WorldWideScience

Sample records for power plant aging

  1. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  2. Aging effects in PWR power plants components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the study of aging process of components in commercial plants of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The analysis is made through application of the Fault Trees Method, Monte Carlo Method and Fussell-Vesely Importance Measure. The approach of the study of aging in nuclear power plants, besides giving attention to the economic factors involved directly with the extent of their operational life, also provide significant data on security issues. The latest case involving process of life extension of a PWR could be seen in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant through investing of $27 million for the installation of a new reactor lid. The corrective action has generated an estimated operating life extension of Angra I in twenty years, offering great economy compared with building cost of a new plant and anterior decommissioning, if it had reached the time operating limit of forty years. The Extension of the operating life of a nuclear power plant must be accompanied by a special attention to the components of the systems and their aging process. After the application of the methodology (aging analysis of the injection system of the containment spray) proposed in this work, it can be seen that 'the increase in the rate of component failure, due the aging process, generates the increase in the general unavailability of the system that containing these basic components'. The final results obtained were as expected and may contribute to the maintenance policy, preventing premature aging process in Nuclear Plant Systems. (author)

  3. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Glossary of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A glossary is presented of the terminology for understanding and managing the ageing of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components. This glossary has been published by NEA, in cooperation with CEC and IAEA, as a handy reference to facilitate and encourage use of common ageing terminology. The main benefits are improved reporting and interpretation of plant data on SSC degradation and failure, and improved interpretation and compliance with codes, regulations and standards related to nuclear plant ageing. The goal is to provide plant personnel with a common set of terms that have uniform, industry-wide meanings, and to facilitate discussion between experts from different countries. The glossary is in five languages: English, French, German, Spanish and Russian. In each language section terms are listed alphabetically, with sequential members which are repeated in the English section thus allowing cross-reference between al languages. (R.P.)

  5. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  6. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  7. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  8. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  9. Management of ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, J.S.; Ramteke, P.K.; Babar, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ageing is time dependent degradation of hardware and measured by percentage deviation of performance parameters with reference to their respective reference values. Ageing is influenced by environmental and operating stresses; lower the magnitude of stresses, lower the rate of degradation and vice versa. This paper describes test results of thermal ageing, radiation ageing and performance during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) environment (steam bound condition at 120 degC) on various types of electrical cables, elastomers and electronic process instruments. (author)

  10. Probabilistic methods in nuclear power plant component ageing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear power plant ageing research is aimed to ensure that the plant safety and reliability are maintained at a desired level through the designed, and possibly extended lifetime. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time- dependent decrease in reliability. The results of analyses can be used in the evaluation of the remaining lifetime of components and in the development of preventive maintenance, testing and replacement programmes. The report discusses the use of probabilistic models in the evaluations of the ageing of nuclear power plant components. The principles of nuclear power plant ageing studies are described and examples of ageing management programmes in foreign countries are given. The use of time-dependent probabilistic models to evaluate the ageing of various components and structures is described and the application of models is demonstrated with two case studies. In the case study of motor- operated closing valves the analysis are based on failure data obtained from a power plant. In the second example, the environmentally assisted crack growth is modelled with a computer code developed in United States, and the applicability of the model is evaluated on the basis of operating experience

  11. Nuclear power plant ageing management programmes in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Laakso, K.; Pekkonen, A.

    1992-09-01

    The report describes ageing studies of nuclear power plants and research programmes on plant life extension in foreign countries. Ageing studies are aimed to ascertain that the availability and safety of components and structures can be maintained throughout the plant lifetime. In life extension programmes the purpose is to evaluate the technical and economical possibilities to extend the plant lifetime beyond the originally planned operation period, without reducing the plant safety. The main emphasis of the report is put on the ageing and life extension programmes in the United States. Besides the U.S. studies, research on plant life extension possibilities conducted in France and Japan are also described. Examples of studies performed in other nuclear energy producing countries are given. These examples are mainly related to the development of maintenance programmes and techniques

  12. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

  13. Nuclear power plant ageing and life extension: Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.; Podest, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with large fossil-fired electrical generating units, as well as in all process industries, shows that plants begin to deteriorate with age after approximately 10 years of operation. Similar phenomena will prevail for nuclear plants, and it is reasonable to postulate that their availability will be affected, as will their safety, if appropriate measures are not taken. It is evident that the average age of power reactors in the IAEA's Member States is increasing. By 2000, more than 50 nuclear plants will have been providing electricity for 25 years or longer. Most nuclear power plants have operating lifetimes of between 20 and 40 years. Ageing is defined as a continuing time-dependent degradation of material due to service conditions, including normal operation and transient conditions. It is common experience that over long periods of time, there is a gradual change in the properties of materials. These changes can affect the capability of engineered components, systems, or structures to perform their required function. Not all changes are deleterious, but it is commonly observed that ageing processes normally involve a gradual reduction in performance capability. All materials in a nuclear power plant can suffer from ageing and can partially or totally lose their designed function. Ageing is not only of concern for active components (for which the probability of malfunction increases with time) but also for passive ones, since the safety margin is being reduced towards the lowest allowable level

  14. Aging of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Pland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), had the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant structures for continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. Major accomplishments under the SAG Program during the first two years of its planned five-year duration have included: development of a Structural Materials Information Center and formulation of a Structural Aging Assessment Methodology for Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants. 9 refs

  15. NPAR [Nuclear Plant Aging Research] approach to managing aging in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program (NPAR) has been devoted to developing technical understanding of the time dependent processes that, through deterioration of components, systems, or structures (C/S/S), can reduce safety margins in nuclear power plants. A major and necessary element of the program involves the application of this basic knowledge in defining functional approaches to managing aging by anticipating and mitigating important deterioration processes. Fundamental understanding and characterization of aging processes are being accomplished through NPAR-sponsored research projects, review and analysis of aging related information, integration of NPAR results with those from industry and other aging studies, and interfacing of all of these with the existing body of codes, standards and regulatory instruments that convey aging-related guidance to NPP licensees. Products of these efforts are applied to structuring and providing aging-related technical recommendations in forms that are useful in: (1) developing and implementing good aging management practices, (2) developing regulatory guidance and requirements for understanding and managing aging during normal plant operations and in support of license renewal, and (3) planning and implementing other regulatory actions and initiatives in which aging-related concerns have a bearing on scope or priority

  16. Guideline for ageing management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Hienstorfer, W.; Pompe, W.

    2007-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plants, the quality of systems, structures and components may change as a result of ageing (conceptional ageing, technological ageing or physical ageing), which will affect the system quality. Ageing management is necessary to ensure safety and availability throughout the life of the systems. This necessitates a systematic, integrative and knowledge-based approach. Systems, structures and components are grouped according to their relevance for meeting the set goals. Ageing mangement should be process-oriented and should be integrated in the organisational procedure in cooperation with the safety manager. The procedure should follow the PDCA principle (plan - do - check - act). The data, documents, knowledge and evaluations required for ageing management are part of the knowledge base of the nuclear power station and are updated regularly. The efficiency of ageing management must be reassessed at regular intervals. (orig.)

  17. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  18. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D. [MDC-Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  19. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  20. Performance measures for aging of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant licenses are granted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a 40-year term. There is at present consideration being given to extending the authorized service lifetime beyond that, perhaps for a total of 60 or 70 years total. A logical concern for such a length of operation is whether the plant ages in such a way as to be significantly less safe as it gets older. As a corollary to this, there would be the question as to how to measure a diminution in plant safety. Each operating utility has, of course, ways to observe the plant performance. It has maintenance and surveillance programs which are used for this purpose. The NRC maintains a presence at each operating plant in the form of resident inspectors. The NRC also receives utility reports which may then be used to synthesize operating performance. It also reviews plant performance directly through what is known as the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP). In the paper the various data management programs used by the NRC will be described. The results of each program is presented, and observations are made as to the potential effect of age on safety performance. It is also necessary to define the size of the population being examined. There are at present 109 operating reactors. The age distribution is used to normalize the data. Some of the indicators discussed in this paper are concerned more with the indirect effect of aging, such as inadvertent shutdown. The regulated industry maintains a program known as the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) to which the electric utilities participate in a voluntary manner. Data from NPRDS can be accessed to observe the direct aging effect; this is not covered in this paper. To the degree that plant operating staff learns how to cope with aging equipment and operate in a safe manner nonetheless, the performance indicators would not fully reflect the aging effect

  1. Aging management and preventive maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Toichi; Sagawa, Wataru; Oyamada, Osamu; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1995-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will bear main electric power supply for long term. For this purpose, by applying proper preventive maintenance to the nuclear power plants in operation, the maintenance of high reliability and the rate of plant operation is extremely important. Especially it has been strongly demanded to execute efficiently the periodic inspection which is carried out every year to shorten its period and increase the rate of operation, and to maintain the reliability by the proper maintenance for the aged plants with long operation years. As to efficient and short periodic inspection, the preparation is advanced by the guidance of electric power companies aiming at realizing it in nearest fiscal year, and further, effort is exerted for the development of technology in long term to optimize periodic inspection. For securing the reliability of aged plants, it is important to do proper inspection and diagnosis and to take the countermeasures by repair and replacement, based on the grasp of secular change mechanism and the evaluation of life of machinery, equipment and materials. In particular, effort is exerted for the development of maintenance technology for reactor pressure vessels and in-core equipment which are hard to access. The confirmation of the function of remote operation equipment and the establishment of execution condition are carried out by uisng the full scale mock-up of BWR plant. The problems in maintenance service and the activities and results of reliability improvement are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs

  3. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  5. Assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The electrical and instrumentation equipments, especially whose parts are made of polymer material, are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation, and the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the environment of the design basis event (DBE). The integrity of the equipments is evaluated by the environmental qualification (EQ) test simulating the environment of the normal operation and the DBE. The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) indicated the importance of applying simultaneous thermal and radiation aging for simulating the aging in normal operation. The project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008 to apply the outcome of ACA to the other electrical and instrumentation equipment and to establish an advanced EQ test method that can appropriately simulate the environment in actual plants. In FY2012, aging characteristics of thermal aging and simultaneous aging were obtained for the epoxy resin of electrical penetrations and the O-ring of connectors. Physical property measurement was carried out for epoxy resin of electrical penetration subject to the type testing in FY2010. (author)

  6. Technical strategy map to employing nuclear power plant aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Kanno, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Stated in this report are back ground of technical strategy map for nuclear power plant aging management, result of the first road map, significance of technical strategy map, introduction scenario, technology map, road map, upgrade in every year, three groups of academia, industry and government, plan of technical strategy map, upgrade system, comprehensive introduction scenario, measures of nuclear power plant aging management in Japan and the world, new inspection system, outline of 'technical strategy map 2008', preparation of technical information bases in industry, academia and government, collaboration of them, safety researches of neutron radiation damage, stress corrosion crack, fatigue, piping thinning, insulation degradation, concrete degradation, thermal aging, evaluation technologies of earthquake resistance, preparation of rules and standards, ideal maintenance, and training talent. (S.Y.)

  7. Managing ageing of Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoda, M. Qamrul; Jamal-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Karachi Nuclear power Plant (KANUPP), a 137 MWe CANDU plant, was built on a turn-key basis by the Canadian General Electric (CGE) in the late sixties. The plant with a design life of thirty years went into commercial operation in October, 1972. After nearly three decades of operation, KANUPP like all other plants has faced the problem of equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has been striving hard to combat these problems with the assistance from IAEA, COG and WANO. During early eighties IAEA expert missions were called at KANUPP on various safety issues and on their recommendations various projects such as Safe Operation of KANUPP, Technical Upgradation Project, Balancing, Modernization and Rehabilitation project were initiated to combat equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has made substantial progress in the implementation of the tasks under these projects and the operating life of the plant is expected to be extended by 15 years. Three IAEA expert missions were invited at KANUPP during 1999-2000 to carry out assessment of the ongoing activities related to plant ageing management. On the basis of their recommendations an ageing Management Programme has been formally established at KANUPP to manage age-related degradation of plant systems, structures and components important to safety and to ensure that the required safety functions are available for the extended life of the plant. Being close to completion of its nominal design life in October 2002, KANUPP has already applied to Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority for renewal of operating license. This paper briefly describes the activities related to ageing management of KANUPP to fulfil the requirement for its continued operation beyond its design life. (author)

  8. Aging management guidelines for commercial nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Gazdzinski, R.F.; Toman, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and nuclear power plant utilities, has prepared ''Aging Management Guidelines'' (AMGs) for commodity types of equipment (e.g., pumps, electrical switchgear) important to license renewal. For the most part, this is also consistent with the Maintenance Rule, 10 CFR 50.65 (1991). AMGs concentrate on technical, (not licensing) issues and are directed toward systems engineers and plant maintenance staff. AMGs include a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance practices that can be combined to create effective programs that manage aging. All aging mechanisms were addressed; no attempt was made to limit the evaluation to aging mechanisms ''unique to license renewal,'' as defined in the License Renewal Rule, 10 CFR 54 (1991). The first AMG on Electrical Switchgear was published in July 1993. Six (6) additional AMGs will be published by the first quarter of calendar year 1994. It is anticipated that two more AMGs will be started in 1994. The seven ongoing AMG topics are as follows: (1) battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies; (2) batteries, stationary; (3) heat exchangers; (4) motor control centers; (5) pumps; (6) switchgear, electric; (7) transformers, power and distribution. In Section 7, industry feedback regarding AMGs is discussed. Overall, the response has been very positive

  9. Ageing management of nuclear power plant - the Tarapur experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, K.R.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Ramamurty, U.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in the Asian continent has completed 36 years of successful operation and generated more than 70,000 million units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become safer plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant. All components of a Nuclear power plant experience some degradation with time. The Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation have operated for less than 20 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for some more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Ageing Management Programme (AMP) involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and/or replacement. The identified components were classified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. Replacement of some important equipment like 3 x 50 % capacity Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) with 3 x 100 % capacity EDG, Salt Service Water (SSW) pumps, Control rod drive (CRD) pumps, Emergency Condenser tube bundles, Station battery has been done on the basis of condition monitoring and to obviate common cause failure and enhance the system reliability. Samples of Safety related cables were subjected to residual life assessment (RLA) and replacement action firmed up on the basis of the RLA findings. Condition survey of Main

  10. Proceedings of the international nuclear power plant aging symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, A.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the International Nuclear Power Plant Aging Symposium that was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 30-31 and September 1, 1988. The Symposium was presented in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. There were approximately 550 participants from 16 countries at the Symposium

  11. Component aging and reliability trends in Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankala, K.E.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    A plant-specific reliability data collection and analysis system has been developed at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant to perform tests for component aging and analysis of reliability trends. The system yields both mean values an uncertainty distribution information for reliability parameters to be used in the PSA project underway and in living-PSA applications. Several different trend models are included in the reliability analysis system. Simple analytical expressions have been derived from the parameters of these models, and their variances have been obtained using the information matrix. This paper is focused on the details of the learning/aging models and the estimation of their parameters and statistical accuracies. Applications to the historical data of the Loviisa plant are presented. The results indicate both up- and down-trends in failure rates as well as individuality between nominally identical components

  12. Safe ageing management of nuclear power plants: An European synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ageing of nuclear power plants means evolution of material or equipment properties on one side, and evolution of personnel skill and procedure adequacy on the other side, both of which, after a certain time, may not be compatible with the required safety provisions, or with an economic operation of the plant. Repair or replacement of components, as well as change in service conditions for a better compatibility with component reduced capabilities can be used to mitigate ageing effects. The paper summarises the results of a study conducted in this field with the support of the European Commission. It presents: the synthesis of the work done under international auspices, and in the European context; the comparison of ageing management approaches used in several European countries with international recommendations; the summary of the various potential phenomena and their governing parameters, the methods of in-service ageing identification and possible mitigation methods; illustrative ageing management practices, taking material ageing aspects as examples. Concerning the first topic, the European report identifies 56 OECD and IAEA reports on ageing management issues, 35 being summarised in an appendix to the report. It also identifies numerous European and international studies covering topics of interest to ageing and Plant Life management. ageing management approaches have been considered from the regulatory point of view and from the utilities management point of view. Contributors to the study have identified a general consensus in Europe, with no limited time operating authorisation, the safety being a utility responsibility under continuous surveillance by the regulatory authority. Practical ageing management methods include: periodic safety reviews (PSR), a ten years periodicity being a common practice, completed by continuous ageing management taking into account safety and industrial anticipation needs; the implementation of life-time management programmes

  13. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Research is being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under US nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a structural materials information center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of non-destructive evaluation techniques, assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  14. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the US-NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques, assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. (author). 29 refs., 2 figs

  15. Allowance for aging in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In Spain, as in most European Union countries, the nuclear power plants (NPP) operation license is open regarding its duration, there being no legal restrictions for extending the operational life of the NPP by renewing their licenses. Plant operation permits are renewed every ten years, following the performance of periodic safety reviews, which constitute a reasonable guarantee that safety conditions will be maintained throughout the next ten years period. Plant ageing management programmes in Spain started in mid 80's with a joint programme shared by all Spanish utilities through their common organisation, U.N.E.S.A., and the Spanish nuclear regulatory Authority (C.S.N.). The development of the methodology was based mainly in technical documents from IAEA and from U.S.N.R.C. rulemaking and documents, as well as in the international experience available. C.S.N. is interested in realising an effective management of components ageing processes. Therefore C.S.N. has introduced within its inspection and control functions specific requirements related to ageing management. The regulatory requirements related to NPP lifetime management are basically the following: NPP operation license requires preparing and submitting to the C.S.N. an annually updated report on the ageing control activities or the Lifetime Management Programme; - continuous NPP safety evaluation process by C.S.N., complemented with periodic safety reviews, to be performed every 10 years, including: a) review of components behaviour (identify degradation mechanism and current corrective measures adopted by the plant for ageing mechanisms control and mitigation) and b) updating of the safety evaluation and improvement programmes (Lifetime management programme is included among them). In the case the period of validity of a new operation permit exceeds the lifetime considered in the initial design of the plant, the periodic safety review process remains valid, but it must be supplemented with additional

  16. NPAR approach to controlling aging in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aging degradation in nuclear power plants must be controlled to prevent safety margins from declining below limits provided in plant design bases. The NPAR Program and other aging-related programs conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Research are developing needed technical guidance for control of aging. Results from these programs, together with relevant information developed by industry and elsewhere, are implemented through various ongoing NRC and industry programs and initiatives as well as by means of conventional regulatory instruments. The aging control process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: (1) selection of components, systems, and structures (CSS) in which aging must be controlled, (2) understanding of the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these CSS, and (3) managing degradation through effective surveillance and maintenance. These elements are addressed in Good Practices Guidance that integrates information developed under NPAR and other studies of aging into a systems-oriented format that tracks directly with the safety analysis reports

  17. Management of age-related degradation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Life extension for nuclear power plants has been studied in the USA for the last six years, largely supported by EPRI, DOE and the USNRC. Though there are diverse opinions for the strategies and priorities of life extension and aging management, one common conclusion has been formulated regarding the need of current maintenance programs having to focus on aging and degradation management. Such program, called 'Maintenance Effectiveness Evaluation and Enhancement' or M3E for short, has been developed to assist plant operators to upgrade and enhance existing programs by integrating aging/degradation management activities for important or critical equipment and components. The key elements of the M3E program consist of the definition and selection of the critical components or commodities to be included in the scope, the survey/inventory of the current programs and their respective action steps, frequencies, corrective measures and extent of coverage, the component/commodity degradation mechanism, sites and severity, safety functions and service environments and lastly, the correlation of degradation/aging with the individual maintenance activities. The degree of correlation provides a measure of effectiveness and the opportunity to identify/specify needed enhancements, abandonment or generation of new maintenance activities. Implementation of the activities can then be prioritized at the option of the plant staff. (author)

  18. Aging of concrete containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Yasuhiro; Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants in the US Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance design, considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. Current inservice inspection requirements for concrete containments are summarized. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. A summary is presented. A summary is presented of the Structural Aging (SAG) Program being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved bases for their continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitiative methodology for continued service conditions. Objectives and a summary of accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  19. Aging management of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Noriyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The Resource and Energy Agency of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (at present, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy and Industry) carried out technical and present state conservation evaluations on soundness on a case of supposing operation of main apparatuses important for safety for sixty years, on three nuclear power plants constructed at initial period, on April, 1996, to open her basic concept on their aging management. The electricity companies also carried out their technical evaluation to investigate aging management measures for apparatuses important for safety and succession of operation, to summarize some essential measures for its long-term conservation plan. And, long-term and steady efforts such as technical development, preparation on national technical codes and private standards, data accumulation on materials and apparatuses are also required, to successively act them under adequate role-sharing and cooperation among government, universities and industries. Here were described periodical safety review, containing aging management technical evaluation, preparations of standards on apparatus maintenance standard, and so on, promotion of technical development, and Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC). (G.K.)

  20. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters

  1. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  2. Study of aging effects in PWR power plants components - 15043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Borges, D. da; Lava, D.D.; Guimaraes, A.C.F.; Moreira, M. de L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a simulation about the aging process of the containment spray injection system (CSIS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) using the fault tree method (FT). The FT has the capacity to present the logic of events that leads to system unavailability, to capture frequency estimation of events, to model and calculate hazardous events frequency (before they happen) and help developing protective layers. The Monte Carlo method and Fussell-Vesely importance measure are used in this paper to determine the system unavailability probability and the most sensitive events to the aging process. The injection system fault tree consists of a main tree and 10 sub-trees. The main tree is composed of 35 basic events, 5 gates and 1 top event. The paper details the methodology. It can be seen that the increase of the failure rate of components due to the aging process, generates the increase in the general unavailability of the system that contains these components. The extension of the operating life of nuclear power plant must be accompanied by a special attention to the aging process of its components

  3. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  4. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  5. Aging Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Y.; Takesue, N.; Tsukagoshi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, method on the aging evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures was investigated. Problems on the durability evaluation of reinforced concrete structures were pointed out and an evaluation framework was considered. In view of the importance of evaluating the degree of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, relationships should be formulated among the number of years elapsed, t, the amount of action of a deteriorative factor, F, the degree of material deterioration, D, and the performance of the structure, P. Evaluation by PDFt diagrams combining these relationships may be effective. A detailed procedure of durability evaluation for a reinforced concrete structure using PDFt concept is presented for the deterioration factors of thermal effect, irradiation, neutralization and penetration of salinity by referring to the recent papers. And the evaluation framework of the deteriorated material constitutive model which can be used for the numerical analysis of the integrity evaluation for the concrete structure was proposed. (author)

  6. Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and post accident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety, as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. 2 refs., 3 figs

  7. Assessment and Management of Aging in Phenix Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumarcher, V.; Bourrier, J.L.; Chaucheprat, P.; Boulegue, D.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of one or several processes of ruins can involve the materials failure of a nuclear power plant. These processes arise from the external agents action such as the pressure, the mechanical efforts, the heat flows and the radiations constitute the whole of the 'actions' of the surrounding medium. The prolongation and the repetition of these effects can involve a deterioration of the machine. In accordance with the decree of February 26, 1974, the PWR operator must be firstly, sure that the system is controlled according to the situations considered in the file of dimensioning and secondly, be able to know anytime the life of the equipment. The physical phenomena which cause the structures ruin are less complex in the PWR than in the SFR. In the SFR, the high temperatures imposed on components for long periods can involve a significant creep. In the course of time, this deformations accelerate the release of fatigue cracks. To consider the creep, the reactor lifespan is correlated at the numbers of thermals transients envisaged initially. To realize the management of aging in Phenix power plant, it is necessary to carry out an individualized monitoring of the structures and not only on the vessel. We must ensure the good state and/or the correct operation of the significant stations for safety which are the control of the reactivity, the movement of control rods, the primary sodium containment and the decay heat removal. For that, we monitor the main vessel, the conical skirt, the IHX and the Core Cover Plug. A profound knowledge of the thermal transients of the past is necessary to carry out an effective assessment. In order to guarantee that any harmful situation is well taken into the management of aging, we monitor permanently certain measurements (primary and secondary pump speed, hot and cold pool temperatures, IHX-main vessel and reactor roof temperatures). We present in the article the scientific method used in the Physics Section. A logical

  8. Ageing management of electrical and C/I-systems in power plants of RWE Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Reinhard; Kochs, Wolfgang; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and enhancement of the availability and safety of fossil-fired and nuclear power plants currently in operation are increasing in importance with plants' age. The paper deals with issues related to e.g. the operation of C and I-systems at the end of production and with the challenges involved in their replacement during plant operation and describes the various measures taken for monitoring electrical equipment. Taking the improvement of the existing protection systems against internal arcs in electrical bus bars as an example, practical approaches for ageing management are described. In addition, the strategic approaches will be explained that were developed within a VGB working group due to the introduction of a new regulation on ageing management in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  9. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures

  10. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Denner, M.; Vouilloux, F.; Foucher, L.; Serviere, M.; Vila d'Abadal Serra, M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  11. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry's large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs

  12. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report

  13. Integrated management for aging of Atucha Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranalli, J.M.; Marchena, M.H.; Sabransky, M.; Fonseca, M.; Santich, J.; Pedernera, P.

