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Sample records for power sector regulation

  1. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  2. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  3. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  4. Theoretical fundamentals for the new regulation of the electric power sector; Fundamentos teoricos de la nueva regulacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1998-12-01

    Regulatory models for the electric power industry throughout the world are experiencing significative changes at a umprecedented pace. It is then justified to speak of a new regulation of the electric power sector, with features of its own. This paper presents the theoretical background for this new regulation, focusing on the identification characterization and analysis of the several activities comprised in electricity supply, as well as the most suitable regulatory approach for each one of them. (Author)

  5. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  6. Private sector participation in power sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs

  7. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  8. Financial structure in the Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstairs, Jamie; Ehrhardt, David

    1995-01-01

    In India, the private power initiative of 1991 has offered on solution to the financing problem - the private financing of generation against long-term power purchase agreements. However, this approach encounters a major problem, the financial weakness of the purchasing agents, the state electricity boards, that play a dominant role in most state's power sectors. At present the SEBs are mostly loss making; even the best performers realize returns on assets well below the cost of capital that they now face. The situation is likely to become worse as costs rise, further weakening the ability of the SEBs to sign credible long-term purchase contracts. The private sector has responded by trying to reduce its exposure to SEBs through obtaining guarantees from state and central governments. There are a number of responses to this problem. The SEBs could try to become financially stronger through both cost reduction and increased revenues from higher tariffs and better collection. However, to make the SEBs and EDs into credible long-term power purchasers, power sector reform and regulation is needed. As these actions will take time, other responses could be investigated such as reducing the role of state power utilities by, for example, giving private generators direct access to industrial consumers. The long-term solution requires more profitable SEBs, if these bodies are to continue to play a dominant role in state-level electricity provision. Profitable SEBs will have access to finance from a range of domestic and international sources. The article finishes with consideration of the factors that will affect the optimal capital structure for SEBs. (author)

  9. Determination of the Regulatory Asset Base of power distribution companies. Background report of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjin, T.; Buitelaar, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the subject of 'Price Cap Regulation in the Dutch Electricity Sector'. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to a method to determine the Regulatory Asset Base (RAB)

  10. Sectoral panorama: the electric power sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2003-10-01

    This study takes stock on the main european markets to help the electric power companies in their decisions and investments. The first part presents the electric power sector structure in Europe. The second part is devoted to the market evolution for the different european markets (german, french, british, italian and spanish) with an analysis of the retail prices, the competition and the evolution perspectives. The third part presents the highlights in the electric power sector between 2001 and the middle of 2003. The enterprises management and strategies are presented in the fourth part. In the last part the document analyzes the financial performances of the sector and the electric power companies. (A.L.B.)

  11. Indian power sector: achievements and failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the growth of India's power sector over the last 50 years since independence, touching upon some developments that followed. It also highlights the power crisis that presently faces the nation, projecting into the next decade. The role played by the Indian Institute of Science in the development of India's power sector and is now playing to help mitigate the present and future shortages is briefly described. (author)

  12. Sector 7-8 powered up

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    1. Frédéric Gicquel from the Cryogenics for Accelerators Group (AT/ACR) and Anupama Kulkarni from the Magnets and Electrical Systems Group (AT/MEL) at the CERN Control Centre during the powering-up of Sector 7-8. 2. Frédérick Bordry, leader of the Power Converter Group (AB/PO), and Roberto Saban, responsible for coordinating the LHC commissioning (TS/HDO), celebrate the end of the first powering-up of an entire LHC sector: Sector 7-8.

  13. Institutional determinants of power sector reform in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.

  14. Simulators in nuclear power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, C.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    The simulator has established itself as an indispensable tool for training nuclear power station operators. After summarizing the main advantages of this training method, the author examines different types of simulators (for training or planning) and their architecture. He then describes the mathematical models used to simulate operation of the various elements of the ''power station'' and guarantee accurate representativity of phenomena associated with the power station operating under normal and accident conditions [fr

  15. Liberalisation of the Venezuelan power sector: what is stalling it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P. Ventura [Av. Sanz, calle Convento II, edif. E, apto. 8D, El Marques Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    For the past eight years, Venezuelan power sector has been attempting to be liberalised. The first step was made in 1996 through the 'Decree 1558'. The second step in 1999 was legally stronger and better received by players of the different sectors; however, it did not show any sign of progress after five years. At the same time, the need for investments is increasing and the expectation of demand's growth is also rising. Hence, the intention of this research paper is to identify the factors that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. This paper concludes that the lack of consensus of the government about the nature of the reform, the popular fear of losses, the lack of regulation and the lack of autonomy in its formal structure, and the nonliberalisation of the gas market are just some of the most significant reasons that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. (Author)

  16. Financing of private power development and power sector reform in emerging nations: an essential nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Reinier

    1995-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate and illustrate important relationships between the concept of the independent economic regulator and the evolution of emerging nation electric power sectors from patterns of government dominance that have undermined both their efficiency and their receptivity to substantial private sector involvement. It re-emphasizes the important relationships between industry structure, competition, market mechanisms and regulation; and the important distinctions between the different roles government can and should play in the power sector in different stages of evolution -as owner, manager, regulator and political policy maker. It seeks to put content and meaning into the concept of the independent regulator in the broader context of power sector reform. It distills from the experience of those countries with developed regulatory systems a series of practical guidelines or principles that may be helpful in the design and implementation of regulatory regimes for electricity and other infrastructural industries in emerging nations in the process of transformation from government dominated monopolies. (author)

  17. Cyber security threats in the power sector: Need for a domain specific regulatory framework in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Kumar, V.; Pandey, Krishan K.; Punia, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    India is poised to spend over USD 5.8 billion as part of the National Smart Grid Mission aimed to alleviate India's ailing power sector as part of its 12th Five year plan (2012–2017). The federal government sponsored Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (R-APDRP) is also focused on building ICT capability in the state electricity boards. Presently however, there is no power sector specific cyber security mandates or policies in India. The Stuxnet, Shamoon and Anonymous incidents have shown that cyber attacks can cause significant damage and pose a risk to National Critical Infrastructure. A lack of security planning as part of designing the Smart grids can potentially leave gaping holes in the country's power sector stability. The paper highlights key cyber security threats across the entire power sector value chain—from generation, to transmission and distribution. It is aimed at building the case for power sector specific cyber security regulations based on the experience of regulators in other critical infrastructure sectors like Banking and Telecom in India and power sector regulations internationally. - Highlights: • Cyber security in power sector is key to protecting national critical infrastructure. • Poor cyber security planning would impact the power sector in India. • A laissez-faire approach to cyber security in power sector may not yield results. • There is a need for power sector specific cyber security regulations

  18. Incentive policies for promoting wind power production in Brazil: Scenarios for the Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) under the New Brazilian electric power sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program (PROINFA) was designed in 2002 to stimulate the electricity generation from three energy sources (wind, biomass and small-scale hydro) in Brazil. The Program was divided into two phases. The first one uses feed-in tariffs for promoting the development of 3300 MW. The second one that was originally based on feed-in tariffs was modified in 2003, in order to be based on biddings for renewables. These biddings are capped to limit their impact on the final electricity tariff. Due to this bound, the highest-cost power option promoted by PROINFA (wind power generation) might have development problems. Simulating different scenarios for the biddings, it was verified that the only way to reach the original goal set by PROINFA (10% of the annual electricity consumption provided by alternative sources up to 2020) and, simultaneously, not overcome the bidding bound is to promote biomass-fired power generation alone, during the Program's second phase. However, this action contradicts one of the targets of the Program, which is to diversify the energy matrix. An alternative option could be biddings for renewables according to specific criteria (complementarities, industrial and technological development and cost), based not only on their cost-effectiveness. (author)

  19. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  20. Pollutants emission in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO 2 , SO X (including SO 2 and SO 3 ), NO X (including NO 2 , NO and N 2 O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO 2 , N 2 O, some VOCs, CH 4 contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Pollutants emission in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO{sub 2}, SO{sub X} (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}), NO{sub X} (including NO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, some VOCs, CH{sub 4} contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Administrative decentralization in electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this report are discussed: the new technologies impact in the electric power sector and possible scenarios and greenhouse gases containment in post-Kyoto target, the possible sinergies at urban-territorial scale, the balance of energy environmental policies, simplifications of procedures in authorization and control activities [it

  3. Ex Post Regulation as the Method of Sectoral Regulation in Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Nagaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The aim of the article is to present the essence of ex post approach to sectoral regulation, to show the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and to answer the question whether it is worth using in the electricity sector. Design/methodology/approach - For this purpose, a critical analysis of expert literature was made and an empirical analysis of countries that have applied ex post regulation in the electricity sector in the European Union. Two research methods were used: a case study and a comparison of changes in price and quality of services. The research period covered the period 2000-2016. Findings - It was found that ex post regulation reduces regulatory costs, does not adversely affect the quality of service and long-term rates, gives businesses the freedom of decision-making and the ability to react quickly to changes in the economy. The main disadvantages of ex post regulation are the tendency for companies to over-estimate bills for consumers, the difficulty of pursuing claims by consumers and the need to shift regulatory risk to consumers. Research implications/limitations - In the paper there was identified a research gap, i.e. the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector in European Union countries where such regulation was applied. Identifying the research gap will help us understand what are the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and will create a model for when it is good moment to implement this in the economy. Besides identifying the research gap, further studies will be required over ex post regulation. Originality/value/contribution - The additional value of the paper is the study of ex post regulation, its essence and types. The article analyzed the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector and provided valuable insights into the potential risks associated with this approach to economic regulation.

  4. Nuclear power and the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The world scene is sketched in which nuclear power already contributes 600 Mtce/year to world energy but where public attitudes in the developed world have become largely hostile. This is despite the proven technology of nuclear power, its safety record (Chernobyl notwithstanding) and its environmentally benign aspects. The United Kingdom government's determination to ensure a continuing role for nuclear power in a privatized electricity supply industry is seen against this background. The structure of the British nuclear power industry undoubtedly presents difficulties for privatization but solutions are available and precedents for private sector nuclear power exist in other countries. Private sector operators will be required to meet the exacting standards set by the independent licensing authority but in view of the public concern redoubled efforts and new approaches will be necessary in public persuasion. Waste disposal is another issue which may have implications for the acceptability of nuclear power in the public sector. Finally, the prospects for investment in new nuclear plant by private generation companies are examined. (U.K.)

  5. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  6. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  7. Applicability of laws and regulations of the Brazilian power sector in the Western Amazon; Aplicabilidade das leis e normas do setor eletrico brasileiro nos estados da Amazonia Ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This analysis is developed within a broad context that is characterized by efficient use of electricity in a region environmentally and socially diverse. It considers that energy efficiency is required throughout the process from generation to power consumption, resulting in an interdisciplinary view of the problems reported here. With this guiding principle, the article analyzes the crises of electricity and makes a historical account of some important legal provisions to the environmental and social problems of the state. It assumes that the applicability of the Electric Sector Legislation, in Amazon, becomes inadequate, once in the depopulated endless area, the solutions do not come, simply, by modern technologies where either the traditional ones have place. Studies carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas bring subsidies to the analysis, which aims to create a forum for discussion about the practice of treating as equal parts of deep diversity. (author)

  8. Effect of demand management on regulated and deregulated electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrioglu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. The society relies on having a continuous supply of electrical energy. Some customers may willingly risk this continuous supply and participate in demand management programs for electrical power. If the power system grid is in trouble, electric utilities need to have demand relief. Customers willing to reduce their demand to help the system can receive an incentive fee for helping the utilities. Demand relief can be system wide or location specific. Sometimes it can be more effective to fix the electrical demand vs. supply imbalance from the demand side. The value of demand management contracts is greatly affected by customer location. Inclusion of locational attributes into the contract design procedure increases the effectiveness of the contracts by helping a utility get more value from its demand management programs. Independent System Operators and regulators, among others, can also benefit from effective demand management. This paper will investigate how this type of demand management contracts can help the electricity sector both in regulated and deregulated environments. - Highlights: • Demand management can help prevent forced electricity outages. • Both electric utilities and ISOs can use demand management. • Regulated and deregulated electricity sectors can benefit from demand management. • Demand management contracts can be effectively used in power system grids.

  9. Competition within the energy sector and State regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.; Jess Olsen, O.

    1995-10-01

    It is presumed that energy markets will be liberalized. Questions discussed are how the Danish electricity and gas sectors are to be re-regulated in order to ensure that this goal is reached in the most satisfactory manner (cheaper energy supply under competitive conditions) and whether there will be a conflict between the goal of liberalization and the environmental goals of clean technology and energy conservation. It is suggested that a compulsory splitting up of the two regional power associations in Denmark should not be necessary. Transmission and distribution must continue to be regulated as these are natural monopolies not compatible with competition. District heating will still be a monopoly and its prices must be closely regulated to prevent soaring. The opening up of the European gas market to competition will threaten Danish energy utilities. The increasing compulsory use of natural gas in cogeneration plants to politically determined high prices is not sustainable under competitive conditions. Energy saving activities should not be affected. Energy surcharges are attractive measures on a liberalized market. The regulation of competition ought to be incorporated explicitly as a restriction in the Ministry of Energy's energy policy regulation. Energy utilities could be excluded from participation in price setting. International regulation of competition will demand a clarification of the separation of regulatory competence between the member states and the European Commission. It will also be necessary to adjust the Danish regulation of the electricity sector to the future Scandinavian system. (AB) 77 refs

  10. Indian power sector: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.V.J.; Lal, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    In India population and economic growth is expected to create serious power shortages triggering the need for new power generation capacity. The situation is worsened on account of stagnant conditions prevailing in the country during the past few years. The opening of economy to the global market is expected to usher in an increased economic growth bringing in its wake greater demand for power. It will, thus, be seen that to cater these requirements the power sector industry in the country will have to grow at a much faster rate in the near future. However, to have a correct perspective of the emerging scenario, it might be worthwhile to have a look at the past patterns of development. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Restructuring of the Bulgaria power sector - changes and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the base of the analysis made by KEMA Consulting GmbH, Germany in 1998 - 1999 according to the project 'Aid for the development of the power authority in Bulgaria' some of the possibilities and risks for the new organization are discussed. Currently the National Electric Company is a monopolist in the electricity production sector. The government policy is aimed to efficiency improvement, creation a competition where possible, expanding of the private sector. The reconstruction is based on the model of 'the single customer'. Disadvantages are: insufficient competition, centralized planning and inappropriate risk distribution, necessity of a comprehensive regulatory control. The advantages of the method are: smooth transition to the new structures, separation of the monopole and competition functions, clear predictability of the purchases, competition of new capacities. The recommendations include urgent developing of system rules, conclusion of short-term agreements for power purchase, preparation for introduction of open access and development of the Government Agency for Power Regulation

  12. The future of Croatian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, A.; Slipac, G.; Zeljko, M.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives two among many possible scenarios of the power sector development in Croatia for the period between 2001 and 2030. This article observes the long period until 2030. It is understandable that the reliability of the results of the analysis for the entire period is not consistent. For the first ten years of the planning period the results can be taken with great reliability, while for the period until 2010 and onward there are only outlines of the problems rather than proposals for final solutions. The expected technological development will also contribute especially in the light of the general apprehension about consequences of pollution and the obligations overtaken at the Kyoto Conference on Environment. One of the most important issues is the safety of power sector. With the increased use of gas for electricity generation as well as in the other consumption sectors, it is essential to ensure several supply lines and enlarge storage facilities. Of course, there is also a question of diversification of sources after 2010. The study uses the coal plants for working design only, but other sources can serve the same purpose. (e.g., nuclear plants). In the next 4-5 years many presumptions of development in that period will become more transparent, so it is not necessary to bring final conclusions in this moment

  13. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered

  14. Liberalization of power generation sector in the Croatian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viskovic, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization and the restructuring of power utilities eventually leads to the establishment of a single electricity market in Europe, which is especially important for efficiency gains in electricity generation coupled with increased security of supply, economic competitiveness and fulfillment of environmental requirements. The European electricity market Directives as well as the Energy Community Treaty for South East Europe (legislative Menu) have remarkable impact on the restructuring of the Croatian power sector and the development of electricity generation. The Croatian model of restructuring includes legal un bundling (in the ownership of one holding company - Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP)). The operation of HEP Group and its subsidiaries in the conditions of partially opened electricity market in an important element that shapes the interactions of competitive activities and regulated activities in the environment influenced by exogenous factors a thirteen percent electricity are controlled by the Energy Market Operator (MO), the Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA). The introduction of eligible procedures and newly created operative procedures for power system operation, are creating completely new conditions for competition in the power generation sector, where almost all power plants are owned by HEP. New generating capacities in Croatia can be built through tendering and licensing procedures carried out by the Regulator. Electricity prices are still regulated by the Government (below the cost reflective level), there is a small share of industrial consumers and the annual electricity production is 12 TWh, with relatively large share of hydro plants. All these have implications on the development of the power generation sector in Croatia as well as on electricity market operation. The subject matter of this paper is an impact of power system restructuring and electricity market opening on the

  15. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  16. Status of power sector restructuring in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Lithuanian electricity sector comprises joint stock company Lietuvos Energija, which is responsible for supplying the country with electric energy, the Ignalina NPP state enterprise, which generates more then three fourth of the entire electricity of Lithuania, CHPs run By municipalities of Kaunas and Vilnius, and a few power plants, owned by industrial enterprises, as well as private small hydro power plants. Joint stock company Lietuvos Energija is a vertically integrated monopoly, which has inherited drawbacks inherent in planned - administrational economy and is therefore now being restructured into a modern and effective structure capable of operating within market economy conditions. The main goals of restructuring would meet electricity economy requirements: clearly un bundle electricity generation costs from electricity transmission and distribution costs; create internal and external electricity market conditions by gradual transition to wholesale and retail electricity trade; create conditions for third party access; create favourable conditions for competition; provide a possibility to integrate with Baltic electricity market in progress

  17. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  18. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  19. Photovoltaic power in France, a declining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2012-01-01

    Figures from 2011 show an exceptional year in terms of grid connection and a poor year for business because the moratory on photovoltaic power decided end 2010 gave its full effect. The grid connections realized in 2011 resulted from installations decided before the moratory. The situation shows some inconsistencies: the household sector was not concerned by the moratory and nevertheless the drop of sales was sharp and even if the purchase price of the photovoltaic electricity was reduced from 0.58 to 0.35 euro/kWh it stays high when compared to 0.18 euro/kWh in Germany or 0.20 euro/kWh in Italy. The depressed nature of the market seems to go on in 2012. (A.C.)

  20. Approaches to state regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.; Stojchev, D.

    1995-01-01

    Theory and practice of economical regulation by repaying coefficient and by partial co-ordinated expenses are discussed. The example of England, Ireland, Wales and US are pointed out as showing the features of both approaches being quite interesting for Bulgarian energy sector, facing the introduction of modern economical regulation. The specific character of Bulgarian energy sector is described and some conclusions are drawn concerning appropriate regulating methods. 6 refs. (orig.)

  1. Institutional framework of the Chinese power sector. Background and overview paper on the status quo and reforms of the Chinese power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2001-10-01

    The Chinese power sector is currently undergoing significant structural changes. This report describes the current developments of the institutional framework of the Chinese power sector and the emerging Chinese electricity market. It is intended as a background information paper for foreign consultants and others that grapple with the complicated and fast changing structure of the Chinese power sector. The scope of this report is limited to grid-connected power. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the structure of the Chinese Government and then describes the main changes that have occurred in the Chinese power sector since 1978. Early power sector reforms consisted of decentralisation of decision making power to lower government levels, deregulation of investment and price control, and corporatization of the operational and business parts of the state electricity activities. The increasing inefficiencies of an ever more complicated and bureaucratic government, the non-transparency of policies, regulations and pricing, and the confused ownership and management structure of utility assets called for further reforms. In 1997 an episode of further institutional and market reforms was initiated aiming to achieve a fully competitive wholesale power market by 2010. The reforms started with the further separation of government and business functions that were previously combined in the same government units. Most notably the State Power Corporation (SP) was established while the former Ministry Of Electric Power (MOEP) was dissolved. The government responsibilities of MOEP were turned over to the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC). Near-term power sector reforms will concentrate on consolidating network functions in State Power Corporation or its branches and subsidiary corporations, while separating generation from transmission and distribution activities. A competitive power generation market will be established based on the single buyer concept. The

  2. Development of the Mexican electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 Mexico had a population of 68 million, mostly concentrated in a few cities with many other areas being practically unpopulated. The country is semi-industrialized, and in order to achieve better standards of living, economic growth will have to continue at about 7.5 percent or more, particularly if the population continues to increase at 2.9 percent per year. The total installed electrical capacity at the end of 1980 was 14 600 MW; the per capita consumption of electricity was 910 KWh. The present government has as a goal an 8 percent annual growth rate in gross domestic product until 1995, resulting in forecast of a 12.5 percent growth rate in the electric sector to about 410 TWh per year. Hydroelectric power could be used to produce 80 TWh a year by 2000 if capacity were quadrupled. The use of coal for the production of electricity is beginning, and it is planned to generate 40 TWh a year from this source by 2000. Geothermal power should yield 20 TWh by then. A goal has been set of 20 000 MW of installed nuclear capacity by the end of the century; this would produce about 130 TWh, leaving some 280 TWh to be generated by oil or gas. The planned nuclear program must include the development of a strong Mexican nuclear industry, so that in 20 years 80 percent of the nuclear plant components could be locally produced. Ultimately it is hoped that Mexico will have the capability of installing, with its own resources, five or six large nuclear plants per year

  3. Private sector participation in power sector in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purica, I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to the private participation in the infrastructure projects developed mainly in the transient economies. The comparatively larger risk volatility of this economies is counterbalanced by the expected high return rates of these projects. In these circumstances the paper presents the possibility to use the World Bank Group support for enhancing the private sector investments. After a description of the type of support able to be given, some examples are presented related to an energy project in Pakistan and to two others in China. There is also given a synthesis concerning the potential places in Romania were such projects may be achievable. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  4. The Indian power sector - Role of appellate tribunal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans; Sharma, Deepak

    2010-09-15

    India's electricity-supply industry mainly owned and operated by the public sector has been facing endemic energy and peaking shortages with huge commercial losses. Power sector reforms initiated in 1990s culminated with enactment of The Electricity Act, 2003 is briefly discussed here. Appellate Tribunal for Electricity - a unique feature of the Act - constituted to redress grievances of stakeholders has set ground rules for the power sector having harmonizing effect on the various power sector issues and have reduced the element of uncertainty which was prevalent hitherto fore as revealed by the several case studies this paper presents.

  5. Transforming the Nigerian power sector for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatugel Usman, Zubairu; Abbasoglu, Serkan; Tekbiyik Ersoy, Neyre; Fahrioglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has been plagued with acute power shortages due to poor performance of its power sector. Several policies and reforms have been implemented by the government to address the poor performance of the power generation, transmission and distribution sectors of the electricity industry. Also various strategies were employed by the government which includes encouraging private sector participation, diversification of the energy generation sources and promoting energy efficiency for sustainable development. In addition the government has spent billions of dollars since 2001 in the construction of new power generation facilities, transmission lines and distribution centers to boost the power supply. It has deregulated the generation and distribution sectors to encourage private sector participation and empowers the Energy Commission of Nigeria to embark on programs and strategies that can boost energy generation from renewable sources. This paper examined the country's energy sources and the power sector reforms adopted by the government. The paper also outlined some recommendations based on reforms implemented by other countries with similar resources to Nigeria which yielded positive results. - Highlights: • Available resources for power generation in Nigeria. • Power sector challenges, policies and reforms. • Implications of the reforms implemented. • Recommendations for improving the sector's performance.

  6. Gas and coal competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Despite its many assets, a confluence of factors - including flat electricity demand, rising use of renewable energy sources, falling wholesale electricity market prices, high gas prices relative to coal and low CO 2 prices - has eroded the competitiveness of natural gas in the EU power sector. The share of natural gas in the EU electricity mix has decreased from 23% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2012. By contrast, coal-fired power stations have been operating at high loads, increasing coal demand by the sector. This thorough analysis by CEDIGAZ of gas, coal and CO 2 dynamics in the context of rising renewables is indispensable to understand what is at stake in the EU power sector and how it will affect future European gas demand. Main findings of the report: - Coal is likely to retain its cost advantage into the coming decade: The relationship between coal, gas and CO 2 prices is a key determinant of the competition between gas and coal in the power sector and will remain the main driver of fuel switching. A supply glut on the international coal market (partly because of an inflow of US coal displaced by shale gas) has led to a sharp decline in coal prices while gas prices, still linked to oil prices to a significant degree, have increased by 42% since 2010. At the same time, CO 2 prices have collapsed, reinforcing coal competitiveness. Our analysis of future trends in coal, gas and CO 2 prices suggests that coal competitive advantage may well persist into the coming decade. - But coal renaissance may still be short-lived: Regulations on emissions of local pollutants, i.e. the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) and the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) that will succeed it in 2016, will lead to the retirement of old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the rapid development of renewables, which so far had only impacted gas-fired power plants is starting to take its toll on hard coal plants' profitability. This trend is reinforced by regulation at EU or

  7. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  8. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  9. The development of market power in the Polish power generation sector: A 10-year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how and to which extent consolidation in the Polish power generation sector has affected the potential for market power over the last 10 years. Although this sector has been undergoing liberalisation (privatisation, introduction of TPA regulations and competition etc.), the consolidation efforts shown by Polish governments have resulted in a significant increase in concentration of both installed capacity and production. The methodology applied in this study includes typical ex-post structural and behavioural measures employed to estimate potential for market power, namely: concentration ratios (for the largest and the three largest suppliers), the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, entropy, Supply Margin Assessment, the Residual Supply Index and the Lerner Index. Furthermore, an analysis based on the Gini coefficient was employed to obtain an insight into inequalities. The results of this study show that governmental decisions led to a significant increase in the potential to exercise market power held by key power generation companies. Of key importance was the 2007 consolidation, resulting in an increase in the HHI to 1374 (in terms of installed capacity) and 1945 (in terms of electricity production). This consolidation resulted in the creation of the first Pivotal Supplier in the Polish power generation sector in 2008. - Highlights: ► Market power analysis based on structural and behavioural indices was carried out for the Polish power sector. ► Governmental policy resulted in significant increase in concentration of both installed capacity and generation. ► Increase in the Lerner Index of brown coal-based generation and decrease of the hard coal-based one were observed.

  10. The prospects for hard coal as a fuel for the Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek; KudeLko, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the prospects for the development of the Polish hard coal sector from the perspective of the power sector. The most important issues determining the mid- and long-term future for domestic coal production are: (1) the development of the economy, hence the demand for electricity, (2) regulations (mostly environmental) affecting the power sector, (3) the competitiveness of coal-based technologies, and (4) the costs of domestic coal production. Since the range of issues and relations being considered is very broad, a specific method needs to be employed for the quantitative analysis. The tool applied in this study is the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL, in which both the coal and the power sectors are incorporated. The model focuses on energy-economy-environmental issues without capturing detailed macroeconomic links. The model was run under six scenario assumptions. The results show that the domestic coal sector should maintain its position as a key supplier of primary energy for the Polish power sector. However, the environmental regulations to which the domestic power sector has to conform will decrease the share of coal in the fuel-mix. Since the investment processes in this sector are usually long-term, the effects of changes will be noticeable from 2015 onwards. - Research highlights: →Application of the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL for a quantitative analysis. →Coal will maintain its dominant position in the Polish heat and electricity production fuel-mix at least up to 2020. →Attractiveness of domestic hard coal supplies will depend on the environmental regulations (mostly on the EU level) and development in the world coal market. →The first nuclear power plant will be put into operation in 2020.

  11. Empirical Assessment on Financial Regulations and Banking Sector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines financial regulation and banking sector performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study determines the impact of reforms on banking sector performance and also assesses the nexus between capital adequacy and banking sector performance. Time series data for the period 1993 to 2014 was used. As an analytical tool, the study uses unit root test to determine the stationary state of the variables. We also employed the Johansson co-integration and error correction model (ECM statistical techniques to establish both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships between the endogenous and exogenous variables. The empirical findings indicate that financial regulation significantly impacts the banking sector performance while financial regulation has both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships with the banking sector performance in Nigeria. It was found that the four-period lag of capital adequacy negatively affects banking sector performance and is not statistically significant. The paper suggests that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN should continually make public the impacts that the various financial regulations and reforms have on the performance of Nigerian banks. Majority of the policies on financial regulation by the apex bank (CBN need to be long-run which can enable confidence of stakeholders, shareholders and the general public in the Nigerian banking industry when critically evaluated.

  12. Regulating phosphorus from the agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

      Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural areas is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of water systems in many European countries. Regulatory systems such as ambient taxes or discharge taxes which are suitable for regulation of N are insufficient for regulating P because these systems...... do not take into account the importance of P already stored in the soils. Phosphorus stored in the soils is the major source of P losses to surface waters, but at the same time crucial for the soils ability to sustain a viable crop production. Even if measures on P losses from agricultural areas...

  13. Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2006-01-01

    Power sector reforms in India were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. We also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country. In this context, we discuss two issues arising out of it, namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power

  14. The economics of transition in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The power sector carries a considerably great burden of the CO2 emission reductions required to address climate change, a feature common to many scenarios of emissions abatement. These reductions will only be possible if existing plants are replaced with more efficient and less-emitting types of plants over the coming decades. This report identifies the investments needed in the power sector, and their related risk factors.

  15. Indian power industry: role of private sector in future progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document discusses about the current scenario of power sectors in the country. It deals with the present power policy to encourage the private sector investment. Recommendations of the long-term pricing policy are laid down to meet the financial resources and energy demands. In general the reforms should be guided by the objective of introducing competition wherever possible, so as to minimise the cost to the consumer and improve the quality and services

  16. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  17. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  18. Regulation and competition issues in Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisuttisak, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the issues related to regulatory reform and liberalisation leading toward competition in the Thai electricity sector, which is still under the monopoly control of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Following an overview of the current market structure of the Thai electricity sector, the process of liberalisation and deregulation that contributes to the uncompetitive market structure under SOEs’ control is examined. The author asserts that there are problems within the Energy Commission and the Energy Industry Act BE 2550 (2007) that contribute to the continuance of an uncompetitive electricity supply. Possible reforms to the Thai electricity regulation are proposed with the aim of creating market competition and efficiency in the Thai electricity sector. - Highlights: ► Author studies on the regulatory reform and a development of liberalisation plans on Thai electricity sector. ► The paper presents that the liberalisation plan was affected by the government implementation on electricity corporatisation. ► The paper asserts that the current energy regulation will not lead to market reform and competition in electricity. ► The paper also discusses on the current monopoly structure of Thai electricity sector under state owned enterprises. ► The paper concludes that Thailand needs an appropriate regulatory reform for building competition in electricity sector.

  19. Siemens IT solutions for power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  20. Substation Reactive Power Regulation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.

