstrated performance comparable to a commercial potentiostat / FRA for passive electric circuits. The software has multichannel capabilities with minimal phase shift for 5 channels when operated below 3 kHz. When applied in active (galvanostatic mode in conjunction with a commercial electronic load (by discharging a lead acid battery at 1.5 A the performance was fit for purpose, providing electrochemical information to characterize the performance of the power source.

  1. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  2. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  3. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  4. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, K D; Filios, P G; Gullickson, R L; Hebert, M P; Rowley, J E; Schneider, R F; Summa, W J [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Vitkovski, I M [Logicon RDA, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs.

  5. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  6. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  7. A digital controlled negative high voltage power source for LINAC of HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Chen Jun; Hong Jun; Wang Weibing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of a 10-80 kV negative high voltage power source for the electronic gun of the 200 MeV LINAC of NSRL, especially how to realize the switch power, voltage/current sampling, feedback control and microcontroller module. The firmware design for the SOC microcontroller of ADuC8xx and the application software design for PC are also presented. (authors)

  8. An improved electron impact ion source power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, E.M.

    1974-01-01

    An electron impact ion source power supply has been developed that offers improved ion beam stability. The electrical adjustments of ion source parameters are more flexible, and safety features are incorporated to protect the electron emitting filament from accidental destruction. (author)

  9. Pulsed power bibliography. Volume 1: Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemesderfer, J.; Druce, R. L.; Frantz, B.; Guenther, A. H.; Kristiansen, M.; Oloughlin, J. P.; Pendleton, W. K.

    1983-08-01

    Pulsed power and high-voltage technologies are playing an ever increasing role in weapons' effects simulation, fusion power research, power distribution, materials processing and medical research. It is a rapidly expanding field of applied physics as evidenced by the growth in published literature. Three years ago, the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) initiated a project to compile a computerized data base of pulsed power research papers. The data base is stored on our IBM System 2000. This AFWL Technical Report is the first release of the bibliography to date. It contains about 2,500 full bibliographic citations, original sources, availability, key words and abstract. There are three indices: Subject, Personal Author, and Corporate Author. There are 30 main subject headings, from Breakdown Studies to Switching. The indices are contained in Volume 1.

  10. A high peak power S-band switching system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Linear Accelerator (Linac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grelick, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    An S-band linear accelerator is the source of particles and front end of the Advanced Photon Source [1] injector. Additionally, it will be used to support a low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) and to drive a free-electron laser (FEL). To provide maximum linac availability for all uses, an additional modulator-klystron subsystem has been built,and a waveguide-switching and distribution subsystem is now under construction. The combined subsystems provide a hot spare for any of the five S-band transmitters that power the lina cand have been given the additional function of powering an rf gun test stand whenever they are not otherwise needed. Design considerations for the waveguide-switching subsystem, topology selection, timing, control, and system protection provisions are described

  11. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  12. Prospects for using implanted systems of assisted circulation and artificial heart with a radioisotope power source (biomedical, thermal, and radiation aspects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, I M; Dubrovskii, G P; Mosidze, T G; Bazhanov, A I.U.

    1983-02-01

    The capacity of dogs to diffuse heat (up to 50 W) from an artificial heart and to tolerate prolonged intracorporeal ionizing radiation from a radioisotope power source (/sup 238/Pu) was investigated, using electrical models of vascular blood heat exchangers that permit reproduction of elimination and heat transmission in autonomous systems. It was shown that up to 50 W can be discharged at temperatures of the wall-blood interface that do not exceed 43 degrees C. Clotting indexes, concentration of total protein, hemolysis, and serum enzyme activity during 1-1.5 months of heating remained within physiologically normal limits. A specific power load of up to 1.5 W/kg at ambient temperatures of 18-20 degrees C revealed no evidence of changes in heat production. By measuring the distribution of power of the dose absorbed around a 45-W plutonium source it was possible to estimate dose loads on critical organs and to assess overall risk of death from malignant tumors induced by radiation over a 10-year period: 6-12% for males and 8-14% for females. It is not very probable that use of the artificial heart with a radioisotope power source will be limited by thermal and radiational effects.

  13. Calculation of the source term for a S1B-sequence at a VVER-1000 type reactor. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1990-10-01

    The behaviour of the source term in a VVER-1000 type reactor is calculated using the 'Source Term Code Package' (STCP). The input data are based on the russian plant Zaporozhye-5. The selected accident sequence is a small break LOCA in the hot leg followed by loss offsite and onsite electric power (S 1 B-sequence). According to the course of the calculation the results are presented and analyzed for each program. Except for the noble gases all release fractions are lower than 10 -4 . 18 refs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  14. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    An Li/SOCl 2 battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 1OK-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 μA is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  15. Increase of the positive ion source power in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1998-09-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating experiment in JT-60 started in 1986, and the rated injection power of 20MW at 75keV with hydrogen was achieved after several month operation. In 1991, the ion sources and power supply had been upgraded for a higher beam energy up to 120keV with deuterium, following which the ion source operation re-started aiming for an injection power of 40MW at 110keV. In the operation, the beam acceleration voltage was tried to increase by modifying the ion source structure against the break-down which occurred frequently in the ion source. The beam acceleration was, however, unstable in a beam energy range of more than 105keV because of voltage-holding deterioration in the accelerator. Therefore we changed the strategy to increase the injection power: i.e. we tried to increase the beam current with keeping the beam energy. The structure of the source has been modified to be operated in a high current regime. As a result, the deuterium neutral beam injection of 40MW at 91-96keV was achieved in July 1996. (author)

  16. Characterization of noise sources in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andhill, Gustav

    2004-03-01

    Algorithms for unfolding noise sources in nuclear power reactors are investigated. No preliminary knowledge of the functional form of the space dependence is assumed in contrast to the usual methods. The advantage of this is that the algorithms can be applied to various noise sources and the results can be interpreted without expert knowledge. The results can therefore be directly displayed to the plant operators. The precision will however be lower than that of the traditional methods because of the arbitrariness in the type of the noise source. Two different reactor models are studied. First a simple one-dimensional and homogeneous core is considered. Three methods for finding the noise source from the measured flux noise are investigated here. The first one is based on the inversion of an appropriate pre-calculated noise source-to-measured induced neutron noise transfer function. The second one relies on the use of the measured neutron noise as the solution of the equations giving the neutron noise induced by a given noise source. The advantage of this second method is that the noise source can be determined directly, i.e., without any Inversion of a transfer function. The second method is thus called the direct method. The last method is based on a reconstruction of the noise source by spatial Fourier expansion. The two latter techniques are found usable for different locations of the actual noise source in the 1D core. They are therefore tried on more sophisticated two-dimensional models of cores. The direct method is able both to determine the nature of the noise source and its location in 2D

  17. Characterization of noise sources in nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andhill, Gustav

    2004-03-01

    Algorithms for unfolding noise sources in nuclear power reactors are investigated. No preliminary knowledge of the functional form of the space dependence is assumed in contrast to the usual methods. The advantage of this is that the algorithms can be applied to various noise sources and the results can be interpreted without expert knowledge. The results can therefore be directly displayed to the plant operators. The precision will however be lower than that of the traditional methods because of the arbitrariness in the type of the noise source. Two different reactor models are studied. First a simple one-dimensional and homogeneous core is considered. Three methods for finding the noise source from the measured flux noise are investigated here. The first one is based on the inversion of an appropriate pre-calculated noise source-to-measured induced neutron noise transfer function. The second one relies on the use of the measured neutron noise as the solution of the equations giving the neutron noise induced by a given noise source. The advantage of this second method is that the noise source can be determined directly, i.e., without any Inversion of a transfer function. The second method is thus called the direct method. The last method is based on a reconstruction of the noise source by spatial Fourier expansion. The two latter techniques are found usable for different locations of the actual noise source in the 1D core. They are therefore tried on more sophisticated two-dimensional models of cores. The direct method is able both to determine the nature of the noise source and its location in 2D.

  18. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad MARSIC; Alessandro GIULIANO; Meiling ZHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimiza...

  19. Power supply for plasma generator of HL-1M neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Detai; Qian Jiamei; Lei Guangjiu; Shun Mengda; Jiang Shaofeng; Wang Enyao; Lu Xuejun; Yang Tiehai; Wang Xuehua; Zhao Zhimin; Hao Ming; Huang Jianrong; Yu Yanqiu; Cheng Baoqiang; Wu Zhige; Sheng Ning; Hu Qingtao

    1999-01-01

    The diagram of the HL-1M Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) and the power supply (PS) system is shown. The NBI consists of ion source, beam line and power supply system etc. The ion source includes plasma generator and three-electrode extraction system. The power supply for plasma generator consists of a filament PS, an arc PS and gas valve PS. Testing has shown that the PS for plasma generator of the HL-1M NBI has excellent stability and obtain good plasma heating effect

  20. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  1. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I. (Icarus Research, Bethesda, MD); Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  2. Combined Source-Channel Coding of Images under Power and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Fossorier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for combined source-channel coding for a power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel. The framework is applied to progressive image transmission using constant envelope M-ary phase shift key (M-PSK signaling over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. First, the framework is developed for uncoded M-PSK signaling (with M=2k. Then, it is extended to include coded M-PSK modulation using trellis coded modulation (TCM. An adaptive TCM system is also presented. Simulation results show that, depending on the constellation size, coded M-PSK signaling performs 3.1 to 5.2 dB better than uncoded M-PSK signaling. Finally, the performance of our combined source-channel coding scheme is investigated from the channel capacity point of view. Our framework is further extended to include powerful channel codes like turbo and low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. With these powerful codes, our proposed scheme performs about one dB away from the capacity-achieving SNR value of the QPSK channel.

  3. Design and modelling of a novel compact power cycle for low temperature heat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit; Skovrup, Morten Juel; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Power cycles for the efficient use of low temperature heat sources experience increasing attention. This paper describes an alternative cycle design that offers potential advantages in terms of heat source exploitation. A concept for a reciprocating expander is presented that performs both, work ...

  4. Development of a new MT system using the commercial power line as a source (Part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, Koji; Noritake, Kazumitsu; Miyata, Hatsuho; Sakuma, Hideki; Saito, Akira

    1988-10-01

    PLMT method is an electromagnetic induction method which uses a commercial power line as a source of electomagnetic energy, and enables accurate measurement in short periods. A numeric calculation example of the effect of distance from a power line as well as the results of actual measurements carried out in the Sekiret mining area (Niger) and Kushikino area, Kagoshima Prefecture are reported. Possibility of estimating average ground resistivity by numerical calculation is demonstrated using the electric field and magnetic field generated by power lines. In the measurement in the Sekiret mining area, Niger, north-south electric field and east-west magnetic field were measured from directly under the power line to the distance of 20 km. The relation of the amplitudes of electric field and magnetic field with the distance is shown. The theoretic curve of 0.02 (mho/m) conductivity agreed well with the value mesured in the area about 1 km from the power line. In the measurement at Kushikino area, the value agrees well with the theoretical curve of 0.01 conductivity, whose average resistivity is considered to be about 100 {Omega}m. 6 references, 11 figures.

  5. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Nuno; Cabral, Pedro; Azevedo, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The integration of large amounts of renewable energy is an important challenge for the future management of electric systems, since it affects the operation of the electric power system and the design of the transmission and distribution network infrastructure. This is specially due to the connection requirements of the renewable energy technologies, to the extension and adjustment of the grid infrastructure and to the identification of new solutions for operational reserve, in order to maintain the overall system flexibility and security. In this paper, the impact of high penetration of intermittent energy sources, expected in long term in the Portuguese Power System, is analysed and the operational reserve requirements to accomplish a reliable and reasonable electrical energy supply are identified. It was concluded that pumped storage power plants, special power plants with regulating capabilities, will have an important task to provide the operational reserve requirements of the Portuguese Power System. This technology assumes a fundamental role not only to ensure the adequate levels of security of supply but also to allow the maximum exploitation of the installed capacity in renewable energy sources. (authors)

  6. Governance of Open Source Software Foundations: Who Holds the Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Prattico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article attempts to discover who holds the power in open source software foundations through the analysis of governance documents. Artificial neural network analysis is used to analyse the content of the bylaws of six open source foundations (Apache, Eclipse, GNOME, Plone, Python, and SPI for the purpose of identifying power structures. Results of the research suggest that: i the actions of an open source software foundation are centered around one of three groups: Members, Chairman/President/Executive Director, and Board of Directors; ii in only one of the six foundations is the Board of Directors responsible for both the community and the product; and iii artificial neural network analysis of the content of bylaws provides unbiased insights of the power structure of open source software foundations. These results may prove useful to those who contribute to open source foundations and use their products and services.

  7. Development of a DC 1MV power supply technology for NB injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Ono, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Kawashima, S.; Yamazaki, C.

    2006-01-01

    Major issues of NBI power supplies are a high-speed switching, regulation and transmission of dc ultra high voltage, and suppression of surge energy input to the beam source at breakdown. A GTO (gate turn off thyristor) inverter type power supply where the control is performed at low voltage ac side was designed for the ITER NB. Based on the remarkable progress of a high power IEGT (injection enhanced gate transistor), the design of the inverter has been modified to increase an efficiency and compactness using such new elements. A power loss in the inverter is reduced to be 30% of the GTO inverter system. For the transmission line of the dc UHV with intermediate voltages, a disk shape multi-conductor bushing with a transmission line test chamber has been developed. Dimensions of the bushing are 1.8 m in diameter and 140 mm in thickness at the edge. Electric fields at the conductor surface and insulator surface were designed to be lower than 5 kV/mm and 7 kV/mm, respectively. An electric field at the bottom of the ground potential outer conductor was designed to be lower than 1.2 kV/mm to prevent particle levitation which triggers breakdowns. The prototype transmission line has passed the standard impulse test up to 1,300 kV. A dc UHV up to 1,175 kV was successfully sustained for 300 s. To prevent the electric damage of the beam source at the breakdown, core snubbers using Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials are adopted to dissipate the surge energy. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency...

  9. Modern batteries an introduction to electrochemical power sources

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, C

    2003-01-01

    Based on the successful first edition, this book gives a general theoretical introduction to electrochemical power cells (excluding fuel cells) followed by a comprehensive treatment of the principle battery types - covering chemistry, fabrication characteristics and applications. There have been many changes in the field over the last decade and many new systems have been commercialised. Since the recent advent of battery powered consumer products (mobile phones, camcorders, lap-tops etc.) advanced power sources have become far more important. This text provides an up-to-date account of batter

  10. Dense granular Flows: a conceptual design of high-power neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-power neutron source system is very useful for multifunctional applications, such as material facilities for advanced nuclear power, space radiation studies, radiography and tomography. Here the idea of inclined dense granular flow is utilized and developed in a new conceptual design of a compact high-power target to produce a high-energy and high-flux neutron irradiation (the flux is up to 1015 n/cm2/s or even 1016. Comparing to the traditional solid and liquid heavy metal targets, this design has advantages in material choice, fluid stability, heat removal, etc. In this paper the natures of the granular flows in an inclined chute are investigated and preliminary experimental and numerical results are reported. Then the feasibility of this design is discussed.

  11. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  12. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  13. Microcontroller based implementation of fuel cell and battery integrated hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.; Ali, S.M.; Bhatti, A.A.; Nasir, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a digitally controlled hybrid power source system, composed of fuel cell and battery. Use of individual fuel cell stacks as a power source, encounters many problems in achieving the desired load characteristics. A battery integrated, digitally controlled hybrid system is proposed for high pulse requirements. The proposed hybrid power source fulfils these peak demands with efficient flow of energy as compared to individual operations of fuel cell or battery system. A dc/dc converter is applied which provides an optimal control of power flow among fuel cell, battery and load. The proposed system efficiently overcomes the electrochemical constraints like over current, battery leakage current, and over and under voltage dips. By formulation of an intelligent algorithm and incorporating a digital technology (AVR Microcontroller), an efficient control is achieved over fuel cell current limit, battery charge, voltage and current. The hybrid power source is tested and analyzed by carrying out simulations using MATLAB simulink. Along with the attainment of desired complex load profiles, the proposed design can also be used for power enhancement and optimization for different capacities. (author)

  14. On-line measurement of the microwave power in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology that ECR ion source is applied in the neutron generator. Because of effect of the structure, working state of ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharging chamber as doing in high frequency ion source. Therefore, state adjusting of ECR ion source was difficult in running of the neutron generator. The method to resolve the question is described in this paper. The micro-wave power was measured in case of running by using the method of directional coupler adding small microwave power meter. Because both were in the direct proportion, the ion beam current could be educed from microwave incidence power measured, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be judged. Finally, the neutron generator might be operated in best running state. (authors)

  15. Compact high efficiency, light weight 200-800 MHz high power RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, M.B.; Preist, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    There has long been a need for a new more efficient less bulky high power RF power source to drive accelerators in the 200 to 800 MHz region. Results on a recent 5-year EIMAC sponsored R and D program which have lead to the introduction of the Klystrode for UHF television and troposcatter applications indicate that at power levels of 1MW or more efficiencies in excess of 75% can be obtained at 450 MHz. Efficiencies of this order coupled with potential size and weight parameters which are a fraction of those of existing high power UHF generators open up new applications which heretofore would have been impractical if not impossible. Measurements at 470 MHz on existing Klystrodes are given. Projected operating conditions for a 1MW 450 MHz Klystrode having an overall length of 60 inches and a total tube, circuit, and magnet weight of 250 pounds is presented

  16. Application of RI power sources to cardiac pacemakers and aftercare in its implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Motokazu

    1974-01-01

    RI power sources have long life when they are implanted into human bodies together with cardiac pacemakers, as compared with e.g. mercury batteries. Therefore, the frequency of their replacement can be by far less. However, there are the problems of radiation protection, high cost, availability, etc. The following matters are described: The cardiac pacemaker and its power supply, implantation into human body, problems with patients and conventional power sources; the current state of RI power sources for cardiac pacemakers, including plutonium-238 RTG and 147 Pm and 3 H batteries; and problems with the RI power sources. (Mori, K.)