    2012-01-01

    Atucha NPP is a two PHWR unit site located in Lima, Province of Buenos Aires, 120 km north of Buenos Aires, Argentina.. With the start-up of Atucha II and aiming to integrate the Ageing Management of the plants, the Utility (Nucleolectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima - NASA) created an Ageing Management Department to cope with all ageing issues of both Atucha I and II. In this project both organization has formed a joint working group. The role of CNEA is providing technical support to the plant in the development of procedures a methodological framework for the Ageing Management Program of Atucha NPP. The main documents that have being issued so far are: . An Ageing Management Manual, including standard definition of Materials, Ageing Related Degradation Mechanisms, Operation Environments customized for Atucha NPP. . Walk down procedures and checklists aimed to systematize data collection during outages. . Procedures for performing Ageing Management Reviews and Maintenance Reviews for passive and active components. . Condition Assessments of several safety related systems. . Condition assessment of electrical components. In the present work a summary of the activities, documental structure and first outputs of the Integrated Ageing Management Program of Atucha NPP is presented (author)

  14. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants

  15. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  16. Pump power plants for wind age; Pumpekraftverk for vindalderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    Power giant Sira-Kvina, Norway, prepares to expand Tonstad power station with pump options to save energy and benefit from price fluctuations in the electricity market. How pump power plant works; Consists mainly of two reservoirs at different heights. Bottom placed a turbine that can run both ways, or a pump and turbine mounted on the generator. The generator acts as an engine of pumping. When saving energy, water is pumped up to the highest magazine. The energy is extracted by letting the water run back through the turbine. Amount of energy that can be saved depends on the height difference between the magazines and magazine size, while the effect is determined by the size of the pump turbine.(AG)

  17. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Hemon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants. (note)

  18. Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanauskiene, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of Ignalina nuclear power plant (two RBMK-1500 water-cooled graphite moderated channel-type power reactors) are presented

  19. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-02-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation

  20. An approach to safety problems relating to ageing of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.; Deletre, G.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1989-10-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants, in France, is discussed. The attention is focused on the ageing phenomena, as a potential cause of the degradation of the systems functional capabilities. The allowance for ageing in design and its importance on safety, are analyzed. The understanding of phenomena relating to ageing and the components surveillance, are considered. As the effective ageing on the components of nuclear power plants is not fully understood, technical improvements and more accurate analysis are required

  1. Natural versus artificial aging of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This program seeks to understand the aging of polymeric materials, in cables and other components in nuclear reactor containment, by comparing aging processes for a variety of materials under natural conditions with those under the accelerated laboratory conditions used in qualification. The first five-year phase has been completed in what is planned as a long-term study of up to 40 years. Data from the program can be used as a basis of forecasting more realistic lifetimes in reactor service. The program is of critical importance for utilities both for the safe operation of plants and for minimizing the cost of periodic replacements upon expiration of originally predicted qualified life. The first five-year period has involved the selection and acquisition of test specimens, their preparation for placement in the containment, the selection of plants and locations for the specimens, the establishment of methods for monitoring radiation and temperature levels at each site, development of plans for scheduled removals, test method development, and testing of the specimens by physical and mechanical methods. Specimens have been subjected to short-term accelerated aging, as well as to reactor containment aging for up to five years. They consist of many types of polymers in products of several different manufacturers. Environmental conditions cover a wide range of temperature and radiation levels at 17 locations in 9 reactors of participating utilities. Initial results, which include tests of special cases subject to 8 years of reactor aging at Northeast Utilities, indicate several instances of changes having statistical significance in density or tensile properties due to containment service, but none of these changes are large enough to be of any concern. 12 refs., 19 figs., 21 tabs

  2. The art and trend of nuclear power plants aging management and licenses renewal activity In USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhimin; Li Jinsong; Zhang Mengyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the history and the art of nuclear power plants licenses renewal in United State. The aims, working scope, methodology, the art and trend of aging management and its role in license renewal process in United State nuclear power plants license renewal process were discussed in details. Furthermore, the aging management current research focus in United State was described. Then, take into account the AP serials Pressurized Water Reactor and nuclear safety requirements in the regulatory and safety guide in China, some suggestions and recommendation on nuclear power plants aging management were introduced, which will be helpful when we developed related aging management works in China. (authors)

  3. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant component aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.; Deletre, G.; Henry, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The safety of nuclear plants depends on the capacity of the systems they are composed to perform the functions they were designed for. The identification and understanding of phenomena liable to degrade this operational capacity thus constitute one of the safety problems for which allowance must be made at the earliest stage of a project. Aging, a natural and hence unavoidable process affecting all the components of an installation, was identified at a very early stage as being one of these phenomena. The investigation and implementation of solutions to the safety problems associated to aging make it necessary to: defining the domain in which the consequences of aging are to be evaluated, identifying the parameters involved, identifying the components sensitive to these parameters, understanding the mechanisms which govern its evolution. The results of qualification tests, and of tests and checks carried out at different stages of construction and operation, as well as allowance for operating experience, constitute the necessary basis for establishing or improving the regulatory requirements. The procedures for validating components and systems of the installation are also drawn up on the basis of these tests. Finally, the actions initiated within the scope of research and development programmes supply the additional data necessary for such validation, and provide the indispensable support for knowledge improvement

  4. Management of aging of water heaters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Serrano Ledesma, C.; Toro del toro, J.; Real Rubio, I.; Garcia Montejano, A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this work includes the study of all feedwater heaters (from 1 to 6) in their two trains (A and B). In this study the main degradation phenomena that affect them, the operating parameters that can warn of a possible malfunction of the heater and possible strategies inspection, repair and replacement are analyzed. As a result of this study, a higher priority is obtained at a lower state of degradation of the heaters, possibly with a strategy inspection, repair or replacement, for each recharge, until the end of life of the plant. This will be a live program, which must be fed back to the studies of the parameters of operation of the heater during operation and results of the inspection of each recharge. May verify the effectiveness of aging management program using different indicators. (Author)

  5. An introduction to a new IAEA safety guide: 'ageing management for nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.; Inagaki, T.; Kang, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a new IAEA Safety Guide entitled 'Ageing Management for Nuclear Power Plants' which is currently in an advanced draft form, awaiting approval of publication. The new Safety Guide will be an umbrella document for a comprehensive set of guidance documents on ageing management which have been issued by the IAEA. The Safety Guide first presents basic concepts of ageing management as a common basis for the recommendations on: proactive management of ageing throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant (NPP); systematic approach to managing ageing in the operation of NPPs; managing obsolescence; and review of ageing management for long term operation (life extension). The Safety Guide is intended to assist operators in establishing, implementing and improving systematic ageing management programs in NPPs and may be used by regulators in preparing regulatory standards and guides, and in verifying that ageing in nuclear power plants is being effectively managed. (author)

  6. Canadian programs on understanding and managing aging degradation of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, J.A.; Pachner, J.

    1989-06-01

    Maintaining adequate safety and reliability of nuclear power plants and nuclear power plant life assurance and life extension are growing in importance as nuclear plants get older. Age-related degradation of plant components is complex and not fully understood. This paper provides an overview of the Canadian approach and the main activities and their results towards understanding and managing age-related degradation of nuclear power plant components, structures and systems. A number of pro-active programs have been initiated to anticipate, detect and mitigate potential aging degradation at an early stage before any serious impact on plant safety and reliability. These programs include Operational Safety Management Program, Nuclear Plant Life Assurance Program, systematic plant condition assessment, refurbishment and upgrading, post-service examination and testing, equipment qualification, research and development, and participation in the IAEA programs on safety aspects of nuclear power plant aging and life extension. A regulatory policy on nuclear power plants is under development and will be based on the domestic as well as foreign and international studies and experience

  7. Ageing of significant to safety structure elements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovas, G.; Ramanauskiene, A.; Ziliukas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper analyzes the ageing problems of structure elements in nuclear power plants. The standard documents and principal parts of the ageing evaluation program are presented. The ageing evaluation model is being worked out and degradation mechanisms of different atomic reactor materials are being compared. (author)

  8. Lifetime extension of ageing nuclear power plants. Entering a new era of risk. Report comissionned by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The abbreviated version of the Greenpeace report on the lifetime extension of aging nuclear power plants - entering a new era of risk - covers the following topics: age of the nuclear power plants in Europe, covered amounts of insurance in Europe in case of a nuclear accident, progress of the ageing of nuclear power plants, and the power up-rating of nuclear reactors. The economy of aged reactors is discussed in connection with the lifetime extension and the liabilities for the aging reactors.

  9. Study on aging management of fire protection system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huasong; Du Yu; Li Jianwen; Shi Haining; Tu Fengsheng

    2010-01-01

    Fire prevention, fire fighting and fire automatic alarms are three aspects which be included in fire protection system in nuclear power plants. The fire protection system can protect personnel, equipment etc in the fire, so their performance will have a direct influence on the safe operation in nuclear power plants. The disabled accidents caused by aging have happened continuously with the extension of time in the fire protection system, which is the major security risk during the running time in nuclear power plants. In view of the importance of fire protection system and the severity of aging problems, the aging are highly valued by the plant operators and related organizations. Though the feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plant, the impact of the fire-fighting equipment aging on system performance and reliability be assessed, the aging sensitive equipment be selected to carry out the aging analysis and to guide the management and maintenance to guarantee the healthy operation in life time of fire protection system in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  10. Aging research program at the LaCrosse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBenedetto, P.A.; Goller, K.R.; Sideris, T.

    1988-01-01

    A research program on the time-dependent, environmentally and operationally induced degradation of components, systems and structures---that is aging---is being conducted at the LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) nuclear power plant. In the spring of 1987, Dairyland Power Cooperative, the owner/licensee of the LACBWR plant announced that it was permanently shutting down this plant and intended to decommission it. Shortly thereafter, Dairyland entered into an agreement with DiBenedetto Associates (DBA) to be the exclusive agent and manager of the Aging Research Program (ARP). Wyle Laboratories is the primary supporting contractor to DBA in this effort

  11. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  12. Aging considerations for pressurizers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the degradation mechanisms affecting the residual life of the nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressurizer and its subcomponents. The major sources of degradation for pressurizers are thermal transients such as plant heatups and cooldowns, internal pressure within the vessel, high intermittent flow through the spray nozzle, differential thermal movement causing rubbing of the immersion heater sheathes, and prolonged exposure to chemical and thermal conditions that can potentially lead to degradation. The latter includes thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel spray heads and chemically assisted intergranular stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel. Steam leakage that interacts with lubricants used to assemble manway bolted joints can cause corrosion of bolts

  13. Ageing study of protection automation components of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Haenninen, S.

    1993-07-01

    A study on ageing of reactor protection system of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is described. The objective of the study was to present an ageing analysis approach and apply in to the automation chains of reactor protection system of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study includes the measuring instrumentation, the protection logics, and the control electronics of some pumps and valves. The analysis is based on the information collected on the structure of the system, environmental conditions and maintenance practices of components, and operating experience. Based on this information, the possible ageing effects of equipment and their safety significance are evaluated. (orig.). (15 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.)

  14. Detection and mitigation of aging effects of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the general principles of the methods for timely detection and mitigation of aging effects. These methods include condition monitoring, failure trending, system reliability monitoring, predictive maintenance and scheduled maintenance. In addition, developments of existing detection and mitigation methods needed to improve the capability for effective managing of nuclear power plant aging are discussed

  15. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power plant aging, availability factor and reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear power plant life extension. Topics considered at the conference included availability, accelerated aging techniques, the qualification of electrical equipment, probabilistic risk assessment, reactor maintenance, outages, reliability, computer-aided design, seismic effects, mechanical vibrations, fatigue monitoring, steam generators, and materials degradation by aging and embrittlement

  16. Developing a computerized aging management system for concrete structures in finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-01-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures. (authors)

  17. Ageing Management for Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide (Russian Edition); Upravlenie stareniem atomnykh ehlektrostantsij. Rukovodstvo po bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    The median age of nuclear power plants connected to the grid worldwide is increasing. Ageing management has become an important issue in ensuring the availability of required safety functions throughout the service life of a plant. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on meeting the requirements for safe long term operation and identifies key elements of effective ageing management for nuclear power plants.

  18. IAEA effort on the evaluation and management of safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.; Yaremy, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The questions attached to nuclear power plant (NPP) ageing and the need for monitoring and assessment of plant condition will grow in importance as more NPPs approach and pass the end of their nominal design lives. Ageing in nuclear plants must be effectively managed to ensure plant safety during their entire service life. This paper provides an overview of the IAEA programme and its results on the evaluation and management of safety aspects of NPP ageing. Under this programme, three generic guidance documents have been prepared on: data collection and record keeping; ageing management methodology; and the use of probabilistic safety assessment in plant life extension considerations. A two pronged strategy involving both technical and regulatory aspects has been adopted for the current and future work. (author)

  19. Data collection and record keeping for the management of nuclear power plant ageing: A safety practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Practice is the first in a series of reports under the programme on the management of nuclear power plant ageing. The purpose of the programme is to facilitate the exchange of information and to promote co-operation among Member States towards understanding and managing the ageing degradation of components, with the aim of maintaining safe and reliable plant operation. The availability and evaluation of appropriate data on nuclear power plant components are essential to safety and constitute a key factor in plant life extension considerations. The present publication provides guidance on data requirements and an effective and practical system for data collection and record keeping in relation to the evaluation and management of ageing and service life. This guidance is based on current practices. It is envisaged that the application of the guidance will contribute to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants and will facilitate international information exchange on ageing related component failures, malfunctions and degradation, since data collected using the same ground rules would be easier to exchange and compare. The guidance is intended primarily for the management, maintenance and technical staff of nuclear power plants, on whom the ultimate success of the recommended system and its associated benefits depend. Intended secondary audiences include utility management and central technical support organizations, regulatory bodies, standards organizations, design companies, and research and development institutes. 8 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.

  1. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities

  2. Aging management and life assessment of buried commodities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.; Jo, H. S.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, S. T.; Lee, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    General field survey, inspection and life assessment were performed to establish effective aging management program of buried commodities in nuclear power plant. Basic informations on material characteristics, aging degradation experiences and maintenance history were gathered. Considering their degradation effects on power operation or safety, buried commodities were screened for the aging management priority. Various inspection techniques were applied in field survey and inspection, and their results were incorporated in the life assessment of buried commodities. In the aspect of aging degradation, general status of buried commodities were considered still sound while some revealed local degradation

  3. Aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plants for continued service. In meeting this objective, a materials property data base is being developed as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, studies are well under way to review and assess inservice inspection techniques for concrete structures and to develop a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future conditions assessments of these structures. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Public opinion on age-related degradation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to shed light on the public opinion on age-related degradation at nuclear power plants, namely, on how the general public recognizes or views age-related degradation, which is a safety-related issue and one of the factors contributing to accidents and failures which occur at nuclear power plants. The second objective is to look into the impacts of the accident at Mihama Unit 3, which was caused by a failure to check on the piping wall thickness, on the public opinion on age-related degradation. The first survey was conducted in August 2003, followed by the second survey in October 2004, two months after the accident. The surveys found that the age-related degradation is being perceived by people as one of the risk factors that affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The characteristics of the citizens' perceptions toward age-related degradation in the form of piping cracks are that: (a) many respondents feel uneasy but a relatively few people consider that nuclear operators are technologically capable of coping with this problem; (b) many people believe that radioactivity may be released; and (c) numerous respondents consider that signs of cracks must be thoroughly detected through inspections, while on the other hand, a large percentage of the respondents attribute the accident to improper inspections/maintenance. Based on these results, the government and nuclear operators are expected to give most illuminating explanation on the current situation of and remedial measures against age-related degradation at nuclear power plants. As for the effects of the Mihama-3 accident on the public opinion on age-related degradation, it was revealed that the accident has not so significantly affected the general view for the safety of nuclear power plants, but has newly or strongly aroused people's consciousness of two of the risk factors - improper inspections/maintenance and the age-related degradation of piping. (author)

  5. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC's maintenance team inspection reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Age-related degradation is managed through the maintenance program of a nuclear plant. From 1988 to 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. The authors reviewed 44 out of a total of 67 of the reports issued by the NRC on these in-depth team inspections. The reports were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components. The authors' conclusions are presented. 6 refs

  6. Aging countermeasures for nuclear power plants in Japan and PLEC's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This summarizes aging countermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries, and describes current R and D program and utilization of the research results for the aged plants. The regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: the Nuclear Industry Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, MITI was reorganized to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in 2001) reviewed the results of technical assessments of aging phenomena of structures and components of nuclear power plants, conducted by the electric utilities. Major technical research projects related to aging of nuclear power plants in Japan have been conducted by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under the asepses of the regulatory bodies. The results of the research projects were applied to the review and technical assessments. Environmental Fatigue Tests of Nuclear Power Plants Materials for Reliability Verification Project (EFT Project), has been conducting the fatigue tests for carbon steels, low alloy steels and austenitic steels under the simulated light water reactor (LWR) water environmental conditions. Based on the results, EFT project developed the models for evaluating fatigue initiation life reduction in LWR environment. The models were applied to the fatigue evaluation in the technical assessments mentioned above. On the other hand, the Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is conducting to coordinate planning of technology research on aging, to integrate technologies and knowledge of aging for management and assessment, to promote practical applications of results of technical research, and to promote sharing of information on aging technology. As to codes and standards the PLEC plans to develop them, based on the research results of the national projects performed by JAPEIC, with completion of the projects in order. Current planning technical standard is based to

  7. Guideline for ageing management in nuclear power plants; Leitlinie zum Alterungsmanagement in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Hienstorfer, W.; Pompe, W. [TUeV SUeD Energietechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    During operation of nuclear power plants, the quality of systems, structures and components may change as a result of ageing (conceptional ageing, technological ageing or physical ageing), which will affect the system quality. Ageing management is necessary to ensure safety and availability throughout the life of the systems. This necessitates a systematic, integrative and knowledge-based approach. Systems, structures and components are grouped according to their relevance for meeting the set goals. Ageing mangement should be process-oriented and should be integrated in the organisational procedure in cooperation with the safety manager. The procedure should follow the PDCA principle (plan - do - check - act). The data, documents, knowledge and evaluations required for ageing management are part of the knowledge base of the nuclear power station and are updated regularly. The efficiency of ageing management must be reassessed at regular intervals. (orig.)

  8. Ageing degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plants: lessons learned from operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Zerger, B.; Duchac, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents main results of a comprehensive study performed by the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with the support of IRSN (Institut de Surete Nucleaire et de Radioprotection) and GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH). Physical ageing mechanisms of Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) that eventually lead to ageing related systems and components failures at nuclear power plants were the main focus of this study. The analysis of ageing related events involved operating experience reported by NPP operators in France, Germany, USA and to the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System on operating experience for the past 20 years. A list of relevant ageing related events was populated. Each ageing related event contained in the list was analyzed and results of analysis were summarized for each ageing degradation mechanism which appeared to be the dominant contributor or direct cause. This paper provides insights into ageing related operating experience as well as recommendations to deal with the physical ageing of nuclear power plant SSC important to safety. (authors)

  9. Japan's policy on the nuclear power plant life management, life management for nuclear power plants and measures to cope with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Plant is born after a lengthy, multi-year construction period, and ends its life decades later, having generated a vast amount of electricity. Its period of operation is, far longer than its period of construction. 'Construction' is the process of 'creating something of value', a new nuclear plant, using technology. 'Operation' is the process of 'raising the child with care' so that its potential can be realized to the fullest over the course of its life. From the view point of plant life management, it is appropriate to divide the life of a power plant into three stages, 'fostering, mature and aging', from the start of operation to the end of its operation. It is important to manage a plant accordingly. It is recently become important to the Utility companies under the competitive power market to manage aging plants effectively, in order to extend its life with sustained high level of performances, with plant safety in the first place. Whether this is, in fact, possible or not, depends upon how the plant was operated in the prior stages, that means, depends upon how it was 'brought up'. This report briefly shows what are important points of management in these 3 stages, and also describes general significances of plant maintenance and inspection, with the practices applied to the plants in Japan. Currently 52 plants Light Water Reactor Nuclear Plants are in operation in Japan, and 13 plants within next 5 years and 23 plants within 10 years are regarded as aged plants. So the contents of periodic inspections by the government and maintenance requirements on the Utilities will be modified to keep and enhance safe and stable operations of the aged plants. In the year 1994, Japanese Government released the report 'Basic Concepts on the Nuclear Power Plant Aging', the objectives of which was the evaluation of the soundness of major equipment and to establish the concepts of aging measures, assuming the plant to be operated 60 years. Utilities, in

  10. Age-Related Degradation of Nuclear Power Plant Structures and Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Chang, T.-Y.; Chokshi, N.; Hofmayer, C.; Morante, R.; Shteyngart, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes and highlights the results of the initial phase of a research project on the assessment of aged and degraded structures and components important to the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). A review of age-related degradation of structures and passive components at NPPs was performed. Instances of age-related degradation have been collected and reviewed. Data were collected from plant generated documents such as Licensing Event Reports, NRC generic communications, NUREGs and industry reports. Applicable cases of degradation occurrences were reviewed and then entered into a computerized database. The results obtained from the review of degradation occurrences are summarized and discussed. Various trending analyses were performed to identify which structures and components are most affected, whether degradation occurrences are worsening, and what was the most common aging mechanisms. The paper also discusses potential aging issues and degradation-susceptible structures and passive components which would have the greatest impact on plant risk

  11. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  12. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O'Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  13. U.S.-NPAR approach to managing aging in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnak, R.; Vagins, M.; Vora, J.

    1991-01-01

    Aging degradation in operating nuclear power plants must be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the levels provided in plant design bases. The NPAR program and other aging-related programs conducted under the auspices of the US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research are developing needed technical bases and guidance for understanding and managing aging in operating nuclear power plants (NPP) of all ages. Results from these programs, together with relevant information developed by industry are implemented through various ongoing NRC and industry programs. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key element: 1) selection and prioritization of components, systems, and structures (CSS) in which aging must be managed, 2) understanding of the relevant aging mechanisms and rates of degradation processes in these CSS, and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, preventive and corrective maintenance, and mitigation. This paper provides a historical perspective on the aging related research programs sponsored by the Office of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Research. Also, briefly described are the major element of the NPAR program and its status and results or accomplishments. In the process the authors emphasize the need for total industry commitment and participation in implementing programs for understanding and managing aging in operating nuclear power plants. 'Aging' is universal in nature. No industrial complex including NPP should be considered immune from its effects. For NPP aging is manageable its ti symptoms are recognized and predicted, if it is monitored and appropriate steps are taken for timely mitigation of age-related degradation. (author)

  14. Interim report on assessment of cable aging for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Research on assessment of cable aging for nuclear power plants (NPPs) started in 2002 in order to obtain data of safety-related cables affected by thermal aging, simultaneous thermal and radiation aging, and Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) equivalent test, which could contribute to draft guideline on comprehensive assessment of cable aging for NPPs while taking into consideration the latest knowledge. For the cable aging test, cross-linked polyethylene, flame-retardant cross-linked polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, flame-retardant ethylene propylene rubber, silicone rubber and special heat-resistant polyvinyl chloride insulators were selected from the safety-related cables used in the nuclear power plants. Furthermore, 2 to 3 kinds of cables with insulators of different manufacturers were added making a total of 14 kinds of cable specimens for the test. Aging period was selected as a basic parameter while three temperature conditions for thermal aging specimen and combined nine conditions of three temperatures with three dose rates for simultaneous aging specimens. Degradation of cable aging was characterized by elongation at break of tensile test. LOCA test for 9 kinds of cables was also conducted using the simultaneous aging specimens. Furthermore, the investigation of applicability of non-destructive degradation diagnostic technologies for aged cables was conducted to confirm the validity of cable aging evaluation at actual operating plants. Interim report was issued in 2006 and based on cable aging test until 21,000 hrs maximum; 1) a significant difference might be observed at times in the aging progress depending on the insulator manufacturer even if the insulator type was identical, 2) activation energy values calculated from the thermal aging test data were smaller than those currently used and principles of calculation and application of the activation energy were developed for evaluation and 3) superposition of time dependent data was applicable to

  15. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  16. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC's Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-01-01

    A plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified

  17. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Davis, J. [Science Applications International Corp., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated.