  1. Application of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector: Inside-sectoral overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art and state-of-practice on the applications of safety and reliability approaches in the Power Sector. The nature and composition of this industrial sector including the characteristics of major hazards are summarized. The present situation with regard...... to a number of key technical aspects involved in the use of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector is discussed. Based on this review a Technology Maturity Matrix is synthesized. Barriers to the wider use of risk and reliability methods in the design and operation of power installations...... are identified and possible ways of overcoming these barriers are suggested. Key issues and priorities for research are identified....

  2. Private Sector Participation in the Indian Power Sector and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, Shashanka; Malik, Payal; Nair, S.K.N.; Blanc, Aymeric; Jaitley, Monica; Acharya, Nandini

    2010-08-01

    In September 2005, AFD's Research Department launched a Research Program on Public Private Partnerships with an approach combining economic analysis (contractual incentives, financing of investment, etc.) with a sociological and political approach to regulatory issues. Various case studies have been conducted in different sectors (water and sanitation, power, transport) and countries. This study falls within the above research framework since India - like most major developing countries - has attempted to introduce market forces in its electric power systems. At the same time, growing concern over global climate change has put the spotlight on the need for India to control its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). India is currently the world's sixth biggest producer of GHG emissions, but is the second biggest if one considers the rate of augmentation of its emissions. Half of India's total GHG emissions are produced by its power sector, and 70 per cent of electricity is generated by thermal power plants, mainly from coal. Climate change mitigation in the power sector is thus a strategic issue for AFD in India. This study is structured so as to examine the intersection of these two crucial challenges in India by exploring the links between private participation in the power sector in India and the reduction of GHG emissions

  3. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  4. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The power sector (dominated by WAPDA and KESC) is still affected by institutional and organisational weaknesses, with ineff...

  5. Direct external investment in the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Silveira, Joyce Perin; Losekann, Luciano Dias

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to identify the foreign investors participants of Brazilian privatization in the electric power sector and to analyze their strategies

  6. Credit risk management in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry has the potential to put power businesses at market risk particularly when the value of an asset or liability will change with market movements. Market risk gives rise to credit risk where a contract cannot be fulfilled. This presentation describes how credit risks can be identified and measured. Most practitioners use some variant of value-at-risk (VAR) technology for measuring market risk. Under this approach, risk is determined by the volatility implied by the market. Volatility of electricity prices and natural gas prices has increased significantly in Alberta in recent years. The consequence is an increase in both market and credit risk. The author described the difference between the two risks and their significance. An overview of credit risk management with derivatives, an over-the counter contract, was also presented. The author also discusses issue of protection buyers in the event of a failed contract. 9 figs

  7. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  8. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  9. Power sector restructuring in West Africa. The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkson, J.

    1997-01-01

    At independence, most countries in the West Africa sub-region adopted a development strategy which was spearheaded by the public sector. The aims at presenting discussions on some of the major issues on initiating the reform process and issues associated with the transition period. Section 2 looks at the energy resources for power development in the region and section 3 discusses some unsustainable trends in the sector. Section 4 presents the issues and discusses them, and finally, section 5 presents the conclusion and some policy implications. The discussions in the paper stress the point that reforming the power sector in the countries in the region is not simply a question of implementing consultants' recommendations, but rather a process that must be thought through, and also involves bringing all the shareholders along and putting the regulatory system and institution in place to ensure acceptability and implementatibility of the proposed changes. Governments in the region have a responsibility to build the capacity necessary to initiate and manage the reform process in the power sector, and understanding the issues involved will help to adopt the right approach to reforming the sector. (ARW) 11 refs

  10. The EEC's single market and the reconstruction of the Nordic electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.

    1992-01-01

    When the Single Market comes into operation, the author claims, vertically integrated, national and regional monopolies within the electric power sector will be abolished. The nature of the new organization of this sector is as yet unclear. The Nordic countries are beginning to prepare themselves for the new situation. The subject of the article is this prospective development and some of the problems that will arise for the Nordic countries in this respect. The various Nordic proposals and their background are described in addition to the present conditions within the Nordic electric power sector. The special problems which may arise in relation to the Nordic adaption to the Single Market, the forms of adaption that are already beginning (adaptions of regulations, legal aspects etc.) on the part of the authorities and the electric power companies' attitudes and adaptions to expected future conditions are elucidated. (AB)

  11. Restructuring of the power sector in Romania - options and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leca, A. [University Politechnica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    Discusses the Romanian energy sector covering the situation under the Communist government and attempts at restructuring since the fall of Communism. Following the fall of Communism 1989, the power sector remained in State ownership and suffered problems such as a lack of a national energy strategy, a weak institutional framework, and the persistence of monopolistic relationships between suppliers and consumers. In 1997 a new government began a programme of energy reform aiming to, for example, improve energy efficiency, set up an institutional framework, reduce environmental impacts and re-evaluate generation capacities of existing plants and those under construction but political problems have slowed the process down. The paper suggests that privatisation is becoming the only solution to problems in the power sector caused by the deterioration of the economic and social situation in Romania. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  13. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia. 31006, Pamplona (Spain); [Canterbury Business School, University of Kent Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  14. Discussion on China's Power Sector Reforms and Where to Next?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    the SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). The research results show that, after a series of reform actions, China's Power sector has shifted from an absolute monopoly to a relative monopoly. This paper conducts four strategic recommendations for the acceleration of China...

  15. Competition, regulation, and energy efficiency options in the electricity sector: Opportunities and challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Amol Anant

    This dissertation explores issues related to competition in and regulation of electricity sectors in developing countries on the backdrop of fundamental reforms in their electricity sectors. In most cases, electricity sector reforms promoted privatization based on the rationale that it will lower prices and improve quality. In Chapter 2, I analyze this rationale by examining the stated capital cost of independent (private) power producer's (IPPs) power projects in eight developing countries and find that the stated capital cost of projects selected via competitive bidding is on an average about 40% to 60% lower than that of the projects selected via negotiations, which, I argue, represents the extent to which the costs of negotiated projects are overstated. My results indicate that the policy of promoting private sector without an adequate focus on improving competition or regulation has not worked in most cases in terms of getting competitively priced private sector projects. Given the importance of facilitating effective competition or regulation, In Chapter 3, I examine the challenges and opportunities of establishing a competitive wholesale electricity market in a developing country context. I model a potential wholesale electricity market in Maharashtra (MH) state, India and find that it would be robustly competitive even in a situation of up-to five percent of supply shortage, when opportunities for demand response are combined with policies such as divestiture and requiring long-term contracts. My results indicate that with appropriate policies, some developing countries could establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. In Chapter 4, I focus on the demand side and analyze the cost effectiveness of improving end-use efficiency in an electricity sector with subsidized tariffs and electricity shortages and show that they offer the least expensive way of reducing shortages in Maharashtra State, India. In Chapter 5, I examine the costs of reducing carbon

  16. The Europeanization of regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, S.A.C.M.; Nauta, T.

    2010-01-01

    The main question of this article is how the ongoing Europeanization of regulation relates to the restrictive manner in which the Dutch legislator interprets the principle of legality with respect to the qualification of the independent regulating authorities. To answer this question, research focuses first of all on which demands are imposed by European law on the constitutional position and qualification of the national regulating authorities that implement the energy directives. Anticipating the consequences of the third generation of energy directives for the position of the national authorities, attention is subsequently paid to the question whether any tension exists between European requirements for the regulation of the energy sector and the manner in which the national legislator interprets the principle of legality. [nl

  17. Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; McCarthy, Rory; Gross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The UK power generation sector faces a major new round of investment: the coincidence of asset retiring and ambitious goals for decarbonisation is not unique, but is particularly acute in the UK. The UK government has put in place a raft of new policies that seek to promote new, low carbon investment and ensure security of supply. The traditional channel for financing the sector has been through large utility companies, but this now looks challenging for various reasons. The UK therefore offers an interesting case study on several counts; the scale of the challenge, effectiveness of new policies, and the availability of alternative finance. We find that the link between the finance sector and the electricity sector is not ‘broken’, but the flow of money to the sector is threatened by the current weakness of the utilities’ business model. This paper compares estimates of the scale of investment required in the UK with historical investment rates. It summarises contemporary finance industry views of conditions and trends, and potential policy interventions that might be needed to bridge the investment gap. The potential for channelling institutional investor funds directly into energy assets is reviewed. - Highlights: • Power investment need to scale up compared to historical trends, but is achievable. • Traditionally, low-cost finance has been through bonds and shares of large utilities. • Utilities are suffering high debt, reduced demand, and suppressed prices. • Policy interventions to scale-up investment are reviewed.

  18. HVDC Transmission an Outlook and Significance for Pakistani Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Jinjian; Baloach, Mazhar H.; Longxin, Bao; Hua, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Recently a paradigm shift in the power sector is observed, i.e., countries across the globe have deviated their attention to distributed generation rather than conventional centralized bulk generation. Owing to the above narrative, distributed energy resources e.g., wind and PV have gained the adequate attention of governments and researchers courtesy to their eco-friendly nature. On the contrary, the increased infiltration of distributed generation to the power system has introduced many technical and economical glitches such as long-distance transmission, transmission lines efficiency, control capability and cost etc. To mitigate these complications, the utility of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission has emerged as a possible solution. In this context, this paper includes a brief discussion on the fundamentals HVDC and its significance in Pakistani power sector. Furthermore, the potential of distributed energy resources for Pakistan is also the subject matter of this paper, so that significance of HVDC transmission can effectively be deliberated.

  19. Power sector development in Malaysia and energy concerned policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Connaught Bridge Power Station)

    1994-03-01

    Discusses privatisation of the Malaysian electric power industry, the role of natural gas and coal in the power sector, and intra-ASEAN power development. At present Malaysia has only one coal-fired power plant - the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz (SSAA) power station in Kapar - consisting of 2 x 300 MW units. Expansion of the plant by the addition of 2 x 500 MW units is in the final stage of contract awards. Apart from this there are no immediate plans for other coal-fired power plants in Peninsular Malaysia. A number of small capacity coal-fired units are being planned for Sabah and Sarawak, where the bulk of Malaysia's coal resources are located.

  20. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting

  1. The development of market power in the Spanish power generation sector: Perspectives after market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Nasirov, Shahriyar; Silva, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the market power problem in the Spanish power generation sector and examines how and to which extent the market has developed in terms of market power concerns after the market liberalization reforms. The methodology applied in this study includes typical ex-post structural and behavioral measures employed to estimate potential for market power, namely: concentration ratios (CR) (for the largest and the three largest suppliers), the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI), Entropy, Pivotal Supply Index, the Residual Supply Index and Residual Demand Elasticity (RDE). The results are presented for the two largest Spanish generating companies (Endesa and Iberdrola) acting in the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL), and in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. The results show evidence that these companies have behaved much more competitively in recent periods than in the beginning of the market liberalization. In addition, the paper discusses important structural and regulatory changes through market liberalization processes in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. - Highlights: •Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. •The methodology applied in this study: ex-post structural and behavioral measures. •Key dominant companies behaved more competitively in recent periods. •Important structural and regulatory changes in the Spanish electricity market.

  2. Technology Development Prospects for the Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Indian power sector will face numerous challenges over the next four decades. More than one third of India's population currently do not have access to electricity. Urgent action is needed to overcome this problem of energy poverty. At the same time rapid economic growth is projected to increase electricity demand by fivefold to sixfold between now and 2050. Massive investments will be needed to meet this increased demand, but this will also create unique opportunities to transform the power sector towards a low-carbon future. This Information Paper presents in more detail the analysis for India published in Energy Technology Perspectives 2010. The paper investigates the best way of achieving deep CO2 emission cuts in the Indian power system while allowing the Indian economy to continue growing and meeting the challenge of alleviating energy poverty. It does so from a techno-economic perspective - building on detailed resource and technology data for India - and identifies the key power sector technologies needed for India to realise such a transition.

  3. Asymmetric regulation measures in the European gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.

    2003-01-01

    Like most of the privatized utilities, the gas market needs to be regulated in order for the positive benefits of competition to fully develop. In addition to the issues of eligibility and access, the regulators have had to deal with several other obstacles, and among other things have raised questions concerning the supply of gas. Asymmetric regulation (release gas and market share reduction measures) is one of the possible responses, making it possible to facilitate access to both resources and consumers. The British regulator was the first to introduce this type of regulation during the 1990's. More recently, Spain and Italy have also adopted it. Although we can find a number of similarities in the causes justifying the use of such regulation, the results obtained vary from one country to another. It appears that they are dependent upon a number of variables including: the existence of national production, the structure of the gas market and finally the level of penetration and growth of gas in various business sectors. (authors)

  4. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  5. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  6. Power, Governance and Boundary Spanning Leadership in Public Sector Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...

  7. Application of combined heat and power in Malaysia Industrial Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaredah Hashim; Faridah Mohd Taha

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is still working on continuing its economic growth especially in the industrial sector in order to achieve vision 2020. The rapid industrialization process has caused increment in the energy demand, which simultaneously increases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficient technologies are strongly needed for reducing the energy requirement and to avoid the depleting of energy resources. This project focused on the application of integrated resource planning (IRP) in industrial sector using Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as a strategy for Demand Side Management (DSM). This approach is another way for meeting near and future energy requirement in Malaysia's industrial sector. Two scenarios which are Business As Usual (BAU) and CHP were developed using End Use Model EUM), to forecast the energy demand and CO 2 emission in Malaysia's industries. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then simulated using Long Range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) software and Comparative Model for Projects of Engineering Economics and Energy Environmental Development (COMPEED) analysis. Evaluations were based on the potential of energy saving and CO 2 reduction. Scope of research was limited to pulp and paper industrial sub sector. The research data were extracted from Energy Audit Reports conducted by Malaysia Energy Center (PTM). An engineering calculation was demonstrated. Two designs of CHP applications for the pulp and paper industrial sector are according to heating and electricity sizing. It was found that the most energy efficient and CO 2 reduction for Malaysia's industrial sector is the CHP based on heating requirement. The method was found to be able of save fuel and GHG emission compared to the reference case. (author)

  8. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  9. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  10. China's power sector reforms - where to next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    With the fastest growing energy demand in the world, China is now the largest electricity consumer after the United States. How can the government best assure affordable and environmentally sustainable electricity supply in the future? The Chinese government has initiated electricity sector reforms to overhaul an antiquated system and attain new energy security and environmental objectives. How China proceeds with these reforms will have lasting consequences, both locally and globally. Assessing the current state of electricity regulation in China, this report draws on experience elsewhere to explore how better to develop and communicate strategy, how to moderate growth in demand through increased efficiency, how to integrate environmental goals into planning and operation, how to ensure sufficient supply when and where it is needed, and how to handle institutional and governance challenges. In this respect, electricity sector reform in other countries offers valuable lessons as to how China might proceed.

  11. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  12. System Dynamics Modelling of the Power Sector in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deenapanray Prakash N. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A system dynamics model has been developed for the power sector of Mauritius, which captures a range of complex interactions between the economic, social and environmental aspects of the national economy, with deeper emphasis on the role of energy in these interactions. The model has been validated by replicating the historical trends of key development indicators, and its results were compared to the projections of the national utility company. The validation process shows that the model provides a faithful representation of the actual electricity sector of Mauritius, and can be easily adapted to the use of different assumptions. This paper describes the main characteristics of the model and its results as compared to electricity demand projections carried out by the Central Electricity Board to 2022. The results suggest that further analysis could be done to test alternative low carbon investment scenarios.

  13. The new EU approach to sector regulation in the network infrastructure industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawley, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of linking sector regulation with competition law in the electronic communications sector in the European Union. It examines two questions. The first is whether, on balance, aligning sector regulation with competition law helps or hinders the achievement of

  14. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands.

  15. Energy saver A-sector power test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Flora, R.; Tool, G.; Wolff, D.

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting magnets and associated cryogenic components in A-sector represent the initial phase of installation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator, designed to accelerate proton beams to energies of 1 TeV. Installation of the magnets, comprising one-eighth of the ring, was completed in December, 1981. Cooldown and power tests took place in the first half of 1982, concurrent with main ring use for 400 GeV high energy physics. The tests described in this paper involved 151 cryogenic components in the tunnel: 94 dipoles, 24 quadrupoles, 25 spool pieces, 3 feed cans, 4 turn-around boxes and 1 bypass. Refrigeration was supplied by three satellite refrigerators, the Central Helium Liquefier, and two compressor buildings. The magnets were powered by a single power supply

  16. 'Nuclearelectrica' and restructuring the electric power sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the first steps of the energy market development in Romania and the impact of this process on 'Nuclearelectrica' company which operates the Cernavoda NPP. The main directions of the power sector liberalization in the European Union are being implemented in Romania. 'Nuclearelectrica' attempts to comply with both economic and safety requirements for nuclear plant operation. So far, the evolution of power market proved the competitiveness of Cernavoda Unit 1 with the existing power producers in Romania. It is stressed that although the 'Hydroelectrica' company sells the MWh at a lower price it cannot cope with top demands higher than 2400 MW. Economical aspects are analyzed and the conclusion is drawn that the situation of 'Nuclearelectrica' company will be significantly changed after the commissioning of Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  17. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  18. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  19. Integrating competition and planning: A mixed institutional model of the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)

  20. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  1. Reorganization of the power distribution sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossani, Rafiq

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the central issues for electricity-sector reform in India, as they grew out of the reform process that began in 1991, and within the context of the sector's organization, regulatory structure, and other institutional characteristics. The paper argues that India's current reform policies will not be sufficient to achieve reliable, efficient power because distribution reform has not been done. Undertaking distribution reform is a difficult path to tread because of the absence of global consensus on best practices and conflicting forces, both economic and political. The paper analyzes alternative institutional structures for reform in the distribution sector. The findings include that the objectives of coverage and efficiency may conflict, that economically efficient reorganization may be politically unachievable and that the small, municipally owned firm may be the best compromise. Since many Indian states are economically and politically diverse from each other, and include both large served and unserved areas, there is scope to vary the organizational structure depending on the state's situation. This paper provides a means to do so. The agenda for policymakers is to identify the situation in their respective states and choose a reorganization path that is the best compromise

  2. Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal; Eberhard, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sector reform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and how the model was used prescriptively in many developing countries. However, we also show that, after more than 15 years of reform efforts, this new industry model has not fully taken root in most developing countries. Finally, we identify and characterize the emergence of new hybrid power markets, which pose fresh performance and investment challenges

  3. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  4. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  5. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  6. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries

  7. Simulation of automatic frequency and power regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Borovikov, Yuri Sergeevich; Pischulin, A. Y.; Ufa, Ruslan Alexandrovich

    2015-01-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate real time simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator played an important role in the planning, design and operation of electric power system. This paper proposes a Hybrid real time simulator of electric power system for simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator. The obtained results of experimental researches o...

  8. 2015 Plan. Project 2: the electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This project shows the economic and the energetic view of the Brazilian electric power sector, mentioning the actual conjuncture; the economy evolution; some sector forecasts; demographical aspects; international price of petroleum and National Energetic Matrix. (C.G.C.)

  9. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...

  10. Generating efficiency: The power of price caps in the public and private Spanish electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Price, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Economic regulation of firms with market power has placed increasing emphasis on incentive-based regulation such as price caps. The move to such regulation often coincides with a change of ownership, making it difficult to separate the incentive effects. We focus on the effect of regulation alone by analysing the imposition of price cap type regulation on both publicly and privately owned Spanish electricity generators in 1988, several years before three was any change of ownership. Our initial results indicate that the publicly owned generators are generally more efficient than the private ones, but that the effect of price caps is to increase the efficiency of private sector plants faster than those in the public sector. We introduce two novelties into the analysis: we incorporate levels of CO2 and NOx emissions; and we include declared plant availability as an output. The outcome is dependent on the choice of inputs and outputs, and we argue that our measures are more appropriate than traditional measures for a system of central despatch for generators facing environmental constraints. (au) 37 refs

  11. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  12. Hydroclimatic risks and uncertainty in the global power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Parkinson, Simon; Raptis, Catherine; Rogelj, Joeri; Satoh, Yusuke; van Vliet, Michelle; Wada, Yoshide; Krey, Volker; Langan, Simon; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 80% of the world's electricity supply depends on reliable water resources. Thermoelectric and hydropower plants have been impacted by low flows and floods in recent years, notably in the US, Brazil, France, and China, amongst other countries. The dependence on reliable flows imputes a large vulnerability to the electricity supply system due to hydrological variability and the impacts of climate change. Using an updated dataset of global electricity capacity with global climate and hydrological data from the ISI-MIP project, we present an overview analysis of power sector vulnerability to hydroclimatic risks, including low river flows and peak flows. We show how electricity generation in individual countries and transboundary river basins can be impacted, helping decision-makers identify key at-risk geographical regions. Furthermore, our use of a multi-model ensemble of climate and hydrological models allows us to quantify the uncertainty of projected impacts, such that basin-level risks and uncertainty can be compared.

  13. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  14. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  15. Access to Power: Governance and Development in the Pakistani Electrical Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ijlal

    This dissertation explores governance in Pakistan through a study of the state-run electrical power sector. At both the micro and macro level, the Pakistani power sector provides a lens into the heart of the Pakistani state and its governance institutions. This ethnographic and historical study offers an in-depth look at state operations in a developing country, situates the current Pakistani power crisis in a larger context of continuity through periods of dictatorship and democracy, and suggests how efforts to make state service delivery more responsive to citizens might be reconceived. A historical review of the Pakistani power sector establishes first and foremost that the current crisis is the product of longer-term processes for which the policy solutions currently being proposed (with the support of international donors and multilateral lenders) are inadequate. Depoliticized attempts at power sector reform have little to offer in light of the pervasively informal and negotiated nature of the fragmented Pakistani state. The institutions of power sector governance are mutually constituted by the formal rules and the informal---personal relationships, language, violence, money, and power. These rules of the game are as relevant to relations within and between public sector organizations as they are to the engagement of citizens with their state. The same rules apply at the margins of the state---informal squatter settlements---as at the core, though the resources brought to bear and the resultant outcomes are different. The internal incoherence of this state underscores the limitations of formal rules in determining outcomes, and the poor prospects for reform efforts that focus exclusively on the formal aspects of governance. To proactively engage with the question of political will leads away from top-down policy perspectives and counter to the depoliticizing tendencies that currently shape policy reforms. Instead, an energized and informed local participation

  16. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  17. How industry can help us fight against botnets : Notes on regulating private-sector intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Could industry improve our response to botnet attacks? If so, how should this private sector participation be regulated? This paper examines how regulation could be used to facilitate private sector intervention against robot networks, also known as botnets. The first part of this paper is dedicated

  18. Powering Profits. Profits, Investments and Fuel Type Mixes in the Dutch Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde-Ramsing, J.; Steinweg, T.

    2007-06-01

    This report addresses the Dutch power sector, identifying the major corporate players in the market, types of fuel used to generate electricity, the profits being made, and investments in both renewable and non-renewable generation capacity. For the purposes of this report, the power sector is understood to encompass production (i.e. generation) and supply of electricity. Some discussion and figures on heat and gas, which are also essential energy services, are provided, but the focus is primarily on electricity. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Dutch power sector, breaking the market down into production and supply. Major players, markets shares, and recent trends and developments are given for each of these activities. Sections 3 - 7 go into detail on the five major corporate players active in the Dutch power sector: ENECO, Essent, Nuon, Electrabel, and E.ON Energie. For each company, information is provided on profits and earnings, the fuel mix used to generate and supply electricity, the CO2 emissions associated with these activities, installed capacity in the Netherlands, and recent investments in renewable and non-renewable generation capacity in the Netherlands. For the Dutch companies, ENECO, Essent and Nuon, additional information on the ownership structure of the company, shareholders and dividends paid and received is given. A section on RWE (Section 8) is also included in the study because, although RWE is not currently active in generating electricity in the Netherlands, RWE Energy does currently supply electricity generated by producers in the Netherlands. In addition, RWE Power is currently planning to invest significantly in power generation capacity in the Netherlands. The final section of the report compares the companies activities in the Netherlands and draws conclusions based on the companies' respective performance

  19. Employment impacts of CDM projects in China's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Zhang, Weishi; Cai, Wenjia; Xie, Xi

    2013-01-01

    There are continuous debates around the question of whether CDM really contributes to sustainable development (SD) in host countries. Employment impact is an essential indicator of SD. Based on an input-out approach this research builds a quantitative assessment model to evaluate the employment impacts of CDM. Both direct and indirect jobs creation and job losses of CDM projects in the power sector registered by the end of 2011 are calculated by project types and power grids where the project is located. Results of this study show that, although the above mentioned CDM projects causes about 99,000 net direct job losses, they also create about 3.08 million indirect jobs, resulting in the gross employment of CDM to be about 2.98 million. Thereof, hydro projects induce both direct and indirect job losses, which comes to approximately 0.89 million. Solar projects have the most potential since they own the highest indirect jobs created by one GWh generation, about 104 jobs/GWh. - Highlights: • An input–output model was built for assessment of CDM projects' employment impact; • CDM projects create direct and indirect jobs while cause some losses in short. • Significant indirect job gains of CDM projects were found; • Solar projects cause 104 jobs/GWh in average, ranking as the highest contributor

  20. Point of view regarding the antitrust policy related to the electricity and thermal power generation sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexe, Fl.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    At present, generation, transmission and selling of power in Romania is actually a monopoly of RENEL (The Romanian Electricity Authority). Moreover, RENEL covers an important share of the heat required by the great district heat consumers and industry (steam). Medium and long term programs for RENEL restructuring aims at moving the power distribution and selling sectors out of RENEL and at restructuring the generation sector. The present papers focuses mainly on those issues related to power generation sector privatization meant to promote a real competition in the field of power generation. To reach this purpose new regulations are necessary to ensure the access to the power system of various consumers satisfying certain technical requirements. This regards also all the independent power producers of electricity and possibly of thermal power (for instance the cogeneration power plants with less than or close to 50 MW). At the same time new concepts such as 'contracted power' and 'transit (wiring) tax' should be implemented in the near future in the business relations. Competition in this field will lead to the development of power market and the enhancement of power investments. (author). 3 refs

  1. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  2. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  3. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  4. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Europe, and covers the following companies, all among the largest electricity companies in Europe: EdF, Enel, E.ON, GDF Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, RWE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  5. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  6. Power electronics converters and regulators

    CERN Document Server

    Dokić, Branko L

    2015-01-01

    This book is the result of the extensive experience the authors gained through their year-long occupation at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the University of Banja Luka. Starting at the fundamental basics of electrical engineering, the book guides the reader into this field and covers all the relevant types of converters and regulators. Understanding is enhanced by the given examples, exercises and solutions. Thus this book can be used as a textbook for students, for self-study or as a reference book for professionals.

  7. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  8. Emerging Changes in the Worldwide Power Sector: The Assets of Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.

    2007-07-01

    In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.

  9. Simulation of automatic frequency and power regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Y. S.; Pischulin, A. Y.; Ufa, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate real time simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator played an important role in the planning, design and operation of electric power system. This paper proposes a Hybrid real time simulator of electric power system for simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator. The obtained results of experimental researches of turbine emergency control of generator demonstrate high accuracy of the simulator and possibility of real-time simulation of all the processes in the electric power system without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and the effectiveness of the proposed simulator in solving of the design, operational and research tasks of electric power system.

  10. European power struggles. Can the EU's decarbonisation agenda break the state-company axis in the power sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattich, T; Ydersbond, IM; Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe’s power system is still marked by a distinct national component, and despite some regions with strongly integrated power systems, electricity supply today still has a largely national basis. Policies to decarbonise the power sector may fundamentally alter this situation, because power

  11. Gains of integrating sector-wise pollution regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the Orani-G Computable General Equilibrium model with an externality market. The externality market is modelled with a limited number of pollution permits that are traded between representative firms in different sectors. The model is applied to identify the gains of a common...... of introducing more coherent regulatory frameworks that include all polluters under the same regulatory system....

  12. Nuclear regulation on the electrical sector's deregulation horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical sector is generally tending towards a deregulated system which will exert greater pressure on production costs. The author uses this article to reflect on the consequences this new conception will bring for nuclear energy and, particularly, for the activity of regulatory agencies and safety requirements. (Author)

  13. Cooperation between the private sector and law enforcement agencies : An area in between legal regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulet, Gertjan; de Hert, Paul; Aden, H.

    2015-01-01

    Our main finding is that the area of cooperation between the private sector and LEAs strongly resembles an “area in between” regulations. The cooperation between private sector and LEAs in the fight against cybercrime is “likely to be occurring independently of the actual existence of any applicable

  14. Systemic risk in the energy sector: is there need for financial regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Gerritsen, M.; Weda, J.; Tieben, B.

    2015-01-01

    The credit crisis points at serious systemic risks in Over The Counter derivative trading. This has resulted in new financial regulation, covering both the financial sector and non-financial sectors. The actual extent to which non-financial companies trading on OTC markets contribute to systemic

  15. Radical innovation in the energy sector and the impact on regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, Saskia; Carrillo, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations on the regulation of the energy sector. It identifies the main radical innovations in the

  16. Restructuring of the electric power sector in Brazil. Analysis of the new institutional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Marcelo Jose C.; Oliveira, Humberto Renato de; Sampaio, Cristiane Collich

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the risks related to the State of not following its original principles and objectives regarding the energy sector. The challenges and risks of the State with its new function as regulator, through the regulation agencies, will be analysed. A comparison between the institutional structure of the Brazilian electrical sector and other countries will be accomplished, focusing on the following aspects: competition, regulation and commercial operation. (author)

  17. Optimal Regulation of Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Anese, Emiliano; Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Simonetto, Andrea; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops a real-time algorithmic framework for aggregations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks to provide regulation services in response to transmission-level requests. Leveraging online primal-dual-type methods for time-varying optimization problems and suitable linearizations of the nonlinear AC power-flow equations, we believe this work establishes the system-theoretic foundation to realize the vision of distribution-level virtual power plants. The optimization framework controls the output powers of dispatchable DERs such that, in aggregate, they respond to automatic-generation-control and/or regulation-services commands. This is achieved while concurrently regulating voltages within the feeder and maximizing customers' and utility's performance objectives. Convergence and tracking capabilities are analytically established under suitable modeling assumptions. Simulations are provided to validate the proposed approach.

  18. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  19. Two wind power prognosis criteria and regulating power costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus S.; Ravn, Hans F.; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    . Basically, the choice is between focusing on predicting the energy content of the wind and focusing on the cost of buying regulating power to compensate for the prognosis errors. It will be shown that it can be expected that the two power curves thus estimated will differ, and that therefore also the hourly......The objective of the present work is to investigate the consequences of the choice of criterion in short-term wind power prognosis. This is done by investigating the consequences of choice of objective function in relation to the estimation of the power curve that is applied in the prognoses...... wind power production predicted will differ. In turn this will influence the operation and economics of the system. The consequences of this are illustrated by application to the integration of wind power in the Danish parts of the Nordpool area, using recent data. Using a regression analysis...

  20. DEVELOPMEMT OF LIQUIDITY REGULATION INSTRUMENTS OF REGIONAL BANK SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roussavskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussed in the article is a model of an improved regulatory framework for credit institutions dealing with investment projects implementation of which will make it possible for business enterprises of various economy sectors whose activities are dependent on investment resources, such as small-scale and medium-scale as well as innovation business enterprises, to reach in the coming years an entirely different level of development.