  17. Modeling generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC using 48-pulse voltage source converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghorbani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC is one of the voltage-source controller (VSC-based flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers that can independently regulate the power-flow over each transmission line of a multiline system. This paper presents the modeling and performance analysis of GIPFC based on 48-pulsed voltage-source converters. This paper deals with a cascaded multilevel converter model, which is a 48-pulse (three levels voltage source converter. The voltage source converter described in this paper is a harmonic neutralized, 48-pulse GTO converter. The GIPFC controller is based on d-q orthogonal coordinates. The algorithm is verified using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Comparisons between unified power flow controller (UPFC and GIPFC are also included. Keywords: Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC, Voltage source converter (VCS, 48-pulse GTO converter

  18. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC.

  19. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC

  20. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr [Dept. of Information and Telecommunication Engineering Incheon National University Incheon 22012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  1. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  2. On-site A.C. electric power sources for 900 MWe french nuclear power reactors: reliability and importances for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhem, J.L.; Gros, G.

    1985-10-01

    After presenting briefly the new provisions laid down by the Electricite de France to meet a total electrical power loss, the main elements of the probabilistic study concerning the corresponding risk are described: reliability data of internal sources used, results of risk improvement brought by the new measures, importance for internal source before and after implementation of the new measures

  3. On-site A.C. electric power sources for 900 MWe French nuclear power reactors: reliability and importance for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhem, J. L.; Gros, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, Departement d' Analyse de Surete, B.P. No. 6, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1986-02-15

    After presenting briefly the new provisions laid down by the Electricite de France to meet a total electrical power loss, the main elements of the probabilistic study concerning the corresponding risk described: reliability data of internal sources used, results of risk Improvement brought by the new measures, importance for Internal source before and after Implementation of the new measures. (authors)

  4. Power Optimization of Organic Rankine-cycle System with Low-Temperature Heat Source Using HFC-134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Young Jin; Kim, Min Sung; Chang, Ki Chang; Lee, Young Soo; Ra, Ho Sang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, an organic Rankine-cycle system using HFC-134a, which is a power cycle corresponding to a low temperature heat source, such as that for geothermal power generation, was investigated from the view point of power optimization. In contrast to conventional approaches, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the working fluid within the heat exchangers were taken into account by using a discretized heat exchanger model. The inlet flow rates and temperatures of both the heat source and the heat sink were fixed. The total heat transfer area was fixed, whereas the heat-exchanger areas of the evaporator and the condenser were allocated to maximize the power output. The power was optimized on the basis of three design parameters. The optimal combination of parameters that can maximize power output was determined on the basis of the results of the study. The results also indicate that the evaporation process has to be optimized to increase the power output.

  5. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures

  6. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  7. Gun power source for electron gun of 3 MeV DC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Nanu, K.

    2011-01-01

    In DC electron beam accelerator electron gun is situated at high voltage terminal which requires constant power irrespective of beam energy. Floating power source is required for gun. This paper describes the scheme of static gun power source derived from parallel coupled voltage multiplier column. (author)

  8. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  9. Low temperature heat source for power generation: Exhaustive analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Fredy; Segovia, Jose; Chejne, Farid; Antolin, Gregorio; Quijano, Ana; Carmen Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main results of a theoretical work on the use of a low temperature heat source for power generation through a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle are reported in this paper. The procedure for analyzing the behaviour of the proposed cycle consisted in modifying the input pressure to the turbine from 66 bar, maintained constant each evaluated temperature (60 o C, 90 o C, 120 o C and 150 o C) until the net work was approximately zero. As a result, the maximum exergy efficiency was 50%, while the energy efficiencies obtained were 9.8%, 7.3%, 4.9% and 2.4% and the net specific work was 18.2 kJ/kg, 12.8 kJ/kg, 7.8 kJ/kg and 3.5 kJ/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of an internal heat exchanger, which obviously supposed an increase in the efficiency, was analyzed. The analysis of the proposed system shows the viability of implementing this type of process as an energy alternative and/or strengthener of non-conventional energy sources in non-provided zones, or for increasing the energy efficiency in the industry. -- Highlights: → Energy and exergy analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle is reported. → The effect of the inlet temperature to the turbine is evaluated. → Conditions of maximum efficiency and maximum net work are compared. → The inclusion of an IHX is also analysed.

  10. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  11. Development of a 0.1 kW thermoelectric power generator for military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchen, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A man-portable thermoelectric power source is being developed for the U.S. Army. Initially used as a dedicated power supply for the XM-21 Chemical Agent Alarm System, the set can also meet a variety of general purpose user requirements. Development of a thermoelectric power conversion device is being undertaken by the U.S. Army LABCOM Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory to fill a need for a generator that is silent, lightweight, multi-fueled and reliable. The 0.1 kW Power Generator is rectangular in configuration and consists of a power module, electronic control assembly and fuel delivery system housed within a tubular structural frame. The generator operates on military fuels ranging from kerosene to diesel oil. Multi-fuel capability is achieved using an ultrasonic atomizer and regenerative burner developed specifically for this application. This paper provides the first public presentation of results achieved during the Advanced Development Phase of the 0.1 kW Power Generator. The development process is briefly traced with emphasis on a description of the system and test results obtained to date

  12. Estimated population exposure from nuclear power production and other radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are given of the total radiation dose from all forms of ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear power reduction. A power consumption of 1kW per head of population, derived entirely from nuclear energy, would increase the average radiation exposure of the whole population from 100mrem per year from natural sources (plus about 40mrem per year from medical procedures and other artificial causes) by about 6mrem per year. The genetically signifificant component of this increase would be about 4mrem per year. Available estimates of harm from radiation would indicate that this would give a risk per year per million of population of about 1 fatal induced malignancy, about the same number of malignancies fully treatable by operation, and, after many generations, about the same number of inherited defects, of greater or less severity, per year. Accidental injuries, particularly in constructional and mining work, would cause an estimated 1 fatality and 50 other accidents annually. Indications are given of the number of fatalities and accidents involved in equal power production by alternative methods, and of the value and limitations of such numerical comparisons in reaching decisions on the development of future power programmes

  13. RF power sources for 5--15 TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-09-01

    After outlining the design of the NLC rf system at 1 TeV, the possibility of a leap in linear collider energy into the 5--15 TeV energy range is considered. To keep the active accelerator length and ac wall-plug power within reasonable bounds, higher accelerating gradients at higher rf frequencies will be necessary. Scaling relations are developed for basic rf system parameters as a function of frequency, and some specific parameter examples are given for colliders at 34 Ghz and 91 Ghz. Concepts for rf pulse compression system design and for high power microwave sources at 34 Ghz (for example sheet-beam and multiple-beam klystrons) are briefly discussed

  14. Harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator as a sustainable power source and a self-powered active vibration sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Ya; Hou, Te-Chien; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-13

    A harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is presented as a sustainable power source and an active vibration sensor. It can effectively respond to vibration frequencies ranging from 2 to 200 Hz with a considerably wide working bandwidth of 13.4 Hz. This work not only presents a new principle in the field of vibration energy harvesting but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A suggested classification and explanation for hotspots in some powerful radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Jones, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution (1''→0.1') maps of the outer complexes of some ''well formed'' powerful radio sources suggest that we can now distinguish two physically distinct types of outer hotspots. The authors denote them as type ''A'' and ''B'' and describe them as follows: Type A hotspots, occur at the outer leading edge, and have a cusp-like, or otherwise elongated shape. This strongly suggests that their shape and energy density are determined by the ram-pressure interaction between the end of a beam or momentum flux ''pipeline'', and the ambient i.g.m. Type B hotspots generally lie off the A hotspot-galaxy/QSO axis, and are also behind the Type A hotspots. In at least some cases, they are compact and have a higher minimum energy density than the outer, Type A hotspots. (Auth.)

  16. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  17. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel [Widetronix Corp., Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Spencer, M. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P{sup +}N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH{sup 3}{sub x}) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm{sup 2}. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6 }cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P{sup +}N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  18. Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1995-09-01

    of the total energy output from the AGNs into jet kinetic energy versus radiant energy than do FR 2 sources. If this interpretation is correct, then this suggests that there is a fundamental difference in the central engine and/or in the immediate "accretion region" around the engine in FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. We note also the absence of FR 1 sources with nuclear broad line regions and suggest that the absence of the BLR is tied to the absence of the "isotropic" nuclear UV continuum source in FR 1 sources. We put forth the possibility that the FR 1/FR 2 dichotomy (i.e., the observed differences in the properties of low- and high-power radio sources) is due to qualitative differences in the structural properties of the central engines in these two types of sources. Following early work by Rees et al. (1982), we suggest the possibility that FR 1 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a lower accretion rate, leading to the creation of a source in which the ratio of radiant to jet bulk kinetic energy is low, while FR 2 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a higher accretion rate, causing the central engine to deposit a higher fraction of its energy in radiant energy. We further suggest the possibility that associated differences in the spin properties of the central black hole between FR 1 (lower spin) and FR 2 (higher spin) sources may be responsible for the different collimation properties and Mach numbers of the jets produced by these two types of radio-loud galaxies. This scenario, although currently clearly speculative, is nicely consistent with our current picture of the triggering, feeding, environments, and evolution of powerful radio galaxies. This model allows for evolution of these properties with time for example, the mass accretion rate and BH spin may decline with time causing an FR 2 radio source or quasar to evolve into a FR 1 radio source.

  19. Average stopping powers for electron and photon sources for radiobiological modeling and microdosimetric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Kry, Stephen F.; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-03-01

    This study concerns calculation of the average electronic stopping power for photon and electron sources. It addresses two problems that have not yet been fully resolved. The first is defining the electron spectrum used for averaging in a way that is most suitable for radiobiological modeling. We define it as the spectrum of electrons entering the sensitive to radiation volume (SV) within the cell nucleus, at the moment they enter the SV. For this spectrum we derive a formula that combines linearly the fluence spectrum and the source spectrum. The latter is the distribution of initial energies of electrons produced by a source. Previous studies used either the fluence or source spectra, but not both, thereby neglecting a part of the complete spectrum. Our derived formula reduces to these two prior methods in the case of high and low energy sources, respectively. The second problem is extending electron spectra to low energies. Previous studies used an energy cut-off on the order of 1 keV. However, as we show, even for high energy sources, such as 60Co, electrons with energies below 1 keV contribute about 30% to the dose. In this study all the spectra were calculated with Geant4-DNA code and a cut-off energy of only 11 eV. We present formulas for calculating frequency- and dose-average stopping powers, numerical results for several important electron and photon sources, and tables with all the data needed to use our formulas for arbitrary electron and photon sources producing electrons with initial energies up to  ∼1 MeV.

  20. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser at 675 nm as a pump source for UV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Erbert, Gotz

    2011-01-01

    High-power narrow-spectrum diode laser systems based on tapered gain media in external cavity are demonstrated at 675 nm. Two 2-mm-long amplifiers are used, one with a 500-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device A), the other with a 750-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device B). The laser system...... of 1.0 W. The laser system B based on device B is tunable from 666 to 685 nm. As high as 1.05 W output power is obtained around 675.67 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than 0.07 nm throughout the tuning range, and the beam quality factor M2 is 1.13 at an output power of 0.93 W. The laser...... system B is used as a pump source for the generation of 337.6 nm UV light by single-pass frequency doubling in a BIBO crystal. An output power of 109 µW UV light, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 0.026%W-1 is attained....

  1. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  2. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  3. A method for measuring power signal background and source strength in a fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Kall, L.; Visuri, P.

    1977-01-01

    Theory and experimental verification of a novel method for measuring power signal bias and source strength in a fission reactor are reported. A minicomputer was applied in the measurements. The method is an extension of the inverse kinetics method presented by Mogilner et al. (Auth.)

  4. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  5. The role of power sources in the European electricity mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonin Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate in Europe about energy transition enhances the necessity to evaluate the performance of the envisaged mix of power sources, in terms of production cost, CO2 emissions and security of supply. In this study, we use MIXOPTIM, a Monte-Carlo simulator of the behavior of a mix of power sources on a territory, to evaluate the performance of the present EU power mix. After a validation on the French mix, we applied it to the whole EU territory and made variational calculations around the present mix to evaluate the performance impacts induced by small changes in installed renewable power and nuclear power. According to the analyzed criteria, the study shows that a plausible way to keep an affordable MWh in Europe with minimal amount of CO2 emissions and acceptable security of supply could be to extend the life of existing Gen II nuclear reactors. All other options lead to the degradation of the mix performance, on at least one of the three criteria listed above.

  6. Design criteria for an uninterruptable power source (UPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, S.S.N. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Okeke, C.A. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Mortune, B.U. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Okeke, C.C. [Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Computer Science

    1997-05-01

    This paper on uninterruptible power source (UPS) is a result of an R and D project; it describes the components of a UPS system and reviews the design requirements necessary for its construction with low cost and ease of maintenance. (orig.)

  7. Spallation Neutron Source High Power RF Installation and Commissioning Progress

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Michael P; Bradley, Joseph T; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Hardek, Thomas; Kang, Yoon W; Rees, Daniel; Roybal, William; Young, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac will provide a 1 GeV proton beam for injection into the accumulator ring. In the normal conducting (NC) section of this linac, the Radio Frequency Quadupole (RFQ) and six drift tube linac (DTL) tanks are powered by seven 2.5 MW, 402.5 MHz klystrons and the four coupled cavity linac (CCL) cavities are powered by four 5.0 MW, 805 MHz klystrons. Eighty-one 550 kW, 805 MHz klystrons each drive a single cavity in the superconducting (SC) section of the linac. The high power radio frequency (HPRF) equipment was specified and procured by LANL and tested before delivery to ensure a smooth transition from installation to commissioning. Installation of RF equipment to support klystron operation in the 350-meter long klystron gallery started in June 2002. The final klystron was set in place in September 2004. Presently, all RF stations have been installed and high power testing has been completed. This paper reviews the progression of the installation and testing of the HPRF Sys...

  8. Proposed principles on the use of nuclear power sources in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Since the 1978 reentry of the Soviet satellite Cosmos 954, the United Nations has been discussing the use of nuclear power sources in outer space. Most of these deliberations have taken place in the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its two subcommittees (Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee) and their associated working groups. This paper focuses on the technical agreements reached by the Working Group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (WGNPS), the legal principles agreed to by the Legal Subcommittee, and relevant treaties on the use of outer space and the use of nuclear power. To date the conclusion reached by the WGNPS in its 1981 report represents a succinct statement of U.N. consensus and of the U.S. position: The Working Group reaffirmed its previous conclusion that nuclear power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety precautions are met

  9. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ''Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors'' which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ''substantial meltdown of the core''. This ''source term'', tile basis for tile NRC's Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC's reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ''source term'' release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ''source term'' is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it

  10. High power and spectral purity continuous-wave photonic THz source tunable from 1 to 4.5 THz for nonlinear molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, J.; Breunig, I.; Schunemann, P. G.; Buse, K.; Vodopyanov, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report a diffraction-limited photonic terahertz (THz) source with linewidth OP) gallium arsenide (GaAs) via intracavity frequency mixing between the two closely spaced resonating signal and idler waves of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating near λ = 2 μm. The doubly resonant type II OPO is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) pumped by a single-frequency Yb:YAG disc laser at 1030 nm. We take advantage of the enhancement of both optical fields inside a high-finesse OPO cavity: with 10 W of 1030 nm pump, 100 W of intracavity power near 2 μm was attained with GaAs inside cavity. This allows dramatic improvement in terms of generated THz power, as compared to the state-of-the art CW methods. We achieved >25 μW of single-frequency tunable CW THz output power scalable to >1 mW with proper choice of pump laser wavelength.

  11. Stability analysis of a power system made up of an intermittent renewable energy source directly tied to a conventional rotating power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1997-02-01

    A simple power system made up of a conventional rotating power generator in direct connection to an intermittent renewable energy source (with energy or photovoltaic) is modelled on the base of respective functional schemes. The relative variations of the voltage frequency are calculated as an output to an abrupt variation of intermittent tied power and in function of electro-mechanical parameters of the rotating generator (dumping coefficient and inertial rotor coefficient). The stability conditions and the tolerance allowed on the frequency variations are considered in relation to toad service requires. As a consequence, the maximum intermittent power amount, which can be accepted in direct connection, is obtained. For usual conventional rotating machines, the resulting limit is placed in the range of (12-19)% of nominal capacity of power generator

  12. Strategy of investment in electricity sources--Market value of a power plant and the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, R.; Hnydiuk-Stefan, A.; Buryn, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of the investment strategy analysis in different electricity sources. New methodology and theory of calculating the market value of the power plant and value of the electricity market supplied by it are presented. The financial gain forms the most important criteria in the assessment of an investment by an investor. An investment strategy has to involve a careful analysis of each considered project in order that the right decision and selection will be made while various components of the projects will be considered. The latter primarily includes the aspects of risk and uncertainty. Profitability of an investment in the electricity sources (as well as others) is offered by the measures applicable for the assessment of the economic effectiveness of an investment based on calculations e.g. power plant market value and the value of the electricity that is supplied by a power plant. The values of such measures decide on an investment strategy in the energy sources. This paper contains analysis of exemplary calculations results of power plant market value and the electricity market value supplied by it.