  18. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A.; Davis, J.

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated

  19. An Economic Evaluation on Replacement Plan for Aged Thermal Power Plants through a Real Option Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper presents a novel method to evaluate replacement plan for aged thermal power plants under uncertain circumstances through a real option approach. The most economical plan is selected among the three options: an option to operate an existing oil-fired thermal plant, an option to mothball it, and an option to abandon it and to construct an advanced gas combined cycle power plant (ACC) at the same time. Basic ideas of our model are: we use quadranomial approach in order to evaluate an option value consisted by two different uncertain assets; we consider cash flow with a dividend in order to reflect conditions of an aged oil-fired thermal plant and use the sequential compound option approach; we evaluate replacement time using quadranomial decision tree taking into account the options. We also analyze value and time of replacement using numerical examples. Our proposed method will be practically used for generation planning. For example it is possible to make priority quantitatively in replacements of aged thermal power plants by real option values. The target year of replacement may be set as a year when cumulative probability of replacement becomes over certain level.

  20. Ageing effects modelling in probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoi, M.; Turcu, I.; Florescu, G.; Apostol, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Pavelescu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management has become a major concern for many responsible organizations during the last years, because as the operating power plants have got older, they may have the tendency to become less safe. The effects of age-related degradation of plant components, systems and structures are necessary to be assessed in order to assure a continuous safe operation of nuclear power plants. The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is an efficient system analysis method which is used to assess the risk of operation of nuclear power plants. In the assessment of risk level for a plant, most of the PSA studies generally didn't take into account the ageing effects, and uses a time averaged unavailability. By incorporation of ageing effects, the results enable an identification of the components that have the greatest effect on risk if their failure rates increase due to ageing effects modelling. In this paper, it was assessed the impact on Class IV Electrical Power System unavailability of the assumed increase in components failure probability caused by components ageing. The electrical system was chosen for the study because there are a lot of cables and for these types of equipment there is no planned preventive or corrective maintenance, and they are originally designed to reach the end of plant life with an adequate safety margin. To quantify the effects of age-related degradation on components, the linear ageing model was used. In this model, the failure rate of a component λ (t) is expressed as a sum of two independent failure rates, one associated with random failure, λ 0 , and the other associated with failures due to aging α, so: λ(t) = λ 0 + αt. The basic events were coded using a computer code similar to CAFTA, developed in INR Pitesti. For the reliability data allocation for basic events a intern data base was used. This data base contains data from the following generic data bases: IAEA Component Reliability Data for use in PSA, Point Lepreau Component

  1. Aging and service wear of air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Compressed air systems and their associated compressors and dryers as incorporated in LWR power plants usually are not classified as safety related systems and components because their continued operation is not required to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition. However, control air is a vital requirement for maintaining stable plant operation and its loss often results in a reactor trip and, on occasion, the actuation of engineered safety feature systems. Concerns caused by repeated instances of failures in air systems resulted in the high-priority ranking of Generic Issue No. 43, ''Reliability of Air Systems'' by the NRC. In support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is carrying out a Phase I aging assessment of air compressors and dryers used in LWR power plants. The objectives of this study include: (1) determination of the types and ratings of equipment utilized in typical plants; (2) identification of aging and service wear stressors imposed on the machines; (3) evaluation of operating experience with the machines; (4) comparison of user and manufacturer-recommended inspection, surveillance, and monitoring (ISM) methods; and (5) the identification of any improved ISM methods that might lead to longer, more reliable, service. 2 refs

  2. Report on assessment of electrical equipment aging for nuclear power plant (AEA), FY2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, T.

    2012-11-01

    Electrical components with safety function used in nuclear power plants, such as cables, medium voltage motors, low voltage motors, electrical penetration of reactor containment vessel, motor operated valve, pressure transmitter, temperature detector, etc, are required to be operational under the environment of design basis event (DBE) to shut down a reactor safely and to prevent radioactive materials from being leaked to outside. Polymer materials used as parts of these equipments are gradually degraded by thermal and radiation environment in the normal operation. In addition, the degradation is thought to progress rapidly when they are exposed to the DBE environment and a decrease in performance of the equipment may be caused. From these reason, electrical components with safety function are tested for long-term integrity in accordance with IEEE standard. However, conventional method of accelerated aging which assumes thermal and radiation aging during normal operation is said to have uncertainty in simulating the degradation given in actual operating environment. To address this issue, the project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (ACA, 2002-2008) was carried out and 'Guide for Cable Environmental Qualification Test for Nuclear Power Plant' was developed. The need for developing an aging evaluation method for other electrical and I and C components was pointed out in the 'Strategy maps 2007', prepared by the cooperation among government, industry and academia. Under the circumstance, the project of 'Assessment of Electrical Equipment Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' (AEA) was initiated in FY2008. In this study, parts of electrical and I and C component with safety function used in nuclear power plant whose aging needs to be considered are employed as specimens, and their aging characteristics under the thermal environment and the combined radiation and thermal environment are obtained (herein after referred to as 'critical part test

  3. Aging management of instrumentation and control sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure to improve plant efficiency and maximize safety and the increasing age of existing NPPs are forcing the global nuclear power industry to confront the challenges of aging - caused by stressors such as temperature, humidity, radiation, electricity, and vibration - in key instrument and control (I and C) components like pressure transmitters, temperature sensors, neutron detectors, and cables. Traditional aging management methods, such as equipment replacement, required the process to be shut down. Recent aging management technologies, collectively known as online monitoring (OLM), enable plants to monitor the condition and aging of their installed I and C while the plant is operating. Developed through R and D initiatives worldwide, such OLM techniques include low- and high-frequency methods that use existing sensors, such as noise analysis; methods based on test or diagnostic sensors, such as for vibration-measuring accelerometers; and methods, such as the power interrupt (PI) test, based on active measurements made by injecting a test signal into the component under test. A review of these aging management methods, their effectiveness, and their interrelation provides a foundation for understanding the next stage in the evolution of OLM: truly integrated hybrid OLM systems capable of robust condition monitoring in both novel and familiar operating conditions.

  4. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two

  5. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  6. A conceptual framework to analyze and mitigate aging effects of a system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual framework is developed to analyze, characterize, and mitigate the degradation of a system in a nuclear power plant due to aging. The system is evaluated, based on an aging-specific system decision model, to understand and implement decisions pertaining to surveillance, maintenance, and replacement. Decisions on other corrective measures to mitigate the effects of aging of a number of equipment items, interconnections (relationships with other systems), and interfaces (relationships within the system) can also be made based on the proposed approach

  7. Detection and mitigation of aging and service wear effects of nuclear power plant components in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.

    1987-07-01

    In Canada, the operational safety management of nuclear power plants employs methods which are intended to prevent, detect, correct and mitigate system and component failures from any cause, including the effects of aging and service wear degradation. The paper gives an overview of the application of these methods in the detection and mitigation of aging effects before they impact on plant safety and production reliability. Regulatory audits of these methods, to ensure that an acceptable level of plant safety is maintained by the nuclear power plant licensees, are also described. The methods are: a preventive maintenance program, Significant Event Reporting system, and a reliability based assessment of performance of safety related systems. The above methods are discussed and illustrated by examples. The soundness of the approach has been proven by the results achieved in 163 reactor-years of operation. Present and future developments include reviews of current monitoring, testing and inspection methods to ensure that appropriate time variant parameters (capable of revealing aging degradation before loss of functional capability) are monitored, and reviews of the effectiveness of existing maintenance programs and methods in mitigating aging and service wear effects

  8. Research on U.S. nuclear power plant major equipment aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with nuclear power plant utilities and the Nuclear Energy Institute, have prepared equipment aging evaluations of nuclear power plant equipment for life extension considerations. Specifically, these evaluations focused on equipment considered important for plant license renewal (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR54). open-quotes Industry Reportsclose quotes (IRs), jointly funded by DOE and EPRI, evaluated the aging of major systems, structures, and components (e.g., reactor pressure vessels, Class I structures, PWR and BWR containments, etc.) and contain a mixture of technical and licensing information. open-quotes Aging Management Guidelinesclose quotes (AMGs), funded by DOE, evaluate aging for commodity types of equipment (e.g., pumps, electrical switchgear, heat exchangers, etc.) and concentrate on technical issues only. AMGs are intended for systems engineers and plant maintenance staff. A significant number of technical issues were resolved during IR interactions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, certain technical issues have not been resolved and are considered open-quotes openclose quotes. Examples include certain issues related to fatigue, neutron irradiation embrittlement, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and electrical cable equipment qualification. Direct NRC interaction did not take place during preparation of individual AMGs due to their purely technical nature. The eventual use of AMGs in a future license renewal application will likely require NRC interaction at that time. With a few noted exceptions, the AMG process indicated that current aging management practices of U.S. utilities were effective in preventing age-related degradation. This paper briefly describes the IR and AMG processes and summarizes the unresolved technical issues identified through preparation of the documents

  9. Ageing management of nuclear power plant concrete structures - Overview and suggested research topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their ageing are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimisation of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to non-destructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections; basemat; and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to ageing management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. (author)

  10. Research activities for nuclear power plant aging promoted by PLEC, JAPEIC, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, N.; Tajima, K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to perform research activity for aging; countermeasure of nuclear power plant effectively, Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) was established in Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) in April 2000 sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI, called as MITI, at that time). Results of technical survey for research and development for aging phenomena have been summarized in a table (Research Map) categorizing them into 'inspection and monitoring', 'evaluation method for aging' and 'preventive maintenances and refurbishment'. Necessary research themes have been extracted from the Research Map consulting to experts of the specified research area. Medium and long-term research perspective (Research Perspective) has been established which contains prioritized research themes and outlined specification of each theme. Several new research themes proposed by various organizations and selected by PLEC as effective for the regulation activities of METI every year. There are about ten on-going research programs funded by METI. Their progress and performance are evaluated annually to improve their efficiency including their alteration, abolition and integration. This cycle of research is going to be attained successfully. Technology Advisory Committee composed of members from various field of nuclear power including prefectural and municipal governments supervises the PLEC activity to concentrate national wide potentials and to secure transparency, openness and neutrality. This paper also provides an outline of the aging related research projects currently conducted by JAPEIC under the auspices of METI. (author)

  11. Pilot studies of management of ageing of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Simola, K.; Kossilov, A.; Pachner, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes pilot studies which have been implemented to study the aging behavior of safety related component parts of nuclear power plants. In 1989 the IAEA initiated work on pilot studies related to the aging of such components. Four components were identified for study. They are the primary nozzle of a reactor vessel; a motor operated isolating valve; the concrete containment building; and instrumentation and control cables within the containment facility. The study was begun with phase 1 efforts directed toward understanding the aging process, and methods for monitoring and minimizing the effects of aging. Phase 2 efforts are directed toward aging studies, documentation of the ideas put forward, and research to answer questions identified in phase 1. This paper describes progress made on two of these components, namely the motor operated isolation valves, and in-containment I ampersand C cables

  12. Knowledge of ageing phenomenons of materials used in the PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancon, D.; Meyzaud, Y.; Soulat, P.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors are planned to work during forty years and are the subject of studies aiming to check their integrity during all their life. The materials used to the fabrication of the components can be submitted different stress. The temperature, the mechanical constraints, the irradiation are examples of stress which can make the materials getting old. This text presents three themes: the ageing by irradiation, the thermal ageing and the corrosion, and their principle industrial consequences. (N.C.)

  13. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

    1996-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring

  14. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

    1996-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

  15. Purposes and related aspects of the nuclear power plant aging Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaud, J.; Reynes, L.; Montardy, A. de

    1989-01-01

    The purposes and some aspects of the nuclear power plant Lifetime project is presented. The work is focused on the study of the aging of the PWR type power plant components. The project consists in two phases. The first one involves: the status reports and the analysis of the lifetime data of the most sensitive units, as well as the applied actions and proposals, the influence of the exploitation modes, the safety and the cost prospectives. The second phase includes: the definition, the contracts, the complementary actions and their achievement, the reasons and the surveyance improvements, the development of the decision supporting means, the summary and the conclusions. The selected units for the project first step and the project of actions, are listed. The first conclusions of the project show that most of the 900 MW PWR reactor components will have about 40 years of service life [fr

  16. Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavreul, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ageing of polymers in electrical equipment used in nuclear power plants has been studied in (Electricite de France) EDF for several years. The objective of such studies is to predict the polymers lifetime in normal and accidental conditions. The prediction of polymers behaviour in normal conditions requires accelerated tests in order to get rapidly experimental results. Experimental conditions must carefully be chosen and representative of real ageing. Accelerated ageing is usually done by applying higher temperature, (dose) or dose rate. When such experiments are done, the effects of temperature, (dose) or dose rate are first determined. In a second step, experimental results are extrapolated to real conditions. To predict lifetime of polymers, the following recommendations have to be checked: in order to assume that accelerated tests are representative of normal ageing, the observed mechanisms in experiments must be the same as those in real conditions. For accidental conditions, the same tests as those described in standards can be applied to polymers. The simulation of any accident occurring just after the installation of electrical equipment in nuclear power plants is easy to manage: only the accidental test can be carried out on the electrical equipment. To determine whether polymers in electrical equipment would have a good behaviour or not when an accident would occur after a period of several years or decades in normal conditions in a nuclear power plant, the accidental test must be done on aged materials; their physical, mechanical and electrical characteristics must be relevant to aged polymers in normal conditions. In order to detect any evolution of properties during ageing, the electrical, mechanical or chemical tests have to be proceeded on polymers samples. The characterisation tests which are applied on non-aged and aged samples depend on the nature of the polymers, their application in electrical equipment and their environment. The IEC 544

  17. Results of Cable Aging Management Tests for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Hernandez, E.E.; Vazquez Cervantes, R.M.; Bonifacio M, J.; Garcia Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) located in Veracruz, Mexico is a BWR plant, two Units with 810 MWe each one, Unit 1 (1989) and Unit 2 (1990). The Equipment Qualification (EQ) Group at the Nuclear Research National Institute (ININ) has been working with the plant on tasks to develop the LVNPP cables Aging Management Program (AMP), as part of the technical basis to extend the operational life of the plant through license renewal up to 60 years. LVNPP cables are qualified for 40 years plus a LOCA DBA in accordance with 10.CFR 50.49 and the IEEE Std-323 and IEEE St. 383. The first studies for cables AMP have been performed with samples of safety related I and C cables taken from the LVNPP warehouse, similar brands and models as installed at the plant. ININ applied the condition monitoring techniques to these samples to identify predictive degradation and to establish the methodology for cables AMP, focused to the LVNPP license renewal. Cable tests program has been running at the EQ Lab in ININ, performing accelerated aging by steps up to 60 years and to 40 years plus a LOCA test. Determination for Activation Energy (Ea) and Oxidation Induction Time (OIT) methods were developed applying a DSC/TGA calorimeter. (author)

  18. Aging of control and service air compressors and dryers used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1990-07-01

    This report was produced under the Detection of Defects and Degradation Monitoring of Nuclear Plant Safety Equipment element of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. This element includes the identification of practical and cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging) of control and service air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants. These methods are to provide capabilities for establishing degradation trends prior to failure and developing guidance for effective maintenance. The topics of this Phase 1 assessment report are failure modes and causes resulting from aging, manufacturer--recommended maintenance and surveillance practices, and measurable parameters (including functional indicators) for use in assessing operational readiness, establishing degradation trends, and detecting incipient failure. the results presented are based on information derived from operating experience records, manufacturer-supplied information, and input from plant operators. For each failure mode, failure causes are listed by subcomponent, and parameters potentially useful for detecting degradation that could lead to failure are identified. 13 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Research activities for nuclear power plant aging promoted by PLEC, JAPEIC, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Noriyoshi; Tajima, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    In order to perform research activity for aging countermeasure of nuclear power plant effectively, Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) was established in Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) in April 2000 sponsored by Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI, presently METI). Outlined activities of PLEC are as follows. Results of technical survey for research and development for aging phenomena have been summarized in a table (Research Map) categorizing them into ''inspection and monitoring'', ''evaluation method for aging'' and ''preventive maintenances and refurbishment''. Necessary research themes have been extracted from the Research Map consulting to experts of the specified research area and they are summarized into Medium and Long-term Research Perspective (Research Perspective), which contains prioritized research themes and outlined specification of each theme. Several new research themes proposed by various organizations and selected by PLEC as effective for the regulation activities are identified and proposed to be funded by METI every year. This paper also provides outlines and obtained results of aging related research projects currently conducted by JAPEIC sponsored by METI. (author)

  20. Reliability of some ageing nuclear power plant systems: a simple stochastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2007-01-01

    The random number of failure-related events in certain repairable ageing systems, like certain nuclear power plant components, during a given time interval, may be often modelled by a compound Poisson distribution. One of these is the Polya-Aeppli distribution. The derivation of a stationary Polya-Aeppli distribution as a limiting distribution of rare events for stationary Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence is considered. But if the parameters of the Polya-Aeppli distribution are suitable time functions, we could expect that the resulting distribution would allow us to take into account the distribution of failure-related events in an ageing system. Assuming that a critical number of damages produce an emergent failure, the abovementioned results can be applied in a reliability analysis. It is natural to ask under what conditions a Polya-Aeppli distribution could be a limiting distribution for non-homogeneous Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence. In this paper this problem is analyzed and possible applications of the obtained results to ageing or deteriorating nuclear power plant components are considered. The two traditional ways of modelling repairable systems in reliability theory: the - as bad as old - concept, that assumes that the replaced component is exactly under the same conditions as was the aged component before failure, and the - as good as new - concept, that assumes that the new component is under the same conditions of the replaced component when it was new, are briefly discussed in relation with the findings of the present work

  1. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures

  2. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  3. Regulation of Aging Power Plants: Ensuring Safety in a Changing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    In her keynote address to the Plim and Plex 1997 Conference, Dr. Jackson, President of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, dealt with four problem areas: (i) the development and application of safety margins; (ii) aging mechanisms and the use of inspection and testing methods; (iii) the U. S. licence renewal process; and (iv) risk-informed, performance-based regulation. Aging effects can further complicate existing interactions between 'explicit' and 'implicit' safety margins. Attempting to satisfy these combined margins can have a significant technical and financial impact on the plant operator. Aging degradation affects a broad range of plant systems, structures and components. Inspection and testing methods are improved continually, but development of methods for direct measuring of material properties on a more microscopic level together with elaboration of more precise predictive models of aging is still needed. In the U. S., the decision on whether to seek licence renewal rests with the licensee. The NRC task is to establish a reasonable process and clear safety standards. License renewal (extension of a NPP 40-years operating licence for additional 20 years) is explicitly allowed in NRS regulations in 10 CFR Part 54. In the U. S. nuclear power industry, there is considerable interest in licence renewal. A 'risk informed' approach to regulation means that, in the decision-making, the risk information is considered along with other factors. Performance-based regulation is, by definition, results focused; its essential component is the feedback of operating experience into subsequent evaluation. When the results focus is linked to risk analysis and ranking, the result is risk-informed, performance-based regulation. The NRS applies this combined approach in all its activities and, also, in its collaborative programs with the nuclear power industry. At the threshold of the 21st century, the nuclear power industry faces an array of challenges and opportunities

  4. Statistical models for thermal ageing of steel materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some category of steel materials in nuclear power plants may be subjected to thermal ageing, whose extent depends on the steel chemical composition and the ageing parameters, i.e. temperature and duration. This ageing affects the 'impact strength' of the materials, which is a mechanical property. In order to assess the residual lifetime of these components, a probabilistic study has been launched, which takes into account the scatter over the input parameters of the mechanical model. Predictive formulae for estimating the impact strength of aged materials are important input data of the model. A data base has been created with impact strength results obtained from an ageing program in laboratory and statistical treatments have been undertaken. Two kinds of model have been developed, with non linear regression methods (PROC NLIN, available in SAS/STAT). The first one, using a hyperbolic tangent function, is partly based on physical considerations, and the second one, of an exponential type, is purely statistically built. The difficulties consist in selecting the significant parameters and attributing initial values to the coefficients, which is a requirement of the NLIN procedure. This global statistical analysis has led to general models that are unction of the chemical variables and the ageing parameters. These models are as precise (if not more) as local models that had been developed earlier for some specific values of ageing temperature and ageing duration. This paper describes the data and the methodology used to build the models and analyses the results given by the SAS system. (author)

  5. Ageing studies on materials, components and process instruments used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, J.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a compilation of test results of thermal and radiation ageing tests carried out in the laboratory over a period of 25 years on diverse engineering materials, components and instruments used in nuclear power plants. Test items covered are different types of electrical cables, elastomers, surface coatings, electrical and electronics components and process instruments. Effects of thermal and radiation ageing on performance parameters are shown in tabular forms. Apart from finding the characteristics, capabilities and limitations of test items, ageing research has helped in pin-pointing sub-standard and critical parts and necessary corrective action has been taken. This report is expected to be quite useful to the manufacturers users and researchers for reference and guidance. (author)

  6. Concrete component aging and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  7. Summary and conclusions of a program addressing aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Hookham, C.J.; Graves, H.L. III

    1999-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. The focus of this program was on structural integrity rather than on leaktightness or pressure retention of concrete structures. Primary program accomplishments include formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, in-depth evaluations were conducted of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability

  9. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Aging and condition monitoring of electric cables in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Grove, E.; Soo, P.