  1. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  2. The restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector and the universal access to the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to overview the restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector. Tariffs are also commented

  3. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  4. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO 2 , NO x , and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  5. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V K

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  6. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  7. Implications of electric power sector restructuring on climate change mitigation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, G; Bouille, D [Instituto de Economia Energetica, (Argentina); Redlinger, R [UNEP, (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    The Argentine electricity industry has undergone fundamental reforms since 1992, involving large-scale privatisation, and competition in generation and wholesale power markets. In terms of climate change mitigation, these reforms have had the beneficial effect of encouraging improved generation efficiency among thermal power plants and improved end-use consumption efficiency among large industrial firms. However, the reforms have also had the negative effect (from a climate change perspective) of encouraging an ever-increasing use of natural gas combustion for electricity generation, greatly diminishing the role of hydroelectric power which had previously played an important role in the Agentine electricity sector. This report examines the current structure and regulations of the Argentine electricity system and analyses the forces at work which are influencing current technology choices, both in terms of power generation and end-use consumption. The report goes on to examine international experiences in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; and finally, the report considers the applicability of these various policy mechanisms within the Agentine context. (EHS)

  8. Financial Sector Regulation and Reforms in Emerging Markets: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eswar S. Prasad

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex conceptual and practical challenges that emerging market economies face as they attempt to reform their frameworks for financial regulation. These economies are striving to balance the quest for financial stability with the imperatives of financial development and broader financial inclusion. I argue that these objectives can in fact reinforce one another. I also discuss aspects of macroeconomic policies and cross-border regulation that have impl...

  9. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  10. Private Sector Involvement in Urban Solid Waste Collection. Performance, capacity and regulations in five cities in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Oduro-Kwarteng (Sampson)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the private sector involvement in solid waste collection, and the influence of private sector capacity and local governments‘ regulations on private sector performance. Private sector involvement in public service pro-vision evolved to deal with market and

  11. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Sector Carbon Pollution Standards Executive Order 13647--Establishing the White House Council on Native... speeding the transition to more sustainable sources of energy. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am...

  12. Evaluation of the impact of power sector reforms on the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrical power industry in Nigeria has been in a deplorable state for many years. Large, medium and small scale industries suffer adverse effects due to poor services from power utility, which results in dire consequences on the nation's economy. This paper analyzes the economic effects of the power sector reforms ...

  13. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  14. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  15. Challenges of attracting private capital investments in the Russian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila

    2010-09-15

    The level of investment required by the Russian power sector by 2020 are expected to be in the range of USD 500-550 billion. It is of vital importance that Russia outlines an appropriate regulatory regime for its energy market that attracts foreign investors and combats corruption. The most important challenges determining the long term development of the country's power sector are skills development, regulatory effectiveness, corporate governance, and assurance regarding private investments.

  16. The Power of Partnerships: A Private-Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niebur, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The world food crisis, exacerbated by accelerating climate change and the global financial crisis, requires that agricultural scientists solve ever more complex problems. Public–private partnerships will play a more critical role in developing agricultural technologies for developing nations to improve farm productivity and alleviate global hunger. In order to make public–private partnerships work, we must move from the ‘sector mentality’ and focus on combinatorial solutions resolving the mos...

  17. Market Power and Unites States Sectoral Textile Imports

    OpenAIRE

    S Shahnawaz

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates US textiles import elasticities with 20 of its largest textiles exporters by utilizing cointegration methodology. The soon-to-be-implemented abolition of quotas on textiles makes the study of these import elasticities especially relevant to many developing countries particularly to those that have a significant textiles component in their exports. The study uses disaggregated data (4 digit ISIC) to separately consider seven textiles sub-sectors and calculates income and p...

  18. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  19. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  20. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  1. Developing power markets - Development of market place for meeting the demand - Case India, in transition from regulated to competitive structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pranay; Sarkar, Prabhajit Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Power Market players of developing countries with supply deficit are exposed to a unique combination of price risk and quantity risk which is not the case with developed nations that have taken path of liberalization to open up their power markets. India has one of the largest generation capacities in the world, yet till recently the Indian Power sector was highly regulated. However, the last decade has witnessed many initiatives so as to make the sector market oriented. This paper provides opportunity for developing countries to learn from Indian experience of introducing competition in the power sector.

  2. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  3. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  4. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, it tries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  5. Carbon mitigation in the electric power sector under cap-and-trade and renewables policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van den Bergh, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, CO_2 emissions from the electric power sector and energy intensive industries are capped under a cap-and-trade system (i.e., the EU ETS). When other indirect measures are taken to impact emissions in a specific sector under the cap (such as a push for renewables in the electric power sector), this has implications on the overall allowance price, and on CO_2 emissions both from this specific sector and the other sectors under the cap. The central contribution of this paper is the derivation of impact curves, which describe these interactions, i.e., the impact on allowance price and the shift of emissions across sectors. From a set of detailed simulations of the electric power system operation, a so-called “emission plane” is obtained, from which impact curves can be derived. Focus is on interactions between CO_2 abatement through fuel switching and measures affecting the residual electricity demand (such as deployment of renewables) in the electric power sector, as well as on interactions with other sectors, both in a short-term framework. A case study for Central-Western Europe is presented. The analysis reveals a substantial impact of renewables on CO_2 emissions, and hence on emissions shifts across sectors and/or on the CO_2 price. - Highlights: •CO_2 cap-and-trade interacts with policies targeting one specific sector under cap. •Interaction creates emission displacement and/or impacts CO_2 price. •The central contribution is the derivation of impact curves from the emission plane. •The method is applied to a case study of Central-Western Europe. •The analysis reveals a large impact of renewables on CO_2 displacement and/or price.

  6. Sierra Leone : Power Sector Recovery Strategy, Phase I

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Power Planning Associates has been appointed by the World Bank to prepare a strategy for the recovery of the National Power Authority (NPA). This Preliminary Report presents the findings of the audit and proposes potential counter measures to improve NPA s technical and financial performance. These counter measures are presented at the end of each section of the report and are summarised...

  7. Proposal of guidelines for structuring an independent regulation body for the Brazilian nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoll Junior, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory bodies are responsible for regulation in various sectors of society. In Brazil, they work in various areas for the development of the country and have as main objective the social, economic and national development. The progress of new technologies in the nuclear field and their commercialization underscores the need for regulation according to international safety standards. The present research searches through an extensive review of the literature identify the international guidelines for regulatory bodies and make a comparative analysis between Brazil and five countries that have independent regulatory bodies in the nuclear sector. The purpose of the work is to contribute to the Brazilian public sectors, with an evaluation of the country's regulation in the perception of specialists and propose guidelines for the structuring of an independent regulatory body, respecting international agreements and the legislation in force in the country. (author)

  8. An impact assessment of electricity and emission allowances pricing in optimised expansion planning of power sector portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios I.; Rentizelas, Athanasios A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The impact of electricity and CO 2 allowance pricing in power sector is researched. → A stochastic programming approach without recourse is used for the optimisation. → Higher electricity prices may be proportionally beneficial for the power system. → The CO 2 allowance prices may be inversely proportionate with the expected yields. → High CO 2 allowance prices are inhibitors for conventional technology projects. -- Abstract: The present work concerns a systematic investigation of power sector portfolios through discrete scenarios of electricity and CO 2 allowance prices. The analysis is performed for different prices, from regulated to completely deregulated markets, thus representing different electricity market policies. The modelling approach is based on a stochastic programming algorithm without recourse, used for the optimisation of power sector economics under multiple uncertainties. A sequential quadratic programming routine is applied for the entire investigation period whilst the time-dependent objective function is subject to various social and production constraints, usually confronted in power sectors. The analysis indicated the optimal capacity additions that should be annually ordered from each competitive technology in order to substantially improve both the economy and the sustainability of the system. It is confirmed that higher electricity prices lead to higher financial yields of power production, irrespective of the CO 2 allowance price level. Moreover, by following the proposed licensing planning, a medium-term reduction of CO 2 emissions per MW h by 30% might be possible. Interestingly, the combination of electricity prices subsidisation with high CO 2 allowance prices may provide favourable conditions for investors willing to engage on renewable energy markets.

  9. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  10. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, Rob; Shestalova, Victoria; Kocsis, Viktória

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison to innovations in energy-efficient fossil-fuel generators. Subsequently, we characterize technical change in electricity generation technologies, stressing the heterogeneity of knowledge spillovers both within and between clean electricity generation technologies. We argue that there exists a rationale for a portfolio approach to innovation in the electricity sector, i.e., optimal innovation policies are neither fully generic nor fully specific; and they need to be adapted, in response to new information learned by the government. The existing innovation literature does not, however, provide a clear-cut answer for designing such a policy. We compare policy instruments and argue that public R and D support to clean technologies, either in the form of subsidies or prizes, seems to be the prime candidate for implementing non-generic innovation policy. - Highlights: • We analyze policies for spurring innovations in renewable electricity technologies. • The analysis unravels why research markets underprovide such innovations. • We conclude that non-generic R and D subsidies and prizes are the most suitable policies

  11. Simulating conditions for combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, David

    2005-01-01

    The most important issues in the European energy sector today are how to increase competitiveness on the energy markets, reduce both CO2 emissions and dependence on imported fuels. These issues are also important aspects of Swedish energy policy. In Sweden, the district heating (DH) sector has commonly been used to achieve Swedish energy policy goals. However, the ongoing integration and deregulation of the energy markets in Europe now means that the Swedish DH sector can also play an important role in achieving international targets. This thesis investigates the extent to which the Swedish DH sector can contribute to compliance with current energy policy targets, both international and Swedish. The study consisted of simulations of the Swedish DH sector response to various policy instruments in a model that takes the local features of virtually all Swedish DH systems into account. The findings show, for example, that there is great potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in the Swedish DH sector. By exporting this CHP electricity to other European countries with less effective and fossil dependent power generation plants, the CO2 emissions from the European energy sector could be substantially reduced. This would also result in increased security of supply and competitiveness in the EU, since fuel use would be more effective. In Sweden, increased CHP generation would also be a way of maintaining an effective national security of supply of power

  12. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  13. Analysis of multi-pollutant policies for the U.S. power sector under technology and policy uncertainty using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Investments in power generation, pollution controls, and electricity end use equipment are made in the face of uncertainty. Unanticipated events can cause regret-commitments that in retrospect were the wrong choices. We analyze how three uncertainties-electricity demand growth, natural gas prices, and power sector greenhouse gas regulations-could affect electric power sector investment decisions and costs in the U.S. over the next four decades. The effect of multi-pollutant regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) upon these decisions and costs is also considered. We use decision trees to structure the problem, defining multiple futures for each uncertainty and then simulating how the U.S. energy market responds to them. A two-stage stochastic version of the energy-economy model MARKAL simulates the market. Relative importance of the uncertainties is assessed using two indices: expected cost of ignoring uncertainty (ECIU) and expected value of perfect information (EVPI). We also calculate the value of policy coordination (VPC), the cost saved by avoiding surprise changes in policy. An example shows how a stochastic program can be used to compute these indices. The analysis shows that the possibility of greenhouse gas regulation is the most important uncertainty by these measures.

  14. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  15. Energy - an overview of issues in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Y.S.; Anil Kumar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Economic growth is critically dependent on energy which is a key input in all forms of products. With the ecological and environmental concerns for sustainable use of energy, much emphasis is being laid on demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation and alternative sources of energy. This is being witnessed in the long term trends of energy - gross domestic product (GDP) elasticity, which has declined due to changing technology especially for the industrial sector whose share is comparatively reducing in the overall energy consumption. This paper examines mainly the issues involved in meeting the growing demand for electricity, most important form of energy. These issues have been classified as Technical, Financial, Institutional, Policy, Political and International. Each issue is not mutually exclusive of the other and therefore calls for an integrated and holistic approach while addressing them. (author)

  16. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  17. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  18. Steps towards Nuclear Power Regulator in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatebe, E.

    2017-01-01

    The first radiation protection law in Kenya was passed in 1948 and it was referred to as the''Radiological Protection Ordinance -1948''. The ordinance established the Radiological Protection Board (RPB). The current law is the Radiation Protection Act, Cap 243.that was amended in 2014. To regulate the peaceful use of atomic energy through provision of nuclear safety and security culture for the protection of persons, society and the environment against radiation. The Establishment of Nuclear Electricity Project Committee in 2010 is Predecessor of KNEB (2012). Whose mandate among others: Assist in coming up with a legalisation and regulatory framework for support of nuclear power. Human resource development for support of Nuclear Power programme. The country hosted Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) and Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Missions in 2015 and 2016 respectively to addressed legal and regulatory framework. A Multi-agency cooperation has resulted to the Nuclear Regulatory Bill. The Government has been sponsoring 15 students annually for post graduate studies in Nuclear Science at University of Nairobi. IAEA has been a great partner in the development of Kenya's nuclear regulatory regime; It is expected that in the next two years, Kenya will have the core capacity for regulating a nuclear power program. The Bill has taken into consideration suggestions and recommendation of the INIR & IRRS Missions, and comments from the office of Legal Affairs-IAEA and local stakeholders

  19. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  20. How do countries regulate the health sector? Evidence from Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaranayake, L; Mujinja, P; Hongoro, C; Mpembeni, R

    2000-12-01

    The health sectors in many low- and middle-income countries have been characterized in recent years by extensive private sector activity. This has been complemented by increasing public-private linkages, such as the contracting-out of selected services or facilities, development of new purchasing arrangements, franchising and the introduction of vouchers. Increasingly, however, experience with the private sector has indicated a number of problems with the quality, price and distribution of private health services, and thus led to a growing focus on the role of government in regulation. This paper presents the existing network of regulations governing private activity in the health sectors of Tanzania and Zimbabwe, and their appropriateness in the context of emerging market realities. It draws on a comparative mapping exercise reviewing the complexity of the variables currently being regulated, the level of the health system at which they apply, and the specific instruments being used. Findings indicate that much of the existing regulation occurs through legislation. There is still very much a focus on the 'social' rather than 'economic' aspects of regulation within the health sector. Recent changes have attempted to address aspects of private health provision, but some very key gaps remain. In particular, current regulations in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: (1) focus on individual inputs rather than health system organizations; (2) aim to control entry and quality rather than explicitly quantity, price or distribution; and (3) fail to address the market-level problems of anti-competitive practices and lack of patient rights. This highlights the need for additional measures to promote consumer protection and address the development of new private markets such as for health insurance or laboratory and other ancillary services.

  1. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.

    1991-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs

  2. Demand-side management (DSM) in the context of China's on-going power sector reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Jiao, Yiqian; Chen, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    As an approach to manage power demand-side resources, DSM plays an important role in electric power system. Though DSM was introduced into China in the early 1990s, its benefits have been underutilized. Using literature study, interview methods and three data sources, this paper examines the likely impacts of China's on-going power sector reform on its DSM. It finds that the major constraints to DSM in China are the insufficient and improper market-based DSM mechanism, grid companies’ low motivations for DSM due to their traditional business model, the underdeveloped energy service industry, and electricity end-users’ low motivation for DSM. China's on-going power sector reform will change power transmission and distribution pricing and grid companies’ business model and introduce competition into retail-side. Drawing on these findings, it is concluded that the likely impacts of the new reform on DSM are: governments may attach more importance to DSM; grid companies may have more motivations for DSM investment; electricity end-users’ motivations for DSM may be both enhanced and dampened; electricity retailers’ motivations for DSM may be dampened; demand response application may be enhanced, and more DSM business models may be developed. Finally, policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • Mechanism of and constraints to DSM in China are examined. • China’s on-going power sector reform is overviewed. • DSM is likely to be enhanced under China's on-going power sector reform. • Policy implications are provided.

  3. Compact, self-regulating nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Otis G.; Kimpland, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    An inherently safe nuclear power source has been designed, that is self-stabilizing and requires no moving mechanical components. Unlike conventional designs, the proposed reactor is self-regulating through the inherent properties of uranium hydride, which serves as a combination fuel and moderator. The temperature driven mobility of the hydrogen contained in the hydride will control the nuclear activity. If the core temperature increases over the set point, the hydrogen is driven out of the core, the moderation drops and the power production decreases. If the temperature drops, the hydrogen returns and the process is reversed. Thus the design is inherently fail-safe and requires only minimal human oversight. The compact nature and inherent safety opens the possibility for low-cost mass production and operation of the reactors. This design has the capability to dramatically alter the manner in which nuclear energy is harnessed for commercial use. (author)

  4. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  5. REALIZATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN POWER GENERATION SECTOR AND DETERMINATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the basic directions of an investment activity in the power generation sector of the Republic of Belarus and importance of the realization of planned actions at the present moment. The main sources for financing modernization of basic production funds of the Belarusian power generation system have been analyzed in the paper. The paper describes general problems and difficulties that the power industry is facing while realizing investment projects. The most important problem is a formation of sources for complete project financing due to sharp price rise for imported power resources. The paper considers various approaches to provision of the required sources for financing investment activity in the power sector. The paper shows the need for a tariff policy reform, which is to be aimed, first of all, at the reduction of the cross subsidizing in power tariffs.

  6. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yener

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  7. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Changyoon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  8. Portal in the power sector - it is vision or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornak, L.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the presentation is to introduce the portal solutions, to describe the types, characteristic features and abilities of the portal and to define required attributes of the portal in the power segment. The author will try to answer the questions whether such portal exists at the present time, what is needed in order to implement the portal and how to do the portal maintenance and management

  9. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  10. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  11. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategies behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  12. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  13. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  14. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  15. The transformation of the electric power sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Tan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    China's industrial transformation of the past thirty years, when its GDP has been increasing by an average of 10% per year, has been underpinned by an energy industrial revolution. Electrical energy is the driver of this transformation, with China utilizing latecomer advantages in building an electrical energy generation machine of prodigious size. In terms of electrical energy generated, China's system has expanded twelve-fold in 30 years, from 280 TWh in 1980 to over 3500 TWh in 2010. In this paper we describe the principal features of this remarkable transformation, examining the official projections to 2020, the semi-official projections to 2050, and offering our own projections based on observed logistic industrial dynamics for the uptake of renewable energies as well as the continuing role to be played by fossil fuels, particularly coal. We emphasize the role to be played by China's construction of a ‘strong and smart’ electric power grid, as envisaged in the 12th Five Year Plan released in March 2011, and the complementary proposals to build a national high speed rail system. We see China as on track to phase out fossil fuels altogether in its power production system by the end of the century. We develop an argument as to why it might be expected that fossil fuel utilization will decline while renewable energy utilization might increase in China, constituting a genuine energy industrial revolution. - Highlights: ► Our interpretation of official projections to 2020. ► Our projections to 2050 using logistic industrial dynamics. ► A strong and smart national power grid. ► A national high-speed rail system.

  16. Evaluation of Integrated Air Pollution and Climate Change Policies: Case Study in the Thermal Power Sector in Chongqing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of environmental degradation has already had a dramatic impact on the Chinese economy. In order to curb these trends, the government of China has introduced stricter regulations. With this in mind, it is important to quantify the potential co-benefits of introducing air pollution and climate change mitigation policies. This study proposes relevant scenarios ranging from the current trends (baseline to the introduction of different policies in the thermal power sector, including different carbon tax rates, technology innovation promotion, and technology cost reduction methods. We aim to comparatively evaluate the impact of the proposed policies within the thermal sector and within the entire socio-economic system. To this end, we used a dynamic input–output (I-O model, into which high-efficiency technologies were incorporated as new thermal power industries in order to estimate policy impact during the time period 2010–2025. The results of this study demonstrated that the introduction of one or more of the following policies: carbon taxes, subsidies, technology innovation, and technology cost reduction, has no notable impact on the environment or the economy without the implementation of environment regulations. In contrast, the strong support of a government subsidy coupled with strict environmental regulations will promote technological innovation, for example through the natural gas combined cycle (NGCC and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC. Our study also showed that the reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as well as energy consumption would curb economic development to a certain extent. Taking this into consideration, innovation must also be promoted in other economic sectors. This research provides a strong reference for policy-makers to identify effective polices under different types of environmental regulations.

  17. The influence of the new Basel regulation rules on the Slovak banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Zimková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to quantify an impact of the new Basel regulation rules which are known as Basel III on the Slovak banking sector. We present methodology provided by the Bank for international settlement in its monitoring workbook and as to database the set of central bank statements and reports provided upon request have been used. Based on our calculations we discovered three main impacts of the Basel III on the Slovak banking sector: i the volume and quality of the capital meet requirements of the new Basel regulation already. There are no hybrid instruments in Tier 1 Capital. Movements in volumes of expected risk-weighted assets in the Slovak banking sector won´t be relevant particularly due to absence of toxic assets associated with financial markets; ii calculated indicator of leverage is more than two times higher as the requested one; iii the liquidity coverage ratio and the net stable funding ratio are even today in the Slovak banking sector highly above standards and they do not require any transitional period. The direction of the development of the world banking is returning to the classical trading model and the parameters are set for this. The Slovak banking sector did not manage to leave this classical model and this will help it now and also in the future.

  18. Market designs for a completely renewable power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The article discusses whether the current German electricity market design is suitable for an electricity system completely based on renewable sources, and analyzes alternatives. Such a system becomes ever more likely due to the phase-out of nuclear power and the carbon reduction targets. Various existing scenarios for a completely renewable electricity system are analyzed and compared with respect to the contribution of different renewable technologies. Challenges for the market design arising from the differences between the current and a completely renewable system are identified - notably problems with cost recovery and investment incentives, an increased need for balancing and/or intraday adjustments, an increased diversity of actors, grid congestion and the continuing occurrence of market power. The current market design's ability to solve these issues is assessed with the result that all but the critical problem of investment incentives and cost recovery can be solved by adapting certain rules. A comparison with other suggested market designs reveals that some designs could ensure cost recovery and investment incentives. However, these market designs have other drawbacks. Therefore, the identification of the optimal market design for a completely renewable electricity system requires further research regarding the qualitative and quantitative effects of different changes to the current market design. The article concludes by developing concrete policy recommendations. (orig.)

  19. Decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 — Analyzing the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jägemann, Cosima; Fürsch, Michaela; Hagspiel, Simeon; Nagl, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80–95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The transition towards a low-carbon economy implies the almost complete decarbonization of Europe's power sector, which could be achieved along various pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector by applying a linear dynamic electricity system optimization model in over 36 scenarios. We find that the costs of decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 vary between 139 and 633 bn € 2010 , which corresponds to an increase of between 11% and 44% compared to the total system costs when no CO 2 reduction targets are implemented. In line with economic theory, the decarbonization of Europe's power sector is achieved at minimal costs under a stand-alone CO 2 reduction target, which ensures competition between all low-carbon technologies. If, however, renewable energies are exempted from competition via supplementary renewable energy (RES-E) targets or if investments in new nuclear and CCS power plants are politically restricted, the costs of decarbonization significantly rise. Moreover, we find that the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets depend on the acceptance of alternative low carbon technologies. For example, given a complete nuclear phase-out in Europe by 2050 and politically implemented restrictions on the application of CCS to conventional power plants, supplementary RES-E targets are redundant. While in such a scenario the overall costs of decarbonization are comparatively high, the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets are close to zero. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector. • Total decarbonization costs vary between 139 and 633 billion € 2010 up to 2050. • Decarbonization at minimal costs is ensured by competition between all low carbon technologies. • Excess costs of supplementary

  20. Carbon emission scenarios of China's power sector: Impact of controlling measures and carbon pricing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study constructs a low-carbon path analysis model of China's power sector based on TIMES model and presents a comparative analysis of carbon emissions under Reference, Low-Carbon and Enhanced Low-Carbon scenarios, and the main difference of the three scenarios is manifested by policy selection and policy strength. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1 The peak of carbon emission in China's power sector will range from 4.0 GtCO2 to 4.8 GtCO2, which implies an increment of 0.5–1.3 billion or 14%–35% from the 2015 levels. (2 Introducing carbon price is an effective way to inhibit coal power and promote non-fossil fuels and Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage applications (CCUS. The carbon emission reduction effects will gradually increase with carbon price. When the carbon price attains to CN¥150 t−1CO2, the CO2 emission can decrease by 36% than that without carbon price. (3 CCUS is one of important contributing factor to reduce CO2 emission in power sector. Generally speaking, the development of non-fossil fuels and energy efficiency improvement are two main drivers for carbon mitigation, but once the carbon price reaches up to CN¥106 t−1CO2, the CCUS will be required to equip with thermal power units and its contribution on carbon emission reduction will remarkably increase. When carbon price increases to CN¥150 t−1CO2 in 2050, the application of CCUS will account for 44% of total emission reduction. (4 In the scenario with carbon price of CN¥150 t−1CO2, power sector would be decarbonized significantly, and the CO2 intensity will be 0.22 kgCO2 (kW h−1, but power sector is far from the goal that achieving net zero emission. In order to realize the long-term low greenhouse gas emission development goal that proposed by the Paris Agreement, more efforts are needed to be put to further reduce the carbon emission reduction of power sector. Based on the above scenario analysis, the study proposes four recommendations

  1. Getting the right balance between regulation and governance in the non-bank financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Mayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the collapse of the finance company sector in New Zealand in 2006-2010 to illustrate the problems with light touch regulation and a reliance on good governance to ensure financial stability. It shows two major governance failures, the first in the governance of the sector by the authorities and the second, serious failures in corporate governance by the firms involved. While a light touch may assist economic development it also increases fragility. New Zealand has now switched to a greater emphasis on regulation and to a better alignment of incentives to ensure good governance. While other countries might consider implementing aspects of its new bank resolution regime most are opting for considerably more regulation and compliance costs.

  2. Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector for the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Newbery, D.; Tjin, T.; Verdonkschot, I.; Buitelaar, T.; Van Gent, C.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in this report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector

  3. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  4. The Regulated Third Sector: Administrative Practices Of Citizenship And Constitutional Efficiency Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Moura de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from an approach about the evolution of organizational models of the States, this work goals, initially, outline the evolution of these models in the Brazilian State, analyzing the development of the Third Sector as an exponent of the Managing State. Establish afterwards the development of the entities of civil society and the urge for its regulation due to dissemination of its many species. After short report of the most recent regulatory practices, the importance of the Sector concludes itself as apex of the active role of citizenship, whereas advocate the constitutional efficiency in the atuation of such entities.

  5. The influence of the new Basel regulation rules on the Slovak banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Zimková; Jana Tašková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to quantify an impact of the new Basel regulation rules which are known as Basel III on the Slovak banking sector. We present methodology provided by the Bank for international settlement in its monitoring workbook and as to database the set of central bank statements and reports provided upon request have been used. Based on our calculations we discovered three main impacts of the Basel III on the Slovak banking sector: i) the volume and quality of the capital meet re...

  6. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  7. Foreign powers competition in the mining sector of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the issue of Mongolia cooperation with foreign companies playing an important role in its foreign policy strategy and national security. At the beginning of the 1990s, having proclaimed a “multipillar” policy strategy in relations with the world, Ulaanbaatar tends to follow it in the economic cooperation not willing to give any preference to any country. It creates a situation of competition between foreign companies backed by their states, especially such great powers as Russia, China, the USA. The most tense moment in the struggle for the influence in Mongolia is the rivalry betw een the different discourses, pretending the exclusive right to nominate the most effective model of cooperation between Mongolia and foreign states in the ore-mining industry. Among the most well-defined discourses, there are three of them. China prefers to define the discourse of “economic feasibility”. Western states, as a rule, tend to rely on the discourse of “values community”, which includes such concepts as “democracy”, “environmentally friendly”, “transparency” Russia often uses the “geopolitical” discourse. In spite of the attractiveness and relative effectiveness of the discourse selected by Russia, there are certain limits to its use.

  8. Successful New Product Development by Optimizing Development Process Effectiveness in Highly Regulated Sectors: The Case of the Spanish Medical Devices Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.; Cabello-Medina, Carmen; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Visscher, Klaasjan; Groen, Arend J.; Tschirky, H.; Herstatt, C.; Probert, D.; Gemunden, H.G.; Colombo, M.G.; Durand, T.; de Weerd-Nederhof, P.C.; Schweisfurth, T.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid development and commercialization of new products is of vital importance for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in regulated sectors. Due to strict regulations, competitive advantage can hardly be achieved through the effectiveness of product concepts only. If an SME in a highly

  9. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  10. CO{sub 2} abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-09-15

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO{sub 2} emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  11. CO2 abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO 2 emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  12. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervashidze, N

    1994-12-31

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.).

  13. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.

    1994-01-01

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.)

  14. State regulation of nuclear sector: comparative study of Argentina and Brazil models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro Filho, Joselio Silveira

    2004-08-01

    This research presents a comparative assessment of the regulation models of the nuclear sector in Argentina - under the responsibility of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), and Brazil - under the responsibility of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), trying to identify which model is more adequate aiming the safe use of nuclear energy. Due to the methodology adopted, the theoretical framework resulted in criteria of analysis that corresponds to the characteristics of the Brazilian regulatory agencies created for other economic sector during the State reform staring in the middle of the nineties. Later, these criteria of analysis were used as comparison patterns between the regulation models of the nuclear sectors of Argentina and Brazil. The comparative assessment showed that the regulatory structure of the nuclear sector in Argentina seems to be more adequate, concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, than the model adopted in Brazil by CNEN, because its incorporates the criteria of functional, institutional and financial independence, competence definitions, technical excellence and transparency, indispensable to the development of its functions with autonomy, ethics, exemption and agility. (author)

  15. An analysis of Grenada's power sector and energy resources: a role for renewable energy technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Presently, Grenada's power sector is fully dependent on fossil fuel imports for meeting the country's electricity demand. Electric utilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in general, face high cost of electricity generation due to diseconomies of scale in production, consumption and logistical aspects. Grenada's private power monopoly is no exception and the high cost of import dependent electricity generation places an increasing burden on economic development. In light of rapid technological and economic improvement of renewable energy technologies (RETs), the country's abundant sources of renewable energy should be harnessed. Benefits are envisaged to include lower electricity cost, better environmental performance and a safer and diversified supply of energy. However, barriers for shifting power production towards meaningful contributions from RETs exist, both in government and industry. This work analyses important economic interactions between the power sector and economic development, bringing to attention the importance of power sector reform. Further, present problems of integrating RETs into the grid, ranging from technical and regulatory issues to shareholder interest are investigated. A summary and analysis of past research into renewable sources of energy (RES) underscore the potential for power production from RETs in Grenada. (author)

  16. Analyses and simulations in income frame regulation model for the network sector from 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askeland, Thomas Haave; Fjellstad, Bjoern

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the income frame regulation model for the network sector in Norway, introduced 1.st of January 2007. The model's treatment of the norm cost is evaluated, especially the effect analyses carried out by a so called Data Envelopment Analysis model. It is argued that there may exist an age lopsidedness in the data set, and that this should and can be corrected in the effect analyses. The adjustment is proposed corrected for by introducing an age parameter in the data set. Analyses of how the calibration effects in the regulation model affect the business' total income frame, as well as each network company's income frame have been made. It is argued that the calibration, the way it is presented, is not working according to its intention, and should be adjusted in order to provide the sector with the rate of reference in return (ml)

  17. Design of an optimal automatic regulator for regulating the power levels of a nuclear reactor in a wind power range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori Khajavi, M.; Menhaj, M.B.; Ghofrani, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are, in nature nonlinear and time varying. These characteristics must be considered, if large power variations occur in their working regime. In this paper a robust optimal self-tuning regulator for regulating the power of a nuclear reactor has been designed and simulated. The proposed controller is capable of regulating power levels in a wide power range (10% to 100% power levels). The controller achieves a fast and good transient response. The simulation results show that the proposed controller outperforms the fixed optimal control recently cited in the literature for nuclear power plants

  18. Readiness of Kosovarian forest sector to comply with the regulations of the EU Due Diligence Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mads Birk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze how illegal logging in Kosovo can be reduced to fulfill the EU (European Union) Due Diligence regulation (EU, 2010). The study is comprised by four main objectives that present reviews of the most important articles and reports on the topic, an overview of the laws and policy instruments and their implementation, interviews with key actors in the forest sector of Kosovo and finally an analysis and conclusion on the challenges and solutions to reduce illegal...