  13. Methods of formation of efficiency indexes of electric power sources integration in regional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, L.I.; Myzin, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    A methodic approach to the grounding of the integration process efficiency within the Unified electric power system is given together with the selection of a rational areal structure and concentration of power-generating source capacities. Formation of an economic functional according to alternative scenavies including the cost components taking account of the regional interests is considered. A method for estimation and distribution of the effect from electric power production integration in the power systems under new economic conditions is proposed

  14. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date

  15. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  16. High stability power sources for bending and quadrupole magnets of TRISTAN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Noritaka; Ogawa, Shin-ichi; Koseki, Shoichiro; Nagasaka, Saburo.

    1985-01-01

    The excitation power sources for the main ring magnets of the TRISTAN project of the Ministry of Educations's National Laboratory for High Energy Physics requires strict performances of 10 -4 for both long time stability and the ripple factor of the DC output current to obtain a stable beam. To satisfy such specifications, a precision current detector, and active filter, and other such technologies are used for the power source. To verify the performance of this power source, a prototype was manufactured and a combined test was done with the magnets actually used at the National Laboratory. The results have proved that the output stability, ripple factor, current tracking, and other specifications are quite satisfactory and, at present, 80 sets have been manufactured for the TRISTAN project. This paper describes the project's power supply system and reports the results of performance tests on the prototype. (author)

  17. Schenkel circuit and its characteristics. DC power source for NHV ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Toshio; Yamada, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Makoto; Iwamoto, Eiji [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    For DC high voltage source, it is necessary to have sufficient power capacity to suit for electric current capacity required for operational load and further sufficient power stability when adapting it to an ion accelerator. In this paper, outlines of various DC high voltage forming circuits using generally and characteristics of Schenkel type DC source adapted to ion accelerator were described. Characteristics of the NHV Schenkel type DC electric source on actual circuit construction is shown as follows; (1) Whole circuit construction is intended to improve its discharge resistance by assembly with gaps and resistors. (2) Stability caused by geometric shape specific to the Schenkel circuit is improved by adopting integral moldings of aluminum for its structural material. And, (3) Upgrading of cooling effect, and miniaturization and forming heat loss reduction of system are intended by adopting all aluminum to increasing pressure transformer storing tank for countermeasure of vortex current. (G.K.)

  18. Schenkel circuit and its characteristics. DC power source for NHV ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Toshio; Yamada, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Makoto; Iwamoto, Eiji

    1996-01-01

    For DC high voltage source, it is necessary to have sufficient power capacity to suit for electric current capacity required for operational load and further sufficient power stability when adapting it to an ion accelerator. In this paper, outlines of various DC high voltage forming circuits using generally and characteristics of Schenkel type DC source adapted to ion accelerator were described. Characteristics of the NHV Schenkel type DC electric source on actual circuit construction is shown as follows; 1) Whole circuit construction is intended to improve its discharge resistance by assembly with gaps and resistors. 2) Stability caused by geometric shape specific to the Schenkel circuit is improved by adopting integral moldings of aluminum for its structural material. And, 3) Upgrading of cooling effect, and miniaturization and forming heat loss reduction of system are intended by adopting all aluminum to increasing pressure transformer storing tank for countermeasure of vortex current. (G.K.)

  19. Is the Korean public willing to pay for a decentralized generation source? The case of natural gas-based combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas (NG)-based combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be installed near electricity-consuming areas and do not require large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. This paper attempts to assess the public's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for substituting consumption of a unit of electricity generated from nuclear power plant, currently a dominant power generation source in Korea, with that produced from NG-based CHP plant in terms of decentralized generation using the contingent valuation (CV) method. To this end, a CV survey of 1,000 households was implemented. The results show that the mean additional WTP for substituting nuclear power plant by NG-based CHP plant is estimated to be KRW 55.3 (USD 0.047) per kWh of electricity, which is statistically significant at the 1% level. This value amounts to 44.7% of the average price for electricity, KRW 123.69 (USD 0.106) in 2015, which implies that the public are ready to shoulder a significant financial burden to achieve the substitution. Moreover, the value can be interpreted as an external cost of nuclear power generation relative to NG-based CHP generation, or as an external benefit of NG-based CHP generation relative to nuclear power generation with a view to decentralized generation. - Highlights: • Combined heat and power (CHP) is a representative decentralized generation source. • Nuclear power requires large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. • We assess people's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for CHP over nuclear power. • We conduct a contingent valuation survey of 1,000 households in Korea. • The mean additional WTP amounts to 44.2% of the average price for electricity.

  20. Long-term program up to fiscal 1993 of electric power source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Shin-ichi

    1984-01-01

    The long-term, ten years, program up to fiscal 1993 of electric power source development, determined by the Government aims at stable power supply and the expansion of utilization of petroleum-substitute energy. The annual growth in the gross national product (GNP) during the ten years was taken as about 4 %. So, the total electric power demand in fiscal 1993 is scheduled to be 731,000 million kwh, about 34 % up from 547,000 million kwh in fiscal 1983. The structure of electric power sources at the end of fiscal 1993 will be hydraulic 19.7 %, thermal 58.3 %, and nuclear 21.9 %. The development of electric power sources to be initiated in fiscal 1984 is hydraulic 500 MW, thermal 2,000 MW, and nuclear 6,000 MW. (Mori, K.)

  1. New sources of high-power coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprehngl, F.

    1985-01-01

    New sources of high-power coherent radiation in the wavelength range from millimeter to ultraviolet are reviewed. Physical mechanisms underlying concepts of free electrons laser, cyclotron resonance laser and other new radiation sources are described. Free electron lasers and cyclotron resonance lasers are shown to suggest excellent possibilities for solving problems of spectroscopy, plasma heating radar and accelerator technology. Results of experiments with free electron laser in the Compton mode using linear accelerators microtrons and storage rings are given. Trends in further investigations are shown

  2. Power-law thermal model for blackbody sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grande, N.K.

    1979-01-01

    The spectral radiant emittance W/sub E/ from a blackbody at a temperature kT for photons at energies E above the spectral peak (2.82144 kT) varies as (kT)/sup E/kT/. This power-law temperature dependence, an approximation of Planck's radiation law, may have applications for measuring the emissivity of sources emitting in the soft x-ray region

  3. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  4. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells

  5. A Modified Load Flow Algorithm in Power Systems with Alternative Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, D.L.; Cañedo, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for calculating the steady state of electrical networks including wind and photovoltaic generation is presented. The wind generators considered are; asynchronous (squirrel cage and doubly fed) and synchronous generators using permanent magnets. The proposed algorithm is based on the formulation of nodal power injections that is solved with the modified Newton Raphson technique in its polar formulation using complex matrices notation. Each power injection of wind and photovoltaic generators is calculated independently in each iteration according to its particular mathematical model, which is generally non-linear. Results are presented with a 30-node test system. The computation time of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional methodology to include alternative energy sources in power flows studies. (author)

  6. Modification to the accelerator of the NBI-1B ion source for improving the injection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. S.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Park, M.; Jung, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Wang, S. J.; Bae, Y. S.; Park, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Cho, W.; Choi, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing power loss of a neutral beam imposes modification of the accelerator of the ion source for further improvement of the beam optics. The beam optics can be improved by focusing beamlets. The injection efficiencies by the steering of ion beamlets are investigated numerically to find the optimum modification of the accelerator design of the NBI-1B ion source. The beam power loss was reduced by aperture displacement of three edge beamlets arrays considering power loadings on the beamline components. Successful testing and operation of the ion source at 60 keV/84% of injection efficiency led to the possibility of enhancing the system capability to a 2.4 MW power level at 100 keV/1.9 μP

  7. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  8. Fundamental neutron physics at a 1 MW long pulse spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Modern neutron sources and modern neutron science share a common origin in mid twentieth century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for the study of condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and primarily justified) as tools for condensed matter research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities carried out at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for the continuation of this program of research

  9. A 1MeV, 1A negative ion accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, M.; Dairaku, M.; Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For the Proof-of-Principle test of negative ion acceleration up to 1 MeV, the beam energy required for ITER, a negative ion test facility named MeV Test Facility (MTF) and an ion source/accelerator have been designed and constructed. They are designed to produce a 1 MeV H- beam at a low source pressure of 0.13Pa. The MTF has a power supply system, which constituts of a 1MV, 1A, 60 s Cockcroft-Walton type dc high energy generator and power supplies for negative ion generation and extraction (ion source power supplies). The negative ion source/accelerator is composed of a cesiated volume source and a 5-stage, multi-aperture, electrostatic accelerator. The MTF and the ion source/accelerator have been completed, and the accelertion test up to 1 MeV of the H- ions has started. (orig.)

  10. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H− Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H− sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 μs of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H− source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  11. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  12. Voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamed-Yacine; Pierfederici, Serge; Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The management of embedded electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of supercapacitors for this storage system is quite suitable because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use) and easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and realisation of a voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as an auxiliary storage device. Here, we present the structure, control principle and results associated with experimental validation. Our interest will be focused on the management of transient power peaks

  13. Voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as energy storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamed-Yacine; Pierfederici, Serge; Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Unite Mixte de Recherche 7037), 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-07-15

    The management of embedded electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of supercapacitors for this storage system is quite suitable because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use) and easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and realisation of a voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as an auxiliary storage device. Here, we present the structure, control principle and results associated with experimental validation. Our interest will be focused on the management of transient power peaks. (author)

  14. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  15. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Technical evaluation of the proposed changes in the technical specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1979-12-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the proposed changes to the Technical Specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant. The criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the changes include those delineated in IEEE Std-308-1974, and IEEE Std-450-1975 as endorsed by US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.129

  17. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  18. Various technical and legal aspects of nuclear power sources in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Summerer, L.

    2001-12-01

    Since the very first days of space exploration, nuclear power was considered as an alternative to solar cells for the generation of energy in space. Especially for larger exploration missions beyond Mars, nuclear power sources (NPS) are almost unavoidable. NPS are developed, produced and flown on a continuous basis since almost 40 years by the USA and the Soviet Union, now Russia. While the technological capabilities certainly exist within Europe, Europe has not developed space nuclear power sources. This work is structured in four parts, enlightening this subject from different viewpoints on the European level. In a first chapter, European centres researching in the broader field of this technology are listed. A second chapter deals with the properties and hazards connected with plutonium, the element used in Radioisotope Thermal Generators (RTG). Recent technological developments in the field of RTG are reviewed in chapter 4, while chapter 3 deals with the international legal implications of the use of nuclear power sources in outer space. Refs. 30 (author)

  19. A Hybrid, Current-Source/Voltage-Source Power Inverter Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Patriciu, Niculina; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2001-01-01

    A combination of a large current-source inverter and a small voltage-source inverter circuits is analyzed. The resultant hybrid inverter inherits certain operating advantages from both the constituent converters. In comparison with the popular voltage-source inverter, these advantages include...... reduced switching losses, improved quality of output current waveforms, and faster dynamic response to current control commands. Description of operating principles and characteristics of the hybrid inverter is illustrated with results of experimental investigation of a laboratory model....

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN ELECTRIC-POWER IN-DUSTRY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Oleshkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates technical and economic indices (specific capital inputs, construction period, pay-off period, possible economically substantiated generation of electric power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources under climatic conditions ofBelarus. The indices have been compared with the data of nuclear power engineering. The most efficient directions are wind and biomass power engineering. In accordance with its technical and economic and ecological indices the biomass power engineering is more profitable than nuclear, hydro- and solar power engineering.

  1. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  2. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Glitter, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. 39 refs., 48 figs., 19 tabs

  3. A 2-gigawatt, 1-microsecond, microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caryotakis, G; Jongewaard, E; Phillips, R; Scheitrum, G; Tantawi, S [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Luhmann, Jr, N C [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the last decade or more, researchers in a number of US government laboratories have been attempting to develop L-band microwave sources capable of generating one or more gigawatts, with one-microsecond pulses. In order to produce the required high beam currents, the common approach has been to employ field emission cathodes. For this and other reasons the devices which have been built (MILOs, RKAs, relativistic magnetrons) have operated with a poor vacuum, a condition not consistent with the necessity to hold off the very high rf and dc gradients encountered at these power levels. As a result, the microsecond goal has never been attained. Although in some cases several gigawatts have been generated, pulse duration is limited to about 100 ns. This condition is referred to as ``pulse shortening``. The proposed source is based on periodic magnetic (PPM) focusing and is an outgrowth of work performed at SLAC on very high peak power X-band klystrons for a future electron-positron linear collider. These tubes must be focused with permanent magnets, for economic reasons. The new device (GMBK, for Gigawatt Multiple Beam Klystron) is entirely within the state-of-the-art and need only depend on good vacuum tube practice to perform to its specification. It employs thermionic cathodes, loaded to about 40 A/cm{sup 2}, a current density which is within the state-of-the-art for microsecond pulses. (author). 8 figs.

  4. Contribution to the theoretical study, modelling and implementation of a multi-source system belonging to a micro-grid: considerations on power quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssamo, Issam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study, analyze and develop a multi-source system belonging to a DC micro-grid with consideration of some aspects of the power quality. Chapter I presents the interest of the smart grid to ensure better coordination between distributed generation and power consumption. Having in view the prediction, a purely experimental model of photovoltaic source is developed and presented in Chapter II. Furthermore, in order to extract the maximum power of the photovoltaic source, a classical algorithm is improved and the extracted energy is compared with three other methods. In Chapter III, the security system elements, the electrochemical storage and the public grid, are characterized. In the case of a storage shortage, the public grid is used to supply power to the load, but also trade back excess energy. Chapter IV presents the control of multi-source system and its experimental validation. The energy management strategy taken into account is based on switching between the elements which secure the multi-source system. For this, the priority is given to storage characterized by its state of charge. Thanks to this strategy, the technical feasibility of the multi-source system is experimentally validated. Chapter V gives some aspects related to the improvement of the power quality: for the public grid side, a resonant controller is proposed, for the DC bus side, the pulsating power is eliminated by injecting the opposite signal supplied by the electrochemical storage. (author) [fr

  5. Feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.C.; Crosbie, E.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source based on a rapidly cycling proton synchrotron (RCS) has been completed. The facility consists of a 400-MeV HP - linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The design time-averaged current of the accelerator system is 0.5 mA, or 1.04x1014 protons per pulse. The linac system consists of an H - ion source, a 2-MeV RFQ, a 70-MeV DTL and a 330-MeV CCL. Transverse phase space painting to achieve a Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution of the injected particles in the RCS is accomplished by charge exchange injection and programming of the closed orbit during injection. The synchrotron lattice uses FODO cells of ∼90 degrees phase advance. Dispersion-free straight sections are obtained by using a missing magnet scheme. Synchrotron magnets are powered by a dual-frequency resonant circuit that excites the magnets at a 20-Hz rate and de-excites them at a 60-Hz rate, resulting in an effective rate of 30 Hz, and reducing the required peak rf voltage by 1/3. A key feature, of the design of this accelerator system is that beam losses are from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance. Details of the study are presented

  6. WE-A-17A-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Development of a Calorimeter for the Measurement of the Power Emitted From LDR Brachytherapy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, M; Palmer, B; DeWerd, L [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Model-based dose calculation algorithms for brachytherapy sources are designed to compute dose per particle or dose per unit energy leaving the encapsulation of a brachytherapy source. As such, the power leaving the encapsulation of a source, called emitted power (EP), would be a natural source strength metric for these new algorithms. However, no instrument is currently capable of an absolute measurement of EP. A calorimeter operating with a liquid helium thermal sink was designed and constructed to measure the EP of low-dose rate (LDR) I-125 and Pd-103 brachytherapy sources. Methods: Calorimeter design was optimized through thermal and Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Thermal modeling showed that specific thermal conditions would be necessary for accurate calorimeter measurements. These conditions were experimentally verified. The EP of two LDR I-125 source models was measured. An air-kermastrength (AKS)-to-EP conversion coefficient was determined through MC simulations and applied to well-type ionization chamber measurements of AKS to enable comparison with EP measurements. Results: MCdetermined EP per unit AKS conversion coefficients were source model dependent and are on the order of 0.1 μW/U. The signal-to-noise ratio was a function of source strength, and was 294 for a 0.5 μW source. Measurements were repeatable to within 3.6% for a 0.5 μW source. Initial EP measurements were made with two I-125 source models, a 5.7 U Oncura 6711 and a 2.9 U Best Medical 2301. Model 2301 results agreed with the MC-converted AKS value to within the measurement uncertainty of 4.3% at k=1. The Model 6711 results were systematically high and are under investigation. Conclusion: A calorimeter was designed to provide an absolute measurement of the EP for LDR brachytherapy sources and preliminary EP measurements have been made. This new calorimeter design shows promise of providing a more fundamentally useful source strength standard.