    1998-05-01

    There are a variety of environmental stressors in nuclear power plants that can influence the aging rate of components; these include elevated temperatures, high radiation fields, and humid conditions. Exposure to these stressors over long periods of time can cause degradation of components that may go undetected unless the aging mechanisms are identified and monitored. In some cases the degradation may be mitigated by maintenance or replacement. However, some components receive neither and are thus more susceptible to aging degradation, which might lead to failure. One class of components that falls in this category is electric cables. Cables are very often overlooked in aging analyses since they are passive components that require no maintenance. However, they are very important components since they provide power to safety related equipment and transmit signals to and from instruments and controls. This paper will look at the various aging mechanisms and failure modes associated with electric cables. Condition monitoring techniques that may be useful for monitoring degradation of cables will also be discussed

  11. Modeling and analysis of aging behavior of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J.Y.R.; James, R.J.; Dunham, R.S. [ANATECH (United States)

    2011-07-01

    As nuclear power plants approach the end of their original design life and begin to transition to the life extension phase, consideration has to be given to the effects of structural aging when evaluating the extended operation of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structures. The behavior of concrete is highly nonlinear, having low tensile strength, shear stiffness and strength that depend on crack widths, and a confinement-dependent compressive elasto-plasticity. A concrete material model is described having the appropriate capabilities required for evaluating structural aging. The model treats reinforced concrete as a three-phase composite: plain concrete material as a three-dimensional continuum phase, steel reinforcement (rebar) as a uni-directional phase, and a rebar-concrete interaction phase. Structural aging is defined as the combined effects of time dependent material properties degradation and service induced changes in loading and operational conditions. Three broad categories of structural aging, and the interaction between them, are considered: 1) Aging effects due to expected time dependent changes in material properties, 2) Aging effects due to unexpected time dependent material degradation, and 3) Aging effects due to operational environment and loading. Example analyses are presented which illustrate the value of using advanced modeling and simulation in evaluating expected and unusual structural behavior. This is particularly important for safety structures that are approaching the end of their design life and are facing the prospect of re-licensing for extended operation

  12. Overview of the age-related degradation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    License renewal of nuclear power plants is an issue of increasing interest to the U.S. nuclear industry and the U.S. NRC. This paper presents and evaluates the plausible age-related degradation mechanisms that may affect the concrete and steel containment structures and other Class I structures to continue to perform their safety functions. Preventive and/or mitigative options are outlined for managing degradation mechanisms that could significantly affect plant performance during the license renewal period. The provided technical information and the degradation management options may be used as references for comparison with plant specific conditions to ensure that age-related degradation is controlled during the license renewal term. Plausible degradation mechanisms described and analyzed as they may affect the concrete, reinforcing steel, containment steel shell, prestressed-tendon, steel liner and other structural components typically used in Class I structures. The significance of these age-related degradation mechanisms to the structural components are evaluated, giving consideration to the design basis and quality of construction; typical service conditions; operating and maintenance history; and current test, inspection and refurbishment practices for containment and Class I structures. Degradation mechanisms which cannot be generically dispositioned on the basis of the two-step approach: (1) they will not cause significant degradation, or (2) any potential degradation will be bounded by current test, inspection, analytical evaluation, and/or refurbishment programs are identified. Aging degradation management measures are recommended to address the remaining age-related degradation mechanisms. A three-phase approach for the management of the containment and Class I structures is introduced. Various techniques, testing tools and the acceptable criteria for each step of the evaluation of the structures status are provided. The preventive and mitigative

  13. Proactive pressure relief system management of life cycle and ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenc, J.; Ferrar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The last major power nuclear station built in North America was built when the Altair Company introduced the first microcomputer sparking the PC frenzy. It is safe to assume that there have been a great many changes since 1977 on both accounts. As the world's aging nuclear plants continue to be challenged with maintenance and replacement issues (obsolescence), as well making improvements within their facilities, proper pressure relief system management looms as a growing concern. This problem grows more acute as new engineering best practices are promulgated across industries and regulatory standards become more rigorous with much stricter enforcements. Unlike most pieces of operating equipment in a nuclear facility, pressure relief devices demand an extra level of consideration; as they form the 'last line of defense'. Combine the on-going obsolescence issue, with today's ever increasing demands for overall plant and public safety; pressure relief safety management will require increasing 'proactive' efforts to ensure safe facilities. This paper has been written to address some global pressure relief system management issues with respect the worlds aging nuclear facilities. This paper reflects findings we have discovered while conducting engineering pressure relief system audits on various nuclear power stations. It should be noted that these finding are not atypical of similar findings in pressure relief systems in the hydrocarbon processing world. (author)

  14. Issues related to structural aging in probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Structural components and systems have an important safety function in nuclear power plants. Although they are essentially passive under normal operating conditions, they play a key role in mitigating the impact of extreme environmental events such as earthquakes, winds, fire and floods on plant safety. Moreover, the importance of structural components and systems in accident mitigation is amplified by common-cause effects. Reinforced concrete structural components and systems in NPPs are subject to a phenomenon known as aging, leading to time-dependent changes in strength and stiffness that may impact their ability to withstand various challenges during their service lives from operation, the environment and accidents. Time-dependent changes in structural properties as well as challenges to the system are random in nature. Accordingly, condition assessment of existing structures should be performed within a probabilistic framework. The mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) provides a means for identifying aging structural components that may play a significant role in mitigating plant risk. Structural condition assessments supporting a decision regarding continued service can be rendered more efficient if guided by the logic of a PRA

  15. Reliability of some ageing nuclear power plant system: a simple stochastic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto [Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). School of Engineering and Technologies; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion Nacional de Energia y Tecnologia Nuclear; E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.uy

    2007-07-01

    The random number of failure-related events in certain repairable ageing systems, like certain nuclear power plant components, during a given time interval, may be often modelled by a compound Poisson distribution. One of these is the Polya-Aeppli distribution. The derivation of a stationary Polya-Aeppli distribution as a limiting distribution of rare events for stationary Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence is considered. But if the parameters of the Polya-Aeppli distribution are suitable time functions, we could expect that the resulting distribution would allow us to take into account the distribution of failure-related events in an ageing system. Assuming that a critical number of damages produce an emergent failure, the above mentioned results can be applied in a reliability analysis. It is natural to ask under what conditions a Polya-Aeppli distribution could be a limiting distribution for non-homogeneous Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence. In this paper this problem is analyzed and possible applications of the obtained results to ageing or deteriorating nuclear power plant components are considered. The two traditional ways of modelling repairable systems in reliability theory: the 'as bad as old' concept, that assumes that the replaced component is exactly under the same conditions as was the aged component before failure, and the 'as good as new' concept, that assumes that the new component is under the same conditions of the replaced component when it was new, are briefly discussed in relation with the findings of the present work. (author)

  16. Technical Evaluation on Ageing Management in Nuclear Power in Japan -Life Extension over 40 Years at Japanese Nuclear Power Plants-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Miyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese commercial reactors have accumulated more than 40 years operating experience since Tsuruga-1 started commercial operation in March 1970. However, the severe accident occurred at Fukushima nuclear power plants triggered by East Japan Great Earthquake on March 11 last year. The facts that all the reactors having experienced core meltdown had operated for more than 30 years and Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 had just received the approval for its 40th year Ageing Management Technical Evaluation results from the Japanese government caused increasing distrust among the public in nuclear power plants operating for a long period of time. However, investigations of the accident conducted so far have not revealed any evidence that ageing degradation accelerated the accident. In addition, the analysis of seismic accelerations of the earthquake did not show that any component function was lost due to the accident. Considering these facts, I would like to discuss the issues to be continuously pursued and to be additionally implemented as part of the plat life management activities. In addition, I will introduce the efforts made by the Japanese utilities following the accident. (author)

  17. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  18. Experience in monitoring ageing phenomena for improving nuclear power plant availability. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    For more than thirty years nuclear power plants have been supplying electricity to national grids. Today, the nuclear power community is facing great challenges. The safe, reliable operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) must continue to be ensured. From an economic viewpoint, because of the long lead times associated with bringing new plants into service, securing the continued operation of existing plants for their planned lifetimes and possible life extension will be very important in the near term for meeting electrical power demands. The IAEA programmes in nuclear power plant ageing and life extension and in control and instrumentation promote technical information exchange between Member States with new programmes, offers assistance to Member States with an interest in reliability of NPP components, in-service inspection methods and programmes using on-line techniques, component monitoring and special technological topics of nuclear reactors. Significant experience already exists in the nuclear industry in developing and applying the monitoring techniques for different nuclear power plant applications, especially in monitoring of ageing phenomena for improving NPP availability. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to bring together experts from operations, design, research and development and licensing to share their experience in: ageing mechanics of key structural components, methods of monitoring such ageing, tools for cost-effective implementation of the methods and methodologies, life management approaches and examples from current reactors, future direction for monitoring of key structural components in nuclear power plants. The meeting was organized by the IAEA International Working Groups on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in co-operation with the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission and Skoda concern. Around 40 participants from 10 countries

  19. Experience in monitoring ageing phenomena for improving nuclear power plant availability. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    For more than thirty years nuclear power plants have been supplying electricity to national grids. Today, the nuclear power community is facing great challenges. The safe, reliable operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) must continue to be ensured. From an economic viewpoint, because of the long lead times associated with bringing new plants into service, securing the continued operation of existing plants for their planned lifetimes and possible life extension will be very important in the near term for meeting electrical power demands. The IAEA programmes in nuclear power plant ageing and life extension and in control and instrumentation promote technical information exchange between Member States with new programmes, offers assistance to Member States with an interest in reliability of NPP components, in-service inspection methods and programmes using on-line techniques, component monitoring and special technological topics of nuclear reactors. Significant experience already exists in the nuclear industry in developing and applying the monitoring techniques for different nuclear power plant applications, especially in monitoring of ageing phenomena for improving NPP availability. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to bring together experts from operations, design, research and development and licensing to share their experience in: ageing mechanics of key structural components, methods of monitoring such ageing, tools for cost-effective implementation of the methods and methodologies, life management approaches and examples from current reactors, future direction for monitoring of key structural components in nuclear power plants. The meeting was organized by the IAEA International Working Groups on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in co-operation with the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission and Skoda concern. Around 40 participants from 10 countries.

  20. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  1. Assessment and management of aging of nuclear power plant safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Graves, H.L. III; Ellingwood, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background information and data have been developed for improving existing and developing new methods to assist in quantifying the effects of age-related degradation on the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety-related structures. Factors that can lead to age-related degradation of safety-related structures are identified and their manifestations described. Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are noted and guidance provided on repair options available for various forms of degradation. A probabilistic methodology for condition assessment and reliability-based life prediction has been developed and applied to structures subject to combinations of structural load processes and to structural systems. The methodology has also been used to investigate optimization of in-service inspection and maintenance strategies to maintain failure probability below a specified target value as well as to minimize costs. Fragility assessments involving analytical solutions and finite-element methods have been utilized to predict the effect of aging degradation on structural component performance. (author)

  2. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  3. Frequency Domain Reflectometry NDE for Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W.; Jones, Anthony M.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2017-02-16

    Cable insulation polymers are among the more susceptible materials to age-related degradation within a nuclear power plant. This is recognized by both regulators and utilities, so all plants have developed cable aging management programs to detect damage before critical component failure in compliance with regulatory guidelines. Although a wide range of tools are available to evaluate cables and cable systems, cable aging management programs vary in how condition monitoring and nondestructive examinations are conducted as utilities search for the most reliable and cost-effective ways to assess cable system condition. Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is emerging as one valuable tool to locate and assess damaged portions of a cable system with minimal cost and only requires access in most cases to one of the cable terminal ends. Since laboratory studies to evaluate the use of FDR for inspection of aged cables can be expensive and data interpretation may be confounded by multiple factors which influence results, a model-based approach is desired to parametrically investigate the effect of insulation material damage in a controlled manner. This work describes development of a physics-based FDR model which uses finite element simulations of cable segments in conjunction with cascaded circuit element simulations to efficiently study a cable system. One or more segments of the cable system model have altered physical or electrical properties which represent the degree of damage and the location of the damage in the system. This circuit model is then subjected to a simulated FDR examination. The modeling approach is verified using several experimental cases and by comparing it to a commercial simulator suitable for simulation of some cable configurations. The model is used to examine a broad range of parameters including defect length, defect profile, degree of degradation, number and location of defects, FDR bandwidth, and addition of impedance-matched extensions to

  4. Development of inspection technology for inner wall pipe of aging nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Fuyumi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Careful inspection should be paid on aging nuclear power plants. Due to the Fukushima BWR accident, more advanced inspection techniques are now requested in Japan. To find SCC along welded sections by Ultrasonic Testing or Eddy Current Testing is difficult due to the low S/N. Here we propose to apply Magnetic particle Testing (MT) on the inspection. MT uses magnetic particles uniting fluorescent pigment. It is a weak point of MT that uniting particles and pigment is breakable. To extend the lifetime, we developed unique capsule for the magnetic particle to coexist with fluorescent pigment. In addition, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) used for the laser cleaning of materials, is reported in this paper as a preliminary experiment. The intensity of 621nm peak gradually decreases over time. This result will become a measure of the degree of oxide layer removal. (author)

  5. Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive capabilities at the low dose rates appropriate to ambient nuclear power plant aging environments. The methodology was successfully applied to numerous important cable materials used in nuclear applications and the extrapolated predictions were verified by comparisons with long-term (7 to 12 year) results for similar or identical materials aged in nuclear environments. In this report, we test the methodology on three crosslinked polyolefin (CLPO) and two ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable insulation materials. The methodology applies to one of the CLPO materials and one of the EPR materials, allowing predictions to be made for these materials under low dose-rate, low temperature conditions. For the other materials, it is determined that, at low temperatures, a decrease in temperature at a constant radiation dose rate leads to an increase in the degradation rate for the mechanical properties. Since these results contradict the fundamental assumption underlying time-temperature-dose rate superposition, this methodology cannot be applied to such data. As indicated in the earlier reports, such anomalous results might be expected when attempting to model data taken across the crystalline melting region of semicrystalline materials. Nonetheless, the existing experimental evidence suggests that these CLPO and EPR materials have substantial aging endurance for typical reactor conditions. 28 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  6. NuPEER Dijon 2005 Symposium. Ageing issues in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, David (ed.) [BCCN, Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, ASN, 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin, 75572 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2005-07-01

    The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organized an international symposium on regulatory aspects of ageing issues for nuclear pressure equipment. The ageing of nuclear pressure equipment is an issue of growing importance for nuclear regulators and material experts worldwide as age-related degradation of major pressure-retaining components challenges the remaining operating life of nuclear power plants. This symposium aimed at providing a forum for technical exchange among the staffs responsible for nuclear pressure equipment within the safety authorities and the associated expertise organisations. The contents of the symposium is as follows: 1. Control and supervision of safety of nuclear pressure equipment in France and abroad; 1.1. Position of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (1 paper); 1.2. Regulatory practices worldwide (4 papers); 1.3. Licence renewal: Field experience (2 papers); 1.4. Role of international organisations (1 paper); 2. Management of equipment and materials: From design to degradation mechanisms; 2.1. Operation and equipment (4 papers); 2. Evolution of materials (4 papers); 2.3. Fatigue degradation mechanisms (3 papers); 2.4. Contribution of research and development (4 papers); 3. In-service inspection: Evolutions, methods and strategies; 3.1. Methods and evolution (1 paper); 3.2. Qualification of methods (2 papers); 3.3. Surveillance strategies (2 papers); 4. Testimonies and points of view of utilities (3 papers); 5. Ageing issues taken into account in non nuclear fields (2 papers). The symposium began with workshops devoted to: Operation and equipment; Behaviour of materials; Fatigue degradations; Contributions of research and development. The symposium continued with plenary session that addressed the following issues: Control and supervision of safety of nuclear pressure equipment; Role of international organisations; In-service inspection: Objectives, methods and strategies; Point of view of utilities; Technical summary and

  7. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  8. Continuing the service of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants because they provide foundation, support, shielding and containment functions. History tells us that concrete is a durable material. However, a number of factors can compromise its performance, singly or in combination: (1) faulty design, (2) use of unsuitable materials, (3) improper workmanship, (4) exposure to aggressive environments, and (5) excessive structural loads. Furthermore, aging of nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures occurs with the passage of time and has the potential, if its effects are not controlled, to increase the risk to public health and safety. Although limited, incidences of degradation of concrete structures in NPPs indicate that there is a need for improved surveillance, inspection/testing, and maintenance to enhance the technical bases for assurance of continued safe operation of NPPs. Guidelines and criteria for use in evaluating the remaining structural margins (residual life) are required. Potential regulatory applications of this research include: improved predictions of long-term material and structural performance and available safety margins at future times; establishment of limits on exposure to environmental stressors; reduction in total reliance by licensing on inspection and surveillance through development of a methodology which will enable the integrity of structures to be assessed (either pre- or post-accident); and improvements in damage inspection methodology through potential incorporation of results into national standards which could be referenced by standard review plans

  9. IAEA guidance on ageing management for nuclear power plants. Guidance on effective management of the physical ageing of systems, structures and components important to safety for nuclear power plants. Overview. Programmatic guidelines. Component specific guidelines. Review guidelines. Version 1, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Operational experience shows that excellent plant safety and excellent performance go hand in hand, and that they are achieved by effective leadership and management that includes a unified approach to safety and production. This is also applicable to ageing management. Effective ageing management leads to both enhanced plant safety and enhanced performance and is a prerequisite for long service life. The IAEA project on Safety Aspects of NPP Ageing has produced since 1990 a comprehensive set of programmatic and component specific guidelines on managing ageing, while providing an interactive environment for information exchange and co-operation among practitioners, and has assisted Member States in the application of the guidelines through the provision of training and advice. The objective of the CD-ROM is to preserve the IAEA's guidance on ageing management and to facilitate its retrieval, updating, extension and dissemination in order to help increase the effectiveness of ageing management at nuclear power plants

  10. PWSCC issues and material aging management for nuclear power plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Industries) and universities (SNU, KAIST, UNIST), etc. The objective of the present work is to review the corrosion issues in Korea and introduce a strategy of Material Aging Management for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea.

  11. Maintenance Management Support Systems for component aging estimation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Ando, Yasumasa; Morioka, Toshihiko; Okuzumi, Naoaki

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance Management Support Systems (MMSSs) for nuclear power plants have been developed using component aging estimation methods and decision tree analysis for maintenance planning. The former evaluates actual component reliability through statistical analysis on field maintenance data. The latter provides preventive maintenance (PM) planning guidance using heuristic expert knowledge and estimated reliability parameters. The following aspects have been investigated: (1) A systematic and effective method of managing components/parts design information and field maintenance data (2) A method for estimating component aging based on a statistical analysis of field maintenance data (3) A method for providing PM planning guidance using estimated component reliability/performance parameters and decision tree analysis. Based on these investigations, two MMSSs were developed. One deals with 'general maintenance data', which are common to all component types and are amenable to common data handling. The other system deals with 'specific maintenance data', which are specific to an individual component type. Both systems provide PM planning guidance for PM cycles propriety and the PM work priority. The function of these systems were verified using simulated maintenance data. (author)

  12. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  14. New maintenance strategy of Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for effective ageing management and safe long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Takeyuki; Yamashita, Norimichi

    2009-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant is the oldest among three nuclear power plants owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, which consists of six boiling water reactor units. The commercial operation of Unit 1 was commenced in 1971 (37 years old) and Unit 6 in 1978 (29 years old). Currently ageing degradations of systems, structures and components are managed through maintenance programs, component replacement/refurbishment programs and long-term maintenance plans. The long-term maintenance plans are established through ageing management component replacement/refurbishment programs reviews performed before the 30th year of operation and they are for safe and reliable operation after 30 years (long-term operation). However the past maintenance actions and past component replacement/refurbishment programs were not always proactive and past operational experience and maintenance practices suggest that effective/proactive ageing management programs be introduced in earlier stage of the plant operation. In this circumstance, Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant are setting up a new maintenance strategy that includes 1) improving the normal maintenance programs by using ageing degradation data, 2) effective use of information on internal/external operational experience and maintenance practices related to ageing, and 3) proactive component/equipment refurbishment programs during a refreshment outage for safe and reliable long-term operation. To accomplish the goal of this strategy, strengthening engineering capability of plant staff members is a crucial required for the plant. The objective of this paper is to briefly explain main results ageing management reviews, past and current significant ageing issues and management programs against them, and the new maintenance strategy established by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  15. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  16. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact; Veillissement des centrales Impacts socio-economiques, sanitaires et environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch. [Depute du nord (France); Denner, M. [EDF pour la Region Bourgogne (France); Vouilloux, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Foucher, L. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Serviere, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Vila d' Abadal Serra, M

    2005-07-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  17. Studying radiolytic ageing of nuclear power plant electric cables with FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, A; Colombani, J; Duponchel, L

    2017-09-01

    Due to the willingness to extend the nuclear power plants length of life, it is of prime importance to understand long term ageing effect on all constitutive materials. For this purpose gamma-irradiation effects on insulation of instrumentation and control cables are studied. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to highlight molecular modifications induced by gamma-irradiation under oxidizing conditions. In order to be closer to real world conditions, a low dose rate of 11Gyh -1 was used to irradiate insulations in full cable or alone with a dose up to 58 kGy. Spectral differences according to irradiation dose were extracted using PCA. It was then possible to observe different behaviors of the insulation constitutive compounds i.e. ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and aluminium trihydrate (ATH). Irradiation of insulations led to the oxidation of their constitutive polymers and a modification of filler-polymer ratio. Moreover all these modifications were observed for insulations alone or in full cable indicating that oxygen easily diffuses into the material. Spectral contributions were discussed considering different degradation mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal Aging Effect Analysis of 17-4PH Martensitic Stainless Steel Valves for Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Bing; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    The valve stem used in the main steam system of nuclear power plant is usually martensitic stainless steel(such as 17.4ph16.4Mo etc.).When served in high temperature for a long time,the thermal aging embrittlement of valve stem will be significant,and even lead to the fracture.

  19. Aging management and PLEX in Swiss nuclear power plants and prioritization of safety class 2 and 3 components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.; Stejskal, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation ageing management of systems and components important to safety of the Swiss nuclear power plants are presented. Status of electrical components, status of mechanical components as well as status of civil structures are reviewed. The scheme of the high pressure core spray system is included

  20. Examination of applicability of thermoelectric power measurement for thermal aging evaluation of cast duplex stainless steel to real components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubouji, Katsuo

    2006-01-01

    It is known the mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel, which is used for main coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plants, change due to thermal aging. Non-destructive evaluation method for thermal aging using thermoelectric power measurement has been studied in INSS. And it has been found that there was some relation between mechanical properties and thermoelectric power in the case of accelerated aging sample and change in thermoelectric power was caused by change in microstructure due to thermal aging. In this study, n-site measurement of thermoelectric power of a main coolant pipe with the measurement device which has been used in a laboratory was carried out. As a result, thermoelectric power of the main coolant pipe was almost measured within the range from -2.2 to -2μ V/degC, and that was corresponding to the relation of accelerated aging samples between thermoelectric power and the product of ferrite content and aging parameter considering the standard error. Moreover, applying the measured thermoelectric power to the relation of accelerated aging samples between thermoelectric power and impact value, change in the impact value of the pipe seemed to be corresponding to about 40% of the maximum change assumed by thermal aging. (author)

  1. Ageing management program of wires for Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla, J.; Antonaccio, E.; Luraschi, C.; Simionato, E.; Nieto, H.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical cables constitute one of the most important components of NPP in terms o maintenance, safety and availability of the plant. Due to their large extension (thousands of kilometers) it is impossible to fully replace them and aging management becomes essential for long term operation of NPP. Since Atucha II is under construction there was a good opportunity to establish and implement a holistic cable aging management program from the beginning according to the state of the art in this field. The scope of this program involves safety related cables, including EQ cables and non EQ cables as well. Due to the diversity of the installed cables is impossible to address an aging management program of every single specimen. However it is possible to establish 'cables families' of similar aging behavior based on insulation and jacket material, manufacture, etc Several aging management strategies were set for the different 'cables families'. These strategies include cables deposit in plant, elaboration of procedures of visual and tactile inspection, NDE techniques, etc Currently the aging management program is being implemented covering topic such as: Cable screening and grouping. Review of EQ documentation and conventional qualification information referring to the installed cables. Establishment of base line of condition monitoring techniques. Calibration and set up of test parameters for NDE techniques. Aging mechanism characterization and determination of. Design construction and installation of cable deposit in plant (author)

  2. Considerations in the evaluation of concrete structures for continued service in aged Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.; Marchbanks, M.; Oland, B.; Arndt, G.; Brown, T.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, there are /approximately/119 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the US either under construction, operating at low-to-full power, or awaiting an operating license. Together, these units have a net generating capacity of /approximately/110 GW(e). Assuming no life extension of present facilities, the operating licenses for these plants will start to expire in the middle of the next decade with Yankee Rowe being the first plant to attain this status. Where it is noted that with no life extension of facilities, a potential loss of electrical generating capacity in excess of 75 GW(e) could occur during the time period 2006 to 2020 when the operating licenses of 80 to 90 NPPs are scheduled to expire. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to meeting future electricity demand, which has worked well for non-nuclear generating plants, is to extend the service life (operating licenses) of existing NPPs. Since the concrete components in these plants provide a vital safety function, any continued service considerations must include an in-depth assessment of the safety-related concrete structures. 7 refs

  3. New technology for optimized I and C maintenance and management of ageing of critical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced sensors and new testing and maintenance technologies have become available over the last ten years for nuclear power plants (NPPs) to replace outdated, obsolete, and troublesome instruments, provide for management of ageing of critical plant equipment, optimize maintenance activities, reduce maintenance costs and personnel radiation exposure, and at the same time, improve plant safety and availability. These new developments are reviewed in this TECDOC. The material covered here has been summarized from NUREG/CR-5501, a 1998 report written by H.M. Hashemian and his co-authors for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  5. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables

  6. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  7. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  8. Pilot studies on management of ageing of nuclear power plant components: Results of Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    To facilitate cooperation between the IAEA Member States and thus to enhance the safety and reliability of operating nuclear plants the IAEA has initiated pilot studies on the management of ageing of four representative plant components: the primary nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel, a motor operated valve, the concrete containment building and instrumentation and control cables. Phase 1 of the studies has been completed and its results are presented in this report. The report documents current understanding of ageing and methods for monitoring and mitigation of this ageing for the above components, identifies existing knowledge and technology gaps and defines follow-up work to deal with these gaps. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented

  10. Aging management strategy for reactor internals of Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Soung Woo; Lee, Sam Lai; Hong, Seung Mo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Dong Jin; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Joung Soo; Jung, Man Kyo; Park, Jang Yul

    2010-01-01

    This report describes various factors on the IASCC of reactor internals in terms of fluence, stress, water chemistries and materials. Materials of each components of Korean nuclear power plants have been surveyed. A technical report for a management of reactor internals issued by EPRI was reviewed for a selection of most susceptible area among many components. Baffle former bolts are considered to be the most susceptible parts due to high irradiation level(fluence) and high tensile stress. Neutron fluence of Kori-1 and Kori-2 was calculated based on fuel exchange history, fuel performance and plant operation history. This report will be used for more advanced inspection and maintenance guidelines development by supplying inspection intervals and components (most susceptible regions) for the long term operation plants

  11. On-line water chemistry monitoring for corrosion prevention in ageing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Jaernstroem, R.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Chanfreau, E.