  19. Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Trade and Production in the Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) have not reached a consistent conclusion. The existing literature is primarily based on anecdotes and scattered case studies. This study analyzes the trade flows and composition change of the most polluting industries in manufacturing sectors among countries in order to offer a more general conclusion. This study finds that stricter environmental regulation stringency decreases the net export and production share of the most p...

  20. Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Bruno; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO 2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO 2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO 2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: → CO 2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. → Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. → Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. → Impact of different CO 2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

  1. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  2. A Sectoral Micro-Economic Approach to Scenario Selection and Development: The Case of the Greek Power Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Flamos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating policy-relevant scenarios is instrumental for understanding and developing policy measures. These are especially relevant to the power sector. Practitioners have been working on policy-relevant scenarios for the ex-ante assessment of policy measures in a meaningful way for end-users related to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper presents a method for generating such policy relevant scenarios by focusing on the actor-contingent elements of the scenarios, i.e., the developments that are within the control of system actors to change or bring about. Several scenario techniques focusing on systematic-formalized or quantitative approaches have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a methodology that is best suited for the assessment of the expected effect of different policy measures on the involved stakeholders’ behavior as well as for the analysis of the interactions between different policy measures as reflected on their impact on the strength and direction of the provided incentives. The applicability of our methodology is demonstrated for the case of the Greek power market. It was further evaluated in view of the challenges related to the issues of generation capacity adequacy and increased fiscal deficit. The strategic implications of the proposed approach concern the demonstration of the benefits from adopting a policy assessment methodology that focus on stakeholder expectations and interactions.

  3. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  4. The implications of free allocation versus auctioning of EU ETS allowances for the power sector in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Hers, J.S.; Lise, W.

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is to analyse the implications of shifting from free allocation to auctioning of EU ETS allowances (EUAs) for the power sector in the Netherlands. In order to achieve this objective, this study has used three methodological approaches, including theoretical, empirical and model analyses of the impact of free allocations versus auctioning of EUAs on the power sector, notably in the Netherlands. In addition, as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plays a major role in the electricity sector of the Netherlands, the present study also pays some particular attention to the implications of shifting from free allocation to EUA auctioning for the CHP sector in the Netherlands

  5. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  6. Panorama 2015 - Gas and Coal Competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Never have the fossil-fueled thermal European power sector, and natural gas in this sector, seen such a crisis. EON's recent announcement of its future withdrawal from fossil-fueled thermal power generation illustrates the difficulties faced by producers in Germany. But the whole European power sector is in deep crisis, and natural gas is its first victim. Faced with a flat electricity demand in Europe, the rapid development of renewable energies, and competition from coal, natural gas is losing market share and its consumption is in decline. In 2013, total gas consumption in the European Union (EU) fell for the third year running. Projections for 2014 are no better, consumption is forecast to decline by approximately 10%, greatly affected by the mild winter of 2013/2014 compared with the previous one which was particularly cold over a long period. The milder temperatures impact the need for heating, therefore consumption in the residential/services sectors and also the demand for electricity. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is now predicting that European consumption will not get back to its 2010 level until 2032. (author)

  7. Impacts on investments, and transmission/distribution loss through power sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances.

  8. The impact of high temperature superconductivity on the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsky, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The progress and prospects for the application of high temperature superconductivity to the Electric Power Sector has been the topic of an IEA Implementing Agreement, begun in 1990. The present Task Members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. As a result of the Implementing Agreement, work has been done by the Operating Agent with the full participation of all the member countries. This work has facilitated the exchange of information among experts in all countries and has documented relevant assessments. Further, this work has examined the status of high amperage conductor, fault-current limiters, superconducting magnetic energy storage, cables, rotating machines, refrigeration, and studies of the power system. The Task Members find more progress toward applications than many expected five years ago and the grounds for further international collaboration to hasten the use of superconductors in the power sector, early in the 21st century

  9. Power sector reforms in Ethiopia: options for promoting local investments in rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teferra, Mengistu [Ministry of Economic Development and Co-operation, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    An estimated 13% of Ethiopia's population has access to electricity. Almost all electrified centres are urban, with rural areas as well as most small rural towns largely unelectrified. Rural electrification (RE) thus remains a major challenge to the power sector of Ethiopia. The national power utility (EEPCO) has traditionally been assigned the task of electrifying rural demand centres. EEPCO has, however, concentrated on the more developed and profitable urban areas. The objective of this article is to present the findings of a study that examined whether the ongoing power sector reforms in Ethiopia can attract private investment in RE as an alternative to the sole reliance on EEPCO. Initial findings of the study indicate that private investment in RE can be enhanced with some improvement in the legal and regulatory provisions, along with extension of technical assistance from EEPCO to private investors. (Author)

  10. Nonlinear integrated resource strategic planning model and case study in China's power sector planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Kang, Junjie; Zhang, Xingping; Hu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we expand the IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) model by including the external cost of TPPs (traditional power plants) and popularization cost of EPPs (efficiency power plants) with nonlinear functions. Case studies for power planning in China during 2011–2021 are conducted to show the efficacy of the model. Scenarios are compiled to compare the pathways of power planning under different policies. Results show that: 1) wind power will become competitive with technical learning, but its installation is undesirable when the external cost of coal power is not internalized; 2) the existence of popularization cost will hinder EPPs' (efficiency power plants) deployment and pure market mechanism is not enough to deliver EPPs at socially desirable scale; 3) imposition of progressive emission tax on coal power at an average of 0.15–0.20 RMB/KWh can remedy the market distortion and promote the development of wind power by a significant margin; 4) nuclear power will grow stably when its external cost is set no more than 0.187 RMB per KWh, or 87% of its internal cost. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for decision support in the process of power planning and policy formulation for national government. - Highlights: • Improve IRSP model by adding nonlinear external and popularization cost. • The model is used to conduct China's power sector planning in 2011–2021. • Simulate the impacts of alternative energy policies on planning results. • The model can be used for joint power sector planning and policy design

  11. Globalization of the energy sector - a U.S. regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallaur, Carolita [Offshore Minerals Management, U.S. Department of the Interior (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to globalization of the energy sector addressing issues of significant importance to the United States. The author touches upon a number of activities MMS (Mineral Management Service) is involved in with a focus on a joint project being engaged in with NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) to help the Russian Federation develop a safety and environment regime for its offshore. The aim of the project are national standards that set requirements for local and regional governments, safety and environment requirements that conform to international standards, apply to both Russian and foreign firms, and sharing of best practices between NPD, MMS and Russian authorities

  12. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  13. Contesting authority: China and the new landscape of power sector governance in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip Matthew

    Two co-constructed trends threaten to complicate global efforts to manage climate change. Electric power in developing countries is becoming more coal-intensive, while the international institutions capable of assisting lower-carbon growth paths are having their authority challenged by an emergent set of institutions under China's leadership. In the last decade Chinese firms and state banks have become central players in power sector development across the developing world; China has been involved in over sixty percent of Africa's hydropower capacity and is the single largest exporter of coal power plants globally. Statistical and qualitative evidence suggests that China's growing role in these power markets has contributed to re-prioritization of the power sector in U.S. bilateral development assistance, complicated negotiation and implementation of coal power finance rules among OECD export credit agencies, and influenced where the World Bank chooses to build hydropower projects. The thesis establishes a framework for understanding responses to discord in development governance by drawing inductively on these contemporary cases. Competition between established and emerging actors increases with two variables: 1) conflicting ideological, commercial and diplomatic goals (difference in interests); and 2) the degree to which the emerging actor challenges rules and norms upheld by the established actor (contested authority). Competitive policy adjustment - one actor seeking to undermine or diminish the other's pursuit of its objectives - has been historically commonplace when an emerging actor challenged an established actor in the regime for development assistance. China's growing authority in global power sector assistance has prompted competitive policy adjustment among established donors while also enabling recipient countries to leverage donors and better direct their own development pathways. The thesis shows that although contested authority increases

  14. Chinese FDI and psychic distance perceptions on regulations in the German renewable energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarini, Katiuscia; Lattemann, Christoph; Spigarelli, Francesca; Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Countries vary in dimensions such as culture, language, business practices, policy-making, regulations, etc. Research shows that distances between countries concerning these dimensions affect foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. The higher the distances, the higher the difficulties for businesses, as managers’ decision-making is based on their perception of those distances. This paper analyzes the perception of distances between China and Germany by surveying Chinese managers who invested in Germany in the renewable energy (RE) sector, using Child et al.’s (2009) measure of psychic distance (PD) as a guide. The RE sector is young and highly dynamic, and the dimensions of PD are constantly changing. Mismatches in the perception of PD ex ante and ex post the decision to engage in FDI may lead to possible FDI failure. We use a five-company multiple case study to analyze if Chinese managers perceive distances in various dimensions, particularly regulation-based, and if there is a mismatch of perceptions between the pre-market and post-market entry period to investigate if managers’ perceptions change over time. Our findings lead to recommendations for practitioners and international business scholars, and policy making in the RE sector, by showing that operationalizing the PD construct should be complemented by dynamic analysis. - Highlights: • Chinese managers investing in Germany cope with distances on various dimensions • Decision-making is based on managers’ perception of those distances • This is particularly true for the RE sector and the relative regulation-based dimensions • “Prior experience” is a moderating variable and impacts managers’ perceptions. • Literature gap: perceptions vary over time and learning effects are detected.

  15. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  16. Modelling of hydro and wind power in the regulation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviluoma, J.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.

    2006-01-01

    The amount of required regulation capacity in the power system is affected by the wind power prediction errors. A model has been developed which can evaluate the monetary effects of prediction errors. The model can be used to evaluate (1) the regulation costs of wind power, (2) regulation market prices including effects related to the participation of power producers in the regulating power market, (3) value of accurate wind forecasts and (4) the effect of decreasing the length of the spot market clearance. This article discusses the problems related to developing a realistic model of the regulating power market including the interaction between the spot market and the regulating power market. There are several issues that make things complicated. (1) How to calculate the minimum amount of needed secondary (minute) reserves. Traditionally the Nordic TSOs have used an N-1 criteria in each country to determine the required amounts of positive secondary reserve, but as installed wind power capacity grows, it will become relevant to include the wind power prediction errors in the estimation of secondary reserves. (2) Consumption forecast errors and plant outages also contribute to activation of regulating power and should have stochastic input series besides wind power. (3) Risk premiums and transaction costs in the regulating power market are difficult to estimate as well as the effects of the possible use of market power. This is especially true in the Nordic system with the high share of hydro power, since the water value and hydrological limitations make things more complex than in a thermal system. (4) The available regulation capacity is not necessarily equal to the truly available capacity. All producers don't participate in the regulation market although in principle they could. (orig.)

  17. Effectiveness and regulation in the Norwegian power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittelsen, S.A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with the Norwegian research project dubbed ''Effectiveness in the power supply''. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology and a suitable tool (EDB-PC) to assess the cost effectiveness in the electric power distribution network in order to stipulate the average prices of power distribution in the different network levels. Topics cover as follow: Demand of regulation; measuring method and data; measured effectiveness; regulation of the Norwegian power distribution. 52 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  18. The insertion perspective of electric power independent producer in the Brazilian electric power sector; A perspectiva da insercao do produtor independente de energia eletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Alessio Bento; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: mborelli@netpoint.com.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of this work is to evaluate the electric power independent producer participation in Brazilian electric power sector.

  19. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  20. A theoretical approach to dual practice regulations in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, there is wide cross-country heterogeneity in government responses to dual practice in the health sector. This paper provides a uniform theoretical framework to analyze and compare some of the most common regulations. We focus on three interventions: banning dual practice, offering rewarding contracts to public physicians, and limiting dual practice (including both limits to private earnings of dual providers and limits to involvement in private activities). An ancillary objective of the paper is to investigate whether regulations that are optimal for developed countries are adequate for developing countries as well. Our results offer theoretical support for the desirability of different regulations in different economic environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  2. Radical Prosumer Innovations in the Electricity Sector and the Impact on Prosumer Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Lavrijssen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations, enabling social innovations such peer to peer trading and the participation in local energy collectives, on the regulation of the rights and obligations of consumers and prosumers in the electricity sector. It identifies the main radical innovations in the electricity market and analyses the legal and related non-legal obstacles that may impede the empowerment of energy consumers and prosumers. Some recommendations are provided to ensure that consumers and prosumers are empowered and can benefit from these new technological and social innovations in the electricity market. The recommendations relate to an accurate definition of prosumers and active consumers, the integration of demand response, the evolving role of distribution network operators and the birth of peer-to-peer trading.

  3. Electric power and the global economy: Advances in database construction and sector representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey C.

    The electricity sector plays a crucial role in the global economy. The sector is a major consumer of fossil fuel resources, producer of greenhouse gas emissions, and an important indicator and correlate of economic development. As such, the sector is a primary target for policy-makers seeking to address these issues. The sector is also experiencing rapid technological change in generation (e.g. renewables), primary inputs (e.g. horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), and end-use efficiency. This dissertation seeks to further our understanding of the role of the electricity sector as part of the dynamic global energy-economy, which requires significant research advances in both database construction and modeling techniques. Chapter 2 identifies useful engineering-level data and presents a novel matrix balancing method for integrating these data in global economic databases. Chapter 3 demonstrates the relationship between matrix balancing method and modeling results, and Chapter 4 presents the full construction methodology for GTAP-Power, the foremost, publicly-available global computable general equilibrium database. Chapter 5 presents an electricity-detailed computational equilibrium model that explicitly and endogenously captures capacity utilization, capacity expansion, and their interdependency - important aspects of technological substitution in the electricity sector. The individual, but interrelated, research contributions to database construction and electricity modeling in computational equilibrium are placed in the context of analyzing the US EPA Clean Power Plan (CPP) CO 2 target of 32 percent reduction of CO2 emissions in the US electricity sector from a 2005 baseline by 2030. Assuming current fuel prices, the model predicts an almost 28 percent CO2 reduction without further policy intervention. Next, a carbon tax and investment subsidies for renewable technologies to meet the CPP full targets are imposed and compared (Chapter 6). The carbon tax

  4. Quantifying the Impacts of Large Scale Integration of Renewables in Indian Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Mishra, T.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-12-01

    India's power sector is responsible for nearly 37 percent of India's greenhouse gas emissions. For a fast emerging economy like India whose population and energy consumption are poised to rise rapidly in the coming decades, renewable energy can play a vital role in decarbonizing power sector. In this context, India has targeted 33-35 percent emission intensity reduction (with respect to 2005 levels) along with large scale renewable energy targets (100GW solar, 60GW wind, and 10GW biomass energy by 2022) in INDCs submitted at Paris agreement. But large scale integration of renewable energy is a complex process which faces a number of problems like capital intensiveness, matching intermittent loads with least storage capacity and reliability. In this context, this study attempts to assess the technical feasibility of integrating renewables into Indian electricity mix by 2022 and analyze its implications on power sector operations. This study uses TIMES, a bottom up energy optimization model with unit commitment and dispatch features. We model coal and gas fired units discretely with region-wise representation of wind and solar resources. The dispatch features are used for operational analysis of power plant units under ramp rate and minimum generation constraints. The study analyzes India's electricity sector transition for the year 2022 with three scenarios. The base case scenario (no RE addition) along with INDC scenario (with 100GW solar, 60GW wind, 10GW biomass) and low RE scenario (50GW solar, 30GW wind) have been created to analyze the implications of large scale integration of variable renewable energy. The results provide us insights on trade-offs involved in achieving mitigation targets and investment decisions involved. The study also examines operational reliability and flexibility requirements of the system for integrating renewables.

  5. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  6. VUJE capabilities for participation in the development of Slovak power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with VUJE Trnava, Inc. capabilities for participation in the development of Slovak power sector. It is concluded that VUJE supports the completion of Mochovce units 3 and 4 as the most effective option; VUJE calls of the Slovak government to revive negotiations on a revision of a commitment to close V1 units Bohunice NPP in 2006 or 2008 respectively; VUJE is prepared to be an important participant in supply system for Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4

  7. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking a......As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore......, on average, 30-40 per cent of the region's population, the authors discuss the issues involved, drawing on the experiences of other countries whether there are any apparent 'preconditions' for success. Second, the role renewable energy can play in this process and the extent to which lessons from other parts...... of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they cannot be all...

  8. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  9. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  10. Open innovation in the power & energy sector: Bringing together government policies, companies’ interests, and academic essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, Marco; Locatelli, Giorgio; Lisi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The Power and Energy (P&E) sector needs to respond to several challenges fostering investments in research and development. According to the Open Innovation (OI) paradigm, key stakeholders like utilities, vendors, laboratories, universities etc. should take advantage of external knowledge to improve their innovation performance. Several studies have demonstrated that firms adopting the OI paradigm are more likely to innovate. Despite the interest of P&E firms in enhancing their innovation capabilities, surprisingly few articles (usually case studies) described the implementation of the OI paradigm in P&E firms. This article fills the gap by identifying the key drivers that encourage a firm in the P&E sector to embrace the OI paradigm. The authors adopt a hybrid research approach collecting evidence from the literature and through a multiple case-study analysis involving seven British firms and universities operating in the P&E industry. As the drivers of OI have mutual influence, this article describes them with a fuzzy cognitive map. Finally, the authors identify appropriated policies to enhance the OI adoption and, consequently, the sustainability of innovation in the P&E sector. A salient research agenda closes the paper. - Highlights: • Stakeholders are increasingly adopting the Open Innovation (OI) paradigm. • OI can enhance firms and universities innovation performance. • Few studies analyzed the OI implementation in the Power and Energy (P&E) sector. • We identify the factors encouraging the adoption of the OI paradigm in the P&E sector. • We show benefits of OI obtained by P&E firms, universities, and associates in the UK.

  11. Longitudinal Patterns of Compliance with OSHA Health and Safety Regulations in the Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne B. Gray; Carol Adaire Jones

    1989-01-01

    We examine the impact of OSHA enforcement on company compliance with agency regulations in the manufacturing sector, with a unique plant-level data set of inspection and compliance behavior during 1972-1983, the first twelve years of the agency operation. The analysis suggests that, for an individual inspected plant, the average effect of OSHA inspections during this period was to reduce expected citations by 3.0 or by .36 s.d. The total effect on expected citations of additional inspections ...

  12. Energy saving in residential and tertiary sectors: regulations, inciting measures and consumer attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, P.; Aubert, D.; Grel, P.; Herant, P.; Molia, J.P.; Thelinge, H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving regulations in the residential and tertiary sectors are under permanent evolution. What are the most significant rules already existing and under preparation? What is the position of the natural gas industry with respect to this regulatory environment? Is there more specific regulatory measures that would be needed to reach the CO 2 abatement goals? What are the means to sensibilize consumers? What are the contributions of the building industry and of energy services? This workshop gathered five experts and a chairman who debated these different points. (J.S.)

  13. Power Watch - A global, open database of power plants that supports research on climate, water and air pollution impact of the global power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Kressig, A.; Van Groenou, S.; McCormick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenge The lack of transparent, accessible, and centralized power sector data inhibits the ability to research the impact of the global power sector. information gaps for citizens, analysts, and decision makers worldwide create barriers to sustainable development efforts. The need for transparent, accessible, and centralized information is especially important to enhance the commitments outlined in the recently adopted Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Offer Power Watch will address this challenge by creating a comprehensive, open-source platform on the world's power systems. The platform hosts data on 85% of global installed electrical capacity and for each power plant will include data points on installed capacity, fuel type, annual generation, commissioning year, with more characteristics like emissions, particulate matter, annual water demand and more added over time. Most of the data is reported from national level sources, but annual generation and other operational characteristiscs are estimated via Machine Learning modeling and remotely sensed data when not officially reported. In addition, Power Watch plans to provide a suite of tools that address specific decision maker needs, such as water risk assessments and air pollution modeling. Impact Through open data, the platform and its tools will allow reserachers to do more analysis of power sector impacts and perform energy modeling. It will help catalyze accountability for policy makers, businesses, and investors and will inform and drive the transition to a clean energy future while reaching development targets.

  14. Development of the auto gas and LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey: A statistical case study of the sector for Bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamangil, M. Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the development of LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey and the policies applied by the Turkish Government as well as the total fleet of LPG-powered vehicles in Bursa province, which is assumed as typical district to represent whole Turkey, are analyzed. We also tried to point out economical losses and applicational problems caused by wrong energy and environmental policies in Turkey. We aimed to focus a guiding light on the newly developing auto gas markets in different countries through the problems resulting from the fast growth of the sector and the experiences in Turkish application

  15. Work place regulations - effects on power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes that the Workplace Order and Workplace Regulations cannot be applied in every area of a conventional power station or the conventional sections of nuclear power stations. In any case extensive regulations already exist for the hot regions of nuclear power stations. A proposal is made as to which areas of power stations should be developed in accordance with the Workplace Order and the Workplace Regulations and which areas are not deemed to be 'Workplaces'. This is illustrated with the aid of typical examples. (orig.) [de

  16. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    In order to avoid unmanageable impacts of anthropogenic climate change, it is necessary to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} emission reductions in all energy sectors. Due to salient decarbonization options such as renewable energy technologies and carbon capture and storage (CCS), the power sector plays a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. However, these options come with a set of challenges: the output of wind and solar energy varies in time and space and CCS faces technical challenges and public acceptance problems. This thesis develops power sector decarbonization scenarios for the EU and Germany while taking into account both the interplay of renewable energy technologies and CCS as mitigation options as well as the technical challenges of renewable energy integration. More specifically, a series of model based studies address the respective roles of CCS and renewable energy technologies in emission reduction strategies while evaluating technical integration options such as transmission, storage and balancing technologies. Results show that large-scale expansion of renewable energies will play the main role in power sector decarbonization scenarios, but the availability of CCS could lead to lower total costs and easier reaching of emission reduction targets through compensation of emissions generated by balancing technologies. Long-distance transmission enables better siting of renewable energy and thus higher achievable renewable shares in power generation and higher capacity factors. These indirect effects of delayed expansions induce additional power system costs, which are high relative to investment costs for new transmission lines. Results also reveal a preference for flexible technologies in combination with high shares of renewables for balancing purposes rather than inflexible baseload plants. A case study for the EU shows that a near-complete decarbonization is possible both with and without transmission expansions, but total power

  17. CO2 cost pass-through and windfall profits in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Yihsu Chen

    2006-01-01

    In order to cover their CO 2 emissions, power companies receive most of the required EU ETS allowances for free. In line with economic theory, these companies pass on the costs of these allowances in the price of electricity. This article analyses the implications of the EU ETS for the power sector, notably the impact of free allocation of CO 2 emission allowances on the price of electricity and the profitability of power generation. As well as some theoretical reflections, the article presents empirical and model estimates of CO 2 cost pass-through for Germany and The Netherlands, indicating that pass-through rates vary between 60 and 100% of CO 2 costs, depending on the carbon intensity of the marginal production unit and various other market- or technology-specific factors. As a result, power companies realize substantial windfall profits, as indicated by the empirical and model estimates presented in the article. (Author)

  18. Preliminary study for understanding the moderating role of government regulations in telecom sector of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Beenish; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik

    2017-10-01

    Telecommunication sector of Pakistan is a significant contributor toward the economic development of Pakistan. However, telecommunication sector of Pakistan underwent a lot of changes from regulatory and marketing perspective in 2015, resulting in decreased cellular penetration, dropped down the cellular subscribers and decreased telecommunication revenue. Hence, this research paper is designed to validate the constructs used in addressing the moderating role of government regulations based on Oliver's four-stage loyalty model in telecom sector of Pakistan. This preliminary study has mainly employed the quantitative method (i.e. survey questionnaire), consisting of a total of 72 items related to eight constructs under study and used 7 points Likert scale. The main analysis method used is the reliability test of the constructs. The results reveal that the Cronbach alpha readings were between 0.756 and 0.932, indicating internally consistent and reliable measures of the constructs used. This result enables the constructs to be included in the actual data collection without change.

  19. A sustainable scenario for Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050 and its costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The present research study used the quantitative approach to analyze the present and future situation of the Venezuelan power generation sector; to achieve that, the total energy generation costs and GHG emissions of four scenarios in 2050 were estimated and compared, considering two demand groups, high and low demand. For each demand scenario, two supply matrix were considered, a generation matrix based on the existing national power generation plans and trends (these scenarios were referred as BAU) and a configuration based on the renewable energy resources available in Venezuela and without the use of either nuclear or CCS technologies, and these scenarios are referred as Sustainable Scenarios (SUS). In the first section, the present situation is presented, followed by an explanation of the applied methodology and the implemented tools. In the third and fourth sections the available recourses and the applied basic assumptions for the four of scenarios are presented and discussed, respectively, followed by the results. In this study it is shown that Venezuela has all the resources it needs to achieve sustainable development in the power generation sector. It is also proved that an energy efficiency improvement is the easiest path to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Venezuela has enough energy resources to supply the energy require for its development. ► A sustainable scenario is posible in Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050. ► The sustainable scenario is technically possible without nuclear power or carbon capture storage technologies. ► The impact over the depleatable resources is higher under the BAU assumptions.

  20. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Computerized reactor power regulation with logarithmic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossanyi, A.; Vegh, E.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized reactor control system has been operating at a 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, for some years. This paper describes the power controller used in the SPC operating mode of the system, which operates in a 5-decade wide power range with +-0.5% accuracy. The structure of the controller easily limits the minimal reactor period and produces a reactor transient with constant period if the power demand changes. (author)

  2. Safety regulation KTA 3901: Communication systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The regulation applies to communication systems in stationary nuclear power plants with at least one power plant unit, i.e. alarm systems, staff locator systems, communicators, and systems for external communication. The regulation determines the type and extent of staff communication systems as well as the demands to be made on layout, installation, operating systems, and testing of communication systems for nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Baselines for carbon emissions in the Indian and Chinese power sectors: Implications for international carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Shukla, P.R.; Victor, David G.; Heller, Thomas C.; Biswas, Debashish; Nag, Tirthankar

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the dynamics of carbon emissions baselines of electricity generation in Indian states and Chinese provinces in the backdrop of ongoing electricity sector reforms in these countries. Two Indian states-Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and three Chinese provinces-Guangdong, Liaoning and Hubei have been chosen for detailed analysis to bring out regional variations that are not captured in aggregate country studies. The study finds that fuel mix is the main driver behind the trends exhibited by the carbon baselines in these five cases. The cases confirm that opportunities exist in the Indian and Chinese electricity sectors to lower carbon intensity mainly in the substitution of other fuels for coal and, to a lesser extent, adoption of more efficient and advanced coal-fired generation technology. Overall, the findings suggest that the electricity sectors in India and China are becoming friendlier to the global environment. Disaggregated analysis, detailed and careful industry analysis is essential to establishing a power sector carbon emissions baseline as a reference for CDM crediting. However, considering all the difficulties associated with the baseline issue, our case studies demonstrate that there is merit in examining alternate approaches that rely on more aggregated baselines

  4. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  5. Active Power Regulation based on Droop for AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed...... to successfully follow the active power command. The limitation of each method is discussed in term of small signal stability and light load sharing, respectively. Discussion on the effects of power command is also given. The simulation is carried out for both the strategies to verify the active power control...

  6. RPI -X in the regulation of the Dutch energy sector. X, the great unknown?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knops, H.P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article analyses the use of the formula RPI - X (in Dutch: cpi - x) in the regulation of the Dutch energy sector. This issue has become current since the Trade and Industry Appeals Tribunal (College van Beroep voor het bedrijfsleven) ruled that the way in which the X was determined for the electricity supply tariffs for captive customers, did not comply with the 1998 Electricity Act. First, it is discussed what scheme the legislator envisaged concerning RPI - X in the 1998 Electricity Act and the Gas Act. Second, the practice of the RPI -X regulation is set out and its divergence from the legislator's intentions explained. Third, the decision of the Trade and Industry Appeals Tribunal and its consequences are described. Fourth, the proposed repair measures are discussed. To conclude, a final analysis of the Dutch RPI - X case, and some suggestions for its future will be given [nl

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF REGINONAL REGULATIONS SUPERVISION IN FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Rumesten RS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous regional administration may say 80% fail, even many violations in governance can be seen from the many local regulations canceled by the government. The problem of this study is how the regulatory supervision of the financial sector among local parent with a new autonomous regions. Methods used in this research is to examine the normative Law 23 of 2014 and Act No. 17 of 2003. From the results, that local governments still have to master to supervise all local regulations and regulatory policies that made the district / city, especially in the field of finance. An obligation on the parent region to assist funding over three years for new autonomous regions interfere with the delivery system of local governance parent, therefore before diotonomkan, candidates should be prepared to be autonomous administrative regions that after diotonomkan not interfere peyelenggaraan dependent and parent local government.

  8. Regulation of non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    critical source areas taking spatial parameters into account. With reference to the joint findings of all four papers it is concluded that a tax on P surplus can be a core element in a close-to-efficient policy regulating P losses from the agricultural sector. However, the general tax fails to regulate...... P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment. The first paper identifies the most important parameters to include in a dynamic model where farm profit is maximized over time whilst taking soil-P dynamics into account. The second paper...... completes the modelling framework from paper 1 and analyses how a tax on P surpluses motivates the different farmer types to utilize the soil-P stock and implement measures to reduce P loss. The third and fourth papers are empirical, where a farm profit maximization model is developed for an area...