  7. Operational experience of SST1 NBI control system with prototype Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V B; Patel, P J; Singh, N P; Tripathi, V; Thakkar, D; Gupta, L N; Prahlad, V; Sharma, S K; Bandyopadyay, M; Chakraborty, A K; Baruah, U K; Mattoo, S K; Patel, G B; Onali, Raja

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents operational experience of integrated control of the arc-filament and High-voltage power supply of Steady State Tokamak (SST)-1 NBI system using Versa Module Europa (VME) system on prototype Ion source. The control algorithm is implemented on the VxWorks operating system using 'C' language. This paper also describes the operating sequence and controls on power supply system. Discharge and Filament power supplies are controlled in such a way so that necessary discharge current can be available in Ion Source. The discharge current is controlled by manipulating the filament current. Close loop control is implemented on each filament power supply with feedback from Discharge Current to control the overall discharge inside the ion source. Necessary actions for shut OFF and subsequent Turn ON are also taken during breakdowns between the Grids of the ion source. Total numbers of breakdowns are also monitored. Shot is terminated, if the breakdown count is higher than the set value. This control system can be programmed to restart High-voltage power supply within 5mS after breakdown occurs. This control system is capable to handle the all types of dynamics in the system. This paper also presents results of experiment.

  8. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW th coupled with a power conversion efficiency of ∼30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  10. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  11. Demand response power system optimization in presence of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrava Virgil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper optimizes the price-based demand response of a large customer in a power system with stochastic production and classical fuel-supplied power plants. The implemented method of optimization, under uncertainty, is helpful to model both the utility functions for the consumers and their technical limitations. The consumers exposed to price-based demand can reduce their cost for electricity procurement by modifying their behavior, possibly shifting their consumption during the day to periods with low electricity prices. The demand is considered elastic to electricity price if the consumer is willing and capable to buy various amounts of energy at different price levels, the demand function being represented as purchasing bidding blocks. The demand response is seen also by the scientific literature as a possible source of the needed flexibility of modern power systems, while the flexibility of conventional generation technologies is restricted by technical constraints, such as ramp rates. This paper shows how wind power generation affects short term operation of the electricity system. Fluctuations in the amount of wind power fed into the grid require, without storage capacities, compensating changes in the output of flexible generators or in the consumers’ behavior. In the presented case study, we show the minimization of the overall costs in presence of stochastic wind power production. For highlighting the variability degree of production from renewable sources, four scenarios of production were formulated, with different probabilities of occurrence. The contribution brought by the paper is represented by the optimization model for demand-response of a large customer in a power system with fossil fueled generators and intermittent renewable energy sources. The consumer can reduce the power system costs by modifying his demand. The demand function is represented as purchasing bidding blocks for the possible price forecasted realizations

  12. Evaluation of applicability of alternative source terms to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S. N.; Park, Y. S.; Nam, K. M.; Song, D. B.; Bae, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Jung, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, NRC issued NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183 with respect to Alternative Source Terms(AST) replacing the existing source terms of TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4, 1.25, and 1.77 for radiological Design Basis Accidents(DBA) analysis. In 1990, ICRP published ICRP Pub. 60 which represents new recommendations on dose criteria and concepts. In Korea, alternative source terms were used for evaluation of effective doses for design basis accidents of Advanced Power Reactor(APR1400) using the computer program developed by an overseas company. Recently, DBADOSE, new computer program for DBA analysis incorporating AST and effective dose concept was developed by KHNP and KOPEC, and reanalysis applying AST to operating nuclear power plants, Kori units 3 and 4 in Korea using DBADOSE has been performed. As the results of this analysis, it was concluded that some conservative variables or operation procedures of operating plants could be mitigated or simplified by virtue of increased safety margin and consequently, economical and operational benefits ensue. In this paper, methodologies and results of Kori 3 and 4 DBA reanalysis and sensitivity analysis for mitigation of main design variables are introduced

  13. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad MARSIC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimization ensure the system’s energy autonomous capability demonstrated in this paper by presenting the promising testing results achieved following its integration with structural health monitoring and body area network applications.

  14. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  15. High Power Modulator/regulators for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.Q.; Deitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    PPPL has recently completed two new Modulator/Regulators for neutral injection sources used on the ATC machine and is constructing four new ones for use with sources on the PLT machine. The ATC modulator uses the well proven 4CX35,000C tetrode as the main switch tube, while the PLT modulators will be using the new but significantly higher powered X-2170 tetrodes. Some interesting circuit and manufacturing techniques are discussed

  16. All solid state high voltage power supply for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual design of a high frequency solid state, high power, high voltage, power system that reacts fast enough to be compatible with the requirements of a neutral beam source is presented. The system offers the potential of significant advantages over conventional power line frequency systems; such as high reliability, long life, relatively little maintenance requirements, compact size and modular design

  17. Determination of the sources of the airborne physico-chemical 131I species in a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    In a 1300 MWE PWR power plant the sources of the airborne 131 I species were determined over a period of 5 months. During power operation the main source of the radiologically decisive elemental 131 I was the exhaust from the hoods in which samples from the primary coolant are taken and processed. During refueling outage elemental 131 I was mainly contributed by the containment purge air. By efficient filtration of these exhausts, a reduction of the ingestion dose, caused by the total 131 I stack release, by a factor of nearly 4 during power operation and of possibly 10 during refueling outage can be accomplished. (author)

  18. Power source labelling and hydro-power - a chance or a risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurche, P.

    2005-01-01

    This short article discusses the electricity labelling legislation passed in Switzerland in November 2004 and similar legislation currently being introduced on a Europe-wide basis. In the future, electricity consumers will be provided with regular information on where and in which type of power station their electricity is generated. The article discusses how such a declaration may affect Swiss hydro-power stations and the changes in customer-perception that the power generation declaration will initiate

  19. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1979-09-01

    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given

  20. Performance and reliability of TPE-2 device with pulsed high power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Takeda, S.; Kiyama, S.

    1987-01-01

    The performance and the reliability of TPE-2 device with pulsed high power sources are described. To obtain the stable high beta plasma, the reproducibility and the reliability of the pulsed power sources must be maintained. A new power crowbar system with high efficiency and the switches with low jitter time are adopted to the bank system. A monitor system which always watches the operational states of the switches is developed too, and applied for the fast rising capacitor banks of TPE-2 device. The reliable operation for the bank has been realized, based on the data of switch monitor system

  1. Development of the methodology for application of revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.S.; Kang, P.; Kang, C.S.; Moon, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the current trend in applying the revised source term proposed by NUREG-1465 to the nuclear power plants in the U.S., it is expected that the revised source term will be applied to the Korean operating nuclear power plants in the near future, even though the exact time can not be estimated. To meet the future technical demands, it is necessary to prepare the technical system including the related regulatory requirements in advance. In this research, therefore, it is intended to develop the methodology to apply the revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea. Several principles were established to develop the application methodologies. First, it is not necessary to modify the existing regulations about source term (i.e., any back-fitting to operating nuclear plants is not necessary). Second, if the pertinent margin of safety is guaranteed, the revised source term suggested by NUREG-1465 may be useful to full application. Finally, a part of revised source term could be selected to application based on the technical feasibility. As the results of this research, several methodologies to apply the revised source term to the Korean operating nuclear power plants have been developed, which include: 1) the selective (or limited) application to use only some of all the characteristics of the revised source term, such as release timing of fission products and chemical form of radio-iodine and 2) the full application to use all the characteristics of the revised source term. The developed methodologies are actually applied to Ulchin 9 and 4 units and their application feasibilities are reviewed. The results of this research are used as either a manual in establishing the plan and the procedure for applying the revised source term to the domestic nuclear plant from the utility's viewpoint; or a technical basis of revising the related regulations from the regulatory body's viewpoint. The application of revised source term to operating nuclear

  2. Progress of compact Marx generators high power microwave source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinliang; Fan Xuliang; Bai Guoqiang; Cheng Xinbing

    2012-01-01

    The compact Marx generators, which can operate at a certain repetition frequency with small size, light weight, and high energy efficiency, are widely used in narrowband, wideband and ultra-wideband high power microwave (HPM) sources. This type of HPM source based on compact Marx generators is a worldwide research focus in recent years, and is important trend of development. The developments of this type of HPM source are described systemically in this paper. The output parameters and structural characteristics are reviewed, and the trends of development are discussed. This work provides reference and evidence for us to master the status of the HPM source based on compact Marx generators correctly and to explore its technical routes scientifically. (authors)

  3. A numerical analysis of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle power plant for power generation from low-temperature geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Enhua; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A composition-adjustable Kalina cycle is analysed and presented. • An air-cooled condenser is used and thermodynamic performance is analysed. • Composition adjustment can improve system performance significantly. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle is believed to be one of the most promising technologies for power generation from low temperature heat sources such as geothermal energy. So far, most Kalina cycle power plants are designed with a working fluid mixture having a fixed composition, and thus normally operate at a fixed condensing temperature. However, the ambient temperature (i.e., heat sink) varies over a large range as the season changes over a year, particularly in continental climates. Recently, a new concept, i.e., composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, was proposed to develop power plants that can match their condensing temperature with the changing ambient conditions, aiming at improving the cycle’s overall thermal efficiency. However, no detailed analysis of its implementation and the potential benefits under various climate conditions has been reported. For this reason, this paper carried out a comprehensive numerical research on its implementation and performance analysis under several different climate conditions. A mathematical model is firstly established to simulate the working principle of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, based on which a numerical program is then developed to analyse the cycle’s performance under various climate conditions. The developed numerical model is verified with some published data. The dynamic composition adjustment in response to the changing ambient temperature is simulated to evaluate its effect on the plant’s performance over a year. The results show that a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle could achieve higher annual-average thermal efficiency than a conventional one with a fixed mixture composition. However, such an improvement of thermal efficiency strongly depends on the heat source

  4. Large source test stand for H-(D-) ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H - (D - ) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source test stand contains gas supply and vacuum pumping systems, source cooling systems, magnet power supplies and magnet cooling systems, two arc power supplies rated at 25 kW and 50 kW, a large battery driven power supply and an extractor electrode power supply. Figure 1 is a front view of the vacuum vessel showing the control racks with the 36'' vacuum valves and refrigerated baffles mounted behind. Figure 2 shows the rear view of the vessel with a BNL Mk V magnetron source mounted in the source aperture and also shows the cooled magnet coils. Currently two types of sources are under test: a large magnetron source and a hollow cathode discharge source

  5. A 1D ion species model for an RF driven negative ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, I.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2017-08-01

    A one-dimensional model for an RF driven negative ion source has been developed based on an inductive discharge. The RF source differs from traditional filament and arc ion sources because there are no primary electrons present, and is simply composed of an antenna region (driver) and a main plasma discharge region. However the model does still make use of the classical plasma transport equations for particle energy and flow, which have previously worked well for modelling DC driven sources. The model has been developed primarily to model the Small Negative Ion Facility (SNIF) ion source at CCFE, but may be easily adapted to model other RF sources. Currently the model considers the hydrogen ion species, and provides a detailed description of the plasma parameters along the source axis, i.e. plasma temperature, density and potential, as well as current densities and species fluxes. The inputs to the model are currently the RF power, the magnetic filter field and the source gas pressure. Results from the model are presented and where possible compared to existing experimental data from SNIF, with varying RF power, source pressure.

  6. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Chen, Wenjie; Liserre, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrent problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zerosequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse condition. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC voltage....

  7. REALIZATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN POWER GENERATION SECTOR AND DETERMINATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the basic directions of an investment activity in the power generation sector of the Republic of Belarus and importance of the realization of planned actions at the present moment. The main sources for financing modernization of basic production funds of the Belarusian power generation system have been analyzed in the paper. The paper describes general problems and difficulties that the power industry is facing while realizing investment projects. The most important problem is a formation of sources for complete project financing due to sharp price rise for imported power resources. The paper considers various approaches to provision of the required sources for financing investment activity in the power sector. The paper shows the need for a tariff policy reform, which is to be aimed, first of all, at the reduction of the cross subsidizing in power tariffs.

  8. Modular Power Electronic Converters in the Power Range 1 to 10 kW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel

    Thanks to CO2 emission reduction policies and increasing prices of fossil fuels a significant growth in field of sustainable energy sources (SES) is being observed during last decade. A government support and take-off projects in Europe and US shall ensure an increasing trend in future too. Some...... of SES based plants , like hydro-, geothermal-, biofuel-plants, use synchronous generators directly connected to the grid. But some other SES technologies, like fuel cell or photovoltaic, require a power electronic converter between the energy source and the load or the grid. Work presented...... in this thesis concentrates on dc-dc non-isolated converters suitable for high voltage gain applications, like uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and some of sustainable energy sources. A special attention is on reduction of power losses and efficiency improvements in non-isolated dc-dc step-up converters...

  9. Creation and investigation of powerful EUV sources (λ ∼ 13.5 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Borisova, G. N.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Ivanov, A. S.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.; Mishchenko, V. A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of repetitively pulsed EUV (λ = 13.5 ± 0.135 nm) sources based on a laser-initiated discharge in tin vapor between rotating disk electrodes. Radiative characteristics of two sources with different systems of tin supply onto the electrode surface and different types of power supply have been compared. A number of new effects have been revealed at pulse repetition rates as high as ∼4000 Hz. A mean radiation power of 520 W into the 2π solid angle has been achieved in the spectral band 13.5 ± 0.135 nm at a deposited electrical power of 24 kW.

  10. Creation and investigation of powerful EUV sources (λ ≈ 13.5 nm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; Borisova, G. N.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Ivanov, A. S.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.; Mishchenko, V. A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2010-03-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of repetitively pulsed EUV (λ = 13.5 ± 0.135 nm) sources based on a laser-initiated discharge in tin vapor between rotating disk electrodes. Radiative characteristics of two sources with different systems of tin supply onto the electrode surface and different types of power supply have been compared. A number of new effects have been revealed at pulse repetition rates as high as ˜4000 Hz. A mean radiation power of 520 W into the 2π solid angle has been achieved in the spectral band 13.5 ± 0.135 nm at a deposited electrical power of 24 kW.

  11. Compact, self-regulating nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Otis G.; Kimpland, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    An inherently safe nuclear power source has been designed, that is self-stabilizing and requires no moving mechanical components. Unlike conventional designs, the proposed reactor is self-regulating through the inherent properties of uranium hydride, which serves as a combination fuel and moderator. The temperature driven mobility of the hydrogen contained in the hydride will control the nuclear activity. If the core temperature increases over the set point, the hydrogen is driven out of the core, the moderation drops and the power production decreases. If the temperature drops, the hydrogen returns and the process is reversed. Thus the design is inherently fail-safe and requires only minimal human oversight. The compact nature and inherent safety opens the possibility for low-cost mass production and operation of the reactors. This design has the capability to dramatically alter the manner in which nuclear energy is harnessed for commercial use. (author)

  12. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  13. Power source evaluation capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D.H.; Butler, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains one of the most comprehensive power source characterization facilities in the U.S. National Laboratory system. This paper describes the capabilities for evaluation of fuel cell technologies. The facility has a rechargeable battery test laboratory and a test area for performing nondestructive and functional computer-controlled testing of cells and batteries.

  14. Influence of the crustal and subcrustal Vrancea seismic sources on Cernavoda nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Popescu, Emilia; Mircea Radulian

    2002-01-01

    The basis of the seismic hazard assessment in different geographical regions with dense-populated areas and strategic objectives (dams, nuclear power plants, etc.) is the study of seismicity of the seismogenic sources which affect these sites. The purpose of this paper is to provide a complete set of information relative to the Vrancea seismic source (in the crust and the intermediate depth domains) that is fundamental for the seismic hazard evaluation at Cernavoda nuclear power plant site. The analysis that we propose has to deal with the following items: (1) geometrical definition of the seismic sources; (2) setting the earthquake catalog associated to each seismic source; (3) estimation of the maximum possible magnitude; (4) estimation of the frequency - magnitude relationship; (5) computation of the distribution function for focal distance; (6) correlation between focal depth and magnitude; (7) attenuation law. We discuss also the implications of the model parameters on the seismic hazard level. (authors)

  15. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  16. Progress in the Development of a High Power Helicon Plasma Source for the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Caughman, John B. [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M. [ORNL; Bigelow, Tim S. [ORNL; Campbell, Ian H. [ORNL; Caneses Marin, Juan F. [ORNL; Donovan, David C. [ORNL; Kafle, Nischal [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H. [ORNL; Ray, Holly B. [ORNL; Shaw, Guinevere C. [ORNL; Showers, Melissa A. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    Proto-MPEX is a linear plasma device being used to study a novel RF source concept for the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will address plasma-materials interaction (PMI) for nuclear fusion reactors. Plasmas are produced using a large diameter helicon source operating at a frequency of 13.56 MHz at power levels up to 120 kW. In recent experiments the helicon source has produced deuterium plasmas with densities up to ~6 × 1019 m–3 measured at a location 2 m downstream from the antenna and 0.4 m from the target. Previous plasma production experiments on Proto-MPEX have generated lower density plasmas with hollow electron temperature profiles and target power deposition peaked far off axis. The latest experiments have produced flat Te profiles with a large portion of the power deposited on the target near the axis. This and other evidence points to the excitation of a helicon mode in this case.