    1991-01-01

    General corrosion and consequently radiation buildup in nuclear power plants are controlled by the selection of material and the chemical environment. In power plants useful information concerning the kinetics of chemical reactions can be obtained by using high temperature, high pressure measurements for pH, conductivity and electrochemical potentials (ECP) of construction materials or redox-potential. The rates of general or uniform corrosion of materials in contact with the primary coolant are quite low and do not compromise the integrity of the primary circuit. Chemistry control should be applied in the first hand to minimize the dissolution and the transport and subsequent deposition of activated corrosion products to out-of-core regions. A computerized monitoring system for high temperature high pressure pH and electrochemical potential (ECP) has been in continuous use at the Loviisa power plant since 1988. Special emphasis has been put on learning the effect of pH and ECP control during cooldown process in order to further reduce background radiation buildup. During the shutdown for refueling outage in summer 1989 the high temperature water chemistry parameters were monitored. In addition to the high temperature water chemistry parameters concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activities of the corrosion products were measured. In this paper the results obtained through simultaneous monitoring of water chemistry parameters and concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activity measurements are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  13. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-01-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  14. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes investigations on auxiliary feedwater pumps being done under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Objectives of these studies are: to identify and evaluate practical, cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging and service wear); recommend inspection and maintenance practices; establish acceptance criteria; and help facilitate use of the results. Emphasis is given to identifying and assessing methods for detecting failure in the incipient stage and to developing degradation trends to allow timely maintenance, repair or replacement actions. 3 refs

  15. Testing of a naturally aged nuclear power plant inverter and battery charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    A naturally aged inverter and battery charger were obtained from the Shippingport facility. This equipment was manufactured in 1974, and was installed at Shippingport in 1975 as part of a major plant modification. Testing was performed on this equipment under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program to evaluate the type and extent of degradation due to aging, and to determine the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques which could be used to detect aging effects. Steady state testing was conducted over the equipment's entire operating range. Step load changes were also initiated in order to monitor the electrical response. During this testing, component temperatures were monitored and circuit waveforms analyzed. Results indicated that aging had not substantially affected equipment operation. On the other hand, when compared with original acceptance test data, the monitoring techniques employed were sensitive to changes in measurable component and equipment parameters indicating the viability of detecting degradation prior to catastrophic failure. 7 refs., 34 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Proceeding of 27th domestic symposium on trends in aging management and current status of aging degradation studies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    As the 27th domestic symposium of Atomic Energy Research Committee, the Japan Welding Engineering Society, the symposium was held titled as 'Trends of aging managements and current status of aging effect studies in nuclear power plants'. Six speakers gave lectures titled as 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of neutron irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels', 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of environmentally assisted cracking in the LWR environments', 'Domestic and overseas trends of aging management of the LWR plants', 'Trends of prediction/evaluation, inspection/monitoring and repair/replacement technologies for aging of the LWR plants', 'Present status of research on mechanism and prediction method of high cycle thermal fatigue due to the thermal fluid-structure interaction in the LWR environments' and Present status of research on very high cycle fatigue of structural materials'. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Method on the aging evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Tsukagoshi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, method on the durability evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures was investigated. In view of the importance of evaluating the degree of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, relationships should be formulated among the number of years elapsed, t, the amount of action of a deteriorative factor, F, the degree of material deterioration, D, and the performance of the structure, P. Evaluation by PDFt diagrams combining these relationships may be effective. A detailed procedure of durability evaluation for a reinforced concrete structure using PDFt concept is presented for the deterioration factors of thermal effect, irradiation, neutralization and penetration of salinity by referring to the recent papers

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  19. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  20. Effects evaluation of artificial aging by temperature and gamma radiation on cables for Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (LVNPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez C, R. M.; Bonifacio M, J.; Garcia H, E. E.; Loperena Z, J. A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia M, C., E-mail: raulmario.vazquez@inin.gob.m [CFE, Central Nuclear Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    A set of tests has been carried out at the Equipment Qualification Laboratory at National Institute of Nuclear Research to perform accelerated aging up to 60 years under temperature and gamma radiation environment for electrical cables. The results obtained from such tests are the base line data for comparison to with the current cable conditions at the plant. This work is intended for establishing the cable aging management program for the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (LVNPP). For such purpose, the Institute has prepared methodologies and procedures to apply condition monitoring techniques in accelerated aging tests on samples of new cables drawn from the LVNPP warehouse. The condition indicators of the material selected for condition monitoring and the aging management process of cables were: Elongation at Break (EAB) and Oxidation Induction Time (OIT). A cable aging management program includes activities for cable selection, determination of condition indicators of the cable materials (EAB, OIT, Ind enter), accelerated aging of cable samples at the laboratory, analysis of maintenance history, operational experience of the plant and analysis of the environmental and service conditions (temperature and gamma radiation), as well as the establishment of a condition monitoring plan for cables in the plant. Two cable model samples were thermally aged and gamma irradiated with doses corresponding to differential operational periods. EAB and OIT values of cable insulating material (ethylene propylene and cross linked polyethylene) were obtained. It was found that the EAB and OIT data correlation is very closed, and it could be applied to infer values that are not possible to measure directly at the plant and be used for cable aging evaluation and remaining life time determination. (Author)

  1. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  2. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  3. Survey of the state-of-the-art in aging of electronics with application to nuclear-power-plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Thome, F.V.; Craft, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present results of a study to evaluate the state-of-the-art and outline needed research on aging of electronics in nuclear power plants. The emphasis is on aging of electronics (e.g., semiconductors, capacitors, resistors) used in safety-related Class 1E instrumentation, particularly those used in harsh environments. Some attention is also given to encapsulants, printed circuit boards and bonds (e.g., solder joints) since they are integral parts of circuits. Four major tasks were addressed in this study and are the subject of this report. These include (1) selecting candidate electronic components for study and review; (2) defining the aging environment and initiating an effort to determine the state-of-the-art in aging degradation; (3) recommending follow-on investigations and research; and (4) outlining the first steps in defining a program on accelerated aging

  4. Structural Aging Program to evaluate continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the Structural Aging (SAG) Program which is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into three technical tasks: Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  5. Thermal ageing of steels; from expertise and understanding of the ageing mechanisms to a maintenance strategy for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Ould, P.

    2004-01-01

    Some parts of reactor coolant circuit on Nuclear PWR power plants, elbows on primary circuit, are made in cast duplex stainless steel material. It is now identify that the mechanical characteristic of this material should be decrease under thermal ageing mainly after a long time in operation in at reactor coolant circuit temperature conditions. The sensitiveness to the thermal ageing of these components is in relation with chemical composition and the ferrite content, especially the grade of Chromium equivalent (Ceq %Cr + %Si + %Mo). In the context of justification to maintain in operation on the plants these cat duplex components, an important programme of expertises was carried out on cast elbows after removing on the plants during the Steam Generators replacements (SGR). Several expertises, performed in the objective to understand the thermal ageing phenomenon and mechanism on cast components in service on plants, were permit to validate the prediction formulas established from a large database and programme in laboratories. The expertises were based on a lot of metallurgical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of components in operation Small Angle Neutrons Scattering (SANS), Thermal Electric Power (TEP), micro hardness and toughness measurement on small specimens from boat sample (CT10-5) The expertise carried out on one SG inlet elbows from DAMPIERRE, removed a during SGR after 100000 h in operation is shown, the toughness values are very high compared to the prediction formulas. The TEP measurements performed on the specimen cut off on two elbows and the ingots of the same material aged in laboratory in furnace, are very coherent; it is confirmed that this methodology is a good indicator to follow the ageing characteristic of material. The results of expertises on aged material are a mean of validation of the methodology applied on the file of demonstration of maintaining in operation of cast duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing. So the

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  7. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  8. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  9. A proposed aging management program for alkali silica reactions in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouma, Victor E., E-mail: saouma@colorado.edu; Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad A.

    2014-10-01

    Drawing from publicly available information, this paper addresses the alkali silica reaction management of Seabrook nuclear power plant. The essence of the reaction is first examined, followed by a summary of findings, current and planned work. Then, the authors draw on their experience in ASR to first comment on the current work, and then complete the paper with what they would recommend. An important observation is that ASR constitutes a major challenge to the nuclear industry, and a thorough understanding of the State of the Art is essential before a holistic approach is undertaken. It is neither a simple nor an inexpensive challenge, yet a most critical one that industry and regulators must confront. This paper is only a breach into such an effort.

  10. A proposed aging management program for alkali silica reactions in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouma, Victor E.; Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from publicly available information, this paper addresses the alkali silica reaction management of Seabrook nuclear power plant. The essence of the reaction is first examined, followed by a summary of findings, current and planned work. Then, the authors draw on their experience in ASR to first comment on the current work, and then complete the paper with what they would recommend. An important observation is that ASR constitutes a major challenge to the nuclear industry, and a thorough understanding of the State of the Art is essential before a holistic approach is undertaken. It is neither a simple nor an inexpensive challenge, yet a most critical one that industry and regulators must confront. This paper is only a breach into such an effort

  11. An approach regarding aging management program for concrete containment structure at the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenier, J-O.; Komljenovic, D., E-mail: Chenier.jean-olivier@hydro.qc.ca [Nuclear Power Plant Gentilly-2, Becancour, Quebec (Canada); Gocevski, V. [Hydro-Quebec Equipment, Structural Dept., Quebec (Canada); Picard, S.; Chretien, G. [Nuclear Power Plant Gentilly-2, Becancour, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The current paper presents the approach used by the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant, Hydro-Quebec, in elaborating a specific Aging Management Program (AMP) for its concrete containment structure. It is developed as a part of preparation activities for the plant refurbishment project. The specificity of the AMP consists in addressing Alkali-Aggregate Reaction (AAR) degradation mechanism which is not well known in the nuclear power industry. HQ developed a numerical model based on finite elements for assessing the concrete containment structure behaviour under the impact of AAR and other relevant degradation mechanisms. Such predictions enable a better targeting of corrective and mitigating actions during the second cycle of the G-2 operation while required. (author)

  12. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  13. Adjustment of the thermohydraulic NUCIRC 2.0 code to the present aging conditions of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Arnaldo; Coutsiers, Ernesto; Schivo, Miguel; Mazanttini, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    This work gives a description of the adjustment process of NUCIRC code to the actual aging conditions of Embalse nuclear power plant. For this adjustment the flow of the fuel channels of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) is calculated using the channel heat balance flow (CHBF) methodology. Then roughness and the localized loss of charge are modified in NUCIRC code for different groups of channels. These adjustments are done in way to fit by regions the channels flows calculated with NUCIRC to the CHBF flows. The fitting results in a discrepancy by regions of less than 0,1% and an average quadratic error of 5% approximately. These values indicate that the code NUCIRC is right adjusted for critical channel power calculations and aging tracking of PHTS. (author)

  14. Age-dependent risk-based methodology and its application to prioritization of nuclear power plant components and to maintenance for managing aging using PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to demonstrate several important ways that the age-dependent risk-based methodology developed by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program may be applied to resolving important issues related to the aging of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components (SSCs). The study was sponsored by the NPAR Program of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initiated on the basis of a Users Need Request, the age-dependent risk-based methodology has been under development by the NPAR Program for several years. In this methodology, the time-dependent change in a component's risk contribution is the product of two factors: (1) the risk importance of the component (e.g., the change in its risk contribution when it is assumed to be totally unavailable to perform its intended safety function) and (2) the change in its unavailability with time. This change in the component's unavailability with time is a function of the component's aging rate and plant inspection and maintenance practices. The methodology permits evaluations of the age-dependent risk contributions from both single- and multiple-components. Principal results and conclusions generated by the methodology demonstrations are discussed

  15. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  16. Proof of integrity and ageing management of mechanical components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Herter, K.-H.; Kockelmann, H.; Schuler, X.

    2005-01-01

    Demands and requirements for a safe operation of mechanical components during the whole operation life time (plant life management) to assure aging phenomena (aging management) and to prove the integrity (prove of integrity, e.g. in order to exclude large breaks) can be found in guidelines, codes and standards. In the present paper a general concept to proof the integrity as part of the ageing management of pressurized components and systems is presented. The concept is based on the actual material characteristics, the actual as-built configurations and the design of the components and systems including the knowledge of possible failure mechanism during operation. An important part of the assessment is the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept. Based on essential research results the developed procedures and methodologies for the assessment of the critical crack sizes as well as the critical loading conditions are reported and discussed. In detail the following aspects have to be treated: (a) evaluation of the as-built status of quality (design, construction, material, fabrication; results of recurrent non destructive examinations up to now, operational experience); (b) determination of the relevant loading conditions by means of in-service monitoring (monitoring of the mode of operation, the water chemistry, the mechanical and thermal stresses, the dynamic loading), emergency and faulted condition loads as specified; (c) evaluation of the actual status of quality with respect to the relevant loading conditions (stress analysis-limitation of the stresses; fatigue analysis-determination of the usage factor; fracture mechanics analysis-determination of crack growth, critical crack sizes and loading conditions); (d) evaluation and extent of the in-service monitoring and recurrent inspections to guarantee the succeeding operation (recurrent non destructive examination - minimum detectable flaw sizes, examination area, examination intervals; leak

  17. Development of a new cause classification method considering plant ageing and human errors for adverse events which occurred in nuclear power plants and some results of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2007-01-01

    The adverse events which occurred in nuclear power plants are analyzed to prevent similar events, and in the analysis of each event, the cause of the event is classified by a cause classification method. This paper shows a new cause classification method which is improved in several points as follows: (1) the whole causes are systematically classified into three major categories such as machine system, operation system and plant outside causes, (2) the causes of the operation system are classified into several management errors normally performed in a nuclear power plant, (3) the content of ageing is defined in detail for their further analysis, (4) human errors are divided and defined by the error stage, (5) human errors can be related to background factors, and so on. This new method is applied to the adverse events which occurred in domestic and overseas nuclear power plants in 2005. From these results, it is clarified that operation system errors account for about 60% of the whole causes, of which approximately 60% are maintenance errors, about 40% are worker's human errors, and that the prevention of maintenance errors, especially worker's human errors is crucial. (author)

  18. Study on Developing Degradation Model for Nuclear Power Plants With Ageing Elements Affected on Operation Parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Won; Lim, Sung Won; Lee, Un Chul; Kim, Man Woong; Kim, Kab; Ryu, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    As a part of development the evaluation system of safety margin effects for degradation of CANDU reactors, it is required that the degradation model represents the distribution of each ageing factor's value during operating year. Unfortunately, it is not easy to make an explicit relation between the RELAP-CANDU parameters and ageing mechanism because of insufficient data and lack of applicable models. So, operating parameter related with ageing is used for range determination of ageing factor. Then, relation between operating parameter and ageing elements is analyzed and ageing constant values for degradation model are determined. Also the other ageing factor is derived for more accurate ageing analysis

  19. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  20. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  1. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  2. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  3. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  4. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  6. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  7. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  8. Aging of turbine drives for safety-related pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.

    1995-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between time-dependent degradation and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety-related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized-water reactor plants and in the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling and High-Pressure Coolant Injection systems for boiling-water reactor plants. This research has been conducted by examination of failure data in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, review of Licensee Event Reports, discussion of problems with operating plant personnel, and personal observation. The reported failure data were reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. Based on the research results, attempts have been made to determine the predictability of failures and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study of AFW systems indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. However, examination of the data shows that the turbine itself is a reliable piece of equipment with a good service record. Most of the problems documented are the result of problems with the turbine controls and the mechanical overspeed trip mechanism; these apparently stem from three major causes which are discussed in the text. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design, have led to improved performance resulting in a reliable safety-related component. However, these improvements have not been universally implemented

  9. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  10. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  11. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  12. Development of evaluation technique on ageing degradation of organic polymer in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Nho, Young Chang; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Eun Hee

    1999-03-01

    Radiation degradation of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE, Hypalon), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and ethylene rubber (EPR) of experimental formulation as cable insulating and sheathing materials were performed by accelerated ageing tests and was investigated by measuring the properties such as tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance, melting temperature, oxygen index and thermal stimulated current. The status of radiation ageing test was reviewed and the requirement of qualification of nuclear equipment was documented.

  13. Development of technical information basis of aging management for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to implement effective safety regulations on aging management for reactor facilities etc., the information on important technology issues, the latest technical knowledge including evaluation technology, test and research outcomes, related codes and standards, regulation information, operation experiences such as accidents and trouble, etc. with respect to aging-induced deterioration in and outside Japan and in other industries, were collected, organized and evaluated. (author)

  14. Development of evaluation technique on ageing degradation of organic polymer in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Nho, Young Chang; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Eun Hee

    1999-03-01

    Radiation degradation of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE, Hypalon), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and ethylene rubber (EPR) of experimental formulation as cable insulating and sheathing materials were performed by accelerated ageing tests and was investigated by measuring the properties such as tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance, melting temperature, oxygen index and thermal stimulated current. The status of radiation ageing test was reviewed and the requirement of qualification of nuclear equipment was documented

  15. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  16. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants; Advance: proyecto de investigacion de envejecimiento en cableado electrico en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Ruiz, S.

    2013-07-01

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  17. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  18. Evolution of coal ash solidification properties with disposal site depth and age, 'Gacko' Thermal power plant case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash with high calcium content is produced by coal combusting in 'Gacko' thermal power plant (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Result of controlled mixture of water and ash is spontaneous ash solidification on disposal site. Speed and solidification efficiency depends on content of calcium-oxide in ash and water: ash mass ratio, which was determined by previous research. Mass ratio that was chosen as the most suitable ratio for industrial usage (roughly was 1:1. Samples of ash of different age were taken after 6.5 years of exploitation and their chemical, physical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics were analyzed. Disposed ash was stratified and very heterogeneous. It was shown that great impact on solidification process in practice have climate conditions, proper handling slurry processing, work continuity and disposal site preparation. Great impact of water is noticed which is, because of its water permeability filtrated into lower layers and significantly alters it characteristic.

  19. An application of modulated poisson processes to aging evaluation for the extension of qualified life of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da Cruz

    2003-03-01

    The modulated power law process (MPLP) is a three-parameter stochastic point process model that can be used to describe the failures time of reparable systems. While the power law process implies that a system is exactly on the same condition just after a repair as just before a failure, the MPLP allows for the system to be affected both by failure and repair. For this reason this model is adequate for evaluating the recurrent events that incorporate both time trends and effects of past events such as the renewal type behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MPLP as a model for the rate of occurrence of failures of a repairable system to decide for an extension of qualified life in the context of licence renewal of a nuclear power plant. Standard statistical techniques, such as the maximum likelihood and linear regression models, are applied to estimate parameters of the MPLP. As a conclusion of the study, the MPLP is adequate for modelling rate of occurrence of failures that are time dependent, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in the operation of repairable systems. (author)

  20. Qualification of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Management of ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaang, Kjell; Staahl, Gunnar

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe programs and tools for assessment of accomplished and documented qualification with respect to ageing of electrical equipment and for development of complimentary ageing management programs. In addition to description of complete programs for management of ageing, tools for validation of the status with regard to ageing of installed ('old') equipment and, where needed, for complementation of their qualification are also included. The report is restricted to safety related equipment containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials. To this category belong cables and cable joints and a number of equipment containing oils, seals (o-rings), etc. For equipment located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. The main part of this report deals with the qualification of such equipment. Some safety related equipment outside the containment can be located in areas where they are subjected to high temperature and other excessive environmental stresses during normal operation and in areas affected by an accident. Therefore, some material is given also on qualification of equipment located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. Part 1 of the report is an executive summary with a general review of the methodologies and their application. The more detailed description of the programs and underlying material, useful data, etc. is given in Part 2

  1. Qualification of Electrical Components in Nuclear Power Plants. Management of Ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaang, Kjell [Ingemansson Technology AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Staahl, Gunnar [Westinghouse Atom, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    This report reviews R and D results and experiences forming the bases for the preparation of a report on management of ageing. It includes basic information and descriptions of value for persons who work with the questions and some data from investigations of the ageing characteristics of various materials: limit levels, dose-rate effects, activation energies, methods for condition monitoring, etc. This report is restricted to safety related components containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials (polymers). For components located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. Therefore, the main part of this report deals with the qualification of such components. In addition, some material is given on qualification located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. A survey is made of activities, programs and tools for ageing qualification in connection with initial environmental qualification (type testing) as well as after installation (condition monitoring, extension of qualified life through on-going qualification). Tools are also given for supplementary ageing qualification of already installed components.

  2. Qualification of Electrical Components in Nuclear Power Plants. Management of Ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaang, Kjell; Staahl, Gunnar

    2002-05-01

    This report reviews R and D results and experiences forming the bases for the preparation of a report on management of ageing. It includes basic information and descriptions of value for persons who work with the questions and some data from investigations of the ageing characteristics of various materials: limit levels, dose-rate effects, activation energies, methods for condition monitoring, etc. This report is restricted to safety related components containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials (polymers). For components located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. Therefore, the main part of this report deals with the qualification of such components. In addition, some material is given on qualification located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. A survey is made of activities, programs and tools for ageing qualification in connection with initial environmental qualification (type testing) as well as after installation (condition monitoring, extension of qualified life through on-going qualification). Tools are also given for supplementary ageing qualification of already installed components

  3. Optimized maintenance concept of safety relevant valves related to ageing management features in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koring, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the existing concept in E.ON Kernkraft and its sound application to ageing management issues by focussing on group 2 components such as safety relevant valves. It is demonstrated how the maintenance concept of safety relevant valves is supported by a valve diagnostic system accompanied by an applied procedure to assess the measured results with respect to the required functionality and ageing phenomena. Furthermore this concept has been developed to optimize the existing preventive maintenance of the safety relevant valves by implementing condition oriented aspects derived from the diagnostic results. The main issue of this maintenance concept is to demonstrate the high level of the secured function, reliability and performance of the safety relevant valves within an integrated ageing management. Additionally it offers improvements of all preventive maintenance issues as maintenance periods and the component related volume, spare parts management and costs. (author)

  4. Methodology of aging management in structures, systems and components of a nuclear power plant and its application to a pilot program in Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvio C, G.; Fernandez S, G.

    2009-10-01

    From its origin the nuclear power plants confront the effects of time and of environment, giving as result the aging of its structures, systems and components. In this document the general process is described for the establishment of Aging Management Program developed by IAEA. Following the program methodology is guaranteed that a nuclear power plant manages the aging effects appropriately and to make decisions for its solution, assuring the characteristic functions of structures, systems and components of same nuclear power plant. On the other hand, the implantation of an aging management program constitutes the base for development of a licence renovation program, like it can be the specific case of the Central Laguna Verde Units 1 and 2. (Author)

  5. Continuing the service of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The (SAG) Structural Aging Program has the objective of preparing documentation to help provide criteria for use by the USNRC in evaluating requests for continuing the service of NPPs. The program consists of three tasks: Materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. These tasks are detailed in this report

  6. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 2, Functional indicator tests on a small electric motor subjected to accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Lofaro, R.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.; Skreiner, K.M.