  9. The creation of the health consumer: challenges on health sector regulation after managed care era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Celia; Franco, Tulio; Merhy, Emerson E

    2011-02-24

    We utilized our previous studies analyzing the reforms affecting the health sector developed in the 1990s by financial groups to frame the strategies implemented by the pharmaceutical industry to regain market positions and to understand the challenges that regulatory agencies are confronting. We followed an analytical approach for analyzing the process generated by the disputes between the financial groups and the pharmaceutical corporations and the challenges created to governmental regulation. We analyzed primary and secondary sources using situational and discourse analyses. We introduced the concepts of biomedicalization and biopedagogy, which allowed us to analyze how medicalization was radicalized. In the 1990s, structural adjustment policies facilitated health reforms that allowed the entrance of multinational financial capital into publicly-financed and employer-based insurance. This model operated in contraposition to the interests of the medical industrial complex, which since the middle of the 1990s had developed silent reforms to regain authority in defining the health-ill-care model. These silent reforms radicalized the medicalization. Some reforms took place through deregulatory processes, such as allowing direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs in the United States. In other countries different strategies were facilitated by the lack of regulation of other media such as the internet. The pharmaceutical industry also has had a role in changing disease definitions, rebranding others, creating new ones, and pressuring for approval of treatments to be paid by public, employer, and private plans. In recent years in Brazil there has been a substantial increase in the number of judicial claims demanding that public administrations pay for new treatments. We found that the dispute for the hegemony of the health sector between financial and pharmaceutical companies has deeply transformed the sector. Patients converted into consumers are

  10. The creation of the health consumer: challenges on health sector regulation after managed care era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhy Emerson E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We utilized our previous studies analyzing the reforms affecting the health sector developed in the 1990s by financial groups to frame the strategies implemented by the pharmaceutical industry to regain market positions and to understand the challenges that regulatory agencies are confronting. Methods We followed an analytical approach for analyzing the process generated by the disputes between the financial groups and the pharmaceutical corporations and the challenges created to governmental regulation. We analyzed primary and secondary sources using situational and discourse analyses. We introduced the concepts of biomedicalization and biopedagogy, which allowed us to analyze how medicalization was radicalized. Results In the 1990s, structural adjustment policies facilitated health reforms that allowed the entrance of multinational financial capital into publicly-financed and employer-based insurance. This model operated in contraposition to the interests of the medical industrial complex, which since the middle of the 1990s had developed silent reforms to regain authority in defining the health-ill-care model. These silent reforms radicalized the medicalization. Some reforms took place through deregulatory processes, such as allowing direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs in the United States. In other countries different strategies were facilitated by the lack of regulation of other media such as the internet. The pharmaceutical industry also has had a role in changing disease definitions, rebranding others, creating new ones, and pressuring for approval of treatments to be paid by public, employer, and private plans. In recent years in Brazil there has been a substantial increase in the number of judicial claims demanding that public administrations pay for new treatments. Conclusions We found that the dispute for the hegemony of the health sector between financial and pharmaceutical companies has deeply

  11. Development of the Ukrainian power sector taking into account the environmental impact of power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, E.; Krymskaya, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the following problems: Evaluation of total environmental impacts from all kinds of power plants on the whole territory of Ukraine; evaluation of environmental impacts in selected regions due to uneven power facilities distribution. Analysis of the environmental situation in Ukraine was conducted using the IMPACTS module of the ENPEP package with account to the Ukrainian energy requirements in perspective. Some recommendations concerning the development of power facilities and reduction of air emissions are also given. (author). 7 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Development of the Ukrainian power sector taking into account the environmental impact of power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyakova, E; Krymskaya, L [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    This paper concentrates on the following problems: Evaluation of total environmental impacts from all kinds of power plants on the whole territory of Ukraine; evaluation of environmental impacts in selected regions due to uneven power facilities distribution. Analysis of the environmental situation in Ukraine was conducted using the IMPACTS module of the ENPEP package with account to the Ukrainian energy requirements in perspective. Some recommendations concerning the development of power facilities and reduction of air emissions are also given. (author). 7 figs, 5 tabs.

  13. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Belt, Juan A.B.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context.

  14. Timing-based business models for flexibility creation in the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, Thorsten; Loock, Moritz; Bohnsack, René

    2016-01-01

    Energy policies in many countries push for an increase in the generation of wind and solar power. Along these developments, the balance between supply and demand becomes more challenging as the generation of wind and solar power is volatile, and flexibility of supply and demand becomes valuable. As a consequence, companies in the electric power sector develop new business models that create flexibility through activities of timing supply and demand. Based on an extensive qualitative analysis of interviews and industry research in the energy industry, the paper at hand explores the role of timing-based business models in the power sector and sheds light on the mechanisms of flexibility creation through timing. In particular we distill four ideal-type business models of flexibility creation with timing and reveal how they can be classified along two dimensions, namely costs of multiplicity and intervention costs. We put forward that these business models offer ‘coupled services’, combining resource-centered and service-centered perspectives. This complementary character has important implications for energy policy. - Highlights: •Explores timing-based business models providing flexibility in the energy industry. •Timing-based business models can be classified on two dimensions. •Timing-based business models offer ‘coupled services’. • ‘Coupled services’ couple timing as a service with supply- or demand side valuables. •Policy and managerial implications for energy market design.

  15. Economic Valuation Methods: The Perception of the Accountants of the Hydroeletric Power Sector in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracéli Cristina de S. Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify how accountants perceive the electric power companies in Brazil, regarding the use of economic valuation methods for measuring environmental impacts on hydroelectric power generation. These methods would be used in the internalisation of impacts in compliance with accounting theory criteria of recognition, measurement and disclosure of relevant economic activities. This is an exploratory study based on the conclusion regarding the collected data from a questionnaire answered by accountants, who worked in the electric power sector and were members of the Brazilian Electric Power Sector Accountants Association (ABRACONEE. The research showed that 74% of respondents were accountants or accounting analysts, 92% of them believed that companies should account for (internalise environmental impacts caused by their activities, and 75% of them believed that this task should be based on detailed and specific norms determining what should be done and when and how to do it. Despite their high level of accounting knowledge and complete familiarity with the changes determined by the Brazilian Securities Commission, respondents adopted a conservative stance in relation to the use of estimated values or those obtained in hypothetical markets. The study revealed the existence of a vast field of research that has yet to be explored by accounting in the field of environmental accounting, especially in terms of both measurement and recognition of environmental impacts caused by diverse economic activities

  16. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary [International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Belt, Juan A.B. [US Agency for International Development, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20523-3800 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context. (author)

  17. An Investigation of Atmospheric Mercury from Power Sector in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Bich Pham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic pollutant with a long range transport in the atmosphere resulting in both local and global concerns. Understanding of emissions is required to support an effective control strategy. In this study, atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in Thailand in 2010 were investigated by using the bottom-up approach to improve the accuracy of the estimate by up to 50% in comparison to those provided in global inventories. The activity data of each individual source were collected and emissions factors were assessed based on local sources, well reflecting the emissions behavior of various emitters in Thailand. The atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in 2010 amounted to 844.5 kg, in which emissions from coal and lignite power plants constituted up to 92.3% and biomass power plants constituted up to 7.4%. Spatial and temporal distribution analysis indicated high emissions in the Central and Northern regions, and from February to July. Annual trends in emissions from 2010 to 2030 were estimated and discussed.

  18. A blocked takeover in the Polish power sector: A model-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    As the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection refused to approve a government initiated takeover in the Polish power sector and the Court of Competition and Consumer Protection did not make a ruling on that case, the takeover was finally prohibited. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to carry out a quantitative analysis of the impact of the takeover in question on electricity prices and quantities, consumer and producer surpluses, dead weight loss and emissions. The scope of the study covers the Polish power generation sector and the analysis was carried out for 2009. A game theory-based electricity market equilibrium model developed for Poland was applied. The model includes several country-specific conditions, such as a coal-based power generation fuel-mix, a large share of biomass co-combustion, etc. For the sake of clarity, only four scenarios are assumed. The paper concludes that the declared synergy savings did not compensate for the increase in dead weight loss and the transfer of surplus from consumers to producers caused by increased market power. - Highlights: • A takeover blocked by the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection was analysed. • A game theory-based model of the Polish wholesale electricity market was applied. • The impact of the takeover on electricity prices and generation levels, surplus transfers and dead weight loss was estimated. • The results were compared with the declared synergy savings

  19. Issues in Energy Economics Led by Emerging Linkages between the Natural Gas and Power Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel prices in 2006 continued at record levels, with uranium continuing upward unabated and coal, SO 2 emission allowances, and natural gas all softening. This softening did not continue for natural gas, however, whose prices rose, fell and rose again, first following weather influences and, by the second quarter of 2007, continuing at high levels without any support from fundamentals. This article reviews these trends and describes the remarkable increases in fuel expenses for power generation. By the end of 2005, natural gas claimed 55% of annual power sector fuel expenses, even though it was used for only 19% of electric generation. Although natural gas is enormously important to the power sector, the sector also is an important driver of the natural gas market-growing to over 28% of the market even as total use has declined. The article proceeds to discuss globalization, natural gas price risk, and technology developments. Forces of globalization are poised to affect the energy markets in new ways-new in not being only about oil. Of particular interest in the growth of intermodal traffic and its a little-understood impacts on rail traffic patterns and transportation costs, and expected rapidly expanding LNG imports toward the end of the decade. Two aspects of natural gas price risk are discussed: how understanding the use of gas in the power sector helps define price ceilings and floors for natural gas, and how the recent increase in the natural gas production after years of record drilling could alter the supply-demand balance for the better. The article cautions, however, that escalation in natural gas finding and development costs is countering the more positive developments that emerged during 2006. Regarding technology, the exploitation of unconventional natural gas was one highlight. So too was the queuing up of coal-fired power plants for the post-2010 period, a phenomenon that has come under great pressure with many consequences including increased

  20. Mifepristone-misoprostol for menstrual regulation in public sector facilities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Anadil; Lotarevich, Tatyana; Das, Tapash R; Reichenbach, Laura; Bracken, Hillary

    2018-02-01

    To examine the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for menstrual regulation among Bangladeshi women attending public sector facilities. In a prospective study, women (aged ≥18 years) with up to 9 weeks of amenorrhea were enrolled at 24 government health facilities in Bangladesh from November 2012 to June 2015. Paramedics or female welfare visitors provided most menstrual regulation care. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg buccal misoprostol after 24 hours, and were asked to return to the clinic 10-14 days later for clinical assessment and an exit interview. The primary outcome was successful evacuation of the uterus without need for surgical intervention. Women who completed follow-up were included in analyses for the primary outcome. Among 1744 enrolled participants, 1738 completed follow-up. Most (1674, 96.3%) had a successful uterine evacuation without the need for surgical intervention. A successful outcome was significantly more common in primary (724/744, 97.3%) and secondary facilities (861/895, 96.2%) than in the specialty hospital (89/99, 89.9%; Ppublic sector facilities in Bangladesh. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01798017. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. The regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. An econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    1999-08-01

    What differentiates the structure of Nord Pool from other power exchanges around the world is the way the balance from the spot market is maintained until the actual, physical delivery takes place, via the regulating power market in Norway. This paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market, by analysing the cost of being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. Some power producers with unpredictable fluctuations (e.g. wind) will need to buy regulation services. The disclosed pattern implies that these producers must pay a limited premium of readiness in addition to the spot price; this premium is independent of the amount of regulation. The level of the premium of readiness for down-regulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the level of the spot price. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the premium for up-regulation is less correlated to the spot price. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of regulation affects the price of regulating power for up-regulation more strongly than it does for down-regulation. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for example wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. 12 refs

  2. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the atmospheric heavy metals contamination and its deposition to ecosystems. The increasing attention to mercury pollution has been mainly driven by the growing evidence of its negative impacts on wildlife, ecosystems and particularly human health. Lead and cadmium are also toxics which are being emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic as well as natural sources. The harmful influence of these three heavy metals was underlined in the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals of 1998. The Parties of this protocol (including Poland) are obligated to reduce emissions, observe the transport and the amounts of lead, mercury and cadmium in the environment. Poland is one of the biggest emitter of mercury, lead and cadmium in Europe mainly due to emission from coal combustion processes. Therefore in Poland, research efforts to study the heavy metals emission, atmospheric transport, concentration and deposition are extremely important. The objectives of this work were twofold: - The practical objective was to develop and run a model to represent the atmospheric dispersion of mercury and to implement it in the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus.- The scientific objective was to perform heavy metals dispersion studies over Europe and detailed studies of the impact of the polish power sector on the air quality regarding mercury, cadmium and lead. To meet the declared aim, a new mercury chemical model was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The scientific literature was reviewed regarding mercury chemistry and mercury chemical models. It can be concluded that the chemistry of mercury is still not well known. The models also differ in the way of calculating the dry and wet deposition of mercury. The elemental gaseous mercury ambient concentrations are evenly distributed, on the contrary, high variations in the spatial gradients of

  3. Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector; 1. ed.; Compendio de Informacion del sector energetico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo; Reinking Cejudo, Arturo [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This first Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector was elaborated with the purpose of concentrating the most relevant information on energy in a single volume to facilitate the search and consults of people interested in this subject. In Chapter I (Reserves), the numbers of hydrocarbon of petroleum and gas reserves appear, non-conventional energies such as: coal, hydroelectricity, geothermal, uranium, at National level. All these numbers correspond to year 1997. In Chapter II (Production), the events and results of 1997 are discussed in the text and in the tables the numbers of hydrocarbon production appear, the non-conventional energies and of electricity generation, of 1996 as well as of 1997. In chapter III (Facilities), the capacity of refineries and processing plants are shown, as they can be oil, gas, petroleum-producing products of the petrochemical industry; in the same way the national electrical system is approached, which counts on with an extensive infrastructure standing out the electricity generation plants, the transmission lines and the substations, distributed all over the country. The detailed information of each type of plant is presented. The information provided in this chapter corresponds to the 31 of December of 1997, although certain details are included whose information 1996 only know. In chapter IV (Energy Consumption), appears the most relevant information on the destiny and consumption of energy. To relate this information with the data of chapter II the conventions on how the gross internal offer is conformed and the data to arrive to this last one are presented. The numbers of the National energy balance are presented for 1996, as well as the ones of self-consumption of the energy sector and the ones of transformation consumption. The numbers of foreign trade of energy to relate all these concepts to the production and offer of energy are presented. In the price and tariffs section of this chapter, the 1997 and the 1996

  4. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  5. Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robinius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC, develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transport sector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis for the power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.

  6. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  7. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments: untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankha, Sunil; Misal, Annasahed B.; Fuller, Boyd W.

    2010-01-01

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment.

  8. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-01-01

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  9. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  10. Nigeria's electric power sector reform: what should form the key objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeme, J.; Ebohon, O.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nigeria's electric power sector requires substantial reform if the country's economic development and poverty alleviation program is to be realised. This understanding is behind the reform programme recently initiated by the Nigerian government with the goal of privatising the national electric power monopoly, NEPA. Currently, the country faces serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants which are basically dilapidated, obsolete, unreliable and in an appalling state of disrepair, reflecting the poor maintenance culture in the country and gross inefficiency of the public utility provider. Building on an analysis of the major shortcomings of the current electric power company, this paper presents the central issues that should form the key objectives of the proposed reform. This include corporatization of the electric power industry, increasing access and power delivery capacity, constraining the costs of the power industry and increasing efficiency and share of renewables in energy generation, as well as minimising environmental damage. We conclude with the observation that efforts at reform will not yield the desired result if the current end-user inefficiency is not constrained. As Nigeria implements its national utility privatisation programme, it is hoped that this review will benefit policy makers and emerging managers and providers of electricity service in the country

  11. Can developing countries benefit from innovative pricing in the power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores electricity pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) strategy, looking to the developed country experience for insights into the types of approaches currently used, their effects, and the direction in which electricity pricing is headed. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand. For these electric utilities, demand-side options are especially important under today's conditions in which the capital cost of new generating capacity is increasing rapidly, international funds for expanding power sectors are not expected to be sufficient for meeting projected capacity needs and environmental concerns over fossil fuel emissions have raised new questions about constructing thermal power plants. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  12. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  13. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  14. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  15. Regulations and guides for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present Guide is to provide information, guidance and recommendations to assist the regulatory body of a Member State in establishing its own regulations and guides. It discusses the purpose, the method and procedure of establishment, and the content and legal status of these documents, and it explains how to use the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides issued by the IAEA under the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme. Certain aspects of how to use other international standards and appropriate regulations and guides from other countries are discussed

  16. Optimum regulation of grid monopoly in the power trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, E.

    1994-06-01

    The report discusses the organization and behaviour of grid monopolies in the Norwegian power trade and relations to the socio-economic effectiveness. The main attention is laid on analyzing regulation mechanisms and measures leading to an efficient short-term operation and to the investment of optimum production capacity in a long run. Regarding the management, measures are discussed for increasing the efficiency of total power trade by evaluating the existing marketing function of Statnett. Some basic conditions are accounted concerning the regulation problem of grid monopolies with a particular attention to asymmetric information between the authority and the monopoly. In addition, forms of regulation and regulation mechanisms together with the incentive characteristics of these, are discussed. The existing profit regulation principles in relation to an alternative system design such as maximum price regulation combined with standard regulation, are evaluated. 16 refs., 7 figs

  17. Pollution from the electric power sector in Japan and efficient pollution reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Kyohei; Yamane, Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    Under the scheme of the Kyoto Protocol, there are plans for the efficient reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In the electric power sector, nuclear power generation, which emits no carbon dioxide in the process of generating electricity, has come under scrutiny. However, this energy produces a new environmental issue: the disposal of radioactive waste. First, we derive shadow prices of carbon dioxide and low-level waste as marginal abatement costs in the case of the electric power sector in Japan, employing a directional output distance function. It is found that the shadow prices are US$39 per tonne for carbon dioxide and US$1531 per liter for low-level waste. Secondly, we calculate the indirect Morishima elasticity between carbon dioxide and low-level waste in order to identify their substitutability, and it is found that the substitution of low-level waste for carbon dioxide is easier than the reverse. This result suggests that, with the amount of generated electricity fixed, carbon dioxide can be substituted more easily by low-level waste when the relative price of carbon dioxide increases, for example, as a result of implementation of a carbon dioxide tax or an emissions trading system.

  18. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  19. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  20. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  1. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  2. Tariffs, investments and financing of the electric power sector in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, M.I.

    1991-05-01

    An approach to the study of electricity prices in Uruguay, emphasizing the relation linking prices, investment funds and loan requirements for the electric utility is presented. The main part of the work is a survey of the evolution of electricity prices, amounts of investment, an external debt of the Uruguayan electric power sector from 1973 to 1988. There is also a prospective analysis, to determine whether the current electricity price level would be able to ensure the electric system expansion, if current trends are maintained. (author)

  3. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  4. Regulating power provided by an industrial virtual power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Doss, A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources for the transition towards a sustainable electricity system imposes a number of new challenges for the grid, one of them being the balancing of variable output supply and demand. The flexibility of production and consumption in Virtual Power Plants can be used

  5. Regulations of local choices for installation of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-09-01

    The present regulations specify the criteria under which the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear will approve the local proposed for the installation of power reactors, according to his attributions established in the Law 4118, dated of August 27, 1962

  6. DIII-D ICRF high voltage power supply regulator upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Burley, B.L.; Grosnickle, W.H.

    1997-11-01

    For reliable operation and component protection, of the 2 MW 30--120 MHz ICRF Amplifier System on DIII-D, it is desirable for the amplifier to respond to high VSWR conditions as rapidly as possible. This requires a rapid change in power which also means a rapid change in the high voltage power supply current demands. An analysis of the power supply's regulator dynamics was needed to verify its expected operation during such conditions. Based on this information it was found that a new regulator with a larger dynamic range and some anticipation capability would be required. This paper will discuss the system requirements, the as-delivered regulator performance, and the improved performance after installation of the new regulator system. It will also be shown how this improvement has made the amplifier perform at higher power levels more reliably

  7. Independent Power Producers' view on restructuring in Ontario's electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.

    1996-01-01

    The collective views on electricity industry restructuring of the independent power producers in Ontario were summarized by IPPSO's executive director. The Society is fully in agreement with the MacDonald Committee recommendations to privatize power generation in Ontario, and is equally in favor of competitive restructuring that is now underway in Michigan, New York and Quebec, as well as farther afield in the U.S., the U.K., and elsewhere around the world. IPPSO claims that a competitive generation system comprised of current and future IPPSO members could supply the province's power requirements at a cost 20 per cent lower than the present monopolistic system of Ontario Hydro. Add to that no reduction in services to the consumers, increased revenues in the form of taxes to the province, and the prospect of restructuring becomes far less threatening than first perceived. While fully in agreement with the MacDonald Committee's recommendations, IPPSO is opposed to Ontario Hydro's own restructuring plans. Their objection is based on the assessment that the plan would not result in real competition; in reality, it would allow Hydro even greater freedom to continue investing publicly-guaranteed money on a completely dissimilar basis to its competitors

  8. jurisprudence precedent on the instruments of environmental regulation of the electrical colombian sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcila R, Jaime Leon; Velasquez A, Hector I

    2009-01-01

    What the authors of the Law of the Environment have named the green Constitution or the ecological Constitution of 1991, necessarily it has consequences in the legal practice of the instruments of environmental management in all the levels and sectors of the economy, especially if the previous thing is analyzed in the frame of the Social State of Law in the Constitution of 1991, under this perspective, it is possible to understand the emptiness and inconsistencies of the environmental management in the electrical Colombian sector (SEC), from the critical analysis of the instruments of environmental regulation established in the in the Law in addition it is possible to check these instruments in his role of tools for the environmental management, to identify a constitutional and legal conceptualization adapted for the development of the same ones and to determine the necessary adjustments to realize in his environmental role of management tools in the SEC. The attainment of the previous aims carries an own methodology of the social qualitative research in his juridical political levels. The content of this article realizes the first advances in order to study from a juriprudential and not merely legal optics, since up to the moment the topic has been approached.

  9. Financial markets regulation in the energy sector. A few financial aspects of energy transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to energy legislation, financial markets legislation and regulation (FMR) are becoming increasingly important for the energy sector. Consequently, parties on the energy market not only have to deal with the energy and competition authorities (the Dte and NMa respectively), but may also face supervision by The Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM). Energy transactions may trigger certain prohibitions and obligations under financial and securities law, the most relevant of which are discussed in this article. Both the recent changes as a result of the Financial Markets Supervision Act ('Wet op het financieel toezicht', Wft) entering into force as per 1 January 2007 and the anticipated future amendments following the implementation of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) are examined [nl

  10. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  11. Free Switzerland from fossil energy sources - Clear proposals for the building, transportation and electrical power sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, R.

    2010-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the current situation of energy resources and consumption and of the prevailing framework like climate change is given, with a focus on Switzerland. The author, a member of the Lower House of the Swiss Parliament, presents facts and figures in a simple language, illustrated by tables and diagrams, in a well structured, easy-to-read book, with detailed indications of his data sources. Starting from the limited character of fossil energy sources, 'peak-oil' and the necessary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the author states that nuclear energy is not the solution. Action is absolutely needed, but which policy should be adopted? A global strategy is required that includes the stabilization of the world population as a key factor. An international agreement signed by as many states as possible should create stringent commitments. The developed countries have to demonstrate that prosperity and high life standard are compatible with an economy based on renewable energy sources. This will give to the most ambitious countries a significant advantage on new markets created by renewable energy use and energy efficiency. The author goes on by describing the current status of the technologies needed. What regards the particular case of Switzerland, this country is strongly dependent on energy import - mainly fossil - and CO 2 emissions arise mainly from the building and transportation sectors. A 50% efficiency improvement until 2030 is needed in fossil energy use. Electricity use has to become more efficient as well. Electricity generation - today about 60% renewable - shall move towards 100% renewable. The next chapters discuss clear realistic proposals on how to achieve these goals in the transportation sector ('Intelligent mobility'), the building sector ('Retrofitting the buildings to get them up-to-date') and the electrical power sector ('Entirely renewable electricity'). The title of the conclusion chapter: 'Focus again on the general

  12. An analysis of power sector system losses in Bangladesh and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhari, W.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the analysis of power sector system losses in both the countries which are similar in nature. The design and construction of major power plants, grid substations and transmission lines are constructed on the same pattern. The generation system loss under transmission must not exceed the limit and any loss above this limit could safely be taken as pilferage or theft of energy. The author is of the opinion that socio-economic conditions prevailing in both countries. The author is not in a position to analyse or comment on the causes of non-technical system loss in Pakistan, but he feels that some of the causes could also equally be applicable. (A.B.)

  13. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  14. A multi-period superstructure optimisation model for the optimal planning of China's power sector considering carbon dioxide mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; Liu Pei; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is the largest CO 2 emitter in China. To mitigate CO 2 emissions for the power sector is a tough task, which requires implementation of targeted carbon mitigation policies. There might be multiple forms for carbon mitigation policies and it is still unclear which one is the best for China. Applying a superstructure optimisation model for optimal planning of China's power sector built by the authors previously, which was based on real-life plants composition data of China's power sector in 2009, and could incorporate all possible actions of the power sector, including plants construction, decommission, and application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) on coal-fuelled plants, the implementation effects of three carbon mitigation policies were studied quantitatively, achieving a conclusion that the so-called “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best from the viewpoint of increasing CO 2 reduction effect and also reducing the accumulated total cost. Based on this conclusion, the corresponding relationships between CO 2 reduction objectives (including the accumulated total emissions reduction by the objective year and the annual emissions reduction in the objective year) were presented in detail. This work provides both directional and quantitative suggestions for China to make carbon mitigation policies in the future. - Highlights: ► We study the best form of carbon mitigation policy for China's power sector. ► We gain quantitative relationship between CO 2 reduction goal and carbon tax policy. ► The “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best. ► Nuclear and renewable power and CCS can help greatly reduce CO 2 emissions of the power sector. ► Longer objective period is preferred from the viewpoint of policy making.

  15. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  16. Does the regulation of the insurance industry have a pernicious effect on innovation by the sector in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Zingwevu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial regulation could be a double edged sword in that despite its major thrust being that to secure the financial sector and bring about financial stability; it might have the unintended consequence of stifling innovation by the sector. We investigate the nexus between financial regulation and innovation by specifically focusing on the insurance industry in South Africa. We demonstrate that there are plethora pieces of legislation that govern the insurance industry in South Africa. As such this has driven the cost of compliance to unsustainable levels thereby curtailing the spending by companies on innovation. We thus would like to caution the policy makers’ that this “heavy-touch” regulatory mode is having a pernicious effect on research and development by the insurance sector. As such we encourage them to embrace the “light-touch” regulatory mode whereby self-regulation and moral suasion are other avenues to be considered.

  17. Economical regulation power through load shifting with smart energy appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, M.C.; Knigge, J.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the technical and economical feasibility of the introduction of automated demand response from domestic smart appliances in a European setting as a means to create a significant amount of regulating power. Simplified power-time flexibility models for appliances are introduced on

  18. Power sector scenarios for Thailand: An exploratory analysis 2002-2022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulugetta, Yacob; Mantajit, Nathinee; Jackson, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Power sector scenarios for Thailand are constructed in this paper to represent the range of opportunities and constraints associated with divergent set of technical and policy options. They include Business-As-Usual (BAU), No-New-Coal (NNC), and Green Futures (GF) scenarios over a 20-year period (2002-2022). The results from the BAU scenario show that fossil fuels will continue to dominate electricity generation in Thailand during the study period. Similar results are obtained for the NNC option, although the dependence shifts from coal and oil towards natural gas-based power generation. This may represent a better environmental pathway but an all out shift from coal to natural gas is likely to increase Thailand's dependence on imported fuel, making it more vulnerable to unstable global oil and gas prices. The GF scenario offers a more optimistic route that allows the country to confront its energy security dilemma whilst fulfilling its environmental commitments by giving renewable energy technologies a prominent place in the country's power generation mix. Over the study period, our result showed little difference between the three scenarios in terms of financing new generation plants despite an early misgiving about the viability of an ambitious renewable energy programme. This paper also goes beyond the financial evaluation of each scenario to provide a comparison of the scenarios in terms of their greenhouse gas emissions together with the comparative costs of emissions reductions. Indeed, if such externalities are taken into account to determine 'viability', the GF scenario represents an attractive way forward for the Thai power sector

  19. Gas allocation plans based on failures scenarios: PETROBRAS-Gas and Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Vieira, Flavia; Saker, Leonardo; Heil, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galvao, Joao [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present gas allocation plans developed for PETROBRAS Gas and Power Sector, considering failure to supply scenarios that could occur along gas supply network. Those scenarios, as well as the associated contingency plans, were identified and validated by an experienced team, composed by engineers and operators from different PETROBRAS sectors. The key issue of concern was the anticipation of possible undesired scenarios that could imply on contract shortfalls, the evaluation of possible maneuvers, taking into account best gas delivery allocation. Different software were used for the simulation of best gas supply allocation and for the verification of delivery pressure and conditions for final consumers. The ability of being capable of dealing with undesired or crisis scenarios, based on suitable anticipation levels, is, nowadays, a highly valuable attribute to be presented by competitive corporations, for best crisis management and prompt recovery response. Those plans are being used by Gas and Power Gas Operation Control Centre and as an input for reliability modeling of gas supply chain. (author)

  20. The power sector in the melting pot. Perspectives for the structure of the sector in eastern Norway; Kraftsektor i stoepeskjeen. Perspektiver for bransjestrukturen paa Oestlandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Norwegian power sector is undergoing basic changes. All the energy utilities are affected. This report describes the options faced by the owners and the effects of making different choices. It (1) discusses the implications of competition and the new external conditions for publicly owned utilities, (2) analyses the profit obtainable through cooperation and changes in the structure within production, power sale and network activities, and (3) draws up the perspectives of the future structure of the power sector in eastern Norway, where many of the largest suppliers are situated. Two scenarios are discussed for the structure of the power sector in eastern Norway in 2010: (1) Regional focus. The owners have a deliberate attitude to the possibilities of a publicly owned and competitive energy supply and they want to exploit the economic potential to the benefit of the inhabitants of the region. The energy users are offered services that are competitive both on price and quality and the policy instrument is to develop regional solutions that realize the possibilities of large-scale operation and coordination within production, sales and network. (2) Industrial energy supply. Large industrial actors have won most of the auctions as the smaller distribution works were offered for sale. Both scenarios are rooted in changes that have actually occurred or are still in progress. There is no socioeconomic justification for asserting that one scenario is better than the other. The choice of action taken by the owners will first of all affect the distribution of the values managed and created by the power sector. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Potential Evaluation of Energy Supply System in Grid Power System, Commercial, and Residential Sectors by Minimizing Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If the economic activity in the commercial and residential sector continues to grow, improvement in energy conversion efficiencies of energy supply systems is necessary for CO2 mitigation. In recent years, the electricity driven hot water heat pump (EDHP) and the solar photo voltaic (PV) are commercialized. The fuel cell (FC) of co-generation system (CGS) for the commercial and residential sector will be commercialized in the future. The aim is to indicate the ideal energy supply system of the users sector, which both manages the economical cost and CO2 mitigation, considering the grid power system. In the paper, cooperative Japanese energy supply systems are modeled by linear-programming. It includes the grid power system and energy systems of five commercial sectors and a residential sector. The demands of sectors are given by the objective term for 2005 to 2025. 24 hours load for each 3 annual seasons are considered. The energy systems are simulated to be minimize the total cost of energy supply, and to be mitigate the CO2 discharge. As result, the ideal energy system at 2025 is shown. The CGS capacity grows to 30% (62GW) of total power system, and the EDHP capacity is 26GW, in commercial and residential sectors.