  17. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic

  18. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  19. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, T J; Giitter, J

    1987-07-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  20. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Giitter, J.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  1. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to prouce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applicatiosn in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions effeciently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summariezed. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to produce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applications in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions efficiently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summarized. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  4. Source of high-voltage power supply for ozone generators at glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruev, A.A.; Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Taran, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-voltage power supply source on quasi-resonance inverter base which works at direct current regime is described. This source forms 20 kV voltage with 0 - 10 mA current regulation. It protects the source from current break-downs and feeds ozone generators at glow discharge

  5. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  6. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  8. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  9. Z-Source-Inverter-Based Flexible Distributed Generation System Solution for Grid Power Quality Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Vilathgamuwa, D. M.; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) systems are usually connected to the grid using power electronic converters. Power delivered from such DG sources depends on factors like energy availability and load demand. The converters used in power conversion do not operate with their full capacity all the time......-stage buck-boost inverter, recently proposed Z-source inverter (ZSI) is a good candidate for future DG systems. This paper presents a controller design for a ZSI-based DG system to improve power quality of distribution systems. The proposed control method is tested with simulation results obtained using...

  10. Condensed Matter Cluster Reactions in LENR Power Cells for a Radical New Type of Space Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews previous theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of nuclear events in multilayer thin film electrodes (Lipson et al., 2004 and 2005; Miley et al., 2007), including the correlation between excess heat and transmutations (Miley and Shrestha, 2003) and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under development at the University of Illinois. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intending to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to create nanostructures on the electrode where the cluster state is formed by electroless deposition of palladium on nickel micro structures. Power units employing these electrodes should offer unique advantages for space applications. This is a fundamental new nuclear energy source that is environmentally compatible with a minimum of radiation involvement, high specific power, very long lifetime, and scalable from micro power to kilowatts.

  11. Condensed Matter Cluster Reactions in LENR Power Cells for a Radical New Type of Space Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoling; Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews previous theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of nuclear events in multilayer thin film electrodes (Lipson et al., 2004 and 2005; Miley et al., 2007), including the correlation between excess heat and transmutations (Miley and Shrestha, 2003) and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under development at the University of Illinois. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intending to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to create nanostructures on the electrode where the cluster state is formed by electroless deposition of palladium on nickel micro structures. Power units employing these electrodes should offer unique advantages for space applications. This is a fundamental new nuclear energy source that is environmentally compatible with a minimum of radiation involvement, high specific power, very long lifetime, and scalable from micro power to kilowatts.

  12. Stator Current Harmonic Reduction in a Novel Half Quasi-Z-Source Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudao Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The generator stator current gets distorted with unacceptable levels of total harmonic distortion (THD because impedance-source wind power generation systems use three-phase diode rectifiers. The stator current harmonics will cause increasing losses and torque ripple, which reduce the efficiency and stability of the system. This paper proposes a novel half quasi-Z-source inverter (H-qZSI for grid-connected wind power generation systems, which can reduce the generator stator current harmonics a great deal. When H-qZSI operates in the shoot-through zero state, the derivative of the generator stator current is only determined by the instantaneous value of the generator stator voltage, so the nonlinear relationship between generator stator current and stator voltage is improved compared with the traditional impedance-source inverter. Theoretically, it is indicated that the stator current harmonics can be reduced effectively by means of the proposed H-qZSI. Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  13. Teacher Views on School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Their Change Management Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Dilekçi, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine school administrators' organizational power sources and change management behaviours based on Bolu central district primary and secondary school teachers' views. The study conducted with relational screening model reached 286 teachers. School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources Scale and Change Management…

  14. Power supply for the LBL 40 keV neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.; Honey, V.J.

    1975-11-01

    A 20 keV, 50 Amp, 10 millisec pulse D 0 Neutral Beam Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that serves as the prototype for 12 similar sources now in operation on the 2XIIB Mirror Machine at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been recently upgraded to operate at 40 keV. The system of electronically regulated and controlled power supplies that drive the Source is described

  15. Passivity-Based Control applied to DC hybrid power source using fuel cell and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Wack, M.; Laghrouche, S. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Becherif, M. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); FC-Lab, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Henni, A. [Alstom Power System, Energy Management Business, Alstom (France); Aboubou, A. [LMSE Laboratory, Biskra University, 07000 (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Nowadays, energy management becomes an absolute necessity. To reduce systems consumption, the idea is to recover energy when it is possible and to reuse it when the system is in need. Energy can be saved in peak power unit (electric double layer capacitors called supercapacitors). Those latter can absorb or supply power peaks. This paper deals with the conception of hybrid power sources using fuel cell as main source, a DC link and supercapacitors as transient power source. The whole system is modeled in state space equations. The energy management is reached using Passivity-Based Control (PBC). PBC is a very powerful nonlinear technique dealing with important system information like the system's total energy. Stability proof and simulation results are given. In this proposed control laws only few measurement are needed (two or three depending on the presented solutions one or two). (author)

  16. Power supply for nuclear power plant home consumption using inverter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepar, V.; Tvrdik, J.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the system configuration of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units and of a system of guaranteed power supply for the plant home consumption network for a WWER-440 power plant. The power supply network consists of 6 inverter supplies for safety systems, 4 supplies for nonsystem facilities and of a minimum of three power supplies for facilities outside the units. A diagram is shown and the principle described of the currently used ABP 1500 power supply system of Soviet origin. Using the experience from its operation, a Czechoslovak inverter supply system was designed featuring parallel operation of the inverter units. The principles are given for the design of a power supply system of an output of 75 kVA, the diagram is shown and the principle described. The design allows implementing and using the system without redundancy or in redundant operation of the 2 from 3 type at an installed capacity of 66%, or of the 1 from 2 type at an installed capacity of 50% of the output. The system is undergoing tests that should verify its reliability. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  18. Review of power sources for Alaska DOT & PF road weather information systems (RWIS) : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the findings related to a review of power sources for six off-grid Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) in : Alaska. Various power sources were reviewed as a means of reliably operating the off-grid RWIS sites throughout the ...

  19. Prototype tests on the ion source power supplies of the TEXTOR NI-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, O.; Braunsberger, U.; Schwarz, U.

    1987-01-01

    The PINI ion source for the TEXTOR neutral injector is fed by a new modular transistorized power supply. All modules are located in a high voltage cage on 55 kV dc against ground. The normal operation of the injectors includes frequent grid breakdowns causing transient high voltage stresses on the ion source power supplies. These stresses must not disturb the safe operation of the power supplies. The paper describes the set up for extensive testing of a supply prototype module under the expected operating conditions. The main features of this test program are reviewed and the measures taken for a safe operation are discussed. As a result of the investigations, recommendations for the installation of the power supplies at the TEXTOR NI system are given

  20. Using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.; Makhkamdzhanov, V.M.; Mansurov, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in June 1997. As an alternative source the combined solar-wind power plant on the basis of solar cells battery and wind-generator is proposed. The efficiency of proposed system is considered. (A.A.D.)

  1. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  2. Peak Source Power Associated with Positive Narrow Bipolar Lightning Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, S. A.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R. D., II; Stolzenburg, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the summer of 2016, we deployed a lightning sensor array in and around Oxford Mississippi, USA. The array system comprised seven lightning sensing stations in a network approximately covering an area of 30 km × 30 km. Each station is equipped with four sensors: Fast antenna (10 ms decay time), Slow antenna (1.0 s decay time)), field derivative sensor (dE/dt) and Log-RF antenna (bandwidth 187-192 MHz). We have observed 319 Positive NBPs and herein we report on comparisons of the NBP properties measured from the Fast antenna data with the Log-RF antenna data. These properties include 10-90% rise time, full width at half maximum, zero cross time, and range-normalized amplitude at 100 km. NBPs were categorized according to the fine structure of the electric field wave shapes into Types A-D, as in Karunarathne et al. [2015]. The source powers of NBPs in each category were determined using single station Log-RF data. Furthermore, we also categorized the NBPs in three other groups: initial event of an IC flash, isolated, and not-isolated (according to their spatiotemporal relationship with other lightning activity). We compared the source powers within each category. Karunarathne, S., T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, and N. Karunarathna (2015), Observations of positive narrow bipolar pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023150.

  3. High-Bandwidth, High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking Power Supply for 40W RF Power Amplifier Using Paralleled Bandpass Current Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a high-performance power conversion scheme for power supply applications that require very high output voltage slew rates (dV/dt). The concept is to parallel 2 switching bandpass current sources, each optimized for its passband frequency space and the expected load current....... The principle is demonstrated with a power supply, designed for supplying a 40 W linear RF power amplifier for efficient amplification of a 16-QAM modulated data stream...

  4. Comparison of VSC and Z-Source Converter: Power System Application Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Jokar Kouhanjani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of equipment with power electronic converter interface such as distributed generation, FACTS and HVDC, is growing up intensively. On the other hand, various types of topologies have been proposed and each of them has some advantages. Therefore, appropriateness of each converter regarding to the application is a main question for designers and engineers. In this paper, a part of this challenge is responded by comparing a typical Voltage-Source Converter (VSC and Z-Source Converter (ZSC, through high power electronic-based equipment used in power systems. Dynamic response, stability margin, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of grid current and fault tolerant are considered as assessment criteria. In order to meet this evaluation, dynamic models of two converters are presented, a proper control system is designed, a small signal stability method is applied and responses of converters to small and large perturbations are obtained and analysed by PSCAD/EMTDC.

  5. Source term determination from subcritical multiplication measurements at Koral-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.B.; Barrado, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    By using an AmBe neutron source two independent procedures have been settled for the zero-power experimental fast-reactor Coral-1 in order to measure the source term which appears in the point kinetical equations. In the first one, the source term is measured when the reactor is just critical with source by taking advantage of the wide range of the linear approach to critical for Coral-1. In the second one, the measurement is made in subcritical state by making use of the previous calibrated control rods. Several applications are also included such as the measurement of the detector dead time, the determinations of the reactivity of small samples and the shape of the neutron importance of the source. (author)

  6. Modified impedance source inverter for power conditioning system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DC link voltage boost, reduced total harmonic distortion of output current and voltage, better voltage gain and wide range of output voltage controlcan be achieved easily with improved power quality. Experimental set-up of the modified impedance source inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) controller has ...

  7. A simple maximum power point tracker for thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraskevas, Alexandros; Koutroulis, Eftichios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for thermoelectric generators is proposed. • A power converter is controlled to operate on a pre-programmed locus. • The proposed MPPT technique has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. • The experimental average deviation from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%. - Abstract: ThermoElectric Generators (TEGs) are capable to harvest the ambient thermal energy for power-supplying sensors, actuators, biomedical devices etc. in the μW up to several hundreds of Watts range. In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for TEG elements is proposed, which is based on controlling a power converter such that it operates on a pre-programmed locus of operating points close to the MPPs of the power–voltage curves of the TEG power source. Compared to the past-proposed MPPT methods for TEGs, the technique presented in this paper has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. Thus, its implementation using off-the-shelf microelectronic components with low-power consumption characteristics is enabled, without being required to employ specialized integrated circuits or signal processing units of high development cost. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that for MPP power levels of the TEG source in the range of 1–17 mW, the average deviation of the power produced by the proposed system from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%.

  8. The vibrational source strength descriptor using power input from equivalent forces: a simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren; Ohlrich, Mogens

    1994-01-01

    Simple, yet reliable methods for the approximate determination of the vibratory power supplied by the internal excitation forces of a given vibrational source are of great interest. One such method that relies on the application of a number of “equivalent forces” and measurements of the mean...... squared velocity on either the source or the receiving structure is studied in this paper by means of computer simulations. The study considers a simple system of two flexural beams coupled via a pair of springs. The investigation shows that a relatively small number of equivalent forces suffice...

  9. Research on Matching Method of Power Supply Parameters for Dual Energy Source Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q.; Luo, M. J.; Zhang, S. K.; Liao, M. W.

    2018-03-01

    A new type of power source is proposed, which is based on the traffic signal matching method of the dual energy source power supply composed of the batteries and the supercapacitors. First, analyzing the power characteristics is required to meet the excellent dynamic characteristics of EV, studying the energy characteristics is required to meet the mileage requirements and researching the physical boundary characteristics is required to meet the physical conditions of the power supply. Secondly, the parameter matching design with the highest energy efficiency is adopted to select the optimal parameter group with the method of matching deviation. Finally, the simulation analysis of the vehicle is carried out in MATLABSimulink, The mileage and energy efficiency of dual energy sources are analyzed in different parameter models, and the rationality of the matching method is verified.

  10. Simulation of RF power and multi-cusp magnetic field requirement for H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Manish [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Senecha, V.K., E-mail: kumarvsen@gmail.com [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Kumar, Rajnish; Ghodke, Dharmraj V. [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-12-01

    A computer simulation study for multi-cusp RF based H{sup −} ion source has been carried out using energy and particle balance equation for inductively coupled uniformly dense plasma considering sheath formation near the boundary wall of the plasma chamber for RF ion source used as high current injector for 1 Gev H{sup −} Linac project for SNS applications. The average reaction rates for different reactions responsible for H{sup −} ion production and destruction have been considered in the simulation model. The RF power requirement for the caesium free H{sup -} ion source for a maximum possible H{sup −} ion beam current has been derived by evaluating the required current and RF voltage fed to the coil antenna using transformer model for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Different parameters of RF based H{sup −} ion source like excited hydrogen molecular density, H{sup −} ion density, RF voltage and current of RF antenna have been calculated through simulations in the presence and absence of multicusp magnetic field to distinctly observe the effect of multicusp field. The RF power evaluated for different H{sup −} ion current values have been compared with the experimental reported results showing reasonably good agreement considering the fact that some RF power will be reflected from the plasma medium. The results obtained have helped in understanding the optimum field strength and field free regions suitable for volume emission based H{sup −} ion sources. The compact RF ion source exhibits nearly 6 times better efficiency compare to large diameter ion source.

  11. Contingent valuation method applied to survey on personal preferences on choice of electric power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    A Survey was conducted on personal preferences regarding their choice of electric power source to verify the applicability of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to such analysis. The survey was carried out on local and urban inhabitants in two steps, first by mail and thereafter by direct interview. A choice of four typical forms of power source was presented: nuclear, coal, hydro and green power; and the question was asked whether the respondent would be willing to pay additional charge for specifying their preferable power source. The mail survey indicated more than half of the respondents hold some willingness to pay either for disuse of nuclear power or expansion of green power. The interview survey revealed various complex motives lying behind their answers. Consequently, it was found that their preference is significantly correlated to their personal image or knowledge of power sources, their thinking or attitude toward energy conservation, their sense of consumption and their private view of life. It is concluded that CVM is pertinently applicable to quantitative analysis of individual opinions, particularly in terms of their motivation to participate in national energy issues. A number of modifications, however, should be required to be brought to the survey design in order to ensure smooth application in practice. (author)

  12. Technical Guidance from the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space for Design and Development Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space [1] has been adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The safety framework reflects an international consensus on best practices. After the older 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second document at UN level dedicated entirely to space nuclear power sources.This paper analyses aspects of the safety framework relevant for the design and development phases of space nuclear power sources. While early publications have started analysing the legal aspects of the safety framework, its technical guidance has not yet been subject to scholarly articles. The present paper therefore focuses on the technical guidance provided in the safety framework, in an attempt to assist engineers and practitioners to benefit from these.

  13. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Recent helicity source and power supply improvements in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henins, I.; Knox, S.O.; Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Since the last CT Symposium, two major changes in CTX have been the introduction of pulse forming networks (PFNs) to drive the coaxial electrode helicity source, and the very recent installation of a larger source with electrode diameters about twice of the previous ones. The power supplies used for CTX have ranged from the simple connection of the capacitor bank across the electrode collector plates (slow mode) to the more sophisticated PFNs, described here, which optimize the energy transfer from the capacitor bank to the magnetic fields of the spheromak. Using the PFNs, the formation and sustainment phase to peak toroidal plasma current lasts longer (approx. =0.7 ms) than in the slow mode (approx. =0.05 ms), thus lowering the peak current that must flow through the electrode surfaces. Also, by supplying the source electrodes with both a square pulse current waveform and a quasi-steady source flux, phi/sub g/, one can generate helicity at a constant source lambda/sub g/ parameter. The use of a larger diameter helicity source will improve the energy efficiency of helicity injection and allow higher source current for the same surface current density because of the larger electrode surface area

  15. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  16. Survey of sources of manpower supply for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine sources of manpower supply available to the Nuclear Power Industry. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the Nuclear Power Industry and competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The results of those other studies have been published separately and are available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  17. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  18. Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976. [Heat dissipation from /sup 238/Pu power sources implanted in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    A total of sixty dogs were implanted with radioisotope-powered artificial heart systems producing radiation fluxes similar to that of plutonium-238, but having no associated heat, at levels of from one to seventy times the radiation flux expected from a 30-watt plutonium-238 source. Results from studies lasting up to 6 years after implantation indicate that these animals, and by inference human beings, may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from 30-watt /sup 238/Pu power sources. Results of heat dissipation studies in calves indicate that it may be possible to induce a vascularized connective tissue capsule sufficient to dissipate 30 watts of additional heat from a surface area of approximately 500 cm sq., allowing a heat flux of 0.06 watts per cm sq.

  19. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  20. The electric power stations viewed as a source of local and transfrontier pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiu, C.; Sandu, I.