    1987-11-01

    A ten horsepower electric motor was artificially aged by plug reverse cycling for test purposes. The motor was manufactured in 1967 and was in service at a commercial nuclear power plant for twelve years. Various tests were performed on the motor throughout the aging process. The motor failed after 3.79 million reversals (3 seconds per reversal) over seven months of testing. Each test parameter was trended to assess its suitability in monitoring aging and service wear degradation in motors. Results and conclusions are discussed relative to the applicability of the tests performed to nuclear power plant motor maintenance programs. 15 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  7. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-08

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  8. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Dib, Gerges; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2015-01-01

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any 'state-of-the-art' report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  9. Structural aging program to assess the adequacy of critical concrete components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The Program has evolved from preliminary studies conducted to evaluate the long-term environmental challenges to light-water reactor safety-related concrete civil structures. An important conclusion of these studies was that a damage methodology, which can provide a quantitative measure of a concrete structure's durability with respect to potential future requirements, needs to be developed. Under the SAG Program, this issue is being addressed through: establishment of a structural materials information center, evaluation of structural component assessment and repair technologies, and development of a quantitative methodology for structural aging determinations. Progress to date of each of these activities is presented as well as future plans. 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  11. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  12. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  13. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  14. AVISE, ageing anticipation methodology using expert judgement and stimulation. Application to a nuclear power plant component: the pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzaiene-Marle, L.

    2005-04-01

    This thesis deals with components ageing anticipation in the context of life cycle management. The proposed approach, called AVISE, allows the identification of potentials problems related to ageing, to measure the risks in terms of degradation probability and degradation consequences and gives the adequate solutions to stop or to postpone ageing. This research was undertaken in a particular industrial context, the nuclear industry. Equipments used in this context are specific and particularly reliable. These characteristics result in limited feedback (low number of failures). To compensate for this limited information, two solutions are proposed in this approach. The first solution that we can consider as a classical one consists in using expert judgement. The second one, more original, consists in using the operation feedback of 'similar' components. In order to apply these solutions and to obtain the anticipation results, a set of methodological tools was developed and tested in a real industrial application on a nuclear power plant component: the pressurizer. The first tool is a generic process for expert judgement, identified thanks to a comparison between eleven existing methods using expert judgement. Two methods based on expert stimulation and called STIMEX-IMDP and STIMEX-IPP were elaborated. A reference list of degradation mechanisms and a reference list of ageing effects were constructed and used in the method STIMEX-IMDP in order to help expert stimulation. Then, the developed approach proposes the use of belief networks to model and quantify the risks related to the potential degradations. Finally, the construction of a conceptual data model and specifications are given for the creation of an ageing database. The data to capitalize was identified on the basis of the research undertaken in this thesis. (author)

  15. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  16. Management of ageing of I and C equipment in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Experience has shown that ageing and obsolescence have the potential to cause the maintainability and operability of many instrumentation and control (I and C) systems to deteriorate well before the end of plant life. An I and C ageing management strategy is therefore required to control and minimize this threat. This report gives guidance on how to develop such a strategy and provides examples and supporting information on how established and recently developed maintenance, surveillance, and testing techniques may be employed to support the strategy. In some cases, equipment refurbishment may be necessary and guidance on this subject is given in a companion publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1016, Modernization of Instrumentation and Control in Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA, Vienna, 1998). The International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) of the IAEA proposed in 1995 that a technical report be prepared to provide general guidelines on the management of ageing of important I and C equipment in nuclear power plants. The purpose of the report would be to guide the worldwide nuclear industry on potential effects of I and C ageing on plant safety and economy, and the means that are available to help minimize or eliminate any detrimental consequences of ageing. In response, a consultants meeting of five experts from Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the USA was held by the IAEA in Vienna in September 1997 to exchange national experience on the subject and to discuss the possible content of the report. The group of experts was tasked with bringing together all the information that is available on I and C ageing and ageing management methods. After a thorough discussion and analysis of the available information, an extended outline of the report on the subject was produced. The purpose of the extended outline was to identify a structure of the report, bring together information available at the moment and to provide guidance

  17. Management of life cycle and ageing at nuclear power plants: Improved I and C maintenance. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The topic of this TECDOC was originally suggested in the May 2001 meeting of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG NPPCI). It was then approved by the IAEA for work to begin in 2002. It originated from the remarks of the TWG members that it is now time to address the instrumentation and control (I and C) ageing issues in terms of plant life management and licence renewal. Furthermore, the nuclear industry is believed to be able to survive only if plant economy is favourable in addition to plant safety. Therefore, in dealing with I and C ageing and obsolescence, one has to consider how to proceed in addressing this question, not only from a plant operational and safety standpoint, but also in the context of plant economy in terms of the cost of electricity production, and including initial and recurring capital costs. For this important reason, consideration of new technologies, such as on-line monitoring and in situ testing methods is recommended. These can be used not only to predict the consequences of ageing, and guard against it, but also to verify equipment performance throughout the lifetime of the plant, and help establish replacement schedules for I and C equipment, and predict residual life. The basic ageing and obsolescence management process involves: Understanding the ageing and obsolescence phenomena and identifying the (potential) effects on I and C; Addressing the specific impact of these effects on the plant taking into account operational profiles and analyzing the risks; Carrying out necessary mitigating actions to counteract the effects of ageing and obsolescence. Based on the above listed activities the ageing and obsolescence management programme needs to be an iterative process. The goal of this TECDOC is to provide the latest information on ageing, obsolescence, and performance monitoring of those I and C equipment that are classified as safety equipment and/or safety-related equipment, are

  18. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  20. Assessment of degradation and aging of nuclear power plants concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, J.; Naus, D.; Graves, H.; Sheikh, A.; Le Pape, Y.; Rashid, J.; Saouma, V.; Wall, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an expert-panel assessment of ageing degradation modes and mechanisms of concrete structures in NPPs, where, based on specific operating environments, degradation is likely to occur, or may have occurred; to define relevant aging and degradation modes and mechanisms; and to perform systematic assessment of the effects of these age-related degradation mechanisms on the future life of those materials and structures. The following 7 degradation modes and mechanisms have been identified as having the greatest potential impact on the ability of concrete structures to fulfill their safety related functions during long-term NPP operation. 1) Corrosion of conventional reinforcement is difficult to assess because of inaccessibility to inspection; 2) Creep of pre-stressed concrete containments continuously affects the internal stress state and adds to tendon relaxation and gradual loss of prestress; 3) Irradiation of concrete lacks sufficient data to for a clear evaluation of its effects on long-term operations; 4) Alkali-silica reaction potential consequences on the structural integrity of the containment; 5) Fracture/cracking, which is a well understood behavior characteristic of concrete structures and is accounted for in structural design, plays a unique role in post-tensioned containments during de-tensioning and re-tensioning operations which may be undertaken as part of life extension retrofit work, resulting in delamination, and may evolve with time as a creep-cracking interaction mechanism; 6) Boric acid attack of concrete in the spent fuel pool involves knowledge gaps related to the kinetics and the extent of the attack (role of the concrete mix design); 7) Corrosion of the inaccessible side of the spent fuel pool and containment liners and the stress corrosion cracking of the tendons are important degradation modes due to the absence of in-service inspection. The potential impact of these mechanisms may be mitigated by

  1. Regulatory challenges in the management of aging of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo, C.; Mendoza, C.; Mas, E.; Conde, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses two major pathways by which a regulatory body, and in particular the CSN, may participate in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge on mechanisms of aging of nuclear structural materials: to participate in forums to share operational experience and R and R project, both nationally and internationally. It notes the importance of this participation to carry out its regulatory function based on the knowledge acquired and the unique challenge of transferring that knowledge to rules and guidelines for their application. The article discusses various R and D projects in which the CSN participates directly. It calls for the presence of regulatory bodies in R and D project funded by the EU and the transfer of the results of such projects to codes, standards or guidelines for feasible implementation. (Author)

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. SALTO guidelines. Guidelines for peer review of long term operation and ageing management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The average age of nuclear power plants (NPPs) connected to the grid worldwide is increasing. About 20% of all the power reactors operating worldwide have been in operation for more than 30 years, and almost 50% have been in operation for 20 to 30 years, while a rather limited number of new NPPs are being put into operation. In view of this trend, many countries are giving a high priority to continuing the operation of NPPs beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e.g. 30 or 40 years). Long term operation (LTO) for NPPs is operation beyond the established time frame originally set forth by the license term, design limits, standards or regulations. LTO needs to be justified by a safety assessment considering life limiting processes and features for structures, systems and components. Proper and safe LTO is based on the experience and practices of various countries in areas such as plant license renewal, life extension, continued operation and life management. Other activities, including periodic safety review, ageing management and plant modification, are also relevant to LTO. Ageing management of an NPP is an important activity that must be considered before and in conjunction with the decision to enter LTO. Ageing management of NPPs deals with the physical ageing of structures, systems and components (SSCs) that can result in the degradation of their performance characteristics. Thus ageing management helps ensure that SSCs important to safety remain capable of performing their required safety functions. An effective ageing management programme (AMP) is a key element of the safe and reliable operation of NPPs during the originally planned time frame originally planned for their operation, as well as for the period of LTO. In order to assist Member States in managing ageing effectively, the IAEA is developing related safety standards and guidance publications. International peer review is a useful tool for Member States to exchange experience, learn from each

  5. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  6. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  7. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  8. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  9. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  10. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  11. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  12. Report of the task group reviewing national and international activities in the area of ageing of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    After a background information on the mandate of the task group and its organisation, the longevity of nuclear power plants is first addressed: the present status of nuclear power plants in the 25 OECD Member Countries is summarised and the importance of ensuring continued safe operation of nuclear power plants described. Safety-related concrete structures (primarily containments) for several reactor concepts are briefly described as well as their materials of construction. Primary mechanisms that can produce adverse ageing of the concrete structures are described (e.g., chemical attack and corrosion of steel reinforcement). The overall performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures is described and age-related degradation incidences that have occurred are noted (e.g., corrosion of steel in water intake structures and corrosion of metal liners). National ageing management programmes of OECD Member Countries are then described with the emphasis placed on nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. Although the majority of these programmes are addressing components such as the reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, several national programmes have sophisticated activities that address the concrete structures (e.g., Canada, France, Japan, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States). International ageing management activities are then summarised, primarily addressed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (ageing management activities for concrete containment buildings) and the Commission of European Communities (CEC) (assessment of the long-term durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and buildings, and steel containments in nuclear power plants). General conclusions and recommendations are provided at the end of the report

  13. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The report presents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of Concrete Containment Buildings (CCBs) addressing current practices and techniques for assessing fitness-for-service and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of CANDU reactor, BWR reactor, PWR reactor and WWER plants. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues

  14. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  15. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  16. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  17. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  18. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  19. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  20. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae-Boong; Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won

    2010-01-01

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  1. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Boong, E-mail: boong33@skku.ed [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 34 Gwahak-ro, Yusong-ku, Teajon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  3. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  7. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  8. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  9. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  10. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  11. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  12. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  13. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  14. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  15. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  16. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  17. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  18. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  19. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  1. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  3. Atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit decay heat to be reliably removed after reactor shut-down at such instance as occurrence of loss of power by means of an emergency water supply pump. Structure: An atomic power plant having a closed cycle constructed by connecting a vapor generator, a vapor valve, a turbine having a generator, a condenser, and a water supply pump in the mentioned order, and provided with an emergency water supply pump operated when there is a loss of power to the water supply pump, a degasifier pressure holding means for holding the pressure of the degasifier by introducing part of the vapor produced from said vapor generator, and a valve for discharge to atmosphere provided on the downstream side of said vapor generator. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Successful implementation of ageing management exemplified at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant; Erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Alterungsmanagement am Beispiel Kuehlturm des Kernkraftwerks Emsland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Alexander [Hochtief Solutions AG, Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Design Kraftwerke; Dueweling, Carsten [Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, Lingen (Germany). Abschnitt Bautechnik

    2013-09-01

    The paper describes the successful implementation of the restoration of water distribution channels at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant under the aspect of ageing management. The main challenge of ageing management is the determination of potential ageing mechanism and to avoid systematically and effectively their damaging influences. In the course of the annual site inspections, abnormalities at the lower side of the water-distribution channels of the cooling tower were detected, analysed, and repaired. The procedures conserve the load bearing reinforcement only for a certain period. Therefore permanent structural monitoring is needed. (orig.)

  5. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  6. Results from Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants - Irradiation Embrittlement of RPV Steels -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Onizawa, Kunio; Katsuyama, Jinya; Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Iwata, Tadao; Katano, Yoshio; Sekimura, Naoto; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Tamura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    As one of the NISA Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants, we have performed research on the irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, especially focusing on irradiation embrittlement on heat affected zone (HAZ) and on applications of ion beams to deduce fundamental insights irradiation-induced embrittlement. The results obtained from the project are summarized as follows. In order to obtain the technical basis to judge the necessity of surveillance specimens from HAZ, the neutron irradiation program was performed at JRR-3, JAEA. The samples were carefully designed based on the insights from finite element analysis, metallography, 3D atom probe and positron annihilation methods, and were fabricated so as to simulate both heat treatment history and microstructure for typical HAZ from as-fabricated RPV steels which also have variation of impurity levels. The fracture toughness of the unirradiated HAZ specimens was equivalent to or better than that of base metals. Irradiation embrittlement and hardening were roughly identical to those of base metals, while some of the fine-grained HAZ microstructure was susceptible to it. The probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis was applied to the structural integrity assessment taking into account the heterogeneous microstructure as well as susceptibility for irradiation embrittlement of each HAZ microstructure under the variation of welding parameter and PTS condition. It was shown that crack propagation at the fine-grained HAZ, but the discontinuous distribution of the microstructure retards the further propagation. For the precise correlation of irradiation embrittlement of RPV steels for the long term operations, accumulations of high-dose data are required. Ion beam irradiation is one of the solutions for the regime and for mechanism-based descriptions. Another interest of ours was to describe irradiation hardening and embrittlement in terms of

  7. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  8. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures

  9. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  10. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  11. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  12. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  13. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  14. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  15. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  16. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  17. Pulsed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant. This power plant consists of: 1.) a cavity; 2.) a detonatable nuclear device in a central region of the cavity; 3.) a working fluid inside of the cavity; 4.) a method to denote a nuclear device inside of the cavity; 5.) a mechanical projection from an interior wall of the cavity for recoiling to absorb a shock wave produced by the detonation of the nuclear device and thereby protecting the cavity from damage. A plurality of segments defines a shell within the cavity and a plurality of shock absorbers, each connecting a corresponding segment to a corresponding location on the wall of the cavity. Each of these shock absorbers regulate the recoil action of the segments; and 6.) means for permitting controlled extraction of a quantity of hot gases from the cavity produced by the vaporization of the working fluid upon detonation of the nuclear device. A method of generating power is also described. This method consists of: 1.) introducing a quantity of water in an underground cavity; 2.) heating the water in the cavity to form saturated steam; 3.) detonating a nuclear device at a central location inside the cavity; 4.) recoiling plate-like elements inside the cavity away from the central location in a mechanically regulated and controlled manner to absorb a shock wave produced by the nuclear device detonation and thereby protect the underground cavity against damage; 5.) extracting a quantity of superheated steam produced by the detonation of the nuclear device; and 6.) Converting the energy in the extracted superheated steam into electrical power

  18. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  19. Stiffness of reinforced concrete walls resisting in-place shear -- Tier 2: Aging and durability of concrete used in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, P.J.M.; Moehle, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Reinforced concrete walls are commonly used in power-plant construction to resist earthquake effects. Determination of wall stiffness is of particular importance for establishing design forces on attached equipment. Available experimental data indicate differences between the measured and calculated stiffness of walls in cases where concrete mechanical properties are well defined. Additional data indicate that in-situ concrete mechanical properties may differ significantly from those specified in design. The work summarized in this report was undertaken to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete considering aging and deterioration. Existing data on mechanical properties of concrete are evaluated, and new tests are carried out on concrete cylinders batched for nuclear power plants and stored under controlled conditions for up to twenty years. It is concluded that concretes batched for nuclear power plants commonly have 28-day strength that exceeds the design value by at least 1000 psi. Under curing conditions representative of those in the interior of thick concrete elements, strength gain with time can be estimated conservatively using the expression proposed by ACI Committee 209, with strengths at 25 years being approximately 1.3 times the 28-day strength. Young's modulus can be estimated using the expression given by ACI Committee 318. Variabilities in mechanical properties are identified. A review of concrete durability identified the main causes and results of concrete deterioration that are relevant for the class of concretes and structures commonly used in nuclear power plants. Prospects for identifying the occurrence and predicting the extent of deterioration are discussed

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  1. Industrial safety in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the VGB conference 'Industrial safety in power plants' held in the Gruga-Halle, Essen on January 21 and 22, 1987, contain the papers reporting on: Management responsibility for and legal consequences of industrial safety; VBG 2.0 Industrial Accident Prevention Regulation and the power plant operator; Operational experience gained with wet-type flue gas desulphurization systems; Flue gas desulphurization systems: Industrial-safety-related requirements to be met in planning and operation; the effects of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance on power plant operation; Occupational health aspects of heat-exposed jobs in power plants; Regulations of the Industrial Accident Insurance Associations concerning heat-exposed jobs and industrial medical practice; The new VBG 30 Accident Prevention Regulation 'Nuclear power plants'; Industrial safety in nuclear power plants; safe working on and within containers and confined spaces; Application of respiratory protection equipment in power plants. (HAG) [de

  2. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  3. Some power uprate issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Issues and themes concerned with nuclear power plant uprating are examined. Attention is brought to the fact that many candidate nuclear power plants for uprating have anyway been operated below their rated power for a significant part of their operating life. The key issues remain safety and reliability in operation at all times, irrespective of the nuclear power plant's chronological or design age or power rating. The effects of power uprates are discussed in terms of material aspects and expected demands on the systems, structures and components. The impact on operation and maintenance methods is indicated in terms of changes to the ageing surveillance programmes. Attention is brought to the necessity checking or revising operator actions after power up-rating has been implemented

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  5. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Hybrid combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veszely, K.

    2002-01-01

    In case of re-powering the existing pressurised water nuclear power plants by the proposed HCCPP solution, we can increase the electricity output and efficiency significantly. If we convert a traditional nuclear power plant unit to a HCCPP solution, we can achieve a 3.2-5.5 times increase in electricity output and the achievable gross efficiency falls between 46.8-52% and above, depending on the applied solution. These figures emphasise that we should rethink our power plant technologies and we have to explore a great variety of HCCPP solutions. This may give a new direction in the development of nuclear reactors and power plants as well.(author)

  7. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  9. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  10. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  11. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  12. Perspectives of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    In several countries the construction of nuclear power plants has been stopped, and in some counties several plants have been decommissioned or are planned to. Therefore, the question arises: have nuclear power plants any future? According to the author, the question should be reformulated: can mankind survive without nuclear power? To examine this challenge, the global power demand and its trends are analyzed. According to the results, traditional energy sources cannot be adequate to supply power. Therefore, a reconsideration of nuclear power should be imminent. The economic, environmental attractions are discussed as opposite to the lack of social support. (R.P.)

  13. Wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1976-08-26

    The invention is concerned with a wind-power plant whose rotor axis is pivoted in the supporting structure and swingable around an axis of tilt, forming an angle with the rotor axis and the vertical axis, and allowing precession of the rotor. On changes of wind direction an electric positioning device is moving the rotor axis into the new direction in such a way that no precession forces are exerted on the supporting structure and this one may very easily be held. Instead of one rotor, also a type with two coaxial, co-planar countercurrent rotors may be used. Each of the two countercurrent rotors is carrying a number of magnetic poles, distributed all over the circumference, acting together with the magnetic poles of the other rotor. At least the poles of one rotor have electric line windings being connected by leads with a collector so that the two rotors form the two parts of a power generator being each rotatable with respect to the other ('stator' and 'rotor').

  14. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  15. IPRDS: component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of US nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for cradle-to-grave assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures

  16. Velocity Measurement of ultrasonic for evaluation of aging epoxy coating in containment structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Gil Soo; Kim, Noh Yu; Nah, Hwan Seon; Song, Young Chol

    2001-01-01

    Relative variation of ultrasonic velocity in aging epoxy coating in nuclear plant is measured for evaluation of the degradation of the epoxy coating. Time delay for ultrasound to travel through the epoxy film due to change of ultrasonic velocity is measured indirectly using ultrasonic interferometry which compares two reflection waves from the same point of coating surface at two different distances. Magnitude of the difference of two waves increases or decreases depending on change of the time of flight of ultrasound in the epoxy film caused by heat damage in the epoxy coating. Based on the transfer functions of the wedge and the epoxy coating in frequency domain, the reflection wave is analyzed and related to the velocity of ultrasound in the epoxy coating. A specially designed conical wedge is adopted to minimize the waviness effect of the surface of the epoxy coating. Epoxy films are fabricated, degraded under the accelerated aging conditions and tested to evaluate the change of ultrasonic velocity in the films. The experimental results show that the method can be applied to evaluate quantitatively the sealing quality of the epoxy coating.

  17. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  18. Wind power's coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the role that wind power has in meeting future energy demand. The topics of the article include demonstration of current technology, an overview of research and market activity, institutional and regulatory barriers and other issues, financing of wind power projects, incentives and penalties, current market experience, national trends in application of wind power plants, advanced technologies, intermittency, power quality, and transmission and distribution

  19. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  20. Employing modern power plant simulators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedorf, V.; Storm, J.

    2005-01-01

    At the present state of the art, modern power plant simulators are characterized by new qualitative features, thus enabling operators to use them far beyond the traditional field of training. In its first part, this contribution presents an overview of the requirements to be met by simulators for multivalent uses. In part two, a survey of the uses and perspectives of simulation technology in power plants is presented on the basis of experience accumulated by Rheinmetall Defence Electronics (RDE).Modern simulators are shown to have applications by far exceeding traditional training areas. Modular client - sever systems on standard computers allow inexpensive uses to be designed at several levels, thus minimizing maintenance cost. Complex development and running time environments, like the SEMS developed by RDE, have made power plant simulators the workhorses of power plant engineers in all power plant areas. (orig.)

  1. Germany surrounded by ionizing radiation sources from aging nuclear power plants. Update of French data 2012-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The detrimental genetic impact of nuclear facilities has been an important research issue in the past. We studied the birth sex ratio, technically sex odds, near nuclear facilities including all nuclear power plants in France, Germany, and Switzerland. We found evidence for an increase in the birth sex odds for distances of up to 40 km from nuclear facilities. Here, we update our analysis of the French data from 1968 to 2011 with most recent data from 2012 to 2014. Within 20 km from the considered 28 pertinent nuclear facilities in France we see a pronounced increasing sex ratio trend compared to the rest of France where the well-known highly significant global sex ratio decrease prevails. Correspondingly, within the 20 km minimum distance from nuclear facilities in France, the sex odds is elevated, relative to the rest of France, with a sex odds ratio (SOR) of 1.0063 (95%CI: 1.0031, 1.0095) p<0.0001. Therefore, the new French data corroborate our previous findings.

  2. Germany surrounded by ionizing radiation sources from aging nuclear power plants. Update of French data 2012-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The detrimental genetic impact of nuclear facilities has been an important research issue in the past. We studied the birth sex ratio, technically sex odds, near nuclear facilities including all nuclear power plants in France, Germany, and Switzerland. We found evidence for an increase in the birth sex odds for distances of up to 40 km from nuclear facilities. Here, we update our analysis of the French data from 1968 to 2011 with most recent data from 2012 to 2014. Within 20 km from the considered 28 pertinent nuclear facilities in France we see a pronounced increasing sex ratio trend compared to the rest of France where the well-known highly significant global sex ratio decrease prevails. Correspondingly, within the 20 km minimum distance from nuclear facilities in France, the sex odds is elevated, relative to the rest of France, with a sex odds ratio (SOR) of 1.0063 (95%CI: 1.0031, 1.0095) p<0.0001. Therefore, the new French data corroborate our previous findings.