  2. Regulation of the output power at the resonant converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanov, Goce G.; Sarac, Vasilija J. [University Goce Delecev-Stip, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Radovis (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Karadzinov, Ljupco V., E-mail: goce.stefanov@ugd.edu.mk [University Kiril and Methodyus-Skopje, FEIT Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a method for regulating an alternating current voltage source with pair of IGBT transistor’s modules, in a full bridge configuration with series resonant converter is given. With the developed method a solution is obtained which can regulate the phase difference between output voltage and current through the inductor, in order to maintain maximum output power. Control electronic via feedback signals regulates the energy transfer to the tank by changing the pulse width of signals which are used as inputs to the gates of the IGBTs. By increasing or decreasing the pulse width transmitted to the various gates of the IGBT the energy transfer to the tank is increased or decreased . PowerSim simulations program is used for development of controlling methodology. Developed method is practically implemented in a prototype of the device for phase control of resonant converter with variable the resonant load. Key words: pulse width method, phase regulation , power converter.

  3. Power supply security: what stakes for regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Frederic

    2007-02-01

    Prices on electricity markets induce two kinds of debates. If the first ones lie on their constant increase, the seconds are relative to their volatility. Such volatility disrupts price signals for investors and could induce an insufficient level of generating capacity. The risks are all the more significant since the profitability of peak-load capacities is especially sensitive to the level of prices that are realised during the small number of hours in which they produce energy. But, the difficulty to balance between scarcity rents and abuses of market power could induce regulatory interventions as too stringent price-caps. These ones could make worse the spontaneous market under-investment. They restrict the scarcity rents expected by the investors and reinforce the law uncertainty. Our purpose is to analyse the mechanisms which are used to provide an optimal level of generating capacity, as capacity obligations, payments or markets, and to underline the complementarities between decentralised investment decisions and public action. (author)

  4. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipments. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%

  5. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science ampersand Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections

  6. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  7. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  8. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipment. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%. (Author)

  9. Optimum regulation of grid monopoly in the power trade; Optimal regulering av nettmonopoler i kraftomsetningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, E.

    1994-06-01

    The report discusses the organization and behaviour of grid monopolies in the Norwegian power trade and relations to the socio-economic effectiveness. The main attention is laid on analyzing regulation mechanisms and measures leading to an efficient short-term operation and to the investment of optimum production capacity in a long run. Regarding the management, measures are discussed for increasing the efficiency of total power trade by evaluating the existing marketing function of Statnett. Some basic conditions are accounted concerning the regulation problem of grid monopolies with a particular attention to asymmetric information between the authority and the monopoly. In addition, forms of regulation and regulation mechanisms together with the incentive characteristics of these, are discussed. The existing profit regulation principles in relation to an alternative system design such as maximum price regulation combined with standard regulation, are evaluated. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Towards an un-bundling in the power sector through corrective measures of structural nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Frederic

    2009-10-01

    The energy sector inquiry, published in January 2007, led the European Commission towards a proposal of an ownership un-bundling. Such a structural remedy appears to be the best solution to solve two of the main issues of the electricity European market. The first is discrimination in the third access to network. The second lies in bias in the incumbent's investment choices aim at reducing market contestability. Nevertheless, the refusal of major State member leads to a compromise validated by the European Parliament in April, 2009. The fact remains that the acceptance by the German firm E.On to divest its network in order to obtain a termination of an antitrust inquiry could show that ownership un-bundling is always on the Commission agenda but now through structural remedies imposed (or negotiated) by individual decisions. After analyzing the economic determinants of the Commission's preference for un-bundling, we evaluate to what extent such program could be achieved through competition law. Implicitly, we develop a reflection about the articulation between sector specific regulation and competition policy, and by the way on its theoretical foundations. (author)

  11. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies - findings for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, K.; Hoffmann, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks knowledge and technologies, actors and networks, institutions and demand by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis is...

  12. Internalisation of external costs in the Polish power generation sector: A partial equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudelko, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodical framework, which is the basis for the economic analysis of the mid-term planning of development of the Polish energy system. The description of the partial equilibrium model and its results are demonstrated for different scenarios applied. The model predicts the generation, investment and pricing of mid-term decisions that refer to the Polish electricity and heat markets. The current structure of the Polish energy sector is characterised by interactions between the supply and demand sides of the energy sector. The supply side regards possibilities to deliver fuels from domestic and import sources and their conversion through transformation processes. Public power plants, public CHP plants, industry CHP plants and municipal heat plants represent the main producers of energy in Poland. Demand is characterised by the major energy consumers, i.e. industry and construction, transport, agriculture, trade and services, individual consumers and export. The relationships between the domestic electricity and heat markets are modelled taking into account external costs estimates. The volume and structure of energy production, electricity and heat prices, emissions, external costs and social welfare of different scenarios are presented. Results of the model demonstrate that the internalisation of external costs through the increase in energy prices implies significant improvement in social welfare

  13. Impact of the Power Sector Development on the Emission Level in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Tarvydas, D.

    1998-01-01

    The analyses carried out show that further necessary investments into safety improvements of the Ignalina NPP satisfy the criterion of the least cost power sector development and it should be kept in operation until the end of its technical life time. Modular CHP with diesel engines or gas turbines, or new CCGT will be the most attractive source of electricity generation if new capacities are required. The Ignalina NPP also has crucial impact on all kind of emissions in Lithuania. If this power plant is shut down, the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol for CO 2 mitigation will be violated already in 2011, even in the case of the most pessimistic economy growth and electricity export scenario. In the case of the further operation of the nuclear power plant Lithuania will be able to fulfil the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol during the whole study period. However, during temporary shut down of the nuclear plant for safety upgrade or rechannelling of reactors some reduction of electricity export will be necessary. (author)

  14. Power sector reforms in Brazil and its impacts on energy efficiency and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, G.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties Brazil has implemented significant changes in the country's power sector, including privatization, introduction of competition and the creation of regulatory agency. As reform started in Brazil traditional support to energy efficiency and energy research and development suffered a discontinuation, budget cuts and re-definition of roles of the public agents in charge. At the same time, new regulatory measures and the creation of a national public interest fund have helped to maintain and potentially enhance the country's effort to promote energy efficiency and investments in energy R and D. This paper analyses the impacts of these changes in the areas of energy efficiency and energy research and development and argues for an increased role of developing countries to provide solutions for a meeting energy demand requirements more suitable to their internal markets

  15. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  16. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  17. Decarbonising the power sector via technological change – differing contributions from heterogeneous firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2012-01-01

    In the power sector, technological change is a key lever to address the decarbonisation needed to avoid dangerous climate change. Policy makers aim to accelerate and redirect technological change by targeting relevant firms via climate policy, e.g., the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), and climate-relevant technology policies, e.g., feed-in tariffs. Changes in firm's behaviour, i.e., their research and development (R and D) as well as diffusion activities, are at the heart of technological change. However, firms are heterogeneous actors with varying attributes which perceive policy differently. Hence, they can be expected to react very heterogeneously to these new policies. Based on an original dataset of 201 firms, we perform a cluster analysis grouping firms along their R and D and diffusion activity changes. We then compare these clusters with regards to the characteristics of the contained firms. Our analysis results in seven clusters showing very diverse contributions to low-carbon technological change, suggesting potential for policy to become more effective. A comparison of the firms' characteristics allows us to derive indicative recommendations on how to adjust the policy mix in order to induce contributions from most firms in the power sector. - Highlights: ► Firms differ strongly regarding their contribution low-carbon technological change. ► E.g., about 40% of the surveyed firms have not changed their R and D and diffusion activities. ► These observations cast doubt upon the effectiveness of current policy. ► From the findings recommendations for making policy more effective are derived.

  18. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  19. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  20. Natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity as a reliability factor in the Brazilian electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.; Oliveira, J.C.S. de; de Oliveira, P.R.; Alonso, P.S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity into the Brazilian generation sector can be considered as a very complex energy, economic, regulatory and institutional revision. Brazil is a country with very specific characteristics in electricity generation, as approximately 80% of the generating capacity is based on hydroelectricity, showing strong dependency on rain and management of water reservoirs. A low rate of investment in the Brazilian Electricity Industry in the period of 1995-2000, associated with periods of low rainfall, led to a dramatic lowering of the water stocks in the reservoirs. With this scenario and the growing supply of natural gas, both from within Brazil and imported, natural gas thermal electric plants became a good option to diversify the electrical supply system. In spite of the Brazilian Government's efforts to install such plants, the country was faced with severe electricity rationing in 2001. The objective of this work is to show the need to continue with the implementation of natural gas thermal electricity projects, in a manner that allows flexibility and guarantees greater working reliability for the entire Brazilian electricity sector. Taking into account the world trend towards renewable energy, the perspectives of usage of biofuels in the Brazilian Energy Matrix and in electrical energy generation are also analyzed. The very issue of electrical power efficiency in Brazil and its challenges and strategic proposals from the standpoint of Government Programs and results provided so far are presented. The technological constraints in order to put on stream the thermal electric plants are also analyzed. The article concludes with a positive perspective of the usage of natural gas as to be the third pillar in the Brazilian Energy Matrix for the years to come

  1. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  2. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's BC power conference : maximizing opportunities in the evolving electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for reviewing recent events and activities in British Columbia's electric power industry. Issues regarding energy supply, reliability, power generation, power distribution and power transmission were discussed along with the opportunities and challenges of developing renewable energy sources. Participants at the conference gained insight into strategies for determining the usefulness of an energy plan; assessing the prospects for new generation capacity; examining future whole sale markets; analyzing congestion problems; identifying import and export opportunities; planning for rate design and exploring the future supply on Vancouver Island. The possibilities for meeting the growing demand for electricity through an integrated electrical transmission system throughout the west coast, British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest and Alberta were examined along with financing structures and strategies of renewable energy projects. The role of regulators and their influence on electricity prices were also discussed. Resource planning guidelines were examined as well as other topics such as demand side management, energy conservation, the role of liquefied natural gas in power generation, and land use challenges for power generation. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  3. A real options-based CCS investment evaluation model: Case study of China's power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Fan, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper establishes a carbon captures and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model. → The model is based on real options theory and solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. → China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment. → The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. -- Abstract: This paper establishes a carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model based on real options theory considering uncertainties from the existing thermal power generating cost, carbon price, thermal power with CCS generating cost, and investment in CCS technology deployment. The model aims to evaluate the value of the cost saving effect and amount of CO 2 emission reduction through investing in newly-built thermal power with CCS technology to replace existing thermal power in a given period from the perspective of power generation enterprises. The model is solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. Since the model could be used as a policy analysis tool, China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment through scenario analysis. The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. Thus, there is an important trade off for policy makers between reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the interests of power generation enterprises. The research presented would be useful for CCS technology evaluation and related policy-making.

  4. Prospects for the African Power Sector. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Electricity has become an indispensable prerequisite for enhancing economic activity and improving human quality of life. Agricultural and industrial production processes are made more efficient through the use of electricity. Households need electricity for many purposes, including cooking, lighting, refrigeration, study and home-based economic activity. Essential facilities, such as hospitals, require electricity for cooling, sterilisation and refrigeration. Africa currently has 147 GW of installed capacity, a level comparable to the capacity China installs in one or two years. Average per capita electricity consumption in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa) is just 153 kWh/year. This is one-fourth of the consumption in India and just 6% of the global average. Nearly 600 million people in Africa lack access to electricity. Electricity blackouts occur on a daily basis in many African countries. Faced with this situation, people and enterprises often have to rely on expensive diesel power generation to meet their electricity needs, costing some African economies between 1% and 5% of GDP annually. To meet its growing demand Africa has an urgent need to raise the level of investment in its power sector. Analysis of a range of country and regional studies suggests the continent will need to add around 250 GW of capacity between now and 2030 to meet demand growth. This will require capacity additions to double to around 7 GW a year in the short-term and to quadruple by 2030. The magnitude of the investments required is such that governments will need public-private partnerships in order to scale up investment in generation capacity. While access rates are improving in some countries, the business environment and policy framework are still not sufficiently robust to attract the level of private investment required to install the additional 250 GW by 2030. Many African countries are burdened by opaque policy frameworks and excessive red tape, while electricity

  5. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...... the wind farm scale production capacity. However the summation of these individual signals is simply an over-estimation for the wind power plant, due to reduced wake losses during curtailment. The determination of the possible power with the PossPOW algorithm works as follows: firstly the second...

  6. Coal transitions in China's power sector: A plant-level assessment of stranded assets and retirement pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Berghmans, Nicolas; Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    This paper estimates the potential scale of stranded assets in the coal power sector in China under different policy scenarios. A number of factors are putting significant pressure on the coal-power sector: a recent investment bubble in new capacity, structural slowing in electricity demand growth, upcoming moves to liberalize electricity markets and introduce a carbon market, and continued support for renewable and low-carbon sources of electricity. Stranded assets in the Chinese coal-fired power sector are estimated at 90 billion USD 2015 under the current policy trajectory (NDC-Style Scenario). This situation threatens to increase the political economy challenges of China's electricity sector transition to a low-carbon system. This situation is not unique to China: other countries will also face coal-sector stress due to the competitiveness of renewables, and therefore managing existing coal power capacities needs to move to the forefront of climate and energy policy efforts. To turn this situation around, Chinese authorities should have a strategy for a managed phase-down of coal power assets. All new construction of coal power plants should cease: recent project cancellations have been a step in the right direction. A planned retirement schedule for old coal plants that have already made a return on investment should be developed to 2030. Existing, newer coal plants should be prepared to play a role and receive revenues for balancing a high renewables system. A managed 2 deg. C-compatible climate mitigation scenario, in which old plant are retired after 30 years, both puts China's electricity sector on an accelerated pathway to decarbonization, as well as lowering the risks of stranded assets compared to the NDC-Style Scenario, by a total of 12 billion USD 2015. Banking sector exposure to stranded assets in the Managed 2 deg. C Scenario are estimated at less than 10% of the banking sector's loan loss provisions: risks of financial disruption are

  7. El sector de los alimentos ecológicos: Regulación y etiquetado ecológico = The organic food sector: Regulation and ecological labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Aguirre García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El sector de los alimentos ecológicos y la evolución de su normativa están experimentando continuos cambios y ampliaciones acordes con los flujos económicos y comerciales de nuestros días. El objetivo del artículo, desde una metodología descriptiva, es reflejar esta evolución, presentando la regulación vigente, que es exhaustiva y abarca ámbitos diversos: sistemas de producción agraria ecológica, control y certificación de operadores, comercialización y etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos. Asimismo, se abordan las diferentes caracterizaciones en la actualidad del etiquetado de los alimentos ecológicos en Europa, en España y en las Comunidades Autónomas.   The organic food sector and the evolution of its regulations are undergoing continuous changes and extensions in line with the economic and commercial flows of our day. The objective of the article, from a descriptive methodology, is to reflect this evolution, presenting the current regulation, which is exhaustive and covers different areas: ecological agricultural production systems, operator control and certification, marketing and labeling of organic food. It also addresses the different characterizations of organic food labeling in Europe, Spain and the “Comunidades Autónomas”.

  8. Recent achievements in regulating nuclear power activities in taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The energy resources in Taiwan are very scarce with more than 98% of the fuel sources imported from foreign countries. The nuclear power became essential because of its stability and economy in price. There are six operating nuclear power units in Taiwan, and two more advanced boiling water reactor units under construction. As the country's nuclear power still plays an important role, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) devotes its great efforts working on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, nuclear security, nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear waste management and environmental monitoring. Recent achievements of AEC on the above mentioned topics will be covered in this presentation

  9. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO 2 , as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO 2 in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO 2 emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO 2 . To make the interaction with the CO 2 market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe

  10. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  11. Direct foreign investment in power sector in India: Enron - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhyadav, S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to develop its economy at a faster pace, India needs to make large investments in its infrastructure - electric power being one such sector - domestic as well as foreign companies - to invest in this area. In response, Enron Corporation of USA entered into an agreement with the Maharashtra State Electricity Board to establish a 2-phase power project for a capacity of 2015 MW (695 MW in Phase I and 1320 MW in Phase II). Soon after the contract, there was a change of government in the State, as a result of elections. The new government scrapped the project tariff, etc. Since India is an emerging destination for foreign investments, scrapping of the project may have an adverse repercussion on the inflow of foreign capital in future as also on the cost of this capital. However, a renegotiated settlement will go a long way to establish the credibility of Enron as a serious multinational giant and India as a sage destination for foreign investments. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs

  12. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. Findings for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Hoffmann, Volker [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks 'knowledge and technologies', 'actors and networks', 'institutions' and 'demand' by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis is based on 42 exploratory inter-views with German and European experts in the field of the EU ETS, the power sector and technological innovation. We find that the EU ETS mainly affects the rate and direction of the technological change of power generation technologies within the large-scale, coal-based power generation technological regime to which carbon capture technologies are added as a new technological trajectory. While this impact can be interpreted as defensive behaviour of incumbents, the observed changes should not be underestimated. We argue that the EU ETS' impact on corporate CO2 culture and routines may prepare the ground for the transition to a low carbon sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. (orig.)

  13. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies - Findings for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks 'knowledge and technologies', 'actors and networks', 'institutions', and 'demand' by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis for Germany is based on 42 exploratory interviews with experts in the field of the EU ETS, the power sector, and technological innovation. We find that the EU ETS mainly affects the rate and direction of technological change of power generation technologies within the large-scale, coal-based power generation technological regime, to which carbon capture technologies are added as a new technological trajectory. While this impact can be interpreted as the defensive behaviour of incumbents, the observed changes should not be underestimated. We argue that the EU ETS' impact on corporate CO 2 culture and routines may prepare the ground for the transition to a low-carbon sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies.

  14. The Gulf Countries' Energy Strategies. What's on the Menu for the Power Sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-09-01

    The futuristic green city of Masdar in the United Arab Emirates or the latest announcements of Saudi Arabia which might now well become the new Eldorado for solar energy companies have a clear marketing varnish. But if they are showcases of green ambitions, they nonetheless reflect the situation the Gulf States face today driven by the development driven by the development of heavy industry and petrochemicals but first and foremost by the rapid population growth (around 2% for Saudi Arabia and 3% for Kuwait; Qatar and the Emirates have higher population growth rate due to immigrants). Demand for power is rising as fast as buildings, even more so as most of the water consumed is desalinated. While their economies still largely depend on oil and gas revenues, burning increasing amounts of fuels domestically into power stations is not sustainable. These countries are facing an energy paradigm with serious implications. Faced with this challenge, the Gulf States are thinking of solutions. They are moving at different speeds towards the diversification of power generation sources and the restructuring of their power sector. Recent years have therefore evolved under the banner of reform and a strong institutional activity in most states. This comparative study intends to evaluate the energy paradigm in the GCC, and the responses given by some of the monarchies. This paper is written in the middle of the reform process, and therefore does not claim to evaluate the results of these measures. Rather it looks at the speed at which these reforms are being undertaken, the tools used and advantages across the countries, and the type of reforms that are conducted. It focuses on three specific countries: Saudi Arabia, the UAE and reports on other states to a lesser extent. The final section assesses the impact of the economic crisis and the regional political turmoil on the reform process. This paper argues that while high oil prices provide a large tax base for states

  15. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  16. Review of carbon dioxide capture and storage with relevance to the South African power sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Osman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their association with climate change are currently a major discussion point in government and amongst the public at large in South Africa, especially because of the country's heavy reliance on fossil fuels for electricity production. Here we review the current situation regarding CO2 emissions in the South African power generation sector, and potential process engineering solutions to reduce these emissions. Estimates of CO2 emissions are presented, with the main sources of emissions identified and benchmarked to other countries. A promising mid-term solution for mitigation of high CO2 emissions, known as CO2 capture and storage, is reviewed. The various aspects of CO2 capture and storage technology and techniques for CO2 capture from pulverised coal power plants are discussed; these techniques include processes such as gas absorption, hydrate formation, cryogenic separation, membrane usage, sorbent usage, enzyme-based systems and metal organic frameworks. The latest power plant designs which optimise CO2 capture are also discussed and include integrated gasification combined cycle, oxy-fuel combustion, integrated gasification steam cycle and chemical looping combustion. Each CO2 capture technique and plant modification is presented in terms of the conceptual idea, the advantages and disadvantages, and the extent of development and applicability in a South African context. Lastly, CO2 transportation, storage, and potential uses are also presented. The main conclusions of this review are that gas absorption using solvents is currently most applicable for CO2 capture and that enhanced coal bed methane recovery could provide the best disposal route for CO2 emissions mitigation in South Africa.

  17. Factors affecting CO2 emission from the power sector of selected countries in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Liyanage, Migara H.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the key factors behind the CO 2 emissions from the power sector in fifteen selected countries in Asia and the Pacific using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method of decomposition. The roles of changes in economic output, electricity intensity of the economy, fuel intensity of power generation and generation structure are examined in the evolution of CO 2 emission from the power sector of the selected countries during 1980-2004. The study shows that the economic growth was the dominant factor behind the increase in CO 2 emission in ten of the selected countries (i.e., Australia, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, while the increasing electricity intensity of the economy was the main factor in three countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia and Philippines). Structural changes in power generation were found to be the main contributor to changes in the CO 2 emission in the case of Sri Lanka and New Zealand.

  18. La vigilanza sul sistema finanziario: obiettivi, assetti e approcci (Financial-Sector Regulation and Supervision: Targets, Frameworks and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The scandals that have tarnished the reputation of Wall Street and in Italy have damaged those who have invested their savings in Parmalat or Cirio corporate bonds or in Argentinean Government securities justify revisiting the objectives to be achieved by regulation and supervision of the financial sector. Stability is still regarded as paramount for banking, to be secured through an appropriate capital cushion, extensive supervisory arrangements, and market discipline, as agreed by Basel 2. Other financial intermediaries need to conduct their business with great transparency, openness and respect of the rules. However, an ever expanding and innovative financial sector, the blurring of traditional segmentations and globalisation make the task of regulating and supervising the financial sector more difficult and challenging, thus requiring new frameworks, for instance a single agency, in various jurisdictions and more international co-ordination and co-operation among regulating and supervising agencies. Up to now, the approach followed by the latter has been microeconomic, but the growing financial instability and the greater relevance of systemic risk may ask for a macroeconomic management of prudential regulation and supervision, thus complementing monetary policy in securing financial stability.

  19. Regulator's role in sustainability of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Parikshat; Sinha, Soumen; Bhattacharya, Ramdas

    2015-01-01

    A development which is environmentally benign, economically viable as well socially acceptable is regarded as sustainable development. Nuclear power scores extremely well with the first two parameters: i.e its cost of production is competitive with that of other power sources and is considered a clean source of power as the greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of other hazardous pollutants are insignificant. However, when it comes to acceptability by the society at large, there are issues. Early shutting down of power plants like Superphénix at France, abandonment of Yucca mountain project, agitation during commissioning of KKNPP etc. are few examples where the public perception was the main reason for such actions. These events tell us about the importance of public perception in sustainability of a project or nuclear power as a whole. In this backdrop, the role of regulator to present the safety aspects in correct perspective assumes enormous significance and goes in a long way in clearing unwarranted apprehensions, thereby playing a pivotal role in sustainability of nuclear power. The nuclear regulator needs to build long lasting trust and confidence with stakeholders. Therefore it needs to be continuously in touch with public, not only during crisis but also during peace time, disseminating information on safe use of ionizing radiation and atomic energy without undue risk to the health of the people and environment. (author)

  20. The Impact of CCS Readiness on the Evolution of China's Electric Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Yu, Sha; Horing, Jill D.; Wei, Ning; Clarke, Leon E.; Bender, Sadie R.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, GCAM-China is exercised to examine the impact of CCS availability on the projected evolution of China’s electric power sector under the Paris Increased Ambition policy scenario developed by Fawcett et al. based on the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted under the COP-21 Paris Agreement. This policy scenario provides a backdrop for understanding China’s electric generation mix over the coming century under several CCS availability scenarios: CCS is fully available for commercial-scale deployment by 2025; by 2050; by 2075; and CCS is unavailable for use in meeting the modelled mitigation targets through 2100. Without having CCS available, the Chinese electric power sector turns to significant use of nuclear, wind, and solar to meet growing demands and emissions targets, at a cost. Should large-scale CCS deployment be delayed in China by 25 years, the modeled per-ton cost of climate change mitigation is projected to be roughly $420/tC (2010 US dollars) by 2050, relative to $360/tC in the case in which CCS is available to deploy by 2025, a 16% increase. Once CCS is available for commercial use, mitigation costs for the two cases converge, equilibrating by 2085. However, should CCS be entirely unavailable to deploy in China, the mitigation cost spread, compared to the 2025 case, doubles by 2075 ($580/tC and $1130/tC respectively), and triples by 2100 ($1050/tC vs. $3200/tC). However, while delays in CCS availability may have short-term impacts on China’s overall per-ton cost of meeting the emissions reduction target evaluated here, as well as total mitigation costs, the carbon price is likely to approach the price path associated with the full CCS availability case within a decade of CCS deployment. Having CCS available before the end of the century, even under the delays examined here, could reduce the total amount of nuclear and renewable energy that must deploy, reducing the overall cost of meeting the emissions

  1. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  2. Human health-related externalities in energy system modelling the case of the Danish heat and power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    2011-01-01

    and power sector verifies that it is cheaper for the society to include externalities in the planning of an energy system than to pay for the resulting damages later. Total health costs decrease by around 18% and total system costs decrease by nearly 4% when health externalities are included...

  3. Analytical search of problems and prospects of power sector through Delphi study: case study of Kerala State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.P.; Nair, P.S. Chandramohanan; Balasubramanian, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to review and analyse the critical issues that afflict the power sector of Kerala, a developing State in India. For this purpose a Delphi study, contacting experts in the field was conducted. The paper illustrates the process followed for the conduct of Delphi survey and evaluates the responses obtained. Consensus among experts could be arrived at on various issues related to Kerala power sector in two rounds of Delphi survey. The expert-opinion concluded on various issues is discussed in the context of the present energy shortage faced by the State. The experts participated in the Delphi survey unanimously stressed on the urgent need for an integrated approach in the power sector planning process of the State. They also emphasised on the imperativeness for exploiting the demand side management potential of the State to alleviate energy crisis in future. The study fetched informative and revealing results, which may aid to formulate and review future planning strategies for the expansion of power sector of the State

  4. Environmental regulation of a power investment in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, H.; Halseth, A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects: energy conservation, a natural gas fired CCGT and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and the environmental costs of these emissions are not, in general, fully reflected in market prices. We develop a theory of second best optimal regulation for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate substantially from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, we find it optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO 2 emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax

  5. Gas-to-power market and investment incentive for enhancing generation capacity: An analysis of Ghana's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Jorik; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    Ghana's electricity generation capacity is currently insufficient to meet demand, making power outages and load shedding common. The resulting impact is potentially devastating for the country's growth prospects. Traditionally, lack of an affordable and reliable fuel supply for power generation, coupled with ineffective institutions and an unfavourable investment climate, have resulted in Ghana's electricity sector performing poorly. In light of the 2007 discovery of natural gas reserves in Ghanaian waters, this paper examines whether domestic gas could advance the performance of the electricity sector, and if so, how. The results of our analysis show that utilization of gas reserves in Ghana's gas-to-power market is an economically superior strategy compared to an export-oriented utilization scheme. The lack of an effective regulatory framework for investment, skill shortages, and an inefficient electricity pricing structure continue to be the main constraining factors. Our analysis also considers possible approaches to modification of the electricity tariff in order to send the right signal to potential investors in generation capacity, without compromising the affordability of power supply. - Highlights: •We examine if domestic gas can improve the Ghanaian electricity sector performance. •We compare domestic gas-to-power market utilisation versus gas export. •It shows that gas-to-power market is more economical compared to gas export. •Ineffective investment regime, skill shortage and inefficient tariffs are barriers.

  6. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The State Regulation and Accounting and Analytical Support of the Development of E-Commerce in the Consumer Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval Viktor V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the theoretical and methodological principles of the state regulation and accounting and analytical support of the development of e-commerce in the consumer sector. The peculiarities of the state regulation and accounting and analytical support of the development of e-commerce in the consumer sector have been considered. The international and domestic experience in the field of regulatory support of e-commerce is studied. There systematized the ways of solving the problems of e-commerce in Ukraine based on the need to minimize the direct regulation with the perfection of the institutional environment to improve business conditions including the issues of the fiscal regime and simplification of the customs tariff regulation. The state regulation of e-commerce should constructively contribute to the development of entrepreneurship among other measures by solving the problem of financial control of electronic transactions and supporting the payment infrastructure of e-commerce in the consumer market on the basis of its corresponding accounting and analytical support. Prospects of further research in this direction are definition of a clear and harmonized with international standards state policy in the sphere of regulation of e-commerce in the consumer market on the basis of the relevant accounting and analytical support, since the appearance of new objects and forms of economic activity sets new tasks for the accounting, which develops in parallel with these changes and generates information for managing at both the micro and macro level.

  8. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  9. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  10. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  11. Design of a Corporate SDI in Power Sector Using a Formal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo L. Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP. Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig, which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology. The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level.