    1994-01-01

    The pollutant emission of the thermal power stations may have an important contribution to the local pollution as well as to regional (transfrontier) and global pollution. Due to the impossibility at present of making continuous monitoring of the emission of pollutants it is necessary to use computational models for obtaining inventories of the pollutant sources and for studying their dispersion into atmosphere. The computational code used to simulate the pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere is a climatologic model giving the annual average concentration and the evaluation of the maximum SO 2 concentration. The paper presents the analyses for the case of 14 thermal power stations of Romania

  1. Optimum Arrangement of Reactive Power Sources While Using Genetic Algori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of total losses in distribution electricity supply network is considered as an important measure which serves for improvement of efficiency of electric power supply systems. This objective can be achieved by optimum distribution of reactive power sources in proper places of distribution electricity supply network. The proposed methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm. Total expenses for installation of capacitor banks, their operation and also expenses related to electric power losses are considered as an efficiency function which is used for determination of places with optimum values of capacitor bank power. The methodology is the most efficient for selection of optimum places in the network where it is necessary to install capacitor banks with due account of their power control depending on a switched-on load value in the units.

  2. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce ∼ 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched

  3. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  4. The structure and control method of hybrid power source for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Maobing; Xu, Hui; Li, Weimin; Liu, Yin; Li, Fade; Hu, Yue; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented, which the lithium-ion battery integrated with ultracapacitors is developed as the hybrid power system to improve the transient performance of an electric vehicle, and to decrease the damage to the battery pack. In the proposed system, a bidirectional direct current/direct current converter is used to couple the ultracapacitors bank to the main battery pack. The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for hybrid power system has been proposed to promote the performance of energy flow in the electric vehicle. The experiment results in urban driving cycles show remarkable advantages of the proposed hybrid system configuration and energy management strategy. About 30% of the battery capacity energy is saved while using the hybrid power source. Besides, the voltage and current curves of battery become smoother than that with the single power. - Highlights: • A hybrid power source electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented. • The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. • The experiment results show remarkable advantages of the configuration and method.

  5. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M.R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.in; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2008-10-15

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is {approx}0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  6. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is ∼0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  7. Evaluation of Residue Based Power Oscillation Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations for Static Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Iov, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Low frequency inter-area oscillations are known stability issue of large interconnected electrical grids. It was demonstrated that additional control loop can be applied for static power sources, like FACTS, HVDC or modern Wind Power Plants, to modulate their power output and successfully attenuate......, it is proposed to give more attention to additional indices like transfer function zero location and interactions between mode of interest and other system dynamics. Consequently, additional rules are proposed for residue based damping control design....

  8. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [Department of Energy Systems, SINTEF, Trondheim Norway; Farahmand, Hossein [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway; Holttinen, Hannele [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Kiviluoma, Juha [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Rinne, Erkka [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm Sweden; Milligan, Michael [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Martínez, Sergio Martín [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Estanqueiro, Ana [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Rodrigues, Luis [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Carr, Luis [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; van Roon, Serafin [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; Orths, Antje Gesa [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Eriksen, Peter Børre [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Forcione, Alain [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada; Menemenlis, Nickie [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  9. On Asymmetries in Powerful Radio Sources and the Quasar/Galaxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria,. Nsukka, Nigeria. ∗ e-mail: ... source orientation and relativistic beaming effects in a sample of powerful non-symmetric ..... shown with open circles in Fig. 6, which ...

  10. Optimization of GM(1,1) power model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dang; Sun, Yu-ling; Song, Bo

    2013-10-01

    GM (1,1) power model is the expansion of traditional GM (1,1) model and Grey Verhulst model. Compared with the traditional models, GM (1,1) power model has the following advantage: The power exponent in the model which best matches the actual data values can be found by certain technology. So, GM (1,1) power model can reflect nonlinear features of the data, simulate and forecast with high accuracy. It's very important to determine the best power exponent during the modeling process. In this paper, according to the GM(1,1) power model of albino equation is Bernoulli equation, through variable substitution, turning it into the GM(1,1) model of the linear albino equation form, and then through the grey differential equation properly built, established GM(1,1) power model, and parameters with pattern search method solution. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the new methods with the example of simulating and forecasting the promotion rates from senior secondary schools to higher education in China.

  11. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  12. Nuclear power - an inland energy source, in a way. Nuclear electricity generation permits a balanced energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalthoff, B.

    1997-01-01

    The primary energy demand of Germany currently is met to more than 50 per cent by imports of crude oil, natural gas and coal, with crude oil imports representing by far the largest quota, due to minor inland resources. Nuclear power is the energy source that reduces the country's dependence on imports, so that, also thanks to the nuclear energy source, oil consumption in Germany could be cut back to half in the years from 1970 until 1995. Although nuclear fuels have to be imported, too, uranium resources are plenty, and fuel supplies in the nuclear fuel cycle are guaranteed, so that this energy source can be considered as a quasi inland energy source. (orig.) [de

  13. Renewable sources electric power: resources and challenges for the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.; Dormoy, C.

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides information (statistical data, legal framework) on the electric power produced by the renewable energy sources in France. It explains the associated local economical challenge and the french objectives in the European Union Directive. (A.L.B.)

  14. A high-power versatile wireless power transfer for biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Jun Min; Liou, Shy Shenq; Fechter, Richard; Hirose, Shinjiro; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2010-01-01

    Implantable biomedical actuators are highly desired in modern medicine. However, how to power up these biomedical implants remains a challenge since most of them need more than several hundreds mW of power. The air-core based radio-frequency transformer (two face-to-face inductive coils) has been the only non-toxic and non-invasive power source for implants for the last three decades [1]. For various technical constraints, the maximum delivered power is limited by this approach. The highest delivered power reported is 275 mW over 1 cm distance [2]. Also, the delivered power is highly vulnerable to the coils' geometrical arrangement and the electrical property of the medium around them. In this paper, a novel rotating-magnets based wireless power transfer that can deliver ∼10 W over 1 cm is demonstrated. The delivered power is significantly higher than the existing start-of-art. Further, the new method is versatile since there is no need to have the impedance matching networks that are highly susceptible to the operating frequency, the coil arrangement and the environment.

  15. Low power consumption O-band VCSEL sources for upstream channels in PON systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental validation of a low power optical network unit employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as upstream sources for passive optical networks with an increased power budget, enabling even larger splitting ratios....

  16. Micro/Nano Fabricated Solid-State Thermoelectric Generator Devices for Integrated High Voltage Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Ryan, M. A.; Snyder, G. J.; Huang, C.-K.; Whitacre, J. F.; Patel, J.; Lim, J.; Borshchevsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space missions have a strong need for compact, high power density, reliable and long life electrical power generation and storage under extreme temperature conditions. Except for electrochemical batteries and solar cells, there are currently no available miniaturized power sources. Conventional power generators devices become inefficient in extreme environments (such as encountered in Mars, Venus or outer planet missions) and rechargeable energy storage devices can only be operated in a narrow temperature range thereby limiting mission duration. The planned development of much smaller spacecrafts incorporating a variety of micro/nanodevices and miniature vehicles will require novel, reliable power technologies. It is also expected that such micro power sources could have a wide range of terrestrial applications, in particular when the limited lifetime and environmental limitations of batteries are key factors. Advanced solid-state thermoelectric combined with radioisotope or waste heat sources and low profile energy storage devices are ideally suited for these applications. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been actively pursuing the development of thermoelectric micro/nanodevices that can be fabricated using a combination of electrochemical deposition and integrated circuit processing techniques. Some of the technical challenges associated with these micro/nanodevice concepts, their expected level of performance and experimental fabrication and testing results to date are presented and discussed.

  17. X-ray monochromators for high-power synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael

    1990-11-01

    Exact solutions to the problems of power flow from a line source of heat into a semicylinder and of uniform heat flow normal to a flat surface are discussed. These lead to bounds on feasible designs and the boundary layer problem can be placed in proper perspective. While finite element calculations are useful if the sample boundaries are predefined, they are much less help in establishing design principles. Previous work on hot beam X-ray crystal optics has emphasised the importance of coolant hydraulics and boundary layer heat transfer. Instead this paper emphasises the importance of the elastic response of crystals to thermal strainfields and the importance of maintaining the Darwin reflectivity. The conclusions of this design study are that the diffracting crystal region should be thin, but not very thin, similar in area to the hot beam footprint, part of a thin-walked buckling crystal box and remote from the support to which the crystal is rigidly clamped. Prototype 111 and 220 cooled silicon crystals tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven have almost perfect rocking curves under a beam heat load of {1}/{3}kW.

  18. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  19. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Havva

    2008-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  20. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA, and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  1. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Zheng, Ping; Cheng, Luming; Wang, Weinan; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM) oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA), and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  2. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  3. The Mediating Effect of Organizational Justice Between Power Sources and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Pahrudin; Noor; Kasmir

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of organizational justice in the relationship between energy sources and organizational commitment. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesis on a sample of 160 Indonesian workers in a state enterprise. The results show that energy sources are positively associated with organizational commitment and that organizational fairness is positively related to organizational commitment. The power source, in turn, has a positive effect on or...

  4. A model for reliability avaliation of the electrical supply source of the 1A3 and 1A4 control rods assemblies of Angra I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of the electrical power supply to the 4.16KV buses for the safety system operation of a nuclear power plant was studied. Particularly, Angra Unit I system was focused. Initially, reliability of each electrical supply source was estimated. Using a probabilistic approach based on the Markov processes, the system reliability was evaluated in terms of frequency and duration of loss of power supply and of the system failure probability evolution when one or more sources remained unavailable. Based on these results, certain reactor operating rules were proposed concerning later shutdown of the plant without compromising the nuclear reactor safety. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to show the different reliability parameter influences on final results. This analysis showed that the diesel system performs an important role in the power supply for a nuclear power plant [pt

  5. SINQ - a continuous spallation neutron source (an approach to 1 MWatt of beam power)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    In this status report we describe the continuous spallation source at PSI, which will come into operation in fall 1996. We present the present state of the construction work and review the expected performance of the source. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., refs

  6. SINQ - a continuous spallation neutron source (an approach to 1 MWatt of beam power)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    In this status report we describe the continuous spallation source at PSI, which will come into operation in fall 1996. We present the present state of the construction work and review the expected performance of the source. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., refs.

  7. PULSAR: an inductive pulse power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cnare, E.C.; Brooks, W.P.; Cowan, M.

    1979-01-01

    The PULSAR concept of inductive pulsed power source uses a flux-compressing metallic or plasma armature rather than a fast opening switch to transfer magnetic flux to a load. The inductive store may be a relatively unsophisticated dc superconducting magnet since no magnetic energy is taken from it, and no large current transients are induced in it. Initial experimental efforts employed either expendable or reusable metallic armatures with a 200 kJ, 450 mm diameter superconducting magnet. Attention is now being focused on the development of much faster plasma armatures for use in larger systems of one and two meters diameter. Techniques used to generate the required high magnetic Reynolds number flow will be described and initial experimental results will be presented

  8. All-periodically poled, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency tunable UV source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya N, Apurv; Jabir, M V; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of an all-periodically poled, continuous-wave (CW), high-power, single-frequency, ultra-violet (UV) source. Based on internal second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of a CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped in the green, the UV source provides tunable radiation across 398.94-417.08 nm. The compact source comprising of a 25-mm-long MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal of period Λ(SLT)=8.5  μm for OPO and a 5-mm-long, multi-grating (Λ(KTP)=3.3, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8 μm), periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate (PPKTP) for intra-cavity SHG, provides as much as 336 mW of UV power at 398.94 nm, corresponding to a green-to-UV conversion efficiency of ∼6.7%. In addition, the singly resonant OPO (SRO) provides 840 mW of idler at 1541.61 nm and substantial signal power of 108 mW at 812.33 nm transmitted through the high reflective cavity mirrors. UV source provides single-frequency radiation with instantaneous line-width of ∼18.3  MHz and power >100  mW in Gaussian beam profile (ellipticity >92%) across the entire tuning range. Access to lower UV wavelengths requires smaller grating periods to compensate high phase-mismatch resulting from high material dispersion in the UV wavelength range. Additionally, we have measured the normalized temperature and spectral acceptance bandwidth of PPKTP crystal in the UV wavelength range to be ∼2.25°C·cm and ∼0.15  nm·cm, respectively.

  9. Turbulence in extended synchrotron radio sources. I. Polarization of turbulent sources. II. Power-spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are used to construct microphysical turbulence models, with emphasis on models of anisotropic turbulence. These models have been applied to the determination of the emergent polarization from a resolved uniform source. It is found that depolarization alone is not a unique measure of the turbulence, and that the turblence will also affect the total-intensity distributions. Fluctuations in the intensity image can thus be employed to measure turbulence strength. In the second part, it is demonstrated that a power-spectral analysis of the total and polarized intensity images can be used to obtain the power spectra of the synchrotron emission. 81 refs

  10. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, Marco; Rinaldi, Luigi; Simon, Muriel; Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino; Decamps, Hans; Luchetta, Adriano; Meddour, Abdelraouf; Moressa, Modesto; Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Wagner, Uwe; Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m"2 Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  11. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bigi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Rinaldi, Luigi [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Luchetta, Adriano [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Meddour, Abdelraouf [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Moressa, Modesto [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Recchia, Mauro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wagner, Uwe [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m{sup 2} Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  12. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.; Fadilah, S.M.; Abonoor, N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)

  13. X-band RF power sources for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, Mark F.; Kowalczyk, Richard D.; Wilsen, Craig B.; True, Richard B.; Simpson, Ian T.; Wray, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of medical and industrial linear accelerators (LINACs) in use today operate at S-band. To reduce size and weight, these systems are gradually migrating toward X-band. The new LINACs will require suitable RF components to power them. In anticipation of this market, L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division (EDD) has recently developed a suite of RF sources operating at 9.3 GHz to complement our existing S-band product line. (author)

  14. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Power generation from a 7700C heat source by means of a main steam cycle, a topping closed gas cycle and a ammonia bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1981-03-01

    For power generation, steam cycles make an efficient use of medium temperature heat sources. They can be adapted to dry cooling, higher power ratings and output increase in winter by addition of an ammonia bottoming cycle. Active development is carried out in this field by 'Electricite de France'. As far as heat sources at higher temperatures are concerned, particularly related to coal-fired or nuclear power plants, a more efficient way of converting energy is at first to expand a hot working fluid through a gas turbine. It is shown in this paper that a satisfactory result, for heat sources of about 770 0 C, is obtained with a topping closed gas cycle of moderate power rating, rejecting its waste heat into the main steam cycle. Attention has to be paid to this gas cycle waste heat recovery and to the coupling of the gas and steam cycles. This concept drastically reduces the importance of new technology components. The use and the significance of an ammonia bottoming cycle in this case are investigated

  16. Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Nelson, S.; Kamin, G.; Antonsen, T. Levush, B.; Urbanus, W.; Tulupov, A.

    1995-01-01

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source

  17. Direct Power Control for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Rectifiers Based on Extended-State Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Yan, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent characte......This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent...

  18. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B X; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    The H(-) injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with ∼38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to ∼1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  19. Flexible power 90W to 120W ArF immersion light source for future semiconductor lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdt, R.; Thornes, J.; Duffey, T.; Bibby, T.; Rokitski, R.; Mason, E.; Melchior, J.; Aggarwal, T.; Haran, D.; Wang, J.; Rechtsteiner, G.; Haviland, M.; Brown, D.

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor market demand for improved performance at lower cost continues to drive enhancements in excimer light source technologies. Increased output power, reduced variability in key light source parameters, and improved beam stability are required of the light source to support immersion lithography, multi-patterning, and 450mm wafer applications in high volume semiconductor manufacturing. To support future scanner needs, Cymer conducted a technology demonstration program to evaluate the design elements for a 120W ArFi light source. The program was based on the 90W XLR 600ix platform, and included rapid power switching between 90W and 120W modes to potentially support lot-to-lot changes in desired power. The 120W requirements also included improved beam stability in an exposure window conditionally reduced by 20%. The 120W output power is achieved by efficiency gains in system design, keeping system input power at the same level as the 90W XLR 600ix. To assess system to system variability, detailed system testing was conducted from 90W - 120W with reproducible results.