  3. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  4. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably, there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests that are

  6. Nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi

    1996-11-05

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  8. Pipelines in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude-Hengel, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Since the end of the Sixties, steam-transporting pipelines are given great attention, as pipeline components often fail, partially even long before their designed operation time is over. Thus, experts must increasingly deal with questions of pipelines and their components. Design and calculation, production and operation of pipelines are included in the discussion. Within the frame of this discussion, planners, producers, operators, and technical surveillance personnel must be able to offer a homogenous 'plan for assuring the quality of pipelines' in fossil and nuclear power plants. This book tries to make a contribution to this topic. 'Quality assuring' means efforts made for meeting the demands of quality (reliability). The book does not intend to complete with well-known manuals, as for as a complete covering of the topic is concerned. A substantial part of its sections serves to show how quality assurance of pipelines can be at least partially obtained by surveillance measures beginning with the planning, covering the production, and finally accompanying the operation. There is hardly need to mention that the sort of planning, production, and operation has an important influence on the quality. This is why another part of the sections contain process aspects from the view of the planners, producers, and operators. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyokawa, Teruyuki; Soman, Yoshindo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To constitute a heat exchanger as one unit by integrating primary and secondary coolant circuits with secondary coolant circuit and steam circuit into a single primary circuit and steam circuit. Constitution: A nuclear power plant comprises a nuclear reactor vessel, primary coolant pipeways and a leakage detection system, in which a dual-pipe type heat exchanger is connected to the primary circuit pipeway. The heat conduction tube of the heat exchanger has a dual pipe structure, in which the inside of the inner tube is connected to the primary circuit pipeway, the outside of the outer tube is connected to steam circuit pipeway and a fluid channel is disposed between the inner and outer tubes and the fluid channel is connected to the inside of an expansion tank for intermediate heat medium. The leak detection system is disposed to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank. Sodium as the intermediate heat medium is introduced from the intermediate portion (between the inner and outer tubes) by way of inermediate heat medium pipeways to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank and, further, to the intermediate portion for recycling. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  11. Power plants and safety 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The papers of this volume deal with the whole range of safety issues from planning and construction to the operation of power plants, and discuss also issues like availability and safety of power plants, protective clothes and their incommodating effect, alternatives for rendering hot-water generators safe and the safety philosophy in steam turbine engineering. (HAG) [de

  12. Thermodynamic optimization of power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic Optimization of Power Plants aims to establish and illustrate comparative multi-criteria optimization of various models and configurations of power plants. It intends to show what optimization objectives one may define on the basis of the thermodynamic laws, and how they can be applied

  13. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  14. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  15. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  16. VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2006'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants' took place in Dresden, 27 th to 29 th September 2006 under the auspices of the Federal Minister for Economics and Technology, Michael Glos. The motto of this year's Congress was 'Future becomes Reality - Investments in New Power Plants'. More than 1,200 participants from Germany and abroad attended the plenary and technical lectures on the topics 'Market and Competition' as well as 'Technology, Operation and Environment' for information and discussion. Special papers were dealing with further issues like 'Generation Market in Europe', 'Clean Power Technology Platform', French policy for new power plants as well as potentials and technology of renewables. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -1 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - 24 April 1972; first controlled reactor power - 27 November 1978, 15 March 1980; connection to the grid - 17 December 1978, 26 March 1980; commercial operation - 1 April 1980, 7 January 1981. This leaflet contains: NPP V-1 construction; Major technological equipment (Primary circuit: Nuclear reactor [WWER 440 V230 type reactor];Steam generator; Reactor Coolant Pumps; Primary Circuit Auxiliary Systems. Secondary circuit: Turbine generators, Nuclear power plant electrical equipment; power plant control) and technical data

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  19. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  20. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  1. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  2. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  3. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  4. Preventive maintenance-A countermeasure to plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aging of power plants is caused by manifold and different influences. For instance, mechanical and thermal stress, radiation exposure, denting or wastage can considerably affect the aging of plant components and thus cause premature failures of components. In this presentation, the term 'Plant Aging' in nuclear power plants is to be understood more comprehensively than wear on components and material fatigue. In addition, nuclear power plants are to be adjusted to the advancing state of the science and technology (state-of-the-art) in order to guarantee safe operation at all times. The preventive maintenance - as a countermeasure to plant aging - comprises the systematic checks and servicing of the plant systems in operation and follows aging by inspection and tests. Experience with Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) preventive maintenance program at the Biblis NNP (1300 MW, PWR) is discussed. The concept of an 'Integrated Maintenance System' as a means to avoid 'Plant Aging' is presented

  5. Automation technology in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this article a summery of the current architecture of modern process control systems in power plants and future trends have been explained. The further development of process control systems for power plants is influenced both by the developments in component and software technologies as well as the increased requirements of the power plants. The convenient and low cost configuration facilities of new process control systems have now reached a significance which makes it easy for customers to decide to purchase. (A.B.)

  6. Man and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    According to the Inst. fuer Unfallforschung/TUeV Rheinland, Koeln, the interpretation of empirical data gained from the operation of nuclear power plants at home and abroad during the period 1967-1975 has shown that about 38% of all reactor accidents were caused by human failures. These occured either during the design and construction, the commissioning, the reconditioning or the operation of the plants. This very fact stresses human responsibility for the safety of nuclear power plants, in spite of those plants being automated to a high degree and devices. (orig.) [de

  7. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  8. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  9. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  10. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  11. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  12. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  13. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The report documents the current practices for assessment and management of the ageing of the pressure tubes in CANDU reactors and Indian PHWTRs. Chapter headings are: fuel channel and pressure tube description, design basis for the fuel channel and pressure tube, degradation mechanisms and ageing concerns for pressure tubes, inspection and monitoring methods for pressure tubes,assessment methods and fitness-for-service guidelines for pressure tubes, mitigation methods for pressure tubes, and pressure tube ageing management programme

  14. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  16. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  17. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  18. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-10-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics.

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  20. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  1. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  2. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  3. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  4. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH (SNP), Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  5. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W.

    2001-01-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  6. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Modernization of turbines in fossil and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.; Oeynhausen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam turbine power plants have a big share in power generation world-wide. In view of their age structure, they offer the biggest potential for increasing power plant performance, availability and environmental protection. Modernisation and replacement of key components by improved components will reduce fuel consumption and improve power plant performance by higher capacity, higher power, shorter start-up and shutdown times, and reduced standstill times. Modern steam turbine bladings will result in further improvements without additional fuel consumption. (orig.)

  8. Organization patterns of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Organization patterns are shown for the St. Lucia 1, North Anna, Sequoyah, and Beaver Valley nuclear power plants, for a typical PWR power plant in the USA, for the Biblis/RWE-KWU nuclear power plants and for a four-unit nuclear power plant operated by Electricite de France as well as for the Loviisa power plant. Organization patterns are also shown for relatively independent and non-independent nuclear power plants according to IAEA recommendations. (J.P.)

  9. Identification and Assessment of Recent Aging-Related Degradation Occurrences in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Hofmayer, Charles; Braverman, Joseph; Nie, Jinsou

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 1 scope of work. This research focused on collecting and reviewing degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identifying important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, this report provides a description of current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. Finally, this report provides the conclusions reached from this research effort, which includes a summary of the findings from the identification and evaluation effort of degradation occurrences, an assessment of the degradation trending results, and insights into the important aging characteristics that should be considered in the tasks to be performed in the Year 2 through 5 research effort

  10. Low-power wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Shevchenko, Yu.V.; Shikhajlov, N.A.; Kokhanevich, V.P.; Tanan, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Design peculiarities, as well as the prospects of development and introduction of the low-power (from 0.5 up to 4 kW) wind power plants (WPP) are considered. The variants of WPP with vertical and horizontal rotation axis are described. The data characterizing cost and structure of expenditures on WPP manufacture and operation are given

  11. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  12. Space power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, S. A.

    1985-05-01

    Power generators in space are examined. A semiconducting photoelectric converter (FEP) which converts the energy of solar radiation directly into electrical energy is discussed. The operating principle of an FEP is based on the interaction of solar light with a crystal semiconductor, in the process of which the photons produce free electrons, carriers of an electrical charge, in the crystal. Areas with a strong electrical field created specially under the effect of the p-n junction trap the freed electrons and divide them in such a fashion that a current and corresponding electrical power appear in the load circuit. The absorption of light in metals and pure semiconductors is outlined.

  13. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail

  14. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  15. Power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacking, D [Marconi Simulation (United Kingdom)

    1992-09-01

    Over many years in the field of simulation Marconi has developed and adopted a number of procedures and methodologies for the management, design and development of an extensive range of training equipment. This equipment encompasses desktop computer-based training systems, generic training devices. The procurement of a training simulator is clearly dictated by the perceived training requirement or problem. Also, it should preferably involve or follow a detailed training needs analysis. Although the cost benefits of training are often difficult to quantify, a simulator is frequently easier to justify if plant familiarisation and training can be provided in advance of on-the-job experience. This is particularly true if the target operators have little hands-on experience of similar plant either in terms of processes or the operator interface. (author).

  16. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  17. TVA's nuclear power plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period

  18. Prospects for power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Careful conservation of resources in the enlarged context of the rational utilization of energy, the environment and capital will determine future power plant technology. The mainstays will be the further development of power plant concepts based on fossil (predominantly coal) and nuclear fuels; world-wide, also regenerative and CO 2 -free hydro-electric power will play a role. Rapid conversion of the available potential requires clear, long-term stable and reliable political framework conditions for the release of the necessary entrepreneurial forces. (orig.) [de

  19. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -2 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - December 1976; first controlled reactor power - 7 August 1984, 2 August 1985; connection to the grid - 20 August 1984, 9 August 1985; commercial operation - 14 February 1985, 18 December 1985. This leaflet contains: NPP V-2 construction; Major technological equipment [WWER 440 V230 type reactor; Nuclear Power plant operation safety (Safety barriers; Safety systems [Active safety systems, Passive safety systems]); Centralized heat supply system; Scheme of Bohunice V-2 NPP and technical data

  1. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  2. IPRDS - Component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of U.S. nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for ''cradle-to-grave'' assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures. The examples chosen for this paper illustrate two aging-related areas: the effects of an improved preventive maintenance policy in mitigating aging of a feedwater pump and the identification of reoccuring failures in parts of diesel generators

  3. Evaluation of thermal aging effect on primary pipe material in nuclear power plant by micro hardness test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Fei; Yu Weiwei; Wang Zhaoxi; Ma Qinzheng; Liu Wei

    2012-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on the changes in mechanical properties of the primary pipe material Z3CN20.09M after 10000 h aging at 400℃ by using micro- Vickers and impact testing machine. The results show that the impact energy of testing material decreases. However, the micro-Vickers hardness of ferrite phase and austenite phase which constitute the testing material increase and keep constant, respectively. The intrinsic relations were analyzed between the micro-Vickers hardness and the impact energy to make an attempt to present the micro-Vickers hardness measurement as a method applicable to evaluating the thermal aging of the primary pipe material. (authors)

  4. Simulation technology for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Kazuo; Yanai, Katsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In the simulation of nuclear power stations, there are the simulation for the training of plant operation, the plant simulation for analyzing the operation of an electric power system, the simulation for controlling a core, the simulation for the safety analysis of reactors, the simulation for the design analysis of plants and so on as the typical ones. The outline and the technical features of these simulations are described. With the increase of capacity and complexity of thermal power plants, recently the automation of operation has advanced rapidly. The chance of starting up and stopping plants by operators themselves is few, and the chance of actually experiencing troubles also is few as the reliability of plants improved. In order to maintain the ability of coping with plant abnormality, an operation supporting system is strongly demanded. Operation training simulators and used widely now, and there are the simulators for analysis, those of replica type, those of versatile compact type and so on. The system configuration, modeling techniques, training function and others of the replica type are explained. In hydroelectric plants, the behavior of water in penstocks, the characteristics of water turbines, the speed control system for water turbines and the characteristics of generators become the main subjects of simulation. These are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  6. Nuclear plant aging research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program in its Division of Engineering Technology. Principal contractors for this program include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program goals are: to identify and characterize time-dependent degradation (aging) of nuclear plant safety-related electrical and mechanical components which could lead to loss of safety function; to identify and recommend methods for detecting and trending aging effects prior to loss of safety function so that timely maintenance can be implemented; and to recommend maintenance practices for mitigating the effects of aging. Research activities include prioritization of system and component aging in nuclear plants, characterization of aging degradation of specific components including identification of functional indicators useful for trending degradation, and testing of practical methods and devices for measuring the functional indicators. Aging assessments have been completed on electric motors, snubbers, motor-operated valves, and check valves. Testing of trending methods and devices for motor-operated valves and check valves is in progress

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Electronic Instrument and Control Circuit Boards and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G. Willia; Wilkinson, C. Dan

    2005-01-01

    The report describes potentially useful techniques for monitoring the aging of I and C boards. The techniques have been grouped into: periodic testing, reliability modeling, resistance measures, signal comparison, eternal measures, and internal measures, each representing distinct theoretical approaches to detection and evaluation

  8. Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Electronic Instrument and Control Circuit Boards and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. William Hannaman; C. Dan Wilkinson

    2005-05-15

    The report describes potentially useful techniques for monitoring the aging of I&C boards. The techniques have been grouped into: periodic testing, reliability modeling, resistance measures, signal comparison, eternal measures, and internal measures, each representing distinct theoretical approaches to detection and evaluation.

  9. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiedicz, B.; Sliwa, B.

    1982-01-01

    Plans are examined for OTES of close and open cycles. Examples of design of TO are presented. Main design elements of the OTES are indicated and their arrangement. The OTES can be realized even now with comparatively small capital investments. Searches are made for solutions which would make it possible to construct the OTES and not in tropical regions, i.e., with very small temperature differences. The studies indicated that with a difference of temperatures 4.5/sup 0/C and temperature of the thermal water 5.5/sup 0/C, it is possible to build OTES with power 100 MW. With difference in temperature 5/sup 0/C, the power will reach 130 MW.

  10. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  11. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  12. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enohara, Masami; Araragi, Fujio.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 3, Failure analysis and diagnostic tests on a naturally aged large electric motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Sheets, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    Stator coils of a naturally failed 400 hp motor from the Brookhaven National Laboratory test reactor facility were tested for their dielectric integrities. The motor was used to drive the primary reactor coolant pump for the last 20 years. Maintenance activities on this motor during its entire service life were minimal, with the exception of meggering it periodically. The stator consisted of ninety individual coils which were separated for testing. Seven different dielectric tests were performed on the coils. Each set of data from the tested coils indicated a spectrum of variation depending on their aging conditions and characteristics. By comparing the test data to baseline data, the test methods were assessed for application to motor maintenance programs in nuclear power plants. Also included in this study are results of an investigation to determine the cause of this motor failure. Recommendations are provided on the aged condition of a second identical primary pump motor which is the same age and presently in operation. Recommendations are also presented relating to each of the dielectric test methods applicability to motor maintenance programs. 6 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Successful implementation of ageing management exemplified at the cooling tower of Emsland nuclear power plant; Erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Alterungsmanagement am Beispiel Kuehlturm des Kernkraftwerkes Emsland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Alexander [Hochtief Solutions AG, Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Design Kraftwerke; Dueweling, Carsten [Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, Lingen (Germany). Abschnitt Bautechnik

    2013-07-15

    The present paper describes the successful implementation of the restoration of water-distribution channels at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant under the aspect of ageing management. The main challenge of aging management is the determination of potential aging mechanism and to avoid systematically and effectively their damaging influences. In the course of the annual site inspections abnormalities at the lower side of the water-distribution channels of the cooling tower were detected, analysed, and repaired. The extraordinary high chlorine equivalent of the cooling water was identified as main reason of the damages located. Due to extensive infiltration into the concrete structure, chloride-induced corrosion generates a volume expansion of the reinforcement and thereby to a blast off of the concrete covering. According to the restoration concept, the damaged concrete was removed by maximum pressure water jet blasting; where necessary the reinforcement was retrofitted and a layered concrete substitution was applied by synthetic cement mortar. The realised procedures conserve the load bearing reinforcement only for a certain period, because the permanent chloride infiltration could not be stopped. Therefore, the structure has to be monitored permanently. (orig.)

  15. Report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Buildings and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) on the topical peer review aging management in nuclear power plants and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The report of the Federal Environmental Ministry (BMUB) on the topical peer review aging management in nuclear power plants and research reactors covers the following issues: comprehensive requirements for aging management and its implementation, electric cables, non accessible pipes, reactor pressure vessel, calandria/pressure tubes (CANDU), concrete containment, pre-stressed concrete reactor pressure vessel (AGR).

  16. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  17. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  18. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  19. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  20. Nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Siklossy, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling circuit vibration diagnostic system of the Block 1 of the Paks nuclear power station is described. The automatic online vibration monitoring system consisting presently of 42 acceleration sensors and 9 pressure fluctuation sensors, which could be extended, performs both global and local inspection of the primary cooling circuit and its components. The offline data processing system evaluates the data for failure mode analysis. The software under development will be appropriate for partial preliminary identification of failure reasons during their initial phases. The installation experiences and the preliminary results during the hot operational testing of Block 1 are presented. (Sz.J.)

  1. Review of candidate methods for detecting incipient defects due to aging of installed cables in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martzloff, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of test methods have been proposed for detecting incipient defects due to aging in cable insulation systems, none offering certainty of detecting all possible types of defects. Some methods apply direct detection of a defect in the cable; other methods detect changes in electrical or non-electrical parameters from which inference can be drawn on the integrity of the cable. The paper summarizes the first year of a program conducted at the National Bureau of Standards to assess the potential of success for in situ detection of incipient defects by the most promising of these methods

  2. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Eizo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent boiling of saturated water in the drain tank of a humidity separator by charging cooling water in the drain tank upon power decrease of a turbine. Constitution: Saturated water is separated from high pressure turbine exhausts in a humidity separator and stored in a drain tank. The saturated water in the drain tank is controlled to a constant level and the excess water is sent to a condensator and a feedwater heater. A cooling water feed pipe is branched as a cooling water feed pipe from the exhaust side of a reactor feedwater pump and connected by way of a closing valve to a spray nozzle provided in the drain tank. While the closing valve is usually closed to keep the water level constant in the drain tank, the closing valve is opened upon sudden decrease in the turbine power to charge the condensates by way of the cooling water feed pipe to the drain tank. Thus, the saturated water is mixed with the dondensates and the temperature is lowered to prevent boiling of the saturated water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembicki, E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.

  4. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Farbod.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is about maintenance of nuclear power plants. In part one, the outage management of nuclear power plants has described. Meaning of the outage and objectives of outage management is given in introduction. The necessity of a long-term outage strategy is shown in chapter one. The main parts of an outage are as follows: Planning; Preparation; Execution, Each of them and also post-outage review have been explained in the followed chapters. Part two deals with technical details of main primary components of nuclear power plant type WWER. After an introduction about WWER reactors, in each chapter first the general and detailed description of main primary components has given and then their maintenance schedules and procedures. Chapter about reactor and steam generator is related to both types of WWER-440 and WWER-1000, but chapter about reactor coolant pump has specified to WWER-1000 to be more in details.(author)

  5. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  6. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  7. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  8. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kimura, Motohiko; Abe, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A continuing need exists for automatic or remote-controlled machines or robots which can perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. Toshiba has developed several types of monofunctional and multi- functional robots for such purposes over the past 20 years, some of which have already been used in actual plants. This paper describes new multifunctional robots for inspection and maintenance. An inspection robot has been applied in an actual plant for two years for performance testing. Maintenance robots for grinding tasks have also been developed, which can be easily teleoperated by the operator using automatic control. These new robots are expected to be applied to actual inspection and maintenance work in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Basis for snubber aging research: Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Palmer, G.R.; Werry, E.V.; Blahnik, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a research plan to address the safety concerns of aging in snubbers used on piping and equipment in commercial nuclear power plants. The work is to be performed under Phase 2 of the Snubber Aging Study of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the prime contractor. Research conducted by PNL under Phase 1 provided an initial assessment of snubber operating experience and was primarily based on a review of licensee event reports. The work proposed is an extension of Phase 1 and includes research at nuclear power plants and in test laboratories. Included is technical background on the design and use of snubbers in commercial nuclear power applications; the primary failure modes of both hydraulic and mechanical snubbers are discussed. The anticipated safety, technical, and regulatory benefits of the work, along with concerns of the NRC and the utilities, are also described. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Minoru.

    1995-01-01

    In a condensate cleanup system and a reactor water cleanup system of a BWR-type reactor, in which primary coolants flow, there is disposed a filtering and desalting device using hollow thread membrane filter and ion exchange resin for a condensate cleanup system, and using a high temperature filter made of a metal, a metal oxide or ceramics as a filtering material and a precoat filter made of a powdery ion exchange resin as a filtering material for a reactor water cleanup system. This can completely remove cruds generated in the condensate system. Since the reactor water cleanup system comprises the powdery resin precoat-type filtering and desalting device and the high temperature filter using ceramics, ionic impurities such as radioactive materials can be removed. Accordingly, cruds are not carried into the inside of the reactor, and since the radioactive concentration in the reactor water is reduced, radiation exposure upon periodical inspection can be minimized almost to zero, to attain a clean plant. (T.M.)

  11. VGB congress 'Power Plants 2009'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2009' took place in Lyon/France from 23rd to 25th September 2009 and was themed 'Addressing Climate Change - Winning Public Acceptance through Advanced Technologies'. Nearly 1,300 participants attended the plenary and technical lectures and had the opportunity to discus the current topics of electricity and heat generation. The study carried out by VGB according to which EU-27 requires about 475.000 MW of new power plant capacity was also presented. Specific papers were addressing further topics. The Congress was rounded off by a side-programme and technical visits. (orig.)

  12. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  13. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Aging and service wear of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on safety-related piping and components of nuclear power plants. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S H; Heasler, P G; Dodge, R E

    1986-02-01

    This report presents an overview of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on nuclear piping systems and components, based on information from the literature and other sources. The functions and functional requirements of snubbers are discussed. The real versus perceived need for snubbers is reviewed, based primarily on studies conducted by a Pressure Vessel Research Committee. Tests conducted to qualify snubbers, to accept them on a case-by-case basis, and to establish their fitness for continued operation are reviewed. This report had two primary purposes. The first was to assess the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation. The second was to determine the efficacy of existing tests in determining the effects of aging and degradation mechanisms. These tests include breakaway force, drag force, velocity/ acceleration range for activation in tension or compression, release rates within specified tension/compression limits, and restricted thermal movement. The snubber operating experience was reviewed using licensee event reports and other historical data for a period of more than 10 years. Data were statistically analyzed using arbitrary snubber populations. Value-impact was considered in terms of exposure to a radioactive environment for examination/ testing and the influence of lost snubber function and subsequent testing program expansion on the costs and operation of a nuclear power plant. The implications of the observed trends were assessed; recommendations include modifying or improving examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Optimization of snubber populations by selective removal of unnecessary snubbers was also considered. (author)

  15. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  16. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csilla

    2009-01-01

    Operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) are generally subject to routine reviews of plant operation and special safety reviews following operational events. In addition, many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have initiated systematic safety reassessment, termed periodic safety review (PSR), to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments, site specific, organizational and human aspects. These reviews include assessments of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices. PSRs are considered an effective way of obtaining an overall view of actual plant safety, to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. PSRs can be used as a means to identify time limiting features of the plant. The trend is to use PSR as a condition for deciding whether to continue operation of the plant beyond the originally established design lifetime and for assessing the status of the plant for long term operation. To assist Member States in the implementation of PSR, the IAEA develops safety standards, technical documents and provides different services: training courses, workshops, technical meetings and safety review missions for the independent assessment of the PSR at NPPs, including the requirements for PSR, the review process and the PSR final reports. This paper describes the PSR's objectives, scopes, methods and the relationship of PSR with other plant safety related activities and recent experiences of Member States in implementation of PSRs at NPPs. (author)

  17. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  18. Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants. Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    used for in situ testing of installed cables while a nuclear power plant is operating.The results of these benchmark tests were then compared to identify the best condition monitoring methods and establish recommendations for improvements. The conclusions of the data analysis provided insight into condition monitoring techniques which yield usable or traceable results

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  20. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essmann, J.

    1981-01-01

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  1. Fire protection in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, J.