  12. Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumvoulakis, Emmanouil; Asimakopoulou, Georgia; Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George; Tsakanikas, Aggelos

    2012-01-01

    As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO 2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ► Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ► RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ► Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ► New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ► Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

  13. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  14. Design of a sector bowtie nano-rectenna for optical power and infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Haifeng; Lu, Shan; Guo, Lingju; He, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We designed a sector bowtie nanoantenna integrated with a rectifier (Au-TiO x -Ti diode) for collecting infrared energy. The optical performance of the metallic bowtie nanoantenna was numerically investigated at infrared frequencies (5-30 μm) using three-dimensional frequency-domain electromagnetic field calculation software based on the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the resonance wavelength and local field enhancement are greatly affected by the shape and size of the bowtie nanoantenna, as well as the relative permittivity and conductivity of the dielectric layer. The output current of the rectified nano-rectenna is substantially at nanoampere magnitude with an electric field intensity of 1 V/m. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency for devices with three different substrates illustrates that a substrate with a larger refractive index yields a higher efficiency and longer infrared response wavelength. Consequently, the optimized structure can provide theoretical support for the design of novel optical rectennas and fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  15. Baseline recommendations for greenhouse gas mitigation projects in the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael [Stockholm Environment Institute/Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Bosi, Martina [International Energy Agency, Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-03-01

    The success of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and other credit-based emission trading regimes depends on effective methodologies for quantifying a project's emissions reductions. The key methodological challenge lies in estimating project's counterfactual emission baseline, through balancing the need for accuracy, transparency, and practicality. Baseline standardisation (e.g. methodology, parameters and/or emission rate) can be a means to achieve these goals. This paper compares specific options for developing standardised baselines for the electricity sector - a natural starting point for baseline standardisation given the magnitude of the emissions reductions opportunities. The authors review fundamental assumptions that baseline studies have made with respect to estimating the generation sources avoided by CDM or other emission-reducing projects. Typically, studies have assumed that such projects affect either the operation of existing power plants (the operating margin) or the construction of new generation facilities (the build margin). The authors show that both effects are important to consider and thus recommend a combined margin approach for most projects, based on grid-specific data. They propose a three-category framework, according to projects' relative scale and environmental risk. (Author)

  16. Natural gas, uncertainty, and climate policy in the US electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistline, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how uncertainties related to natural gas prices and potential climate policies may influence capacity investments, utilization, and emissions in US electricity markets. Using a two-stage stochastic programming approach, model results suggest that climate policies are stronger drivers of greenhouse gas emission trajectories than new natural gas supplies. The dynamics of learning and irreversibility may give rise to an investment climate where strategic delay is optimal. Hedging strategies are shown to be sensitive to the specification of probability distributions for climate policy and natural gas prices, highlighting the important role of uncertainty quantification in future research. The paper also illustrates how this stochastic modeling framework could be used to quantify the value of limiting methane emissions from natural gas production. - Highlights: • This paper examines how uncertainty may impact natural gas in the power sector. • Uncertainties like gas prices, upstream emissions, and climate policy are modeled. • Climate policies are stronger drivers of emissions than gas supply conditions. • Lower gas prices are likely to spark greater utilization of existing capacity. • Irreversibility and uncertainty may make strategic delay optimal

  17. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  18. Regulation of nuclear power in the UK after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The essential philosophy underlying safe nuclear power in the UK is to establish a safe design and then monitor the manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance to ensure that the safe design intent is not violated either deliberately or unintentionally. In the UK any commercial nuclear installation must have a nuclear site licence. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is the agency responsible for granting licences and ensuring the safe design and operation of the installation by the licensee. The way in which the NII does this for the 27 licensed sites that it regulates in the UK is explained. This covers plant assessment and site inspection. Following the accident at Chernobyl the NII reviewed the way in which it regulates nuclear power in the UK. Some changes in specific areas were recommended but no changes in the general philosophy were considered necessary. (UK)

  19. High Power Modulator/regulators for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.Q.; Deitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    PPPL has recently completed two new Modulator/Regulators for neutral injection sources used on the ATC machine and is constructing four new ones for use with sources on the PLT machine. The ATC modulator uses the well proven 4CX35,000C tetrode as the main switch tube, while the PLT modulators will be using the new but significantly higher powered X-2170 tetrodes. Some interesting circuit and manufacturing techniques are discussed

  20. Assessment of Projected Temperature Impacts from Climate Change on the U.S. Electric Power Sector Using the Integrated Planning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy sector is considered to be one of the most vulnerable to climate change. This study is a first-order analysis of the potential climate change impacts on the U.S. electric power sector, measuring the energy, environmental, and economic impacts of power system changes du...

  1. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 1: energy, environment and energy sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  2. Situation Aware Assessment of Regulating Power Need and Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    power plants, but have the capability to provide a number of ancillary services. It is envisioned that wind power may at times provide a certain share of system stabilization, but it must also be seen that this contribution is limited to only a part of the required functions and that it fluctuates...... with the available wind. The approach proposed in this paper uses a functional classification to sort out the control requirements of a power system with a high share of fluctuating renewable and distributed energy sources and aims to combine it with a structured quantitative assessment.......Distributed generation and renewable energy sources are both, new disturbance and new regulation resource. Which it is, depends to a large extend on the facilitation of control capabilities, that for example modern wind turbines can provide. Most renewable energy sources are quite unlike classical...

  3. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  4. Professional greens: environmental services show growth and staying power as a creative business sector to watch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental protection was described as a growth sector in the oil and gas industry. Two major companies involved in this field, FX and Canadian Crude Separators Inc., (CCS) and some of their current or recent projects have been summarized to illustrate the growing importance and the opportunities avaialable in this field. FX specializes in a field generally referred to as 'remediation'. There are an estimated 30,000 abandoned oil and gas wells, plus contaminated real estate like former service station sites waiting to be cleaned up. A newly emerging service that is offered by FX is cleaning up after new oil and gas wells have been completed. Canadian Crude Separators are doing a $100 million a year business in oilfield waste disposal at 11 sites in Alberta and Saskatchewan. The company has 225 employees and a network of contractors such as truckers. The newest of CCS's services involves burying waste from heavy oil wells 1,000 to 1,500 metres underground. The garbage goes down via injection wells into a vast salt cavern left behind after years of production by the Sifto organization. Beyond these more mundane but essential services, companies like FX and CCS also perform ecological studies prior to drilling site selection to preserve as much as possible the local flora and fauna. They help operating companies with early detection of environmental concerns and anticipate government action. Being able to undertake voluntary early compliance programs, the companies involved not only benefit from acquiring a 'greener' image, they also improve their chances and credibility to influence the processes of government and future regulation

  5. Regulation and Deregulation from Legal Theory to the Practical Case of the Financial Sector Nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Olteanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The two great challenges for any authority are to what extent and how to intervene in thefunctioning of the society. These challenges originate both in the world of ideologies, defining the type ofstate or authority based on its propensity for regulation, and in the technical expertise of technocraticmanagement that can identify the “good practice” and “good governance” features. Both policy sources arenecessary and legitimate. The ideological sources help support a representative mandate obtained by anelected power, being validated by citizens’ vote, while the technical ones contribute to optimising theefficiency of the public option by managing it in an appropriate manner. To set a simple example, if theideological option is in favour of maintaining a company under state ownership, then the technical optionmay be to ensure a competency-based management controlled solely according to performance criteria. Ifthe ideological option promotes the privatisation of a state-owned company, then the technical option mayseek to ensure a privatisation procedure that should maximise the public benefit (through price, othercontractual terms, enhanced market competition, clauses or measures to protect consumers, etc.

  6. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  7. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  8. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  9. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  10. Index-based reactive power compensation scheme for voltage regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Damian Obioma

    2008-10-01

    to optimal utilization of compensation devices and available transfer capability as well as reduce system outages through better regulation of power operating voltages.

  11. Cleaner generation, free-riders, and environmental integrity: clean development mechanism and the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, Stephen; Kartha, Sivan; Lazarus, Michael; Page, Tom [Tellus Institute and Stockholm Environmental Institute-Boston Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This article provides a first-cut estimate of the potential impacts of the clean development mechanism (CDM) on electricity generation and carbon emissions in the power sector of non-Annex 1 countries. We construct four illustrative CDM regimes that represent a range of approaches under consideration within the climate community. We examine the impact of these CDM regimes on investments in new generation, under illustrative carbon trading prices of US$ 10 and 100/tC. In the cases that are most conductive to CDM activity, roughly 94% of new generation investments remains identical to the without-CDM situation, with only 6% shifting from higher to lower carbon intensity technologies. We estimate that the CDM would bolster renewable energy generation by as little as 15% at US$ 10/tC, or as much as 300% at US$ 100/tC. A striking finding comes from our examination of the potential magnitude of the 'free-rider' problem, i.e. crediting of activities that will occur even in the absence of the CDM. The CDM is intended to be globally carbon-neutral --- a project reduces emissions in the host country but generates credits that increase emissions in the investor country. However, to the extent that unwarranted credits are awarded to non-additional projects, the CDM would increase global carbon emissions above the without-CDM emissions level. Under two of the CDM regimes considered, cumulative free-riders credits total 250-600MtC through the end of the first budget period in 2012. This represents 10-23% of the likely OECD emissions reduction requirement during the first budget period. Since such a magnitude of free-rider credits from non-additional CDM projects could threaten the environmental integrity of the Kyoto protocol, it is imperative that policy makers devise CDM rules that encourage legitimate projects, while effectively screening out non-additional activities. (Author)

  12. Co-benefits of including CCS projects in the CDM in India's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, R.; Murata, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Okajima, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the inclusion of the co-benefits on the potential installed capacity of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) projects with a linear programming model by the clean development mechanism (CDM) in India's power sector. It is investigated how different marginal damage costs of air pollutants affect the potential installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM with a scenario analysis. Three results are found from this analysis. First, large quantity of IGCC with CCS becomes realizable when the certified emission reduction (CER) prices are above US$56/tCO 2 in the integrated Northern, Eastern, Western, and North-Eastern regional grids (NEWNE) and above US $49/tCO 2 in the Southern grid. Second, including co-benefits contributes to decrease CO 2 emissions and air pollutants with introduction of IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices. Third, the effects of the co-benefits are limited in the case of CCS because CCS reduces larger amount of CO 2 emissions than that of air pollutants. Total marginal damage costs of air pollutants of US$250/t and US$200/t lead to CER prices of US$1/tCO 2 reduction in the NEWNE grid and the Southern grid. - Highlights: • We estimate effects of co-benefits on installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM. • We develop a linear programming (LP) model of two grids of India. • Including co-benefits contributes to introduce IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices

  13. Environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in coal-fired power sector: A case study of Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Lei; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pollutant surcharge is considered in Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Intake Fraction method is incorporated into Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Health benefits contribute 97% of co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement. - Abstract: The coal-fired power sector is one of the major contributors to environmental problems and has great potential of air pollution abatement. This study employs Energy Conservation Supply Curves (ECSCs) combined with pollutant surcharge and health benefits to evaluate the environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in the coal-fired power sector. Health benefits and the pollution surcharge are considered as the environmental co-benefits that reduce costs of conserved energy (CCEs) in ECSCs. The health benefits of energy efficiency improvement are quantified using Intake Fraction method, while the pollutant surcharge is calculated based on the regulation. Three scenarios including a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, an Energy Efficiency Improvement (EEI) scenario, and an Upgrading Standards and Incentive (USI) scenario is considered in a case study for Henan Province of China. Our results show that costs of conserved energy (CCEs) are reduced by 0.56 and 0.29 USD/GJ under the EEI and USI scenarios due to health benefits and pollutant surcharge reductions related to energy efficient technologies, respectively. In particular, health benefits account for 97% of the reductions in CCEs, while the pollutant surcharge only contributes 3%. Under the EEI and USI scenarios, in 2020, energy efficiency improvement reduces energy consumption in Henan’s coal-fired power sector by 3.3% and 3.5% compared with the BAU scenario, respectively. The EEI and USI scenarios indicates that health benefits of 1.5 × 10"9 and 2.4 × 10"9 USD are gained and the reductions of pollutant surcharges of 197 and 226 million USD are realized in 2020, respectively.

  14. A market for renewable energy credits in the Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in India has been promoted through a host of fiscal policies and preferential tariff for electricity produced from the same. The fiscal policies include tax incentives and purchase of electricity generated through renewable energy sources. The enactment of the Electricity Act 2003 (the Act) has lent further support to renewable energy by stipulating purchase of a certain percentage of the power procurement by distribution utilities from renewable energy sources. The renewable portfolio obligation as well as the feed-in tariff for power procurement has been specified by a number of State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) for the respective state under their jurisdiction. A feed-in tariff determined through a cost-plus approach under a rate of return framework lacks incentive for cost minimisation and does not encourage optimal utilisation of renewable energy resources in the country. Such regulatory provisions differ across states. The prevalent practice of fixing a renewable portfolio obligation along with cost-based feed-in tariffs disregards economic efficiency. The paper proposes nationally tradable renewable energy credits scheme for achieving the targets set by the respective SERCs as renewable portfolio obligation. This would reduce the cost of compliance to a renewable portfolio obligation, and would encourage efficient resource utilisation and investment in appropriate technologies. The paper highlights its advantages and implementation issues. This paper discusses regulatory developments for promotion of renewable energy in various Indian states. The paper also identifies a number of issues related to regulations concerning renewable portfolio obligation. (author)

  15. Regulations in the commodity trading sector: should the commodity trading industry in Switzerland be more regulated and, if so, how ?

    OpenAIRE

    Volchkov, Nikola; Lewis, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Commodity trading is a sector which is essential to our development and prosperity as well as economic growth. It is relatively unknown and perceived differently depending on the viewpoint of the observer. Many think of the exploitation of resources in resource rich countries, others only of the transport of goods from producers to consumers and others focus on “speculation” and its association with financial markets which can create risk. Given the importance of commodity trading across the ...

  16. Future wind power forecast errors, need for regulating power, and costs in the Swedish system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Power Technology

    2011-07-01

    Wind power is one of the renewable energy sources in the electricity system that grows most rapid in Sweden. There are however two market challenges that need to be addressed with a higher proportion of wind power - that is variability and predictability. Predictability is important since the spot market Nord Pool Spot requires forecasts of production 12 - 36 hours ahead. The forecast errors must be regulated with regulating power, which is expensive for the actors causing the forecast errors. This paper has investigated a number of scenarios with 10 - 55 TWh of wind power installed in the Swedish system. The focus has been on a base scenario with 10 TWh new wind power consisting of 3,5 GW new wind power and 1,5 GW already installed power, which gives 5 GW. The results show that the costs for the forecast errors will increase as more intermittent production is installed. However, the increase can be limited by for instance trading on intraday market or increase quality of forecasts. (orig.)

  17. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George R.

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  18. Radical prosumer innovations in the electricity sector and the impact on prosumer regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, Saskia; Carrillo, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations, enabling social innovations such as peer to peer trading and the participation in local

  19. [Limits of self regulation of the private food sector: the case of removing of vending machines from schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Baudier, François

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest between the food industry and public decision makers have increasingly multiplied over the last few years, especially within the context of implementing the French National Nutrition Programme. This paper describes the rhetoric and the strategies developed by the private sector in order to counter the law's implementation and enforcement based on a concrete example, namely, the removal of vending machines from schools. After having evoked possibilities of developing new partnerships as suggested by national and international health authorities, it reaffirms the right and the duty of the State to regulate within the framework of a health promotion policy, an approach which integrates the necessary open democratic public debate between the different sectors.

  20. The Role of the Regulated Sector in the UK Anti-Money Laundering Framework: Pushing the Boundaries of the Private Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Egan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the conceptualisation of private police in current academic literature requires expansion to accommodate the role of the regulated sector in the Anti- Money Laundering (AML framework. Firstly, it evaluates the literature on ‘private police’ and argues that its current parameters are too narrow to accommodate the ‘policing’ role of the regulated sector. Secondly, it lays out the legislative framework that has developed to deal with the problem of money laundering. Thirdly, it contextualises the role of the regulated sector, examining the domestic inter-agency policing relationships within the suspicious activity regime as operationalised in Scotland. Finally, it takes a closer look at how the courts have interpreted the ‘failure to report offence’ under s330 of the Proceeds of Crime Act (POCA 2002 and its consequential effect on the engagement of the regulated sector with the SARs regime.

  1. Summaries of the thirteenth annual Canadian independent power conference and trade show : From theory to action: bringing fresh investment to the sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggertson, W.; McArthur, D.; Kishewitsch, S.

    2002-05-01

    This conference hosted by the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario, acquired an added impetus with the preparations under way for the opening of the Ontario electricity market to competition, scheduled for 2002. The speakers, over 30 of them, discussed the various aspects related to investment in the Ontario sector. The topics discussed were as follows: (1) what is needed to really get Ontario's market moving, (2) the regulator's role in facilitating competition and investment, (3) the regulator's role and the status of major capacity, (4) tax reforms proposed by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) and the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario to encourage investment, (5) achieving healthy competition, (6) addressing market behaviour: compliance and enforcement, (7) workshop on the new emission trading system, (8) improving environmental performance, (9) power purchasers' panel, (10) transmission within Ontario and at its borders, and (11) the shape of the future: maximizing on promise and opportunity. This conference provided an ideal forum for all independent producers to discuss issues and share ideas. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Petrusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  3. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  4. Re-regulation of the Russian electricity sector; Neuregulierung der russischen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telke, Juergen [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Osteuropaeisches Recht

    2011-04-15

    The Russian electricity sector is going through a phase of radical change. Time-honoured structures are being modernised through privatisation, unbundling and liberalisation, creating a number of interesting investment opportunities. However, prospective investors should take the specifics of the Russian market into account in order to gain a fuller picture of investment opportunities and risks in the areas of production, transmission, wholesale and retail trade.

  5. Environmental management in the Mexican tourism sector. Effects of regulation on hotel performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Elva Esther; Zizumbo, Lilia; Viesca, Felipe Carlos; Serrano, Rocío del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of public institutions in environmental management, and the application of the National Environmental Audit Programme in the Mexican tourism sector. The research recognizes the role of the hoteliers in the development of tourist zones, and in the alteration of the natural environment. This is an exploratory study of the general perception of management of 28 hotels in the Cancún area regarding the environmental management of their businesses, the factors which l...

  6. Proceedings of the CERI 2002 electricity conference : getting a grip on power sector restructuring. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Electric power restructuring in a global context was reviewed at this conference which examined how existing market structures can be improved to benefit all participants. Topics of discussion ranged from issues regarding future development of power generation and transmission, to developing trends, expectations and implications for consumers, power generators and energy service providers. The 7 sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) global lessons from restructuring, what works and what doesn't, (2) competition in electricity markets, (3) restructuring in Canada, (4) suggestions for power sector reform, (5) competition in future generation markets, (6) trading, financing and generation alternatives, and (7) transmission expansion. A total of 7 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammelis, P.; Koukouzas, N.; Skodras, G.; Kakaras, E.; Tumanovsky, A.; Kotler, V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO x abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station

  8. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammelis, P. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece) and Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: pgra@central.ntua.gr; Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Skodras, G. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Tumanovsky, A. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Kotler, V. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO {sub x} abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station.

  9. Digital regulation of a phase controlled power converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, C.; Haque, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, now in construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will use phase controlled power converters for the main dipole and quadrupole magnet strings. The rectifiers in these power supplies will be controlled by a digital regulator based on the TI 320C30 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The DSP implements the current loop, the voltage loop, and a system to actively reduce the sub-harmonic ripple components. Digital firing circuits consisting of a phase locked lop and counters are used to fire the SCRs. Corrections for the sub-harmonic reduction are calculated by the DSP and stored in registers in the firing circuit. These corrections are added in hardware, to the over-all firing count provided by the DSP. the resultant count is compared to a reference counter to fire the SCRs. This combination of a digital control system and the digital firing circuits allows the correction of the sub-harmonics in a real-time sense. A prototype of the regulator has been constructed, and the preliminary testing indicates a sub-harmonic reduction of 60 dB

  10. IT-solutions in the power generation sector. Lectures of ETG special meeting from 26th to 27th April at Mannheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In the power generation sector safety and availability shall have highest priority including also economical aspects. Information technology (IT) is fullfilling these tasks by comprehensive tools. So the following proceeding covers: use of advanced IT for competition in a deregulized power market; Capacity of IT solutions for optimization of processes and operation; enhancement of productivity and changes in the working sector. User and manufacturers come up for discussion and report on experiences, concepts not only from the sector power plant engineering and supply industry, but also from other trade. (GL)

  11. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  12. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  13. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  14. Committing to coal and gas: Long-term contracts, regulation, and fuel switching in power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Michael

    Fuel switching in the electricity sector has important economic and environmental consequences. In the United States, the increased supply of gas during the last decade has led to substantial switching in the short term. Fuel switching is constrained, however, by the existing infrastructure. The power generation infrastructure, in turn, represents commitments to specific sources of energy over the long term. This dissertation explores fuel contracts as the link between short-term price response and long-term plant investments. Contracting choices enable power plant investments that are relationship-specific, often regulated, and face uncertainty. Many power plants are subject to both hold-up in investment and cost-of-service regulation. I find that capital bias is robust when considering either irreversibility or hold-up due to the uncertain arrival of an outside option. For sunk capital, the rental rate is inappropriate for determining capital bias. Instead, capital bias depends on the regulated rate of return, discount rate, and depreciation schedule. If policies such as emissions regulations increase fuel-switching flexibility, this can lead to capital bias. Cost-of-service regulation can shorten the duration of a long-term contract. From the firm's perspective, the existing literature provides limited guidance when bargaining and writing contracts for fuel procurement. I develop a stochastic programming framework to optimize long-term contracting decisions under both endogenous and exogenous sources of hold-up risk. These typically include policy changes, price shocks, availability of fuel, and volatility in derived demand. For price risks, the optimal contract duration is the moment when the expected benefits of the contract are just outweighed by the expected opportunity costs of remaining in the contract. I prove that imposing early renegotiation costs decreases contract duration. Finally, I provide an empirical approach to show how coal contracts can limit

  15. Domestic Regulation for Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daesik; Ahn, Seunghoon; Auh, Geunsun; Lee, Jonghyeok

    2015-01-01

    The so-called Periodic Safety Review (PSR) has been carried out such safety assessment throughout its life, on a periodic basis. In January 2001, the Atomic Energy Act and related regulations were amended to adopt the PSR institutional scheme from IAEA Nuclear Safety Guide 50-SG-O12. At that time the safety assessment was made to review the plant safety on 10 safety factors, such as aging management and emergency planning, where the safety factor indicates the important aspects of safety of an operating NPP to be addressed in the PSR. According to this legislation, the domestic utility, the KHNP has conducted the PSR for the operating NPP of 10 years coming up from operating license date, starting since May 2000. Some revisions in the PSR rule were made to include the additional safety factors last year. This paper introduces the current status of the PSR review and regulation, in particular new safety factors and updated technical regulation. Comprehensive safety assessment for Korea Nuclear Power Plants have performed a reflecting design and procedure changes and considering the latest technology every 10 years. This paper also examined the PSR system changes in Korea. As of July 2015, reviews for PSR of 18 units have been completed, with 229 nuclear safety improvement items. And implementation have been completed for 165 of them. PSR system has been confirmed that it has contributed to improvement of plant safety. In addition, this paper examined the PSR system change in Korea

  16. 2017 NEA Annual Report: Nuclear Power in 2017; Innovation and Education: Necessary Enablers for Sustainable Nuclear Energy, or the Virtuous Circle; NEA Activities by Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The NEA Annual Report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for the year ending on 31 December 2017 provides an overview of the status of nuclear power in OECD countries and illustrative descriptions of the Agency's activities and international joint projects. Content: 1 - Message from the Director-General; 2 - Innovation and Education: Necessary Enablers for Sustainable Nuclear Energy, or the Virtuous Circle; 3 - Nuclear Technology in 2017; 4 - NEA Activities by Sector: Nuclear Development, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Human Aspects of Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, 5 - General Information: Information and Communications, Organisational Structure of the NEA, NEA Committee Structure in 2017, NEA Management Structure in 2017, NEA Publications and Brochures Produced in 2017

  17. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China's power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40-45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China's power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings of traditional methods. We establish an agent-based model, CETICEM (CET Introduced China Electricity Market), of introduction of CET to China. In CETICEM, six types of agents and two markets are modeled. We find that: (1) CET internalizes environment cost; increases the average electricity price by 12%; and transfers carbon price volatility to the electricity market, increasing electricity price volatility by 4%. (2) CET influences the relative cost of different power generation technologies through the carbon price, significantly increasing the proportion of environmentally friendly technologies; expensive solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output-based allocation would be more conducive to reducing emissions in the Chinese power sector. (author)

  18. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  19. Frequency Regulation of a Hybrid Wind–Hydro Power Plant in an Isolated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez-Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, some small islands with high wind potential are trying to reduce the environmental and economic impact of fossil fuels by using renewable resources. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these renewable resources negatively affect the quality of the electrical energy, causing frequency disturbances, especially in isolated systems. In this study, the combined contribution to frequency regulation of variable speed wind turbines (VSWT and a pump storage hydropower plant (PSHP is analyzed. Different control strategies, using the kinetic energy stored in the VSWT, are studied: inertial, proportional, and their combination. In general, the gains of the VSWT controller for interconnected systems proposed in the literature are not adequate for isolated systems. Therefore, a methodology to adjust the controllers, based on exhaustive searches, is proposed for each of the control strategies. The control strategies and methodology have been applied to a hybrid wind–hydro power plant on El Hierro Island in the Canary archipelago. At present, in this isolated power system, frequency regulation is only provided by the PSHP and diesel generators. The improvements in the quality of frequency regulation, including the VSWT contribution, have been proven based on simulating different events related to wind speed, or variations in the power demand.

  20. Assessment of the impact of market regulation in Mali on the price of essential medicines provided through the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Diadié; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-10-01

    In 1998, the government of Mali adopted a national pharmaceutical policy aimed at promoting a supply system for generic essential medicines that would guarantee equal access for all citizens. Distribution and delivery is a shared responsibility of both public and private sectors (wholesalers and pharmacies). To influence private sector behaviour, the national policy uses a combination of government regulation and market forces. In 2006, the government issued a decree fixing maximum prices in the private sector for 107 prescription drugs from the national list of 426 essential medicines. The current study assessed the impact of this intervention on the evolution of market prices (wholesale and retail), and the subsequent availability and public access to essential medicines in Mali. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in February and May 2006, and January 2009, with 16 wholesalers and 30 private drugstores in Bamako, Mali. The overall availability of essential medicines at private wholesalers (p=1) and pharmacies (p=0.53) was identical before and after the enforcement of the 2006 decree fixing maximum drug prices. Contrary to concerns expressed by wholesalers and pharmacies, and the other stakeholders, the decree did not impact negatively on availability of essential medicines. In fact, median wholesale prices in 2009 were 25.6% less than those fixed by the decree. In private pharmacies, retail prices were only 3% more expensive than the recommended prices, compared with being 25.5% more expensive prior to enforcement of the decree. The study shows that prices of essential medicines in Mali have evolved favourably towards the prices recommended by the government decree. Further, the study contributes to mounting evidence that market regulation by governments does not necessarily negatively affect drug availability; in fact, given the reduction in prices, the study shows that Malians arguably have better access to more affordable essential medicines

  1. A carbon floor price for the electric power sector: which consequences? Policy Brief nr 2015-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, Raphael; Solier, Boris; Perthuis, Christian de

    2015-11-01

    As France envisages to introduce a carbon floor price (raised from 8 to 30 euros) for the electricity sector like it has been the case in the UK since 2013, such a measure would not result in CO_2 emission reductions, but in emission transfers between actors. The authors comments and analyse the possible consequences of such a measure. By using the ZEPHYR model, they discuss the consequences on the European ETS and on the western European electric power market. They notably briefly comment the impact of a price of 30 euros per CO_2 ton on the emissions by the electricity sector in France, Germany, the UK and Poland, and more particularly of French emissions in 2013 and 2014

  2. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear power plant regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, J B

    1980-09-01

    A specific program is recommended to utilize more effectively probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear power plant regulation. It is based upon the engineering insights from the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and some follow-on risk assessment research by USNRC. The Three Mile Island accident is briefly discussed from a risk viewpoint to illustrate a weakness in current practice. The development of a probabilistic safety goal is recommended with some suggestions on underlying principles. Some ongoing work on risk perception and the draft probabilistic safety goal being reviewed on Canada is described. Some suggestions are offered on further risk assessment research. Finally, some recent U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions are described.

  4. Instruments for the regulation of the electric power projects: An integrated vision of the socio-environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regini Nutti, Miriam; Milazzo, Maria Luiza; Rodriguez Garcia, Eduardo; Menezes, Carlos Frederico; Pompeu Serran, Flavia; Sebastiao Costa, Luiz; Neves Mundim, Rogerio

    1999-01-01

    The process of institutional change in the Brazilian electric sector accelerated the revision or elaboration of relating normative documents to the elaboration of studies and generation projects and electric power transmission. These documents were produced in a cooperative way by initiative of the organ federal regulator, under the coordination of ELETROBRAS and with the collaboration of technical teams of about ten Brazilian companies of energy. The aspects socio-environmental was absorbed in the normative documents, starting from an integrated vision of content and of the activities proposed with the energy studies and of engineering, allowing to diminish the relating uncertainties to the implementation of the projects and to assist to the national and sector environmental politics

  5. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  6. Accelerated reduction in SO₂ emissions from the U.S. power sector triggered by changing prices of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Wu, Gang; Nielsen, Chris P

    2012-07-17

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) from the U.S. power sector decreased by 24% in 2009 relative to 2008. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) approach was applied to isolate the factors responsible for this decrease. It is concluded that 15% of the decrease can be attributed to the drop in demand for electricity triggered by the economic recession, and 28% can be attributed to switching of fuel from coal to gas responding to the decrease in prices for the latter. The largest factor in the decrease, close to 57%, resulted from an overall decline in emissions per unit of power generated from coal. This is attributed in part to selective idling of older, less efficient coal plants that generally do not incorporate technology for sulfur removal, and in part to continued investments by the power sector in removal equipment in response to the requirements limiting emissions imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The paper argues further that imposition of a modest tax on emissions of carbon would have ancillary benefits in terms of emissions of SO(2).

  7. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  8. Mission related to regulation and development of the photovoltaic sector in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.M; Sine, A.; Helleisen, Ph.; Tlili, C.; Trink, C.; Stoffaes, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the development of the photovoltaic stock in France (high potential with a middle term development constrained by high costs, consequences of a very strong increase of demands at the end of 2009, perspective of development at a rather high rate). Then, it outlines and discusses the financial consequences of such a high rate development, and the inadequacy between industrial objectives and development rate. It presents a development plan for this sector, stresses the need to implement new purchase obligation measures before the summer 2010, and to define a global action plan to be implemented at the beginning of 2011 for the development of photovoltaic electricity. Elements of international comparison are finally proposed

  9. Price elasticity of natural gas demand in the power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    Today, the demand for energy by the electric generation sector is highly competitive and price-responsive. Previous estimates of the price elasticity of natural gas demand in this sector have focused primarily on data from the 1960s and 1970s. Such estimates fail to take full account of economic, regulatory, and legislative developments that have altered the structure of the electric generation market during the 1980s. Structural changes include an increased ability of utilities to choose among generating options, the increase in non-utility generators, the amending of the Fuel Use Act, and a more competitive market for electricity. An accurate estimate of price elasticity requires a refocusing on data from the post-1983 period. The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: how price responsive (elastic) is natural gas demand in this market; and what changes in natural gas demand elasticity have occurred over time

  10. Implications of private sector participation in power generation-a case study from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs

  11. Implications of private sector participation in power generation - a case study from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs. (author)

  12. Workplace Bullying, Power and Organizational Politics: A study of the Portuguese Banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Teresa Verdasca

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to shed light about the political dimension of workplace bullying through the quantitative analysis of work environment factors, like perceptions of organizational politics, work overload and internal competition, and the qualitative analysis of accounts of respondents to a questionnaire launched in the Portuguese banking sector. Our sample is made up of 561 valid responses containing 64 stories of bullying episodes and, in the qualitative data, political behaviours occur ass...

  13. The role of offsets in a post-Kyoto climate agreement: The power sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers how an offset scheme specific to the electricity generation sector could incentivize emissions cuts while avoiding the problems encountered by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It proposes an approach to project evaluation based on measures of additionality, economic viability and contribution to sustainable development specific to this sector and re-evaluates 460 registered CDM projects in China that generate electricity using wind, natural gas or small hydro. It concludes that many small hydro schemes would be viable without the CDM subsidy. Although these projects have zero emissions from operations, offsets issued to projects that are viable without subsidy permit increased emissions in developed countries and lead to a net increase in global emissions. To provide some indication of the sustainable development benefits that CDM projects bring to their host countries, the paper includes estimates of the projects' benefit to public health due to the reduced use of coal for generation. The paper provides insights into the economics of projects and their value to host countries that are missed by the official CDM methodologies. It contributes to the debate over the design of sector-specific offset schemes that may be part of a new global agreement on combating climate change.

  14. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeus, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.meeus@eui.e [Florence School of Regulation, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Boccaccio 151, Florence (Italy); Electrical Engineering Department (ESAT-ELECTA), KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: {yields} Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. {yields} Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. {yields} Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. {yields} More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  15. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: → Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. → Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. → Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. → More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  16. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Real-time transient stabilization and voltage regulation of power generators with unknown mechanical power input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenne, Godpromesse; Goma, Raphael; Nkwawo, Homere; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise; Arzande, Amir; Vannier, Jean Claude

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive excitation controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability and voltage regulation of synchronous generators with unknown power angle and mechanical power input. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of relative angular speed, active electric power, infinite bus and generator terminal voltages. The operating conditions are computed online using the above physical available measurements, the terminal voltage reference value and the estimate of the mechanical power input. The proposed design is therefore capable of providing satisfactory voltage in the presence of unknown variations of the power system operating conditions. Using the concept of sliding mode equivalent control techniques, a robust decentralized adaptive controller which insures the exponential convergence of the outputs to the desired ones, is obtained. Real-time experimental results are reported, comparing the performance of the proposed adaptive nonlinear control scheme to one of the conventional AVR/PSS controller. The high simplicity of the overall adaptive control scheme and its robustness with respect to line impedance variation including critical unbalanced operating condition and temporary turbine fault, constitute the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  18. Real-time transient stabilization and voltage regulation of power generators with unknown mechanical power input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenne, Godpromesse, E-mail: gokenne@yahoo.co [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee (LAIA), Departement de Genie Electrique, Universite de Dschang, B.P. 134 Bandjoun (Cameroon); Goma, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.goma@lss.supelec.f [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nkwawo, Homere, E-mail: homere.nkwawo@iutv.univ-paris13.f [Departement GEII, Universite Paris XIII, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise, E-mail: lamnabhi@lss.supelec.f [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzande, Amir, E-mail: Amir.arzande@supelec.f [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vannier, Jean Claude, E-mail: Jean-claude.vannier@supelec.f [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-01-15

    A nonlinear adaptive excitation controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability and voltage regulation of synchronous generators with unknown power angle and mechanical power input. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of relative angular speed, active electric power, infinite bus and generator terminal voltages. The operating conditions are computed online using the above physical available measurements, the terminal voltage reference value and the estimate of the mechanical power input. The proposed design is therefore capable of providing satisfactory voltage in the presence of unknown variations of the power system operating conditions. Using the concept of sliding mode equivalent control techniques, a robust decentralized adaptive controller which insures the exponential convergence of the outputs to the desired ones, is obtained. Real-time experimental results are reported, comparing the performance of the proposed adaptive nonlinear control scheme to one of the conventional AVR/PSS controller. The high simplicity of the overall adaptive control scheme and its robustness with respect to line impedance variation including critical unbalanced operating condition and temporary turbine fault, constitute the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  19. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40e45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China’s power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based mod...

  20. A French-German Energy Transition Alliance in Europe. The Case of the Power and Transport Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, Dimitri; Buck, Matthias; Berghmans, Nicolas; Meyer, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Both France and Germany have ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and are pursuing broad, long-term strategies to deeply decarbonize their economies by 2050. (France aims to reduce GHG emissions by 75% and Germany by 80 to 95% relative to their 1990 levels.) This strong political commitment to fighting climate change is deeply rooted in values and beliefs of German and French citizens and enjoys broad public support in both countries. The French Transition Energetique and the German Energiewende form the backbones of their respective decarbonization strategies. Both envisage step-by-step changes in the energy system, encompassing the power, transport and heating and cooling sectors

  1. Accelerated Reduction in \\(SO_2\\) Emissions from the U.S. Power Sector Triggered by Changing Prices of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Gang; McElroy, Michael Brendon; Lu, Xi; Nielsen, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (\\(SO_2\\)) from the U.S. power sector decreased by 24% in 2009 relative to 2008. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) approach was applied to isolate the factors responsible for this decrease. It is concluded that 15% of the decrease can be attributed to the drop in demand for electricity triggered by the economic recession, and 28% can be attributed to switching of fuel from coal to gas responding to the decrease in prices for the latter. The largest factor i...

  2. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.D.; Elliot, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, including states with new programs, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program

  3. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  4. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  5. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The Securities Commission Malaysia (SC), as the supervisor of the capital markets, has developed a robust supervisory framework that exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) in most areas. The SC's independence will be buttressed by some changes to the legal provi...

  6. Constructing a sustainable power sector in China: current and future emissions of coal-fired power plants from 2010 to 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest energy infrastructure in China, power sector consumed more coal than any other sector and threatened air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement target. In this work, we assessed the evolution of coal-fired power plants in China during 2010-2030 and the evolution of associated emissions for the same period by using a unit-based emission projection model which integrated the historical power plants information, turnover of the future power plant fleet, and the evolution of end-of-pipe control technologies. We found that, driven by the stringent environmental legislation, SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 emissions from China's coal-fired power plants decreased by 49%, 45%, and 24% respectively during 2010-2015, comparing to 14% increase of coal consumption and 15% increase in CO2 emissions. We estimated that under current national energy development planning, coal consumption and CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants will continue to increase until 2030, in which against the China's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) targets. Early retirement of old and low-efficient power plants will cumulatively reduce 2.2 Pg CO2 emissions from the baseline scenario during 2016-2030, but still could not curb CO2 emissions from the peak before 2030. Owing to the implementation of "near zero" emission control policy, we projected that emissions of air pollutants will significantly decrease during the same period under all scenarios, indicating the decoupling trends of air pollutants and CO2 emissions. Although with limited direct emission reduction benefits, increasing operating hours of power plants could avoid 236 GW of new power plants construction, which could indirectly reduce emissions embodied in the construction activity. Our results identified a more sustainable pathway for China's coal-fired power plants, which could reduce air pollutant emissions, improve the energy efficiency, and slow down the construction of new units. However, continuous

  7. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's Power On conference : the latest strategies to maximize opportunities in Ontario's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for reviewing strategies for Ontario's electricity sector with particular reference to electricity sector reform strategies and coal phase-out commitments. A supply adequacy outlook in terms of projected demand growth and generation mix and capacity was presented by the Independent Market Operator (IMO) along with issues concerning rising energy costs in various jurisdictions. Consumer adaptation to new pricing structures was discussed as well as generation investment needs to the year 2020. Government policies and commitments in the electricity sector were reviewed, as well as issues related to emissions and the impacts of air pollution. Renewable energy portfolios were also discussed along with issues concerning infrastructure adequacy. Imports of power and the expansion of transmission capabilities between Ontario and surrounding jurisdictions were reviewed and various opportunities from Manitoba were explored. Other topics of discussion included issues concerning pricing mechanisms; cost recovery; the development of effective buying strategies; and electricity purchasing for large energy consumers. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  8. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  9. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2004-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  10. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  11. Distributed power production in Mexico and Argentina: what are the new perspectives linked with the institutional reforms of the electric power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, J.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the power systems are made from the progressive aggregation of small size local networks. Todays, this structure shows its limitations with an apparent exhausting of the gains linked with the size of production units, with the increasing difficulties to develop new transportation infrastructures, and with a fast performance improvement of the modular production technologies under the effect of the deregulation of the electric sector and of the policies of greenhouse gases abatement. Thus, it is not excluded that the distributed power production systems (i.e. gas and diesel engines, micro-turbines, small gas turbines and combined cycles, fuel cells, technologies using renewable energy sources) will play a more and more important role in the power supply, beside big production facilities. The factors influencing the development of these technologies can greatly change from one country to the other but some common established factors remain such as the search for a better reliability of supplies, the implementation of policies against climatic change or the deregulation of the electrical sector. The influence of these different factors are examined in this document which stresses more particularly on the consequences of the liberalization of network industries by using first, an analysis of the international experience, and then by examining the particular cases of Mexico and Argentina. (J.S.)

  12. EU regulation on "conflict minerals": A step towards higher accountability in the extractive sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Küblböck, Karin; Grohs, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    "No blood in my cell phone" - In the early 2000s, NGO-campaign slogans pointed out the links between raw materials in electronic products and the financing of armed conflicts. These campaigns focused on the responsibility of companies for their supply chain. In July 2017, an EU regulation came into effect that aims to prevent companies from financing armed conflicts via their procurement of raw materials. This Policy Note explains how the debates on 'conflict minerals' led to the formulation ...

  13. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    The following topics are described in reference to electric power production in New England: Fuel Prices; Emission Factors and Externality Surcharges; Cost and Potential of Demand-Site Efficiency Improvements; Fuel Switching; Conventional Utility Generation; Gas Supply Constraints; Cogeneration Potential; Biomass Resources; Potential Power Production from Municipal Solid Waste; and Wind Resource Potential

  14. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  15. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  16. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch.

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  17. Impacts of wind power generation and CO{sub 2} emission constraints on the future choice of fuels and technologies in the power sector of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, K.Q. [Institute of Energy, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2007-04-15

    This paper examines the impacts of wind power generation on the future choice of fuels and technologies in the power sector of Vietnam. The study covers a time frame of 20 yr from 2005 to 2025 and the MARKAL model has been chosen to be adaptable to this specific task. The results of the study show that on a simple cost base, power generated from wind is not yet competitive with that of fossil fuel-based power plants. In order to make wind energy competitive, either carbon tax or an emission reduction target on the system must be imposed. The presence of wind power could affect not only the change in generation mix from coal-based power plants to wind turbines but also an increase in the capacity of other technologies which emit less carbon dioxide. It thus helps reduce fossil fuel requirement and consequently enhances energy security for the country. The study also shows that wind turbine in Vietnam could be a potential CDM project for annex I party countries. (author)

  18. Prediction of requirements on labor force in the fuel and power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaveckova, R.

    1990-01-01

    One of the aspects of socio-economic assessment of development is quantification of the expected requirements on the number of personnel. Predictions are discussed for the period before the year 2005 for solid fuel mining and treatment, gas production and bitumen mining, power and heat generation and also for the production of electricity and heat by nuclear power plants. They are based on an analysis of past development and the present state, on presumed implementation of various concept variants, on the type structure of nuclear power plants, on the rules of the electric power supply system, and also on foreign materials. It is expected that in 2005, nuclear power will employ 15,654 personnel. (M.D.). 4 tabs., 16 refs

  19. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  20. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  1. Impact of reform and privatization on consumers: A case study of power sector reform in Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Mishra, Bidhu Bhusan

    2011-01-01

    Orissa is the first state in India to have undergone reform in the power sector, with the government withdrawing its control. The model of this reform is known as the WB-Orissa model. The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of this reform on consumers of electricity, which has been measured using multiple regression models. The variables represent the parameters that consumers are most interested in, and the regression coefficients represent the weights of the corresponding variables. The data were collected using a survey methodology. The impact of reform was found to be mixed. Some groups of consumers saw benefits, while others felt a negative impact. A focus group study was conducted to identify the variables of interest to consumers of electricity. The model was used to estimate consumer benefit and was validated using primary data and structural equation modeling. The study revealed beneficial aspects of reform and areas with no benefits. - Highlights: → Linear regression model with seven variables explains consumer benefit. → Governance issue exists after power sector reform of Orissa. → Reform benefited most consumers with a few exceptions. → Reform affected agricultural consumers.

  2. Financial Instruments: the Essence, Diversity and Role in the Process of Modernization of the Electric Power Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakumenko Olha V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to clarify the methodological basis for further research concerning analysis of the existing practices and development of proposals on using financial instruments for the modernization of the Ukrainian electric power sector, in particular, to clarify the definition of “financial instruments” and justify their classification, taking into account the defining characteristics. Based on the critical evaluation of various scientific approaches to interpretation of the essence of financial instruments, the author’s definition is proposed. Thus, it is advisable to consider them as means, techniques and methods of attracting financial resources (capital from other entities and as absolutely liquid assets. The generalization and rethinking of the criteria for classification of financial instruments allowed the authors to divide them into financial assets (cash, bank metals, currency, financial obligations (equity and debt instruments, and instruments of irrevocable financial aid (charitable contributions, grants, crowdfunding, fundraising. The received methodological conclusions quite fully characterize the essence and variety of types of financial instruments, taking into account their principal properties, which will allow to make a well-considered justification for choosing the optimal instruments for the modernization of the electric power sector.

  3. Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the Global Power Sector to Accelerate the Transition to a Lower Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Power Watch project will offer open data on the global electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants globally by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of global installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a global standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a global level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.

  4. Investigating an effective supply chain for a refinery in a regulated petroleum sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adendorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, refined petroleum products are manufactured by six refineries in South Africa. The supply of refined petroleum products is supplemented by imports of refined petroleum products. These refined petroleum products are transported by pipeline, rail, road, sea and a combination thereof to depots across the country. These products are then distributed directly to commercial customers through points of resale in the form of retail service stations. The challenge is that the storage facilities and distribution networks in South Africa are currently utilised to its full capacity. There is a need to expand current storage infrastructure or to erect new storage facilities to facilitate imports. Durban Port that currently handles 70% of the country’s crude oil and 40% of refined products is also utilised to its full capacity. The investigated problem pertains to the limited storage and transport capacity available for the distribution of petroleum products in the country. The interview protocol, which was based on the literature reviewed, was used for compiling the primary data for the case study. Selected findings revealed that the respondents perceived that storage capacity is the most significant constraint militating against adequate supply by the supply chain. The findings also indicated that the respondents were of the opinion that transport rates and routes (cost of logistics are the greatest contributor to the prices of products. As a result, there appears to be a major scope for improvement in terms of the usage of pipelines and rails for the movement of petroleum products. Keywords: Petroleum products, storage facilities, supply chain, transportation, South African energy sector. Disciplines: civil engineering, architecture, business studies, energy studies

  5. Choice of models and data availability for the efficiency analysis of the Dutch distribution and supply companies in the electricity sector. Background document of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Huggins, M.; Riechmann, C.; Weyman-Jones, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to the most appropriate models by means of which the efficiency of the electricity companies in the Netherlands can be analyzed

  6. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    Recently, questions have arisen in Denmark as to how and why public funding should be allocated to wind power producers. This is, among other reasons, due to pressure from industrial electricity consumers who want their overall energy costs lowered. Utilising existing wind power subsidies across...... conditions which could allow wind power producers to reduce their reliance on subsidies. It is found that the strategy may be effective in lowering the overall energy costs of electricity consumers. Further, it is found possible to scale up this strategy and realise benefits on a national scale....

  7. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  8. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What the sector thinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report is the second in a two-part study, geared to helping power and utilities companies adapt their business strategies and customer handling in a new smart world. It explores the views of power and utilities leaders across 12 countries on how smart might change consumers' needs and behaviors, what new services they plan to offer and where they see the strongest new opportunities and competitors. We also compare these results with those of the first study, which examined the views of consumers and their appetite for new smart services.

  9. Gas to Coal Competition in the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    With the newfound availability of natural gas due to the shale gas revolution in the United States, cheap gas now threatens coal’s longstanding position as the least costly fuel for generating electricity. But other factors besides cost come into play when deciding to switch from coal to gas. Electricity and gas transmission grid constraints, regulatory and contractual issues, as well as other factors determine the relative share of coal and gas in power generation. This paper analyzes competition between coal and gas for generating power in the United States and the factors explaining this dynamic. It also projects coal-to-gas switching in power generation for 18 states representing 75% of the surplus gas potential in the United States up to 2017, taking into consideration the impact of environmental legislation on retirement of coal-fired power plants.

  10. Health sector regulation in Thailand: recent progress and the future agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Tantivess, Sripen; Mills, Anne

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the current system of regulation and assesses its effectiveness in the health-care system of Thailand. In order to achieve this, extensive documentary reviews were performed and supplemented by in-depth interviews. We found the existing regulatory framework to be fairly comprehensive with rules and roles firmly established. Regulations cover almost all relevant private and public organisations including individuals. However, the incomplete performance of regulatory functions was detected resulting in problems of overburdened staff and delays in performance of functions. Our recommendations propose the promotion of professional ethics and continuing education, an effort to narrow the gap between expectation and reality through public education, and the empowering of consumer organisations. The increasing popularity of medical lawsuits and professional insurance, which in part reflects the imperfect administration of the system, highlights the need for careful consideration of how best to handle the increase in complaints. The mapping of the regulatory system in this paper, together with the discussion of how to cope with the expansion of medicine as a business and with greater consumerism, will be of interest to other middle income countries that seek to reform and strengthen their regulatory system.

  11. Economic Valuation Methods: The Perception of the Accountants of the Hydroeletric Power Sector in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aracéli Cristina de S. Ferreira; Hélio Arthur Irigaray

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify how accountants perceive the electric power companies in Brazil, regarding the use of economic valuation methods for measuring environmental impacts on hydroelectric power generation. These methods would be used in the internalisation of impacts in compliance with accounting theory criteria of recognition, measurement and disclosure of relevant economic activities. This is an exploratory study based on the conclusion regarding the collected data from...

  12. Regulator of Dust and Coal Burner of Power Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wujcik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers considers problems concerning introduction of neutron regulator into engineering practice. The regulator makes it possible to regulate CO, N0^ and O2 values with the purpose to optimize ejections into environment. The paper contains scheme of automation control of cyclone dust and coal burner with the help of a neutron regulator.

  13. Energy researchers - 8. Wind power production: Wind power, the energy of the future; A mature sector; The ecological attraction of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Florette, Marc; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    A first article comments the development in the design of wind turbines which become more powerful, with higher performance. Researchers are also working on blade shape, on alternator technology, on the use of multiplier to enable the reduction of the alternator weight, on better control and command systems to increase the load factor. The development of offshore wind farms is also a challenge in terms of maintenance, in wind turbine design in order to withstand sea corrosion, and in terms of connection to the grid. A second article comments the evolution of the wind energy sector in terms of installed capacity, costs and competitiveness. In an interview, three researchers outline the extremely positive carbon footprint and other benefits of wind power, and also discuss its disadvantages: they mainly concern the impact on landscape, but also birds and marine fauna

  14. Large scale deployment of non power applications (NPAs) and spin-off technologies in rural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, A.M.; Mule, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years a large indigenous Science and Technology (S and T) know-how has been generated in various national laboratories and in parallel, several technologies have been imported. Urban sector has received the highest attention by way of deployment of large number of these technologies and know-how in urban areas resulting in rapid urban development leading to urban rural divide in terms of prosperity and opportunities. Further, India's young population is expected to be the largest in the world in decades ahead, over 500 millions. Creating gainful and productive work for them is the greatest challenge. Technical know-how generated in national laboratories related to basic needs such as water, food, energy and environment has been underutilized. Deployment and adaptation of this know-how to the rural needs could provide a creative opportunity for expected 500 million youths in rural and urban India to contribute to the national wealth with prosperity for everybody including villages

  15. Modular construction: 30 years of experience in the naval sector, useful for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepelletier, P.; Danguy des Deserts, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the benefits of modular construction in the sector of submarines that was implemented in the mid eighties in French shipyards. The design of the submarine is cut in different longitudinal parts so that each part can be built and completely equipped independently from the other parts. The different parts are then joined and welded at the end of the process of fabrication to form the submarine. The main advantages of such a construction are shorter construction times, standardized construction and a higher quality standard. DCNS proposes to use modular construction for the design of Flexblue which is an immersed small modular reactor (SMR). More generally, modular construction will add economic competitiveness to SMR reactors that will be necessary to their full development on a worldwide scale

  16. THE RESTRUCTURING OF ROMANIAN POWER SECTOR AT THE CROSSROADS: COMPETITIVE MARKETS OR NEO-COLBERTISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Diaconu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts made by European Commission to liberalize electricity markets and foster integration, there are still significant barriers to free competition. Until now, Romania was one of the countries that have been compliant to the European Union’s electricity directives, being ahead of several older member states in this area. However, reforms have not started to pay out, suggesting that the model of combining state-owned non-competing generators with private/privatized distributors and suppliers may not be the best model of market deregulation. As a result, Romanian authorities have started to talk about plans to restructure the sector, by re-consolidating the unbundled generation companies and the state-owned distribution companies into one national energy company, aiming to create a national champion, competitive on the regional markets. However, these proposals are based on questionable economics and their adoption will have negative effects on market competition and, thus, on consumers.

  17. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwala, W [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors` development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs.

  18. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwala, W.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors' development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs

  19. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Kojima, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  20. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaj, Peter; Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO x removal, and CO 2 scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO 2 over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO 2 mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control

  1. Optimal model of congestion management in deregulated environment of power sector with promotion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Yog Raj; Singh, Randhir

    2010-01-01

    In the competitive electricity market it becomes very much important to give special consideration for development of renewable energy sources (RESs) due to environmental and other social problems related with conventional generations. So this paper presents an optimal model of congestion management with special emphasis for promotion of RES in competitive electricity market. This paper presents a generalized optimal model of congestion management for deregulated power sector that dispatches the pool in combination with privately negotiated bilateral and multilateral contracts while maximizing social benefit. This model determines the locational marginal pricing (LMP) based on marginal cost theory. It also determines the size of non-firm transactions as well as pool demand and generations. Both firms as well as non-firm transactions are considered in this model. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE-30 bus test system with addition of some RES for analysis of the proposed model. The RES supplies its power to load either through the firm transaction or through power pool. The power from RES is not subjected to any curtailment in proposed model of congestion management. (author)

  2. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  3. Price elastic power consumption as reserve power - a demonstration in the horticultural sector. Final report; Priselastisk elforbrug som reservekraft - et demonstrationsprojekt i gartneribranchen. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Danish greenhouses have a relatively high level of electricity consumption for plant growth lighting. Part of the electricity consumption is flexible, and the main purpose of the project was to find out if the plant growth lighting of the greenhouses is fit for the market for reserve power. The greenhouses' total potential for delivery of upgrading services was up to 80 MW for a short period in spring 2007. Four greenhouses participated in practise on the regulating power market with a flexible consumption. The upscaling of the demonstration was not carried through because e.g. the price development on the regulating power market reduced the gain considerably, and the investments for installation of on-line metering at the greenhouses did not measure up with the earnings. (Author)

  4. The software safety analysis based on SFTA for reactor power regulating system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaohui; Yang Xiaohua; Liao Longtao; Wu Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The digitalized Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system of Nuclear power plants can provide many advantages. However, digital control systems induce new failure modes that differ from those of analog control systems. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. Software safety analysis (SSA) was one way to improve the software safety by identify the system hazards caused by software failure. This paper describes the application of a software fault tree analysis (SFTA) at the software design phase. At first, we evaluate all the software modules of the reactor power regulating system in nuclear power plant and identify various hazards. The SFTA was applied to some critical modules selected from the previous step. At last, we get some new hazards that had not been identified in the prior processes of the document evaluation which were helpful for our design. (author)

  5. Risk management in the electric power sector, v. 16(61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Atanas; Minovski, Dragan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the basics of the risk theory and the main methods which could be applied for risk management in electrical power system utilities. Taking into consideration that the risk and uncertainty not be completely eliminated, the engineers have to know to manage the risk and uncertainty. The main goal is to minimized the negative effects from accepted risk in order to increase expected incomes and expected profit. Special attention is dedicated to risk management in complex project in Electric Power Systems in a new deregulated electricity market which has the influence to the market stability, expected incomes and quality of the delivered electricity. Specially, the risk management in the companies - producers of the electricity is analysed, since theirs further investments in a rehabilitation of the current power plants as well in the construction of the new plants will be based on the economical principles of profit. (Author)

  6. Risk management in the electric power sector, v. 16(62)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Atanas; Minovski, Dragan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the basics of the risk theory and the main methods which could be applied for risk management in electrical power system utilities. Taking into consideration that the risk and uncertainty not be completely eliminated, the engineers have to know to manage the risk and uncertainty. The main goal is to minimized the negative effects from accepted risk in order to increase expected incomes and expected profit. Special attention is dedicated to risk management in complex project in Electric Power Systems in a new deregulated electricity market which has the influence to the market stability, expected incomes and quality of the delivered electricity. Specially, the risk management in the companies - producers of the electricity is analysed, since theirs further investments in a rehabilitation of the current power plants as well in the construction of the new plants will be based on the economical principles of profit. (Author)

  7. Optimal sizing of grid-independent hybrid photovoltaic–battery power systems for household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; Ferrari, C.; Melino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A feasibility study on a stand-alone solar–battery power generation system is carried out. • An in-house developed calculation code able to estimate photovoltaic panels behaviour is described. • The feasibility of replacing grid electricity with hybrid system is examined. • Guidelines for optimal photovoltaic design are given. • Guidelines for optimal storage sizing in terms of batteries number and capacity are given. - Abstract: The penetration of renewable sources into the grid, particularly wind and solar, have been increasing in recent years. As a consequence, there have been serious concerns over reliable and safety operation of power systems. One possible solution, to improve grid stability, is to integrate energy storage devices into power system network: storing energy produced in periods of low demand to later use, ensuring full exploitation of intermittent available sources. Focusing on stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) energy system, energy storage is needed with the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow, to minimize or, if anything, to neglect electrical grid supply. A comprehensive study on a hybrid stand-alone photovoltaic power system using two different energy storage technologies has been performed. The study examines the feasibility of replacing electricity provided by the grid with hybrid system to meet household demand. In particular, this paper presents first results for photovoltaic (PV)/battery (B) hybrid configuration. The main objective of this paper is focused on PV/B system, to recommend hybrid system optimal design in terms of PV module number, PV module tilt, number and capacity of batteries to minimize or, if possible, to neglect grid supply. This paper is the early stage of a theoretical and experimental study in which two different hybrid power system configurations will be evaluated and compared: (i) PV/B system and (ii) PV/B/fuel cell (FC) system. The aim of the overall study will be the definition of the

  8. Testing for cross-subsidisation in the combined heat and power generation sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Andersen, Per; Jensen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine cross-subsidisation among combined heat and power producers in Denmark.Information on stand-alone costs for heat generation allows us to empirically compare the Faulhaber tests,tests with an upper bound on stand-alone costs (the Palmer tests) and the fully distributed cos...... test (FDC). All tests indicate a substantial amount of cross-subsidisation from heat generation to power generation. It is shown that the FDC test is closer to that of the Faulhaber tests in its results than the Palmer tests. Thus as the Faulhaber tests are considered in the literature...

  9. Strategic alliance and private sector investment options in the Nigerian power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of energy and mineral resources and the effect of appropriate strategic partnerships necessary for its development. The energy related minerals of interest are coal, tar-sand (bitumen), uranium and barytes/bentonite. The strategic development of the minerals and the impact on the Nigeria economy over the years are reviewed. Present status of these minerals show that harnessing them could have serious environmental consequences previously neglected. However, control of emissions for example from coal-fired power status add to the financial cost of the coal-fired power

  10. The valleys and the lands use conflict among electric power sector, environmental preservation and traditional populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clevelario Junior, Judicael

    1999-01-01

    Although hydroelectric power are relatively clean energy systems compared to others, they have climatic, hydrological, biological, cultural, social and archaeological impacts on natural water bodies. Therefore, attention has been directed to the impact of water projects on environment and several studies have been performed about these effects. The aim of this work was going to analyze these impacts in Brazil

  11. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, we turn...

  12. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Shu-ichi

    2009-01-01

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study.

  13. Emissions trading and investment decisions in the power sector-a case study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurikka, Harri; Koljonen, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Organizations, which consider investment in or divestment of power production licences/capacity within the European Community, are exposed to the impacts of the European Union Emission allowance Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In this paper, the consequences of the EU ETS on investment decisions are explored in a country-specific setting in Finland. First, we review the general mechanisms through which the EU ETS influences size, timing and cashflows of an investment. Next, we discuss the projected changes in Finnish power producers' investment environment and examine the financial impacts due to the EU ETS on a case investment decision, a hypothetical condensing power plant (250 MW e ). The standard discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis is extended to take into account the value of two real options: the option to wait and the option to alter operating scale. In a quantitative investment appraisal, the impact of emissions trading not only depends on the expected level of allowance prices, but also on their volatility and correlation with electricity and fuel prices. The case study shows that the uncertainty regarding the allocation of emission allowances is critical in a quantitative investment appraisal of fossil fuel-fired power plants

  14. Does energy consumption by the US electric power sector exhibit long memory behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Loomis, David; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes energy consumption by the US electric power by various energy sources through fractional integration. In doing so, we are able to determine the level of persistence of the shocks affecting each energy source. The results indicate long memory behavior as each energy source is highly persistent, displaying long memory along with autoregressive behavior and strong seasonal patterns.

  15. Pricing environmental externalities in the power sector. Ethical limits and implications for social choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, Patrik; Sundqvist, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of valuation studies have made attempts at estimating the external environmental costs of various power generation sources. The purposes of this paper are: (a) to explore some of the ethical limits of the economic valuation of environmental impacts; and (b) to analyze what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different electric power sources. Environmental valuation based on welfare economic theory builds on restrictive behavioral foundations and can only partly model moral values, although such values are an essential part of people's preference towards the environment. In addition, public preferences are seldom exogenously given as is commonly assumed in economic theory, but are instead formed in public discourse. For this reason, the range of electricity externalities where economic valuation (and thus cost-benefit analysis) should be applied is likely to be narrower than often assumed. After analyzing the scope, methodology and the results of the so-called ExternE project, the paper concludes that many power generation externalities are either inherently 'new' or inherently 'complex'. In these cases, the initial challenge lies not in 'discovering' private preferences, but in specifying the conditions for public discourse over common ways of understanding what the pertinent issues are about. This implies that research on the environmental externalities of power generation must, in addition to refining the theory and the applications of existing non-market valuation techniques, also address the instruments and content of political and moral debate

  16. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  17. A new paradigm for the Indian power sector: going beyond the 'Silver Bullet' privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper focuses on the Indian power sector. However, the situation in France will be briefly recalled, for the rationales of privatisation, levels of analysis and issues to be solved are not at all the same, and for a part of the solution could be drawn from the French public experience. Section one deals with the rationale for privatisation in India, as assessed by its supporters. In practice, this policy has not reached its declared targets in India (absence of commitment, delayed projects, assets 'sold for a song'). This allows space for questioning the implicit or explicit assumptions in present reforms. For privatisation is being supported due to so called 'political interference', and 'lack of money', these issues will be put in perspective with some more structural roots in inefficiency of the Indian power sector. Indeed, these two explanations are meaningless in telling why inefficient decisions are selected preferably to efficient ones. Namely, the internal organisation itself of power utilities has to be questioned. Section two focuses on the decision-making in State Electricity Boards, especially on the absence of proper tools for delegation of power (a proper budget allocation, a proper delegation of managerial power, a reporting system which makes people accountable for decisions). It shows how this leads to a decision-making system being more dependent on administrative procedures than dedicated to solve actual issues. This analysis as well explains how the inability to have assumptions strong enough to carry out 'costs vs. benefits' analysis leads to inefficiencies. This ultimately explains the disinterest of private investors or the high premiums they take. Section three calls for an inflexion to the current reforms, which do not take into account these characteristics of public utilities. Further to the experience of reform in Russia, Eastern Europe and China, this section calls for a very &apos