  20. Filter and window assemblies for high power insertion device synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Viccaro, P.J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The powerful beams of x-ray radiation generated by insertion devices at high power synchrotron facilities deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the front end and optical components that they intercept. X-ray beams from undulator sources, in particular, are confined to very narrow solid angles and therefore impose very high absorbed heat fluxes. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the design of windows for the Advanced Photon Source undulators and wigglers, emphasizing alternative design concepts, material considerations, and cooling techniques necessary for handling the high heat load of the insertion devices. Various designs are thermally and structurally analyzed by numerically simulating full-power operating conditions. This analysis also has relevance to the design and development of other beam line components which are subjected to the high heat loads of insertion devices

  1. Asymmetries in four powerful radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Morison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The extragalactic radio sources 3C 153, 196, 249.1 and 268.4 have been observed at frequencies of 408 and 1666 MHz with the new MERLIN array operated by Jodrell Bank, giving resolutions of approx. 0.9 and 0.25 arcsec respectively. The sources show marked asymmetries about the central object in spectral index, flux and morphology, which we believe are most naturally accounted for by the effects of a time-dependent asymmetry in the central powerhouse. In the case of 3C 249.1 the observations suggest that energy is being supplied alternately to the two sides of the source. The 1666-MHz observations also show that each of the other three sources contains one extremely compact hotspot. The minimum internal energy densities in these hotspots are such that confinement by ram pressure of motion through the intergalactic medium may not be possible, indicating that such features are transient phenomena in free expansion, or that some other confinement mechanism is operating. (author)

  2. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  3. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A., E-mail: alper.erturk@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  4. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver

  5. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 3 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study

  6. Stationary low power reactor No. 1 (SL-1) accident site decontamination ampersand dismantlement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Army Reactor Area (ARA) II was constructed in the late 1950s as a test site for the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1). The SL-1 was a prototype power and heat source developed for use at remote military bases using a direct cycle, boiling water, natural circulation reactor designed to operate at a thermal power of 3,000 kW. The ARA II compound encompassed 3 acres and was comprised of (a) the SL-1 Reactor Building, (b) eight support facilities, (c) 50,000-gallon raw water storage tank, (d) electrical substation, (e) aboveground 1,400-gallon heating oil tank, (f) underground 1,000-gallon hazardous waste storage tank, and (g) belowground power, sewer, and water systems. The reactor building was a cylindrical, aboveground facility, 39 ft in diameter and 48 ft high. The lower portion of the building contained the reactor pressure vessel surrounded by gravel shielding. Above the pressure vessel, in the center portion of the building, was a turbine generator and plant support equipment. The upper section of the building contained an air cooled condenser and its circulation fan. The major support facilities included a 2,500 ft 2 two story, cinder block administrative building; two 4,000 ft 2 single story, steel frame office buildings; a 850 ft 2 steel framed, metal sided PL condenser building, and a 550 ft 2 steel framed decontamination and laydown building

  7. Selective application of revised source terms to operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Song, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kang, Chang Sun

    2001-01-01

    More than 30 years later since 1962 when TID-14844 was promulgated, there has been big change of the US NRC's regulatory position in using accident source terms for radiological assessment following a design basis accident (DBA). To replace the instantaneous source terms of TID-14844, the time-dependent source terms of NUREG-1465 was published in 1995. In the meantime, the radiological acceptance criteria for reactor site evaluation in 10 CFR Part 100 were also revised. In particular, the concept of total effective dose equivalent has been incorporated in accordance with the radiation protection standards set forth in revised 10 CFR Part 20. Subsequently, the publication of Regulatory Guide 1.183 and the revision of Standard Review Plan 15.0.1 followed in 2000, which provided the licensee of operating nuclear power reactor with the acceptable guidance of applying the revised source term. The guidance allowed the holder of an operating license issued prior to January 10, 1997 to voluntarily revise the accident source terms used in the radiological consequence analyses of DBA. Regarding to its type of application, there suggested full and selective applications, Whether it is full or selective, based upon the scope and nature of associated plant modifications being proposed, the actual application of the revised source terms to an operating plant is expected to give a large impact on its facility design basis. Considering scope and cost of the analyses required for licensing, selective application is seemed to be more appealing to an licensee of the operating plant rather than full application. In this paper, hence, the selective application methodology is reviewed and is actally applied to the assessment of offsite radiological consequence following a LOCA at Ulchin Unit 3 and 4, in order to identify and analyze the potential impacts due to application of revised source terms and to assess the considerations taken in each application prior to its actual

  8. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  9. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok; Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber

  10. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Gyeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber.

  11. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. 6 refs

  12. Verification of Safety Margins of Battery Banks Capacity of Class 1E DC System in a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukman, Abdulrauf; Zhu, Oon-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    According to Ref 'Station blackout (SBO) is generally a plant condition with complete loss of all alternating current (AC) power from off-site sources, from the main generator and from standby AC power sources important to safety to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses. Direct current (DC) power supplies and uninterruptible AC power supplies may be available as long as batteries can supply the loads, alternate AC power supplies are available'. The above IAEA document indicated the importance of batteries during SBO. Prior to the Fukushima accident, most batteries might be designed with coping capability of four hours. However, the accident showed the need for the coping capability to be increased to at least eight hours. The purpose of this research is to verify the safety capacity margin of the nuclear qualified battery banks of class 1E DC system and test the response to SBO using the load profile of a Korean design nuclear power plant (NPP). The capacity margins of class 1E batteries of DC power system batteries in a nuclear power plant were determined using the load profile of the plant. It was observed that if appropriate manufacturer Kt data are not available, the accuracy of the battery capacity might not be accurately calculated. The result obtained shows that the batteries have the coping capability of two hours for channel A and B, and eight hours for channel C and D. Also capacity margin as show in figure show a reasonable margin for each batteries of the DC system

  13. A Review of Passive Power Filters for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Liserre, Marco

    2016-01-01

    and source impedances. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect is more difficult to be guaranteed for cost-optimized filters, which are characterized by low inductance and high capacitance passive components. In this paper, several passive filter topologies used to interface voltage source converters......In order to reduce size and cost, high-order passive filters are generally preferred in power converters to cancel out high frequency harmonics caused by pulse width modulation. However, the filter resonance peaks may require the use of passive dampers to stabilize the interactions between the load...

  14. Microbial fuel cells as power supply of a low-power temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) show great promise as a concomitant process for water treatment and as renewable energy sources for environmental sensors. The small energy produced by MFCs and the low output voltage limit the applications of MFCs. Specific converter topologies are required to step-up the output voltage of a MFC. A Power Management Unit (PMU) is proposed for operation at low input voltage and at very low power in a completely autonomous way to capture energy from MFCs with the highest possible efficiency. The application of sensors for monitoring systems in remote locations is an important approach. MFCs could be an alternative energy source in this case. Powering a sensor with MFCs may prove the fact that wastewater may be partly turned into renewable energy for realistic applications. The Power Management Unit is demonstrated for 3.6 V output voltage at 1 mW continuous power, based on a low-cost 0.7-L MFC. A temperature sensor may operate continuously on 2-MFCs in continuous flow mode. A flyback converter under discontinuous conduction mode is also tested to power the sensor. One continuously fed MFC was able to efficiently and continuously power the sensor.

  15. RSS-based localization of isotropically decaying source with unknown power and pathloss factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shunyuan; Sun, Li; Ding, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of an isotropically decaying source based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements that are collected from nearby active sensors that are position-known and wirelessly connected, and it propose a novel iterative algorithm for RSS-based source localization in order to improve the location accuracy and realize real-time location and automatic monitoring for hospital patients and medical equipment in the smart hospital. In particular, we consider the general case where the source power and pathloss factor are both unknown. For such a source localization problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, in which the unknown source position and two other unknown parameters (i.e. the source power and pathloss factor) are estimated in an alternating way based on each other, with our proposed sub-optimum initial estimate on source position obtained based on the RSS measurements that are collected from a few (closest) active sensors with largest RSS values. Analysis and simulation study show that our proposed iterative algorithm guarantees globally convergence to the least-squares (LS) solution, where for our suitably assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) zero-mean Gaussian RSS measurement errors the converged localization performance achieves the optimum that corresponds to the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB).

  16. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  17. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  18. A Heuristic Approach to Distributed Generation Source Allocation for Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent trends in electrical power distribution system operation and management are aimed at improving system conditions in order to render good service to the customer. The reforms in distribution sector have given major scope for employment of distributed generation (DG resources which will boost the system performance. This paper proposes a heuristic technique for allocation of distribution generation source in a distribution system. The allocation is determined based on overall improvement in network performance parameters like reduction in system losses, improvement in voltage stability, improvement in voltage profile. The proposed Network Performance Enhancement Index (NPEI along with the heuristic rules facilitate determination of feasible location and corresponding capacity of DG source. The developed approach is tested with different test systems to ascertain its effectiveness.

  19. Nuclear Power as a Basis for Future Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, Igor; Buruchenko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that electrical-power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, technology and the level of living. Also, strong power industry with diverse energy sources is very important for country independence. In general, electrical energy can be generated from: 1) burning mined and refined energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and 2) harnessing energy sources such as hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, solar, and wave power. Today, the main sources for electrical-energy generation are: 1) thermal power - primarily using coal and secondarily - natural gas; 2) “large” hydro power from dams and rivers and 3) nuclear power from various reactor designs. The balance of the energy sources is from using oil, biomass, wind, geothermal and solar, and have visible impact just in some countries. In spite of significant emphasis in the world on using renewables sources of energy, in particular, wind and solar, they have quite significant disadvantages compared to “traditional” sources for electricity generation such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. These disadvantages include low density of energy, which requires large areas to be covered with wind turbines or photovoltaic panels or heliostats, and dependence of these sources on Mother Nature, i.e., to be unreliable ones and to have low (20 - 40%) or very low (5 - 15%) capacity factors. Fossil-fueled power plants represent concentrated and reliable source of energy. Also, they operate usually as “fast-response” plants to follow rapidly changing electrical-energy consumption during a day. However, due to combustion process they emit a lot of carbon dioxide, which contribute to the climate change in the world. Moreover, coal-fired power plants, as the most popular ones, create huge amount of slag and ash, and, eventually, emit other dangerous and harmful gases. Therefore, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which are also concentrated and reliable source of energy

  20. Development of a Laser-Powered Dielectric Structure-Based Accelerator as a Stand-Alone Particle Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Travish, G.; Arab, E. R.; Fong, D.; Hoyer, Z.; Lacroix, U. H.; Vartanian, N.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and build a dielectric-based slab-symmetric structure (the micro-accelerator platform, or MAP) for generating and accelerating low-energy electrons is underway at UCLA and Manhattanville College. This optical acceleration structure is effectively a resonant cavity powered by a side-coupled laser, and has applications as a radiation source for medicine or industry. We present recent experimental and computational results on the accelerator, and progress toward its incorporation into a self-contained particle source. Such a particle source would incorporate a micron-scale electron emitter and a non-relativistic capture region to enable self-injection into the synchronous field within the accelerator. A prototype of the accelerator itself has been constructed from candidate dielectric materials using micromanufacturing techniques; the current status of the testing program is described. A novel electron emitter incorporating pyroelectric crystals with field-enhancing tips has been demonstrated to produce steady currents; the results are dependent on tip geometry, and appear suitable for injection into a microstructure. Extension of the MAP concept to non-relativistic velocities, as in the stand-alone source, requires a tapered structure that gives rise to numerous complications including beam defocusing and manufacturing challenges; approaches for addressing these complications are mentioned.

  1. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 2 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study. 5 figs

  2. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  3. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The paper gives a historical technical review of the development and installation of approximately 20 000 MW of hydraulic turbines in Norway after World War II. The non polluting production of electricity was consumed for lightening and heating for civil consume and the growing electric furnace industry in Norway in addition to export in rainy years. The paper is mainly based on the authors experience in the design of large turbines, and control systems for operation of Francis Turbines and Reversible Pump Turbines for high and medium heads and Pelton turbines for high heads. During the last 15 years the development of small hydro power plants has also given an increasing contribution to the power production. A brief discussion will be given on the choice of equipment for small hydro production with a very small winter production and overload during the summer. The possibility of operation of a small hydropower plants connected to an isolated grid will also briefly be presented. In addition to the general design of turbines and control systems for large hydro plants, a detailed description will be given of the stability analysis for the governing system which was developed for the large high head plants with long high pressure tunnels systems. A discussion will be included on the introduction of the air cushioned surge chambers for fast stable operation of power plants with long tunnels, connected to isolated grids. Also the principle of stabilizing unstable turbine governing system by means of pressure feed back systems, will be presented and discussed. A description of such system developed in 1992, will be given proving that stability could be obtained in a system with long conduits connected to the turbines. However, the 'governing speed' needed for isolated operation could not be fulfilled without a fast by pass pressure relieve system for Francis turbines, which was not installed in the case for the analysis. Finally a discussion will be

  4. Self-Healable, Stretchable, Transparent Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Soft Power Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangman; Pu, Xiong; Liu, Mengmeng; Yu, Aifang; Du, Chunhua; Zhai, Junyi; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-06-04

    Despite the rapid advancements of soft electronics, developing compatible energy devices will be the next challenge for their viable applications. Here, we report an energy-harnessing triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a soft electrical power source, which is simultaneously self-healable, stretchable, and transparent. The nanogenerator features a thin-film configuration with buckled Ag nanowires/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite electrode sandwiched in room-temperature self-healable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers. Dynamic imine bonds are introduced in PDMS networks for repairing mechanical damages (94% efficiency), while the mechanical recovery of the elastomer is imparted to the buckled electrode for electrical healing. By adjusting the buckling wavelength of the electrode, the stretchability and transparency of the soft TENG can be tuned. A TENG (∼50% stretchabitliy, ∼73% transmittance) can recover the electricity genearation (100% healing efficiency) even after accidental cutting. Finally, the conversion of biomechanical energies into electricity (∼100 V, 327 mW/m 2 ) is demonstrated by a skin-like soft TENG. Considering all these merits, this work suggests a potentially promising approach for next-generation soft power sources.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  6. Advanced Light Source, a 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation facility optimized to generate soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) light using magnetic insertion devices, was proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1982. It consists of a 1.3-GeV injection system, an electron storage ring optimized at 1.3 GeV (with the capability of 1.9-GeV operation), and a number of photon beamlines emanating from twelve 6-meter-long straight sections. In addition, 24 bending-magnet ports will be available for development. The ALS was conceived as a research tool whose range and power would stimulate fundamentally new research in fields from biology to materials science. The conceptual design and associated cost estimate for the ALS have been completed and reviewed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), but Title I activities have not yet begun. The focus in this study is on the history of the ALS as an example of how a technical construction project was conceived, designed, proposed, and validated within the framework of a national laboratory funded largely by the DOE

  7. Think Global, Act Local--A Power Generation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 3 photos.)

  8. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  9. Circuit design and simulation of a HV-supply controlling the power of 140 GHz 1 MW gyrotrons for ECRH on W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.; Mueller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    For plasma heating by ECR in the Stellarator W7-X under construction, 140 GHz gyrotrons with 1 MW cw output power are under development. These tubes have a voltage depressed collector for electron energy recovery. Each gyrotron is fed by two high-voltage sources: a high-power supply for driving the electron beam and a precision low-power supply for beam acceleration. In addition, a protection system with a thyratron crowbar for fast power removal in case of gyrotron arcing is installed. The low-power high-voltage source for beam acceleration is realized by a high-voltage servo-amplifier driving the depression voltage such that the influence of the voltage noise of the main high-power supply on the acceleration voltage is suppressed by feed-back control of the amplifier. Design and simulation of the servo-amplifier by PSpice is presented

  10. A revisit to self-excited push pull vacuum tube radio frequency oscillator for ion sources and power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlondo, L. R.; Lalremruata, B.; Punte, L. R. M.; Rebecca, L.; Lalnunthari, J.; Thanga, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Self-excited push-pull vacuum tube oscillator is one of the most commonly used oscillators in radio frequency (RF)-ion plasma sources for generation of ions using radio frequency. However, in spite of its fundamental role in the process of plasma formation, the working and operational characteristics are the most frequently skip part in the descriptions of RF ion sources in literatures. A more detailed treatment is given in the present work on the RF oscillator alone using twin beam power tetrodes 829B and GI30. The circuit operates at 102 MHz, and the oscillation conditions, stability in frequency, and RF output power are studied and analyzed. A modified form of photometric method and RF peak voltage detection method are employed to study the variation of the oscillator output power with plate voltage. The power curves obtained from these measurements are quadratic in nature and increase with increase in plate voltage. However, the RF output power as measured by photometric methods is always less than the value calculated from peak voltage measurements. This difference is due to the fact that the filament coil of the ordinary light bulb used as load/detector in photometric method is not a perfect inductor. The effect of inductive reactance on power transfer to load was further investigated and a technique is developed to estimate the amount of power correction needed in the photometric measurement result.

  11. SOURCE 1ST 2.0: development and beta testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.H.; Iglesias, F.C.; Hoang, Y.; Dickson, L.W.; Dickson, R.S.; Richards, M.J.; Gibb, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    SOURCE 1ST 2.0 is the Industry Standard fission product release code that is being developed by Ontario Power Generation, New Brunswick Power, Hydro-Quebec, and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. This paper is a report on recent progress on requirement specification, code development, and module verification and validation activities. The theoretical basis for each model in the code is described in a module Software Theory Manual. The development of SOURCE IST 2.0 has required code design decisions about how to implement the software requirements. Development and module testing of the β1 release of SOURCE IST 2.0 (released in July 1999) have led to some interesting insights into fission product release modelling. The beta testing process has allowed code developers and analysts to refine the software requirements for the code. The need to verify physical reference data has guided some decisions on the code and data structure design. Examples of these design decisions are provided. Module testing, and verification and validation activities are discussed. These activities include code-targeted testing, stress testing, code inspection, comparison of code with requirements, and comparison of code results with independent algebraic, numerical, or semi-algebraic calculations. The list of isotopes to be modelled by SOURCE IST 2.0 provides an example of a subset of a reference data set. Isotopes are present on the list for a variety of reasons: personnel or public dose, equipment dose (for environmental qualification), fission rate and actinide modelling, or stable (or long-lived) targets for activation processes. To accommodate controlled changes to the isotope list, the isotope list and associated nuclear data are contained in a reference data file. The questions of multiple computing platforms, and of Year 2000 compliance have been addressed by programming rules for the code. By developing and testing modules on most of the different platforms on which the code is intended

  12. Noise Sources, Effects and Countermeasures in Narrowband Power-Line Communications Networks: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio López

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Distributed Generation, Electric Vehicles, and storage without compromising the quality of the power delivery requires the deployment of a communications overlay that allows monitoring and controlling low voltage networks in almost real time. Power Line Communications are gaining momentum for this purpose since they present a great trade-off between economic and technical features. However, the power lines also represent a harsh communications medium which presents different problems such as noise, which is indeed affected by Distributed Generation, Electric Vehicles, and storage. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the types of noise that affects Narrowband Power Line Communications, including normative noises, noises coming from common electronic devices measured in actual operational power distribution networks, and noises coming from photovoltaic inverters and electric vehicle charging spots measured in a controlled environment. The paper also reviews several techniques to mitigate the effects of noise, paying special attention to passive filtering, as for being one of the most widely used solution to avoid this kind of problems in the field. In addition, the paper presents a set of tests carried out to evaluate the impact of some representative noises on Narrowband Power Line Communications network performance, as well as the effectiveness of different passive filter configurations to mitigate such an impact. In addition, the considered sources of noise can also bring value to further improve PLC communications in the new scenarios of the Smart Grid as an input to theoretical models or simulations.