    1986-01-01

    Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants. [de

  2. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  3. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  4. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The guide sets forth detailed requirements on how the licensee of a nuclear power plant shall plan, implement and maintain emergency response arrangements. The guide is also applied to nuclear material and nuclear waste transport in situations referred to in guide YVL 6.5. Requirements on physical protection are presented in a separate guide of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)

  6. Westinghouse ICF power plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucov, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    In this study, two different electric power plants for the production of about 1000 MWe which were based on a CO 2 laser driver and on a heavy ion driver have been developed and analyzed. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine in a self consistent way the technological and institutional problems that need to be confronted and solved in order to produce commercially competitive electricity in the 2020 time frame from an inertial fusion reactor, and (2) to compare, on a common basis, the consequences of using two different drivers to initiate the DT fuel pellet explosions. Analytic descriptions of size/performance/cost relationships for each of the subsystems comprising the power plant have been combined into an overall computer code which models the entire plant. This overall model has been used to conduct trade studies which examine the consequences of varying critical design values around the reference point

  7. Power conditioning devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Toichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically prevent the liquid level from lowering in a reactor even if a feedwater adjusting valve is locked in a bwr type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Where a feedwater adjusting valve should be locked, and if the mismatching degree between the main steam flow rate and the feedwater flow rate exceeds a predetermined value and the mismatched state continues for a certain period, the value set to a main control for setting the recycling flow rate is changed corresponding to the mismatching degree to compensate the same thereby preventing the liquid level from lowering in the reactor. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Human factors: A major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Humans play a significant role in the effects of aging on safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. These human issues may be more important than the issues of materials and component degradation with age. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate physical aging of a plant. And an aging plant can have a significant negative impact on staff quality and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into the nature of these human factors issues and their relationship to plant aging. An early awareness of these issues facilitates timely action to at least mitigate these problems before they become insurmountable

  9. Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program was implemented by the US NRC office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in 1985 to identify and resolve technical safety issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components in operating nuclear power plants. This is Revision 2 to the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program Plant. This planes defines the goals of the program the current status of research, and summarizes utilization of the research results in the regulatory process. The plan also describes major milestones and schedules for coordinating research within the agency and with organizations and institutions outside the agency, both domestic and foreign. Currently the NPAR Program comprises seven major areas: (1) hardware-oriented engineering research involving components and structures; (2) system-oriented aging interaction studies; (3) development of technical bases for license renewal rulemaking; (4) determining risk significance of aging phenomena; (5) development of technical bases for resolving generic safety issues; (6) recommendations for field inspection and maintenance addressing aging concerns; (7) and residual lifetime evaluations of major LWR components and structures. The NPAR technical database comprises approximately 100 NUREG/CR reports by June 1991, plus numerous published papers and proceedings that offer regulators and industry important insights to aging characteristics and aging management of safety-related equipment. Regulatory applications include revisions to and development of regulatory guides and technical specifications; support to resolve generic safety issues; development of codes and standards; evaluation of diagnostic techniques; (e.g., for cables and valves); and technical support for development of the license renewal rule. 80 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Staranje cevi uparjalnikov v Jedrski elektrarni Krško: Aging of tubes in the Krško nuclear power plant's steam generators:

    OpenAIRE

    Androjna, Ferdo; Cizelj, Leon

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the domestic efforts devoted to the safe and reliable operation of the Krško nuclear power plant (NPP) at full power, close to the design limit of the steam generators (18% of plugged tubes) for a full decade. This includes an overview of the recent status and history of the degradation processes, discussion of repair criteria, defining the acceptable size of defects and selected results from safety analyses supporting the operation of degraded steam generator (SG) tubes. It...

  11. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  12. Plant diagnostics in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.; Doering, D.

    1985-01-01

    The method of noise diagnostics is dealt with as a part of plant diagnostics in nuclear power stations. The following special applications are presented: (1) The modular noise diagnostics system is used for monitoring primary coolant circuits and detecting abnormal processes due to mechanical vibrations, loose parts or leaks. (2) The diagnostics of machines and plants with antifriction bearings is based on bearing vibration measurements. (3) The measurement of the friction moment by means of acoustic emission analysis is used for evaluating the operational state of slide bearings

  13. Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J. M.; Sanchez, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    With this article about the Maintenance in nuclear power plants we will try to give to see the importance of this kind of installations but the problems found by the clients and contractors to face it, and some possible solutions to improve it. It is necessary to understand this problem like something inner to the installation and must be considerate like a benefit for the same. Of course, there must be adequate Sevices Companies in direct relation with the installation that take the responsibility of assuming and understanding the correct fulfillment of the fixed milestones to get the optimal working of the whole plant systems. (Author)

  14. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  15. Actions concerning nuclear power plant life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Fabbri, S.; Mizrahi, R.; Savino, E.J.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main activities to be undertaken by CNEA will be to provide technological assistance to NASA in problems concerning NPP operation. Works on life extensions of NPP are included in these activities. To fulfill these requirements the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) has constituted a technical committee for Nuclear Power Plants Support (CAPCEN). CAPCEN should be the knowledge reservoir of those issues concerning the performance, safety and life extension of Nuclear Power Plants. One of CAPCEN's most important activities is to promote research work connected with such issues. The main technical areas are: Pressure Vessel and Piping, Heat Exchanges and Fuel Channels and Reactor Inner Components. Efforts are focused on the identification of the main components susceptible of ageing, the study of their ageing mechanisms, the follow-up of their behaviour during operation, and the measures taken to extend their life. (author)

  16. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  17. Safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.

    1987-01-01

    In nuclear power plants large amounts of radioactive fission products ensue from the fission of uranium. In order to protect the environment, the radioactive material is confined in multiple 'activity barriers' (crystal matrix of the fuel, fuel cladding, coolant boundary, safety containment, reactor building). These barriers are protected by applying a defense-in-depth concept (high quality requirements, protection systems which recognize and terminate operational incidents, safety systems to cope with accidents). In spite of a favorable safety record of German nuclear power plants it is obvious - and became most evident by the Chernobyl accident - that absolute safety is not achievable. At Chernobyl, however, design disadvantages of that reactor type (like positive reactivity feedback of coolant voiding, missing safety containment) played an important role in accident initiation and progression. Such features of the Russian 'graphite-moderated pressure tube boiling water reactor' are different from those of light water reactors operating in western countries. The essential steps of the waste management of the nuclear fuel cycle ('Entsorgung') are the interim storage, the shipment, and the reprocessing of the spent fuel and the final repository of radioactive waste. Reprocessing means the separation of fossil material (uranium, plutonium) from radioactive waste. Legal requirements for radiological protection of the environment, which are identical for nuclear power plants and reprocessing plant, are complied with by means of comprehensive filter systems. Safety problems of a reprocessing plant are eased considerably by the fact that system pressures, process temperatures and energy densities are low. In order to confine the radioactive waste from the biosphere for a very long period of time, it is to be discarded after appropriate treatment into the deep geological underground of salt domes. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  19. Availability of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, D.; Schmitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Availability data based on unique uniform, and clearly defined concepts and methods of acquisition have been compiled by the VGB since 1970. The data are published in anual reports. These reports contain availability data of fossil-fuelled units, combined gas/steam units, nuclear power plants, and gas turbine plants in Germany and abroad, listed by unit size fuel type, time of operation, and application. For the purpose of comparison, the data for the years since 1970 are presented as well as data averaged for the whole period under report. The main results for the year 1980 are presented now that the greater part of the plants has been evaluated. The complete evaluation will be published towards the end of 1981. (orig.) [de

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  1. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  2. Nuclear power plants - Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This International Standard defines principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling and modifying and eventually decommissioning. The manner in which the principles described in this document will be implemented in different organizations involved in a specific nuclear power project will depend on regulatory and contractual requirements, the form of management applied to a nuclear power project, and the nature and scope of the work to be performed by different organizations

  3. Fusion power plant simulations: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.M.; Pattern, J.S.; Amend, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the fusion systems analysis at ANL is to develop simulations to compare alternative conceptual designs of magnetically confined fusion power plants. The power plant computer simulation progress is described. Some system studies are also discussed

  4. Cooling towers for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief recall on cooling towers testing and construction, this paper presents four examples of very large French nuclear power plant cooling towers, and one of an Australian thermal power plant [fr

  5. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  6. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  8. Gundremmingen (KRB) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Plant reliability and availability during 1973 was very good despite an unscheduled shutdown in October. A temporal availability of 79.42% and an operating availability of 79.07% yielded a usable current production of 1 634 000 000 000 kWh. In May, during the five-week inspection and refueling period, several machines and items of equipment were overhauled in addition to the major generator strip-down, and checks were also carried out on the safety and protection systems throughout the plant. Particular attention was paid to the fire-protection system so that, for example, a fire-protection valve was installed in the turbine oil circuit. The heating system was made independent of oil supplies and considerable economies were achieved by converting it from oil-firing to secondary steam operation. During October copper deposits from a feedwater pre-heater were discovered in the reactor core. The plant had to be shut down for five weeks in order to clean the reactor out with various items of cleaning equipment. After the plant had been started up again, it proved necessary to take the pre-heater releasing copper out of service. This was possible without any noteworthy loss of power. For further operation, it will be necessary to fit the pre-heater with high-grade steel tubes. Throughout the remainder of the year, the power plant operated under full load without any particular malfunction occurring. At the beginning of the year increasing amount of activity in the reactor water pointed to fuel element damage. It was possible to operate the plant at a constant, low level of water activity during the second half of the year after refuelling and the removal of the faulty elements. Faultless plant operation can likewise be expected for 1974. Owing to the officially required pressure test on the reactor pressure vessel, the inspection time will probably extend over six weeks. It is expected that plant availability during 1974 will exceed the 1973 figure

  9. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  10. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  11. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  12. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  13. Intelligent power plant simulator for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifi, A.; Seifi, H.; Ansari, M. R.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.

    2001-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring System can be effectively employed for a power plant simulator so that the need for instructor in minimized. In this paper using the above concept as well as object oriented programming and SIMULINK Toolbox of MATLAB, an intelligent tutoring power plant simulator is proposed. Its successful application on a typical 11 MW power plant is demonstrated

  14. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  15. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  16. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  17. Plant life management study of Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Already more than twenty-five years have passed since the first commercial LWR plant went into operation in Japan. In this situation, MITI and 3 electric utilities (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Japan Atomic Power Company) have started a plant life management (PLM) study from 1994 to evaluate the long-term integrity of major systems, structures and components of aged LWR plants and ensure the safe, steady and highly reliable long-term operation. It consists of two phases: part 1 study and part 2 study. The part 1 study started in 1994 and focused on seven typical safety-related components. The part 1 study reports were made public in 1996. The part 2 study started in 1997. In this study we reviewed not only safety-related components but also plant reliability related components. The part 2 study reports were opened to the public in February 1999. This paper shows a summary of the part 2 study and our future PLM program. (author)

  18. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  19. Power control of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mendes, J.E. de

    1986-01-01

    The systems for the power control of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 have a high degree of automation so that few operator actions are required during power operation. The power control strategy and the operation principles of the control systems, here presented, make possible a great flexibility of the Plant operation. (Author) [pt

  20. HVDC transmission from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukio; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Haruto; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from a nuclear power plant is expected as one of the bulk power transmission systems from distant power generating area. Successively from the analysis of HVDC transmission from BWR-type nuclear power plant, this report discusses dynamic response characteristics of HVDC transmission (double poles, two circuits) from PWR type nuclear power plant due to dc-line faults (DC-1LG, 2LG) and ac-line faults (3LG) near inverter station. (author)

  1. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  2. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  3. Power control device of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Shiro; Ito, Takero.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the power controllability of an atomic power plant by improving the controllability, response and stability of the recirculation flow rate. Constitution: The power control device comprises a power detector of the reactor, which detects and operates the reactor power from the thermal power, neutron flux or the process quantity controlling the same, and a deviation detector which seeks deviation between the power signal of the power detector and the power set value of the reactor or power station. By use of the power control device constituted in this manner, the core flow rate is regulated by the power signal of the deviation detector thereby to control the power. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Problems of power plant capital demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Bohal, L.

    1986-01-01

    The problems are discussed of requirements for investment for power plants in Czechoslovakia. Since the construction was finished of coal-burning 110 MW power plants with six power units, specific capital cost has steadily been growing. The growth amounts to 6 to 8% per year while the principle has been observed that specific capital cost decreases with increased unit power. Attention is paid to the cost of the subcontractors of the building and technological parts of a power plant and to the development of productivity of labour. A comparison is tabulated of cost for coal-burning power plants with 100 MW and 200 MW units and for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. Steps are suggested leading to a reduction of the capital cost of nuclear power plants. It is stated that should not these steps be taken, the envisaged development of nuclear power would be unbearable for the Czechoslovak national economy. (Z.M.). 8 tabs., 3 refs

  5. Pipework in power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzbach, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of conventional power plant construction to large unit sizes and because of the stringent safety requirements in nuclear poer stations, pipework installation has developed into a difficult operation closely inter-related with safety engineering. It is an important factor as far as completion dates and costs are concerned during the timely implementation of a subsequent construction phase which is characterized by high capital intensiveness. In order to keep both under control, prior planning and execution supported by electronic data processing are essential. (orig.) [de

  6. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. 4. Nuclear power plant component failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power plant component failures are dealt with in relation to reliability in nuclear power engineering. The topics treated include classification of failures, analysis of their causes and impacts, nuclear power plant failure data acquisition and processing, interdependent failures, and human factor reliability in nuclear power engineering. (P.A.). 8 figs., 7 tabs., 23 refs

  8. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-2 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction December 1976; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 7 August 1984, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 2 August 1985; Connection to the grid: RU1 20 August 1984, RU2 9 August 1985; Commercial operation: RU1 14 February 1985, RU2 18 December 1985. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V213 is depicted. The major technological equipment are described. Principles of nuclear power plant operation safety (safety barriers, active and passive safety systems, centralized heat supply system, as well as technical data of the Bohunice V-2 NPP are presented

  9. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-1 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction 24 April 1972; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 27 November 1978, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 15 March 1980; Connection to the grid: RU1 17 December 1978, RU2 26 March 1980; Commercial operation: RU1 1 April 1980, RU2 7 January 1981. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V230 is depicted. The major technological equipment (primary circuit, nuclear reactor, steam generators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuit auxiliary systems, secondary circuit, turbine generators, NPP electrical equipment, and power plant control) are described. Technical data of the Bohunice V-1 NPP are presented

  10. Availability Performance Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Navneet Singh; Singh, Rupinder; Pahuja, G. L.

    2018-03-01

    This case study presents the availability evaluation method of thermal power plants for conducting performance analysis in Indian environment. A generic availability model has been proposed for a maintained system (thermal plants) using reliability block diagrams and fault tree analysis. The availability indices have been evaluated under realistic working environment using inclusion exclusion principle. Four year failure database has been used to compute availability for different combinatory of plant capacity, that is, full working state, reduced capacity or failure state. Availability is found to be very less even at full rated capacity (440 MW) which is not acceptable especially in prevailing energy scenario. One of the probable reason for this may be the difference in the age/health of existing thermal power plants which requires special attention of each unit from case to case basis. The maintenance techniques being used are conventional (50 years old) and improper in context of the modern equipment, which further aggravate the problem of low availability. This study highlights procedure for finding critical plants/units/subsystems and helps in deciding preventive maintenance program.

  11. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment; El och kontrollutrustning i kaernkraftverk - Problematik vid utbyte av aaldrad utrustning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-11-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  12. The atlas of large photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducuing, S.; Guillier, A.; Guichard, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This document reports all the photovoltaic power plants whose installed power is over 1 MWc and that are operating in France or in project. 446 power plants have been reviewed and their cumulated power reaches 2822 MWc. For each plant the following information is listed: the name of the municipality, the operator, the power capacity, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels and the type of technology used, the type of installation (on the ground, on the roof, on the facade, as sun protection,...), the yearly power output (kWh), and the date of commissioning. This review shows that 86% of these plants are ground-based. (A.C.)

  13. Regulatory Practices on Ageing Management and Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants in the Ibero-American Region. Results of the FORO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Ibero-America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    Although the operating lifetime of a nuclear power plant was originally anticipated to be in the range of 30-40 years, 200 of the 434 currently in operation are over 30 years old. In this context, Member States have assigned high priority to continuing the operation of nuclear power plants beyond the lifetime initially planned - while also maintaining the highest safety conditions possible. It is thus essential to encourage international cooperative efforts in the development of safety regulatory practices on ageing management and long term operation. Established in 1997, the Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO) aims to strengthen its members' radiological and nuclear safety regulatory organizations. Through a regional network of radiological and nuclear safety regulators, States in the Ibero-American region have worked together to strengthen radiation protection for patients, to improve safety at radiation installations, to tightten controls on radioactive sources used in medicine, agriculture and industry, and to improve safety and security at nuclear power plants. Since FORO's creation, it has cooperated with the IAEA in areas of mututal interest, and a technical programme administered by the IAEA was established in 2003 and formalized in Practical Arrangements signed in 2010. This publication presents the results of the 2009-2010 FORO/IAEA project on regulatory practices on ageing management and safety considerations for extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants. The purpose of the project was to provide nuclear regulators in the region with guidance on regulatory criteria, assessment, regulatory inspection and periodic safety reviews relating to ageing management and long term operation of nuclear power plants. The results are presented in a set of four reports, with guidelines for FORO members and a summary report of the project. These reports contain valuable information for the development of future

  14. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  15. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  16. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  17. COMSY - A Software Tool for Aging and Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Andre; Nopper, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A Plant-wide and systematic Aging and Plant Life Management is essential for the safe operation and/or availability of nuclear power plants. The Aging Management (AM) has the objective to monitor and control degradation effects for safety relevant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) which may compromise safety functions of the plant. The Plant Life Management (PLM) methodology also includes aging surveillance for availability relevant SSCs. AM and PLM cover mechanical components, electrical and I and C systems and civil structures All Aging and Plant Life Management rules call for a comprehensive approach, requiring the systematic collection of various aging and safety relevant data on a plant-wide basis. This data needs to be serviced and periodically evaluated. Due to the complexity of the process, this activity needs to be supported by a qualified software tool for the management of aging relevant data and associated documents (approx. 30 000 SSCs). In order to support the power plant operators AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. The COMSY software with its integrated AM modules enables the design and setup of a knowledge-based power plant model compatible to the requirements of international and national rules (e.g. IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-2.12, KTA 1403). In this process, a key task is to identify and monitor degradation mechanisms. For this purpose the COMSY tool provides prognosis and trending functions, which are based on more than 30 years of experience in the evaluation of degradation effects and numerous experimental studies. Since 1998 COMSY has been applied successfully in more than fifty reactor units in this field. The current version 3.0 was revised completely and offers additional AM functions. All aging-relevant component data are compiled and allocated via an integrated power plant model. Owing to existing interfaces to other software solutions and flexible import functions, COMSY is highly compatible with already existing data

  18. Energy analysis and projecting of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirlow, K.

    1975-01-01

    Energy analysis aims at a better explanation of energy flow and energy exchange at different production processes. In this report the energy budget is analysed for separate nuclear power plants and for expanding systems of power plants. A mathematical model is developed for linear and exponential expanding of nuclear power. The profitableness for nuclear power plants in Sweden is considered to be good. (K.K.)

  19. Energy transition and ageing power plants as change process. Challenges and solutions for insurer; Energiewende und alternder Kraftwerksbestand. Die Herausforderung und Loesungsvorschlaege des Versicherers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poesl, Martina; Eckel, Martin; Thumm, Stefan [Allianz Risk Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Allianz Zentrum fuer Technik

    2016-07-01

    Due to increased pressure of competition in the scope of the energy transition, the profitability of conventional energy production decreases. Maintenance budgets are critically reviewed and time periods between overhauls are being stretched as far as possible. At the same time, technical requirements in terms of flexibility of the plants increase significantly. Affected by that is also a large number of old power plants with high operating hours. This leads to a change of risk exposure of these assets, which has to be reconsidered and newly evaluated by the insurer. The lecture will outline criteria of risk considerations. The influence of the altered and increased requirements and constraints on steam turbines shall be illustrated as example. Focus of the lecture are, furthermore, current trends of maintenance concepts.

  20. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  1. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  2. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  3. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  4. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  5. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  6. Financing of nuclear power plant using resources of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Milackova, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  9. BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant in which reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel can be drained to a waste processing system by way of reactor recycling pipeways and remaining heat removal system pipeways, a pressurized air supply device is disposed for supplying air for pressurizing reactor water to the inside of the reactor pressure vessel by way of an upper head. With such a constitution, since the pressurized air sent from the pressurized air supply device above the reactor pressure vessel for the reactor water discharging pressure upon draining, the water draining pressure is increased compared with a conventional case and, accordingly, the amount of drained water is not reduced even in the latter half of draining. Accordingly, the draining efficiency can be improved and only a relatively short period of time is required till the completion of the draining, which can improve safety and save labors. (T.M.)

  10. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  11. Romanian achievement in hydro-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, M.; Bara, T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with the achievements relating to Hydro-electric Power Plants within the process of development of the National Power System in Romania. Also presented is the Romanian industry contribution to hydro-electrical power plant equipment manufacturing. (author)

  12. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  13. HVDC transmission from isorated nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Takasaki, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Tatemi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from nuclear power plant is considered as one of the patterns of long distance and large capacity transmission system. This reports considers two route HVDC transmission from PWR type nuclear power plant, and analyzes dynamic response characteristics due to bus fault, main protection failure and etc. using the AC-DC Power System Simulator. (author)

  14. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  16. Management of nuclear power plants lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The factors influencing the management of the service life of nuclear power plants can be of various types and the 'heaviest' ones have to be managed through robust and explicit approaches involving all actors. However, the mastery of the service life starts with the mastery of the technical problems, in particular the physical aging of the facilities. This mastery requires to foresee and anticipate the problems and thus a good understanding of the phenomena involved. This article presents: 1 - the general problem of service life management: lifetime concept, situation of French power plants, service life management policy; 2 - aging mechanisms: embrittlement of steel under irradiation, swelling of materials, thermal aging, fatigue, stress corrosion, aqueous corrosion of metals, corrosion-erosion, mechanisms of concrete degradation, mechanisms of elastomers and polymers degradation, wear; 3 - non-replaceable parts: reactor vessel, containment building; 4 - replaceable parts: cables, instrumentation and control system, core internals, primary loop piping, auxiliary primary piping, pressurizer, primary pump, steam generator tubes, other Ni-Cr-Fe alloy parts, secondary loop piping, turbine, alternator; 5 - non-technical aspects: perenniality of the industrial support, evolution of safety requirements, public acceptance, economical aspects, knowledge and information systems; 6 - situation in foreign countries: status of the world nuclear park, lifetime notion in foreign countries, situation in the USA. (J.S.)

  17. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  18. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enhance the selection and evaluation process for nuclear power plant siting. The principal advantage is the synoptic view which improves recognition of linear features, possibly indicative of faults. The interpretation of such images, in conjunction with seismological studies, also permits delineation of seismo-tectonic provinces. In volcanic terrains, geomorphic-age boundaries can be delineated and volcanic centers identified, providing necessary guidance for field sampling and regional model derivation. The use of such techniques is considered for studies in the Philippines, Mexico, and Greece. 5 refs

  19. A landscape simulation system for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Miki; Usami, Yoshiaki.

    1997-01-01

    As scenes of power plants give many influences to environments, the plants that harmonized with the environments are demanded. We developed a landscape simulation system for the plants by using computer graphics technologies. This system has functions to generate realistic images about plant buildings and environments. Since the system contains information of ridge lines in addition to usual terrain data, the terrain shapes are expressed more precisely. Because the system enables users to visualize plant construction plans, the advance evaluations of plant scenes become possible. We regard this system as useful for environmental assessment of power plants. (author)

  20. Commissioning of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.M.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, located at Itaorna Beach-Angra dos Reis is the first plant of the Brazilian-German Agreement to be commissioned. The Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized water reactor rated at 3765 Mw thermal/1325 Mw electrical. For commissioning purpose the plant is divided into 110 systems. Plant commissioning objective is to demonstrate the safe and correct operation of each plan component, system and of the whole plant in agreement with design conditions, licensing requirements and contractual obligations. This work gives a description of plant commissioning objectives, activities their time sequence, and documentation. (Author) [pt