  13. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  14. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤10 12 W cm -2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  15. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Lönn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤1012 W cm-2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  16. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    1987-05-01

    An Li/SOCl/sub 2/ battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 10K-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40/sup 0/C to 85/sup 0/C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 ..mu..A is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  17. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2014-03-21

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  18. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguira, L.; Portilla, J.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Etxebarria, V.; Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  19. Relativistic jets and the most powerful radio sources in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridle, A.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic jets, which are beams of particles and magnetic fields emitting synchrotron radiation that emanate from black holes at the centers of galaxies and quasars, have been one of the most exciting discoveries made at the Very Large Array (VLA) operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The VLA is an array of 27 antennas, each 25 meters in diameter, distributed in a Y-formation with two branches 21 kilometers long and one branch 19 kilometers long. Astronomers can use it to study relativistic jets that generate intense natural radio sources (or transmitters). These sources, associated with regions hundreds of thousands of light years across, are the most powerful in the universe in energy output. In his lecture, Bridle describes how consecutive advances in imaging techniques for radio astronomy have uncovered the properties of the powerful radio sources, culminating in the discovery at the VLA that many of these sources contain radio emitting jets. He then describes some of the NRAO's research on these jets, and discusses the jets' physical properties. He concludes with an outlook for the future: the NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is to be completed in the early 1990's. The VLBA is an array of ten radio telescopes distributed from Hawaii to St. Croix, from the Canadian border to Texas. With the VLBA, astronomers plan to look more deeply into these radio sources. 15 figs

  20. Measurement and analysis of turbulent liquid metal flow in a high-power spallation neutron source-EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Blumenfeld, L; Kharoua, C; Dementjevs, S; Milenkovic, R Z

    2011-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) design study completed in 2009 examined means of producing exotic nuclei for fundamental research. One of the critical components identified in the study was a high-power neutron spallation source in which a target material is impacted by a proton beam producing neutrons by a process known as spallation. Due to the high heat power deposition, liquid metal, in this case mercury, is the only viable choice as target material. Complex issues arise from the use of liquid metal. It is characterised by an unusually low Prandtl number and a higher thermal expansivity than conventional fluids. The turbulence structure in LM is thereby affected and still an object of intense research, hampered in part by measurement difficulties. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allowed a satisfactory design for the neutron source to be found rapidly with little iteration. However it was feared that the development of the boundary layer and associated turbulence would not b...

  1. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  2. Research results from a prototype for power generation from low temperature heat sources in small and medium sized sawmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Tor-Martin; Hoeeg, Arne; Asphjell, Trond-Atle; Horn, Henning

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we present research results from a low temperature power generation unit prototype, SPP 2-67A, installed at the timber company Moelven Eidsvold Vaerk in Norway. The power generation unit is a Stirling cycle reciprocating engine connected to a generator, which is designed to combine the mature technology for high temperature Stirling engines (as seen for instance as air independent propulsion (AIP) units in submarines) and recent academic work on low temperature Stirling engines. The power generation unit is installed in a boiler room at the Moelven Eidsvold Vaerk plant and uses steam at approximately 1.5 bar pressure as a heat source. The steam is generated in the 5.5 MW biomass-fuelled boiler, where bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the main biofuel. The installation has been intended both to use hot water as a heat sink to demonstrate CHP operation, and cold water from the grid to demonstrate maximum power generation from surplus steam. The installation is part of a research project partly financed by the Research Council of Norway, with the goal of testing new technology to improve the use of bioenergy resources and conversion of heat from biofuels to power. (Author)

  3. Novel design of a compacted micro-structured air-breathing PEM fuel cell as a power source for mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems for application in portable electronic devices. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. There are many new miniaturized applications which can only be realized if a higher energy density power source is available compared to button cells and other small batteries. In small-scale applications, the fuel cell should b...

  4. Risk analysis of NPP in multi-unit site for configuration of AAC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ki

    2000-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in finding new sites for nuclear power plants, more units are being added to the existing sites. In these multi-unit sites, appropriate countermeasures should be established to cope with the potential station blackout (SBO) accident. Currently, installation of additional diesel generator (DG) is considered to ensure an alternative AC power source, but it has not been decided yet how many DGs should be installed in a multi-unit site. In this paper, risk informed decision making method, which evaluates reliability of electrical system, core damage frequency, and site average core damage frequency, is introduced to draw up the suitable number of DG in multi-unit site. The analysis results show that installing two DGs lowered the site average core damage frequency by 1.4% compared to one DG in six unit site. In the light of risk-informed decisions in regulatory guide 1.174, there is no difference of safety between two alternatives. It is concluded that one emergency diesel generator sufficiently guarantees safety against station blackout of nuclear power plants in multi-unit site. (author)

  5. CrossRef A new FEBIAD-type ion source for the upgrade of SPIRAL1 at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Chauveau, P; Babo, M; Bouzomita, H; Bajeat, O; Dubois, M; Frigot, R; Grinyer, G F; Grinyer, J; Jardin, P; Leboucher, C; Maunoury, L; Seiffert, C; Stora, T; Thomas, J C; Traykov, E

    2016-01-01

    The SPIRAL facility at GANIL is being upgraded with a new FEBIAD ion source in order to extend its production capabilities to condensable elements. The coupling of such an ion source with the present GANIL target was recently tested online at SPIRAL at nominal power (1200 W). The results are promising as the calculated yields are in the range of those extrapolated from previous measurements at lower power and sometimes higher. This experiment and its results are presented.

  6. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Passive trap filters are widely used in high power Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) for the switching harmonic attenuation. The usage of the passive trap filters requires clustered and fixed switching harmonic spectrum, which is not the case for low pulse-ratio or Variable Switching Frequency (VSF...... current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...

  7. 26 CFR 1.678(d)-1 - Renunciation of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(d)-1 Renunciation of power. Section 678(a) does not apply to a power which has been renounced or disclaimed within a reasonable time... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renunciation of power. 1.678(d)-1 Section 1.678...

  8. The gyrotron - a natural source of high-power orbital angular momentum millimeter-wave beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, M.; Sawant, A.; Choe, M. S.; Choi, E. M.

    2017-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of electromagnetic-wave beams provides further diversity to multiplexing in wireless communication. The present report shows that higher-order mode gyrotrons are natural sources of high-power OAM millimeter (mm) wave beams. The well-defined OAM of their rotating cavity modes operating at near cutoff frequency has been derived by photonic and electromagnetic wave approaches.

  9. Calculation of neutron interior source distribution within subcritical fission-chain reacting systems for a prescribed power density generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leonardo R.C.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are sub-critical systems stabilized by stationary external sources of neutrons. A system is subcritical when the removal by absorption and leakage exceeds the production by fission and tends to shut down. On the other hand, any subcritical system can be stabilized by including time-independent external sources of neutrons. The goal of this work is to determine the intensity of uniform and isotropic sources of neutrons that must be added inside all fuel regions of a subcritical system so that it becomes stabilized, generating a prescribed distribution of electric power. A computer program has been developed in Java language to estimate the intensity of stationary sources of neutrons that must be included in the fuel regions to drive the subcritical system with a fixed power distribution prescribed by the user. The mathematical model used to achieve this goal was the energy multigroup, slab-geometry neutron transport equation in the discrete ordinates (S N ) formulation and the response matrix method was applied to solve the forward and the adjoint S N problems. Numerical results are given to verify the present. (author)

  10. Calculation of neutron interior source distribution within subcritical fission-chain reacting systems for a prescribed power density generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leonardo R.C.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: lrcmoraes@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: ricardob@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are sub-critical systems stabilized by stationary external sources of neutrons. A system is subcritical when the removal by absorption and leakage exceeds the production by fission and tends to shut down. On the other hand, any subcritical system can be stabilized by including time-independent external sources of neutrons. The goal of this work is to determine the intensity of uniform and isotropic sources of neutrons that must be added inside all fuel regions of a subcritical system so that it becomes stabilized, generating a prescribed distribution of electric power. A computer program has been developed in Java language to estimate the intensity of stationary sources of neutrons that must be included in the fuel regions to drive the subcritical system with a fixed power distribution prescribed by the user. The mathematical model used to achieve this goal was the energy multigroup, slab-geometry neutron transport equation in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation and the response matrix method was applied to solve the forward and the adjoint S{sub N} problems. Numerical results are given to verify the present. (author)

  11. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  12. Fiscal 2000 regional consortium research and development project - regional new technology creation research and development. Development of system-on-chip mobile IC power source (1st fiscal year); 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki shingijutsu soshutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. System on chip mobile IC dengen no kaihatsu (daiichinendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop a switched capacitor (SC) integration technology based on the technology of switched capacitor power sources capable of efficiently performing voltage conversion without using magnetic parts such as coils. Activities are conducted in the six fields of (1) deciding on a programmable SC circuit, (2) circuit simulation, (3) layout design, (4) marketing and the contents and results of the studies, (5) profitability and the contents and results of the studies, and (6) a patent information survey. In field (1), a series fixed type DC-DC converter and a ring type converter are compared with each other in terms of electrical and theoretical characteristics, the number of devices to constitute the circuit, and ease of control, and the ring type converter is selected to serve as a general purpose SC power source. An efficiency simulation is conducted, as the result of which it is proved that the power source have the features that a practical power source should have. In field (2), for carrying out integration for the selected SC power source, a circuit simulation is conducted for the disclosure of IC power source constituent characteristics and dimensions are determined for the layout. (NEDO)

  13. Design of the power sources for portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Fang Fang; Cui Yan; Cui Junliang; Zhou Wei

    2007-01-01

    How to charge for the portable equipments is always a topical subject aimed by people, the application of new type batteries and Battery Management brings great facility to people's life, the rechargeable battery for portable equipments is widely used in portable equipments, but the convenience of the charging power source is limited in special situation. This paper will discuss how to combining rechargeable battery with traditional alkaline batteries for charging the portable instruments. (authors)

  14. Power angle control of grid-connected voltage source converter in a wind energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In this thesis, the connection of a voltage source converter to the grid in a wind energy application is examined. The possibility of using a cheap control system without grid current measurements, is investigated. The control method is based on controlling the voltage angle of the inverter, which governs the active power flow. The highest frequency of the power variation, coming from wind turbine, is approx. 5 Hz. Since the proposed control method easily can handle such power variations it is very well suited for wind turbine applications. The characteristics of the system depend on the DC-link capacitor, the grid filter inductance and resistance. Large values of the resistance damp the system well but increase the energy losses. A high inductance leads to a reduced harmonic level on the grid but makes the system slower. By using feed-forward of the generator/rectifier current signal, the performance is increased compared to an ordinary PI-control. Combining the Linear Quadratic (LQ) control method with Kalman filtered input signals, a robust control method with a good performance is obtained. The LQ controller controls both the phase displacement angle and the modulation index, resulting in higher bandwidth, and the typical power angle resonance at the grid frequency disappears. 22 refs, 109 figs, 14 tabs

  15. Development of Mixed Autonomous Power System on the Basis of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Laoshvili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A principal circuit diagram has been developed for an autonomous power system on the basis of renewable energy sources – solar and accumulator batteries.Due to the usage of a dc pulse converter, a dc converter (interrupter, an IGBT module inverter and a single-phase matching power transformer it is possible to achieve an effective sectioning of constant voltage and their inversion with minimal energy losses.Efficiency factor of the proposed converter installation exceeds 90 % and power factor is close to unity.

  16. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C

    2013-10-01

    Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation area of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 μg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 μg m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass burning, uncontrolled waste burning, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass burning was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the

  17. Assessing harmonic current source modelling and power definitions in balanced and unbalanced networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson-Hope, Gary; Stemmet, W.C. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town Campus, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the DlgSILENT PowerFactory software power definitions (indices) in terms of phase and sequence components for balanced and unbalanced networks when harmonic distortion is present and to compare its results to hand calculations done, following recommendation made by the IEEE Working Group on this topic. This paper also includes the development of a flowchart for calculating power indices in balanced and unbalanced three-phase networks when non-sinusoidal voltages and currents are present. A further purpose is to determine how two industrial grade harmonic analysis software packages (DlgSILENT and ERACS) model three-phase harmonic sources used for current penetration studies and to compare their results when applied to a network. From the investigations, another objective was to develop a methodology for modelling harmonic current sources based on a spectrum obtained from measurements. Three case studies were conducted and the assessment and developed methodologies were shown to be effective. (Author)

  18. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  19. Greenhouse Gas reduction for scenarios of power sources development of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions, Moldova power sources development options up to 2033 are evaluated, and for the six scenarios selected the greenhouse gas reduction impact is determined.

  20. Organic Rankine kilowatt isotope power system. First annual summary report, August 1, 1975--August 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems is developing a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980's. The KIPS is a plutonium oxide fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W(e) with a minimum of system changes. Research progress is reported on Phase I comprising: (1) flight system conceptual design and ground demonstration; (2) flight system design and ground qualification; and (3) flight system production, acceptance testing and delivery. The principal objectives of Phase I are to: (1) conceptually design the flight system, (2) based on the flight system concept, design and build the ground demonstration system (GDS), (3) conduct performance and endurance testing using electric heaters to simulate the radioisotope heat source, (4) identify and initiate long lead development efforts required to achieve the initial flight qualification hardware availability date of April 1981, and (5) finalize the flight concept design and prepare the program plan for the Phase II effort

  1. Overview of light sources powered by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Lei Jiarong; Liu Wenke

    2012-01-01

    Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium-based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several shortcomings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium- based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several short- comings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL, light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. (authors)

  2. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  3. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  4. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  5. Highly Stable, All-fiber, High Power ZBLAN Supercontinuum Source Reaching 4.75 µm used for Nanosecond mid-IR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Leick, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate compact all-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum generation up to 4.75 μm with 1.2 W output power during hundreds of hours. This source is applied to upconversion spectroscopy using the energy corresponding to a single pulse....

  6. An advanced control system for the optimal operation and management of medium size power systems with a large penetration from renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, E.; Stavrakakis, G.; Kariniotakis, G. [Ecole de Mines de Paris, Centre d`Energetique, Sophia-Antipolis (France)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    An advanced control system for the optimal operation and management of autonomous wind-diesel systems is presented. This system minimises the production costs through an on-line optimal scheduling of the power units, which takes into account the technical constraints of the diesel units, as well as short-term forecasts of the load and renewable resources. The power system security is maximised through on-line security assessment modules, which enable the power system to withstand sudden changes in the production of the renewable sources. The control system was evaluated using data from the island of Lemnos, where it has been installed and operated since January 1995. (Author)

  7. Performance summary on a high power dense plasma focus x-ray lithography point source producing 70 nm line features in AlGaAs microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, Rodney; Bykanov, Alexander; Freshman, Jay; Reilly, Dennis; Mangano, Joseph; Roche, Maureen; Dickenson, Jason; Burte, Mitchell; Heaton, John

    2004-01-01

    A high average power dense plasma focus (DPF), x-ray point source has been used to produce ∼70 nm line features in AlGaAs-based monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The DPF source has produced up to 12 J per pulse of x-ray energy into 4π steradians at ∼1 keV effective wavelength in ∼2 Torr neon at pulse repetition rates up to 60 Hz, with an effective x-ray yield efficiency of ∼0.8%. Plasma temperature and electron concentration are estimated from the x-ray spectrum to be ∼170 eV and ∼5·10 19 cm -3 , respectively. The x-ray point source utilizes solid-state pulse power technology to extend the operating lifetime of electrodes and insulators in the DPF discharge. By eliminating current reversals in the DPF head, an anode electrode has demonstrated a lifetime of more than 5 million shots. The x-ray point source has also been operated continuously for 8 h run times at 27 Hz average pulse recurrent frequency. Measurements of shock waves produced by the plasma discharge indicate that overpressure pulses must be attenuated before a collimator can be integrated with the DPF point source

  8. Section 1: Alberta Power Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, R.; Quinn, D.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out to produce a compendium of electric and magnetic field levels that exist in Canada and to characterize and classify the sources of electric and magnetic fields. Alberta Power's contribution to this project was mainly to measure electric and magnetic fields produced by transmission lines in their service area in Alberta. Ten 240 kV transmission lines, ten 144 kV transmission lines, one 72 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, two substations, and one residence were monitored for 60 Hz electric and magnetic field levels. For the 240 kV transmission lines, the electric field ranged from 0.4 kV/m to 1.9 kV/m and the magnetic field from 2.5 milligauss to 27 milligauss at the edge of the right-of-way. For 144 kV lines, the electric and magnetic fields ranged from 0.24-1.00 kV/m and 2.25-12.00 milligauss, respectively, at the edge of the right-of-way. 5 tabs

  9. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear i