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Sample records for power generation scheduling

  1. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.M.

    2008-12-01

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  2. Electric power systems advanced forecasting techniques and optimal generation scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2012-01-01

    Overview of Electric Power Generation SystemsCláudio MonteiroUncertainty and Risk in Generation SchedulingRabih A. JabrShort-Term Load ForecastingAlexandre P. Alves da Silva and Vitor H. FerreiraShort-Term Electricity Price ForecastingNima AmjadyShort-Term Wind Power ForecastingGregor Giebel and Michael DenhardPrice-Based Scheduling for GencosGovinda B. Shrestha and Songbo QiaoOptimal Self-Schedule of a Hydro Producer under UncertaintyF. Javier Díaz and Javie

  3. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  4. A fast method for the unit scheduling problem with significant renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osório, G.J.; Lujano-Rojas, J.M.; Matias, J.C.O.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation is provided. • A new methodology that takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately is proposed. • Based on a probabilistic analysis, unit scheduling and corresponding economic dispatch are estimated. • A comparison with others methodologies is in favour of the proposed approach. - Abstract: Optimal operation of power systems with high integration of renewable power sources has become difficult as a consequence of the random nature of some sources like wind energy and photovoltaic energy. Nowadays, this problem is solved using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach, which allows considering important statistical characteristics of wind and solar power production such as the correlation between consecutive observations, the diurnal profile of the forecasted power production, and the forecasting error. However, MCS method requires the analysis of a representative amount of trials, which is an intensive calculation task that increases considerably with the number of scenarios considered. In this paper, a model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation based on scenario generation/reduction method, which establishes a proportional relationship between the number of scenarios and the computational time required to analyse them, is proposed. The methodology takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately to determine the probabilistic behaviour of each generator at each hour in the scheduling problem. Then, considering a determined significance level, the units to be committed are selected and the load dispatch is determined. The proposed technique was illustrated through a case study and the comparison with stochastic programming approach was carried out, concluding that the proposed methodology can provide an acceptable solution in a reduced computational time

  5. Scheduling of power generation a large-scale mixed-variable model

    CERN Document Server

    Prékopa, András; Strazicky, Beáta; Deák, István; Hoffer, János; Németh, Ágoston; Potecz, Béla

    2014-01-01

    The book contains description of a real life application of modern mathematical optimization tools in an important problem solution for power networks. The objective is the modelling and calculation of optimal daily scheduling of power generation, by thermal power plants,  to satisfy all demands at minimum cost, in such a way that the  generation and transmission capacities as well as the demands at the nodes of the system appear in an integrated form. The physical parameters of the network are also taken into account. The obtained large-scale mixed variable problem is relaxed in a smart, practical way, to allow for fast numerical solution of the problem.

  6. Power Transmission Scheduling for Generators in a Deregulated Environment Based on a Game-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated environment of the power market, in order to lower their energy price and guarantee the stability of the power network, appropriate transmission lines have to be considered for electricity generators to sell their energy to the end users. This paper proposes a game-theoretic power transmission scheduling for multiple generators to lower their wheeling cost. Based on the embedded cost method, a wheeling cost model consisting of congestion cost, cost of losses and cost of transmission capacity is presented. By assuming each generator behaves in a selfish and rational way, the competition among the multiple generators is formulated as a non-cooperative game, where the players are the generators and the strategies are their daily schedules of power transmission. We will prove that there exists at least one pure-strategy Nash equilibrium of the formulated power transmission game. Moreover, a distributed algorithm will be provided to realize the optimization in terms of minimizing the wheeling cost. Finally, simulations were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game approach for the generators in a deregulated environment.

  7. Generation-Side Power Scheduling in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Meng, Lexuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a constrained mixed-integer programming model for scheduling the active power supplied by the generation units in storage-based DC microgrids is presented. The optimization problem minimizes operating costs taking into account a two-stage mode operation of the energy storage system...... so that a more accurate model for optimization of the microgrid operation can be obtained. The model is used in a particular grid-connected DC microgrid that includes two renewable energy sources and an energy storage system which supply a critical load. The results of the scheduling process...

  8. Optimal power system generation scheduling by multi-objective genetic algorithms with preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Baraldi, P.; Pedroni, N.

    2009-01-01

    Power system generation scheduling is an important issue both from the economical and environmental safety viewpoints. The scheduling involves decisions with regards to the units start-up and shut-down times and to the assignment of the load demands to the committed generating units for minimizing the system operation costs and the emission of atmospheric pollutants. As many other real-world engineering problems, power system generation scheduling involves multiple, conflicting optimization criteria for which there exists no single best solution with respect to all criteria considered. Multi-objective optimization algorithms, based on the principle of Pareto optimality, can then be designed to search for the set of nondominated scheduling solutions from which the decision-maker (DM) must a posteriori choose the preferred alternative. On the other hand, often, information is available a priori regarding the preference values of the DM with respect to the objectives. When possible, it is important to exploit this information during the search so as to focus it on the region of preference of the Pareto-optimal set. In this paper, ways are explored to use this preference information for driving a multi-objective genetic algorithm towards the preferential region of the Pareto-optimal front. Two methods are considered: the first one extends the concept of Pareto dominance by biasing the chromosome replacement step of the algorithm by means of numerical weights that express the DM' s preferences; the second one drives the search algorithm by changing the shape of the dominance region according to linear trade-off functions specified by the DM. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is first compared on a case study of literature. Then, a nonlinear, constrained, two-objective power generation scheduling problem is effectively tackled

  9. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1999-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Short term hydroelectric power system scheduling with wind turbine generators using the multi-pass iteration particle swarm optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multi-pass iteration particle swarm optimization (MIPSO) to solve short term hydroelectric generation scheduling of a power system with wind turbine generators. MIPSO is a new algorithm for solving nonlinear optimal scheduling problems. A new index called iteration best (IB) is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve solution quality. The concept of multi-pass dynamic programming is applied to modify PSO further and improve computation efficiency. The feasible operational regions of the hydro units and pumped storage plants over the whole scheduling time range must be determined before applying MIPSO to the problem. Wind turbine power generation then shaves the power system load curves. Next, MIPSO calculates hydroelectric generation scheduling. It begins with a coarse time stage and searching space and refines the time interval between two time stages and the search spacing pass by pass (iteration). With the cooperation of agents called particles, the near optimal solution of the scheduling problem can be effectively reached. The effects of wind speed uncertainty were also considered in this paper. The feasibility of the new algorithm is demonstrated by a numerical example, and MIPSO solution quality and computation efficiency are compared to those of other algorithms

  13. Scheduling the powering tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  14. Scheduling of Power Generation in Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids with Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor

    2018-01-01

    ship electrical network to achieve better fuel consumption with less emission. However, the low-load factor of the parallel diesel generators (DGs) in some operating conditions, can negatively affect the fuel consumption rate. As an alternative, two or more power sources such as batteries and renewable...... the operating cost of a shipboard system can be improved (based on estimation of specific fuel consumption (SFC) curve of a real system) considering the dynamic load profile with and without energy storage systems (ESSs). The case study in this paper is a ferry with a conversion from traditional diesel...

  15. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  16. Economic-environmental active and reactive power scheduling of modern distribution systems in presence of wind generations: A distribution market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Abouzar; Kazemi, Ahad; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new market-based approach is proposed to schedule active and reactive powers. • Multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs is introduced. • A new economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed. • At distribution level, a reactive power market is developed in presence of DERs. - Abstract: Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energy-balance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO_2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The

  17. Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy Systems with Combined Heat and Power Generation, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Considering Battery Lifetime Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy systems (IESs are considered a trending solution for the energy crisis and environmental problems. However, the diversity of energy sources and the complexity of the IES have brought challenges to the economic operation of IESs. Aiming at achieving optimal scheduling of components, an IES operation optimization model including photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation system (CHP and battery energy storage is developed in this paper. The goal of the optimization model is to minimize the operation cost under the system constraints. For the optimization process, an optimization principle is conducted, which achieves maximized utilization of photovoltaic by adjusting the controllable units such as energy storage and gas turbine, as well as taking into account the battery lifetime loss. In addition, an integrated energy system project is taken as a research case to validate the effectiveness of the model via the improved differential evolution algorithm (IDEA. The comparison between IDEA and a traditional differential evolution algorithm shows that IDEA could find the optimal solution faster, owing to the double variation differential strategy. The simulation results in three different battery states which show that the battery lifetime loss is an inevitable factor in the optimization model, and the optimized operation cost in 2016 drastically decreased compared with actual operation data.

  18. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  20. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  1. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  2. Sensor Transmission Power Schedule for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Huang, Y. H.; Li, J.; Liu, X. D.

    2017-11-01

    Smart grid has attracted much attention by the requirement of new generation renewable energy. Nowadays, the real-time state estimation, with the help of phasor measurement unit, plays an important role to keep smart grid stable and efficient. However, the limitation of the communication channel is not considered by related work. Considering the familiar limited on-board batteries wireless sensor in smart grid, transmission power schedule is designed in this paper, which minimizes energy consumption with proper EKF filtering performance requirement constrain. Based on the event-triggered estimation theory, the filtering algorithm is also provided to utilize the information contained in the power schedule. Finally, its feasibility and performance is demonstrated using the standard IEEE 39-bus system with phasor measurement units (PMUs).

  3. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  4. More flexible and demand-oriented schedule operation. For market-driven power generation in biogas existing installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welteke-Fabricius, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This lecture investigates the effects of the societal framework on operators of biogas plants in the further development of biogas and its contribution to the German Energiewende. Influences are not only from politics and economy but stakeholders also shape the development to come. A visible part of the existing plants have quickly to be transformed to a demand driven supply. If not, it is most likely that biogas will disappear from the stage within some 15 years - except for waste treatment. In a future of growing wind and solar energy supply we will experience a.. of shortage and surplus within a day, and through the.seasons. Prices will fluctuate increasingly. Controllable energy generators will run for a decreasing number of hours daily. Biogas should contribute to one or two high-price periods a day, when it is dark, low wind, or high demand, but at a higher capacity than today. This pattern, in combination with a valuable use of its thermal energy production, can furthermore offer an economic feasible prospect for biogas plants after their period of subsidized EEG feed-in tariff By now, only few biogas plants are designed accordingly. Most of them produce their power continuously. Only if biogas plants will change towards peak load operation, its unique combination of renewable and controllable energy supply will be recognized, and biogas can contribute a valuable share to a sustainable energy system. Stakeholders can and should support this change.

  5. Schedule Sales Query Report Generation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  6. Application of cultural algorithm to generation scheduling of hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaohui; Yuan Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    The daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal power systems plays an important role in the operation of electric power systems for economics and security, which is a large scale dynamic non-linear constrained optimization problem. It is difficult to solve using traditional optimization methods. This paper proposes a new cultural algorithm to solve the optimal daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal power systems. The approach takes the water transport delay time between connected reservoirs into consideration and can conveniently deal with the complicated hydraulic coupling simultaneously. An example is used to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed cultural algorithm, comparing with both the Lagrange method and the genetic algorithm method. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has rapid convergence speed and higher solution precision. Thus, an effective method is provided to solve the optimal daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal systems

  7. Planning construction of integrative schedule management for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhenglin; Wang Wenying; Peng Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the planning construction of integrative schedule management for Nuclear Power Project. It details schedule management system and the requirement of schedulers and the mode of three schedule management flats. And analysis it combing with the implementation of construction water and all special schedules before FCD to further propose the improving and researching direction for the integrative schedule management. (authors)

  8. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  9. Overcoming barriers to scheduling embedded generation to support distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J.; Formby, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Current scheduling of embedded generation for distribution in the UK is limited and patchy. Some DNOs actively schedule while others do none. The literature on the subject is mainly about accommodating volatile wind output, and optimising island systems, for both cost of supply and network stability. The forthcoming NETA will lower prices, expose unpredictable generation to imbalance markets and could introduce punitive constraint payments on DNOs, but at the same time create a dynamic market for both power and ancillary services from embedded generators. Most renewable generators either run as base load (e.g. waste ) or according to the vagaries of the weather (e.g. wind, hydro), so offer little scope for scheduling other than 'off'. CHP plant is normally heat- led for industrial processes or building needs, but supplementary firing or thermal storage often allow considerable scope for scheduling. Micro-CHP with thermal storage could provide short-term scheduling, but tends to be running anyway during the evening peak. Standby generation appears to be ideal for scheduling, but in practice operators may be unwilling to run parallel with the network, and noise and pollution problems may preclude frequent operation. Statistical analysis can be applied to calculate the reliability of several generators compared to one; with a large number of generators such as micro-CHP reliability of a proportion of load is close to unity. The type of communication for generation used will depend on requirements for bandwidth, cost, reliability and whether it is bundled with other services. With high levels of deeply embedded, small-scale generation using induction machines, voltage control and black start capability will become important concerns on 11 kV and LV networks. This will require increased generation monitoring and remote control of switchgear. Examples of cost benefits from scheduling are given, including deferred reinforcement, increased exports on non

  10. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  11. Fuzzy generation scheduling for a generation company (GenCo) with large scale wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahkali, H.; Vakilian, M.

    2010-01-01

    Wind power is a promising alternative in power generation because of its tremendous environmental and social benefits. Generation scheduling (GS) is more important in a power system integrating wind farms. Unlike conventional power generation sources, wind power generators supply intermittent power because of uncertainty in resource. This paper presents a fuzzy approach to the generation scheduling problem of a GenCo considering uncertainties in parameters or constraints such as load, reserve and available wind power generation. The modeling of constraints is an important issue in power system scheduling. A fuzzy optimization approach is an approach that can be used to obtain the generation scheduling under an uncertain environment. In this paper, a fuzzy optimization-based method is developed to solve power system GS problem with fuzzy objective and constraints. The crisp formulation of this GS problem is firstly defined and is rearranged by introduction of a membership function of some constraints and objective function. Then, this fuzzy optimization problem is converted to a crisp optimization and solved using GAMS software by mixed integer nonlinear programming. Employing the fuzzy optimization GS, it is expected that in practice a higher profit would be achieved in the operation and cost management of a real power system with large scale wind farms in different level of constraints' satisfaction. The proposed approach is applied to a sample system (including six conventional units and two wind farms) and the results are compared with the results of crisp solution. This approach is also applied to a larger test case to demonstrate the robustness of this fuzzy optimization method.

  12. Generator scheduling under competitive environment using Memory Management Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amudha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for Real-Time Application of Profit Based Unit Commitment using Memory Management Algorithm. The main objective of the restructured system is to maximize its own profit without the responsibility of satisfying the forecasted demand. The Profit Based Unit Commitment (PBUC is solved by Memory Management Algorithm (MMA in Real-Time Application. MMA approach is introduced in this paper considering power and reserve generation. The proposed method MMA uses Best Fit and Worst Fit allocation for generator scheduling in order to receive the maximum profit by considering the softer demand. Also, this method gives an idea regarding how much power and reserve should be sold in markets. The proposed approach has been tested on a power system with 2, 3, and 10 generating units. Simulation results of the proposed approach have been compared with the existing methods.

  13. Voltage scheduling for low power/energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzak, Ali

    2001-07-01

    Power considerations have become an increasingly dominant factor in the design of both portable and desk-top systems. An effective way to reduce power consumption is to lower the supply voltage since voltage is quadratically related to power. This dissertation considers the problem of lowering the supply voltage at (i) the system level and at (ii) the behavioral level. At the system level, the voltage of the variable voltage processor is dynamically changed with the work load. Processors with limited sized buffers as well as those with very large buffers are considered. Given the task arrival times, deadline times, execution times, periods and switching activities, task scheduling algorithms that minimize energy or peak power are developed for the processors equipped with very large buffers. A relation between the operating voltages of the tasks for minimum energy/power is determined using the Lagrange multiplier method, and an iterative algorithm that utilizes this relation is developed. Experimental results show that the voltage assignment obtained by the proposed algorithm is very close (0.1% error) to that of the optimal energy assignment and the optimal peak power (1% error) assignment. Next, on-line and off-fine minimum energy task scheduling algorithms are developed for processors with limited sized buffers. These algorithms have polynomial time complexity and present optimal (off-line) and close-to-optimal (on-line) solutions. A procedure to calculate the minimum buffer size given information about the size of the task (maximum, minimum), execution time (best case, worst case) and deadlines is also presented. At the behavioral level, resources operating at multiple voltages are used to minimize power while maintaining the throughput. Such a scheme has the advantage of allowing modules on the critical paths to be assigned to the highest voltage levels (thus meeting the required timing constraints) while allowing modules on non-critical paths to be assigned

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Avinash

    1980-01-01

    The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)

  15. A robust optimization approach for energy generation scheduling in microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new uncertainty model is proposed for better describing unstable energy demands. • An optimization problem is formulated to minimize the cost of microgrid operations. • Robust optimization algorithms are developed to transform and solve the problem. • The proposed scheme can prominently reduce energy expenses. • Numerical results provide useful insights for future investment policy making. - Abstract: In this paper, a cost minimization problem is formulated to intelligently schedule energy generations for microgrids equipped with unstable renewable sources and combined heat and power (CHP) generators. In such systems, the fluctuant net demands (i.e., the electricity demands not balanced by renewable energies) and heat demands impose unprecedented challenges. To cope with the uncertainty nature of net demand and heat demand, a new flexible uncertainty model is developed. Specifically, we introduce reference distributions according to predictions and field measurements and then define uncertainty sets to confine net and heat demands. The model allows the net demand and heat demand distributions to fluctuate around their reference distributions. Another difficulty existing in this problem is the indeterminate electricity market prices. We develop chance constraint approximations and robust optimization approaches to firstly transform and then solve the prime problem. Numerical results based on real-world data evaluate the impacts of different parameters. It is shown that our energy generation scheduling strategy performs well and the integration of combined heat and power (CHP) generators effectively reduces the system expenditure. Our research also helps shed some illuminations on the investment policy making for microgrids.

  16. Hydro-thermal power flow scheduling accounting for head variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; Ravindranath, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors treat the problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems with variable head hydro plants employing the power flow equations to represent the network. Newton's method is used to solve the problem for a number of test systems. A comparison with solutions with fixed head is presented. In general the optimal schedule requires higher slack bus and thermal power generation and cost in the case of variable head hydro plant than that required by the fixed head hydro plant in all demand periods. Correspondingly, the hydro generation is less in the case of variable head hydro plant compared to fixed head hydro plant. A negligible difference in voltage magnitudes in all the time intervals, but it is observed that slightly higher voltages occur in the case of the fixed head hydro plant. Higher power and energy losses occur in the case of variable head hydro plants compared to the fixed head hydro plants

  17. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  18. Influence of the Emissions Trading Scheme on generation scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockar, Ivana; McDonald, James R.; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of emissions constraints and Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on the generation scheduling outcome. ETS is a cap-and-trade market mechanism that has been introduced in European Union in order to facilitate CO 2 emissions management. This scheme gives generators certain amount of CO 2 allowances which they can use to cover emissions produced during energy generation. In a current setting, most of the allowances are given for free. However, under ETS generators also have an opportunity to buy and sell CO 2 allowances on the market. Since generation power outputs are bounded by the amount of CO 2 emissions that they are allowed to produce over time, it is becoming increasingly important for generating units to manage their allocations in the most profitable way and decide when and how much of permissions to spent to produce electricity. The method proposed here allows for modeling of this new limitation by including costs of buying and selling of CO 2 allowance in the generation scheduling procedure. It also introduces additional emissions constraints in the problem formulation. Although CO 2 permissions and energy are traded in separate markets, the proposed formulation permits analysis on how emission caps and emission market prices can influence market outcome. The method is illustrated on a 5-unit system. Given examples compare (i) a base-case when all generators have made a decision to use portions of their total free allocations that do not cause any shortfall during the investigated time period; (ii) two cases when the least expensive generators' decisions on the amount of free allowances they are willing to use during the considered period are insufficient. In all cases generators also submit prices at which they expect to be able to ''top-up'' or sell allowances on the market, however, only in the second and third case the ''buying'' option becomes active and affects generation scheduling and total costs. In addition, the

  19. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  20. Rolling scheduling of electric power system with wind power based on improved NNIA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. S.; Luo, C. J.; Yang, D. J.; Fan, Y. H.; Sang, Z. X.; Lei, H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper puts forth a rolling modification strategy for day-ahead scheduling of electric power system with wind power, which takes the operation cost increment of unit and curtailed wind power of power grid as double modification functions. Additionally, an improved Nondominated Neighbor Immune Algorithm (NNIA) is proposed for solution. The proposed rolling scheduling model has further improved the operation cost of system in the intra-day generation process, enhanced the system’s accommodation capacity of wind power, and modified the key transmission section power flow in a rolling manner to satisfy the security constraint of power grid. The improved NNIA algorithm has defined an antibody preference relation model based on equal incremental rate, regulation deviation constraints and maximum & minimum technical outputs of units. The model can noticeably guide the direction of antibody evolution, and significantly speed up the process of algorithm convergence to final solution, and enhance the local search capability.

  1. Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M.

    2002-01-01

    AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu R reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and

  2. Coordination between Generation and Transmission Maintenance Scheduling by Means of Multi-agent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takeshi; Tao, Yasuhiro; Utatani, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideki

    This paper proposes a multi-agent approach to maintenance scheduling in restructured power systems. The restructuring of electric power industry has resulted in market-based approaches for unbundling a multitude of service provided by self-interested entities such as power generating companies (GENCOs), transmission providers (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISCOs). The Independent System Operator (ISO) is responsible for the security of the system operation. The schedule submitted to ISO by GENCOs and TRANSCOs should satisfy security and reliability constraints. The proposed method consists of several GENCO Agents (GAGs), TARNSCO Agents (TAGs) and a ISO Agent(IAG). The IAG’s role in maintenance scheduling is limited to ensuring that the submitted schedules do not cause transmission congestion or endanger the system reliability. From the simulation results, it can be seen the proposed multi-agent approach could coordinate between generation and transmission maintenance schedules.

  3. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2007-01-01

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  4. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  5. To Problem Pertaining to Provision of Electric Power Load Schedules of Power Sys- tems while Involving Potential of Power Technological Sources of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use co-generated complexes having heat technological industrial load for operation in accordance with the requirements of irregularity of electric power generation schedule.

  6. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  7. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  8. Impacts on power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Sidebotton, P.

    1998-01-01

    The future impact of the arrival of natural gas in the Maritime provinces on electricity generation in the region was discussed. Currently, electrical generation sources in Nova Scotia include hydro generation (9 per cent), coal generation (80 per cent), heavy fuel oil generation (8 per cent), and light oil, wood chips and purchased power (3 per cent). It is expected that with the introduction of natural gas electric utilities will take advantage of new gas combustion turbines which have high efficiency rates. An overview of Westcoast Power's operations across Canada was also presented. The Company has three projects in the Maritimes - the Courtney Bay project in New Brunswick, the Bayside Power project, the Irving Paper project - in addition to the McMahon cogeneration plant in Taylor, B.C. figs

  9. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  10. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Katumi; Sato, Akira; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Kumano, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation for commercial use in Japan has passed 35 years since beginning of operation in the Tokai Nuclear Power Station in 1966, and has 51 machines of reactor and about 44.92 MW of total output of equipment scale in the 21st century. However, an environment around nuclear energy becomes severer at present, and then so many subjects to be overcome are remained such as increased unreliability of the public on nuclear energy at a chance of critical accident of the JCO uranium processing facility, delay of pull-thermal plan, requirement for power generation cost down against liberalization of electric power, highly aging countermeasure of power plant begun its operation as its Genesis, and so on. Under such conditions, in order that nuclear power generation in Japan survives as one of basic electric source in future, it is necessary not only to pursue safety and reliability of the plant reliable to the public, but also to intend to upgrade its operation and maintenance by positively adopting good examples on operational management method on abroad and to endeavor further upgrading of application ratio of equipments and reduction of generation cost. Here were outlined on operation conditions of nuclear power stations in Japan, and introduced on upgrading of their operational management and maintenance management. (G.K.)

  12. The nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, R.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear generating industry is highly competitive. The installations have an average age of fifteen years and are half way through their expected life. Nuclear power accounts for 70% of the profits of the French generating company, EDF. Nuclear generation has a minimal effect on the atmosphere and France has a level of CO 2 emissions, thought to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect, half that of Europe as a whole. The air in France is purer than in neighbouring countries, mainly because 75% of all electrical power is generated in nuclear plants and 15% in hydroelectric stations. The operations and maintenance of French nuclear power plants in the service and distribution companies out of a total of 100 000 employees in all, 90 % of whom are based in mainland France. (authors)

  13. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. A recursive economic dispatch algorithm for assessing the cost of thermal generator schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.P.; Doan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops an efficient, recursive algorithm for determining the economic power dispatch of thermal generators within the unit commitment environment. A method for incorporating the operation limits of all on-line generators and limits due to ramping generators is developed in the paper. The developed algorithm is amenable for computer implementation using the artificial intelligence programming language, Prolog. The performance of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to evaluate the costs of dispatching 13 thermal generators within a generator schedule in a 24-hour schedule horizon

  16. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Power scheduling in islanded-mode microgrids using fuel cell vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, Farid; Van De Wouw, Nathan; De Schutter, Bart

    2018-01-01

    We consider power scheduling in a microgrid operated in the islanded mode. It is assumed that at any time all the renewable energy sources are generating the maximum achievable electrical power based on the weather conditions and the power balance of the microgrid is exclusively done by a fleet of

  19. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  20. Risks of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made between the various ways of power generation in the Netherlands and the hazards attached to them. Tables are presented of fuels used, the quantities used per annum and in the course of the last 20 years, accidents and pollution types and percentages, as well as the toxicity and waste disposal risks. (Auth.)

  1. Generator scheduling under competitive environment using genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    decision regarding how much power and reserve must be put up for sale in the ... integrated systems to free and competitive market systems (Shahidehpour et al., 2002). ... In order to globally optimize the search space of PBUCP, some hybrid ...

  2. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  3. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, D.S.; Nasreddine, M.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Problem with Fuzziness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, S.A.; Abdallah, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance activity is regarded as the most important key factor for the safety, reliability and economy of a nuclear power plant. Preventive maintenance refers to set of planned activities which include nondestructive testing and periodic inspection as well as maintenance. In this paper, we address the problem of nuclear power plant preventive maintenance scheduling with uncertainty. The uncertainty will be represented by fuzzy parameters. The problem is how to determine the period for which generating units of an electric system should be taken off line for planned preventive maintenance over specific time horizon. Preventive maintenance activity of a nuclear power plant is an important issue as it designed to extend the plant life . It is more required to review the maintenance not only from the view point of safety and reliability but also economy. Preventive maintenance program exists to ensure that nuclear safety significant equipment will function when it is supposed to. Also this problem is extremely important because a failure in a power plant may cause a general breakdown in an electric network. In this paper a mixed integer programming model is used to express this problem. In proposed model power demand is taken as fuzzy parameters. A case study is provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model.

  5. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  6. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  7. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  8. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  9. Engineering schedule control of nuclear power project planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power design is the important part of project management of nuclear power project, it is the way to control the project organization, design schedule, design progress, design quality and cost control. The good schedule system and control is the key to the success for the project. It is also analyzed the problem during the project, by using some theory and analyze the project structure, design schedule management, IED and document management and interface management propose some new idea for better improve the design management to finally better improve the management quality and efficiency. (author)

  10. Multi-Time Scale Coordinated Scheduling Strategy with Distributed Power Flow Controllers for Minimizing Wind Power Spillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The inherent variability and randomness of large-scale wind power integration have brought great challenges to power flow control and dispatch. The distributed power flow controller (DPFC has the higher flexibility and capacity in power flow control in the system with wind generation. This paper proposes a multi-time scale coordinated scheduling model with DPFC to minimize wind power spillage. Configuration of DPFCs is initially determined by stochastic method. Afterward, two sequential procedures containing day-head and real-time scales are applied for determining maximum schedulable wind sources, optimal outputs of generating units and operation setting of DPFCs. The generating plan is obtained initially in day-ahead scheduling stage and modified in real-time scheduling model, while considering the uncertainty of wind power and fast operation of DPFC. Numerical simulation results in IEEE-RTS79 system illustrate that wind power is maximum scheduled with the optimal deployment and operation of DPFC, which confirms the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Nuclear power plant maintenance scheduling dilemma: a genetic algorithm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.H.; Modarres, M.

    2004-01-01

    There are huge numbers of components scheduled for maintenance when a nuclear power plant is shut down. Among these components, a number of them are safety related which their operability as well as reliability when plant becomes up is main concerns. Not performing proper maintenance on this class of components/system would impose substantial risk on operating the NPP. In this paper a new approach based on genetic algorithms is presented to optimize the NPP maintenance schedule during shutdown. following this approach the cost incurred by maintenance activities for each schedule is balanced with the risk imposed by the maintenance scheduling plan to the plant operation status when it is up. The risk model implemented in the GA scheduler as its evaluation function is developed on the basis of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. the Ga optimizers itself is shown to be superior compared to other optimization methods such as the monte carlo technique

  12. Generating unit maintenance scheduling under competitive market environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ho Kim; Jong Bae Park; Jong Keun Park; Yeung Han Chun

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach to a generating unit maintenance scheduling problem in competitive electricity markets is presented in this paper. The objective is to develop a game-theoretic framework for analyzing strategic behaviors of generating companies (Gencos) from the standpoint of the generating unit maintenance scheduling (GMS) game and for obtaining the equilibrium solution for the GMS game. The GMS problem is formulated as a dynamic non-cooperative game with complete information. The players correspond to profit maximizing individual Gencos, and the payoff of each player is defined as the profits from the energy market. The optimal schedule is defined by Nash equilibrium (equilibriums) of the game. Numerical results for two-Genco system are used to demonstrate that the proposed framework can be successfully applied to analyzing the strategic behaviors of each Genco and to obtaining the corresponding Nash equilibrium. The result indicates that generating unit maintenance schedule is one of the major strategic behaviors whereby Genco maximize their profits in a competitive market environment. (author)

  13. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  14. Short-term generation scheduling model of Fujian hydro system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinwen [School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: dr.jinwen.wang@gmail.com

    2009-04-15

    The Fujian hydropower system (FHS) is one of the provincial hydropower systems with the most complicated hydraulic topology in China. This paper describes an optimization program that is required by Fujian Electric Power Company Ltd. (FEPCL) to aid the shift engineers in making decisions with the short-term hydropower scheduling such that the generation benefit can be maximal. The problem involves 27 reservoirs and is formulated as a nonlinear and discrete programming. It is a very challenging task to solve such a large-scale problem. In this paper, the Lagrangian multipliers are introduced to decompose the primal problem into a hydro subproblem and many individual plant-based subproblems, which are respectively solved by the improved simplex-like method (SLM) and the dynamic programming (DP). A numerical example is given and the derived solution is very close to the optimal one, with the distance in benefit less than 0.004%. All the data needed for the numerical example are presented in detail for further tests and studies from more experts and researchers.

  15. Short-term generation scheduling model of Fujian hydro system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinwen [School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The Fujian hydropower system (FHS) is one of the provincial hydropower systems with the most complicated hydraulic topology in China. This paper describes an optimization program that is required by Fujian Electric Power Company Ltd. (FEPCL) to aid the shift engineers in making decisions with the short-term hydropower scheduling such that the generation benefit can be maximal. The problem involves 27 reservoirs and is formulated as a nonlinear and discrete programming. It is a very challenging task to solve such a large-scale problem. In this paper, the Lagrangian multipliers are introduced to decompose the primal problem into a hydro subproblem and many individual plant-based subproblems, which are respectively solved by the improved simplex-like method (SLM) and the dynamic programming (DP). A numerical example is given and the derived solution is very close to the optimal one, with the distance in benefit less than 0.004%. All the data needed for the numerical example are presented in detail for further tests and studies from more experts and researchers. (author)

  16. Automatic scheduling of maintenance work in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, T.; Nishizawa, Y.; Kato, K.; Kiguchi, T.

    1987-01-01

    An automatic scheduling method for maintenance work in nuclear power plants has been developed using an AI technique. The purpose of this method is to help plant operators by adjusting the time schedule of various kinds of maintenance work so that incorrect ordering or timing of plant manipulations does not cause undersirable results, such as a plant trip. The functions of the method were tested by off-line simulations. The results show that the method can produce a satisfactory schedule of plant component manipulations without interference between the tasks and plant conditions

  17. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  18. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  19. Generation and Demand Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid Microgrid Considering Price-based Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids rely on energy management levels to optimally schedule their components. Conventionally, the research in this field has been focused on the optimal formulation of the generation or the demand side management separately without considering real case scenarios and validated only...... by simulation. This paper presents the power scheduling of a real site microgrid under a price-based demand response program defined in Shanghai, China managing generation and demand simultaneously. The proposed optimization problem aims to minimize operating cost by managing renewable energy sources as well...

  20. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  1. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  2. Power-scheduling - Introduction of the FPBG1 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Meier, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at the Scheduled Balance Group system (in German: 'Fahrplanbilanzgruppensystem', FPBG) which was successfully introduced in Switzerland in December 2005. The development of the system is described and the reasons for the development of a new concept for Switzerland are discussed. The system permits the use of standard European scheduling processes for national and international power traders and supports Switzerland's function as an important power hub in Europe. The basics behind the concept are discussed and the mechanisms of its functioning are illustrated in graphical form. The implementation of the system by the ETRANS company is looked at and various questions posed in this connection are answered

  3. Joint Scheduling Optimization of Virtual Power Plants and Equitable Profit Distribution Using Shapely Value Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-fu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The installation capacity of wind and solar photovoltaic power is continually increasing, which makes renewable energy grid connection and power generation an important link of China’s power structure optimization. A virtual power plant (VPP is an important way to help distributed energy resource grid connection and promote renewable energy industry development. To study the economic scheduling problem of various distributed energy resources and the profit distribution problem of VPP alliance, this study builds a separate operation scheduling model for individual VPP and a joint operation scheduling model for VPP alliance, as well as the profit distribution model. The case study verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. The sensitivity analysis provides information about VPP decision-making in accordance with the policy environment development trend.

  4. Day-ahead resource scheduling of a renewable energy based virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Ali Ghahgharaee; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous energy and reserve scheduling of a VPP. • Aggregate uncertainties of electricity prices, renewable generation and load demand. • Develop a stochastic scheduling model using the point estimate method. - Abstract: The evolution of energy markets is accelerating in the direction of a greater reliance upon distributed energy resources (DERs). To manage this increasing two-way complexity, virtual power plants (VPPs) are being deployed today all over the world. In this paper, a probabilistic model for optimal day ahead scheduling of electrical and thermal energy resources in a VPP is proposed where participation of energy storage systems and demand response programs (DRPs) are also taken into account. In the proposed model, energy and reserve is simultaneously scheduled considering the uncertainties of market prices, electrical demand and intermittent renewable power generation. The Point Estimate Method (PEM) is applied in order to model the uncertainties of VPP’s scheduling problem. Moreover, the optimal reserve scheduling of VPP is presented which efficiently decreases VPP’s risk facing the unexpected fluctuations of uncertain parameters at the power delivery time. The results demonstrated that implementation of demand response programs (DRPs) would decrease total operation costs of VPP as well as its dependency on the upstream network.

  5. Microgrid optimal scheduling considering impact of high penetration wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz

    The objective of this thesis is to study the impact of high penetration wind energy in economic and reliable operation of microgrids. Wind power is variable, i.e., constantly changing, and nondispatchable, i.e., cannot be controlled by the microgrid controller. Thus an accurate forecasting of wind power is an essential task in order to study its impacts in microgrid operation. Two commonly used forecasting methods including Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used in this thesis to improve the wind power forecasting. The forecasting error is calculated using a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and is improved using the ANN. The wind forecast is further used in the microgrid optimal scheduling problem. The microgrid optimal scheduling is performed by developing a viable model for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) based on mixed-integer linear programing (MILP) method. The proposed SCUC is solved for various wind penetration levels and the relationship between the total cost and the wind power penetration is found. In order to reduce microgrid power transfer fluctuations, an additional constraint is proposed and added to the SCUC formulation. The new constraint would control the time-based fluctuations. The impact of the constraint on microgrid SCUC results is tested and validated with numerical analysis. Finally, the applicability of proposed models is demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  6. Modeling the transient security constraints of natural gas network in day-ahead power system scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingwei; Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing

    2017-01-01

    The rapid deployment of gas-fired generating units makes the power system more vulnerable to failures in the natural gas system. To reduce the risk of gas system failure and to guarantee the security of power system operation, it is necessary to take the security constraints of natural gas...... accurately, they are hard to be embedded into the power system scheduling model, which consists of algebraic equations and inequations. This paper addresses this dilemma by proposing an algebraic transient model of natural gas network which is similar to the branch-node model of power network. Based...... pipelines into account in the day-ahead power generation scheduling model. However, the minute- and hour-level dynamic characteristics of gas systems prevents an accurate decision-making simply with the steady-state gas flow model. Although the partial differential equations depict the dynamics of gas flow...

  7. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  8. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  9. Abstract flexibility description for virtual power plant scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhling, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the ongoing paradigm shift of the energy market from big power plants to more and more small and decentralized power plants, virtual power plants (VPPs) play an important role. VPPs bundle the capacities of the small and decentralized resources (DER). Planing of VPP operation, that is also called scheduling, relies on the flexibilities of controllable DER in the VPP, e.g., combined heat and power plants (CHPs), heat pumps and batteries. The aim of this thesis is the development of an abstr...

  10. Collaborative Scheduling between OSPPs and Gasholders in Steel Mill under Time-of-Use Power Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juxian Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Byproduct gases generated during steel production process are the main fuels for on-site power plants (OSPPs in steel enterprises. Recently, with the implementation of time-of-use (TOU power price in China, increasing attention has been paid to the collaborative scheduling between OSPPs and gasholders. However, the load shifting potential of OSPPs has seldom been discussed in previous studies. In this paper, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP-based scheduling model is built to evaluate the load shifting potential and the corresponding economic benefits. A case study is conducted on two steel enterprises with different configurations of OSPPs, and the optimal operation strategy is also discussed.

  11. Brokdorf nuclear power station: Construction scheduling and deadline control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, U.D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Scheduling, especially deadline control, for all installations of the Brokdorf nuclear power station was carried out centrally by the Project Management of Kraftwerk Union AG. 130 timetables encompassing some 13,000 activities were handled, which were interconnected and linked to 189 timetables (approx. 18,000 activities) from various specialized sections by means of data processing systems. Much space in time scheduling was taken by controls of software processing, especially of the preliminary inspection documents in the piping sector and of working documents for construction management in the control systems area. (orig.) [de

  12. An Adaptive Power Efficient Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wimax Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R Murali Prasad; P. Satish Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Admission control schemes and scheduling algorithms are designed to offer QoS services in 802.16/802.16e networks and a number of studies have investigated these issues. But the channel condition and priority of traffic classes are very rarely considered in the existing scheduling algorithms. Although a number of energy saving mechanisms have been proposed for the IEEE 802.16e, to minimize the power consumption of IEEE 802.16e mobile stations with multiple real-time connections has not yet be...

  13. Next Generation CANDU: Conceptual Design for a Short Construction Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, Jerry M.; Love, Ian J.W.; Elgohary, Medhat; Fairclough, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has very successful experience in implementing new construction methods at the Qinshan (Phase III) twin unit CANDU 6 plant in China. This paper examines the construction method that must be implemented during the conceptual design phase of a project if short construction schedules are to be met. A project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth unit of NG (Next Generation) CANDU with a 42 month construction period from 1. Concrete to In-Service. An overall construction strategy has been developed involving paralleling project activities that are normally conducted in series. Many parts of the plant will be fabricated as modules and be installed using heavy lift cranes. The Reactor Building (RB), being on the critical path, has been the focus of considerable assessment, looking at alternative ways of applying the construction strategy to this building. A construction method has been chosen which will result in excess of 80% of internal work being completed as modules or as very streamlined traditional construction. This method is being further evaluated as the detailed layout proceeds. Other areas of the plant have been integrated into the schedule and new construction methods are being applied to these so that further modularization and even greater paralleling of activities will be achieved. It is concluded that the optimized construction method is a requirement, which must be implemented through all phases of design to make a 42 month construction schedule a reality. If the construction methods are appropriately chosen, the schedule reductions achieved will make nuclear more competitive. (authors)

  14. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  15. Thermoelectric coolers as power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.J.; Buist, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are many applications where thermoelectric (TE) coolers can be used effectively as power generators. The literature available on this subject is scarce and very limited in scope. This paper describes the configuration, capability, limitations and performance of TE coolers to be used as power generators. Also presented are performance curves enabling the user to design the optimum TE module for any given power generation application

  16. Stochastic profit-based scheduling of industrial virtual power plant using the best demand response strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Gholipour, Eskandar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • VPPs and IVPPs are defined for energy management of aggregated generations. • IVPP can manage industrial microgrid containing some relevant load and generation. • A stochastic modeling is proposed to schedule optimal generations in competition market. • Wind generation and day-ahead and spot market prices are considered to be stochastic. • A new DRL program selection scheme is presented in the scheduling procedure. - Abstract: One of the main classified microgrids in a power system is the industrial microgrid. Due to its behaviors and the heavy loads, its energy management is challengeable. Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be an important concept in managing such problems in this kind of grids. Here, a transmission power system is considered as a Regional Electric Company (REC) and the VPPs comprising Distributed Generation (DG) units and Demand Response Loads (DRLs) are determined in this system. This paper focuses on Industrial VPP (IVPP) and its management. An IVPP can be determined as a management unit comprising generations and loads in an industrial microgrid. Since the scheduling procedure for these units is very important for their participation in a short-term electric market, a stochastic formulation is proposed for power scheduling in VPPs especially in IVPPs in this paper. By introducing the DRL programs and using the proposed modeling, the operator can select the best DRL program for each VPP in a scheduling procedure. In this regard, a suitable approach is presented to determine the proposed formulation and its solution in a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP). To validate the performance of the proposed method, the IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS) is considered to apply the method on it, while some challenging aspects are presented.

  17. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  18. Power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, L.E.J.; Liss, P.S.; Saunders, P.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews environmental aspects of large-scale power generation. It includes historic background of present-generation patterns and a discussion of fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable technologies

  19. Power/performance trade-offs in real-time SDRAM command scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, S.L.M.; Chandrasekar, K.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time safety-critical systems should provide hard bounds on an applications’ performance. SDRAM controllers used in this domain should therefore have a bounded worst-case bandwidth, response time, and power consumption. Existing works on real-time SDRAM controllers only consider a narrow range of memory devices, and do not evaluate how their schedulers’ performance varies across memory generations, nor how the scheduling algorithm influences power usage. The extent to which the number of ...

  20. BINARY PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR RANDOM GENERATION OUTAGE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for maintenance scheduling (MS of generators using binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO based probabilistic approach. The objective of this paper is to reduce the loss of load probability (LOLP for a power system. The capacity outage probability table (COPT is the initial step in creating maintenance schedule using the probabilistic levelized risk method. This paper proposes BPSO method which is used to construct the COPT. In order to mitigate the effects of probabilistic levelized risk method, BPSO based probabilistic levelized risk method is embarked on a MS problem. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, case study results for simple five unit system can accomplish a significant levelization in the reliability indices that make possible to evaluate system generation system adequacy in the MS horizon of the power system. The proposed method shows better performance compared with other optimization methods and conventional method with improved search performance.

  1. Comparison of genetic algorithm and harmony search for generator maintenance scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.; Mumtaz, S.; Khattak, A.

    2012-01-01

    GMS (Generator Maintenance Scheduling) ranks very high in decision making of power generation management. Generators maintenance schedule decides the time period of maintenance tasks and a reliable reserve margin is also maintained during this time period. In this paper, a comparison of GA (Genetic Algorithm) and US (Harmony Search) algorithm is presented to solve generators maintenance scheduling problem for WAPDA (Water And Power Development Authority) Pakistan. GA is a search procedure, which is used in search problems to compute exact and optimized solution. GA is considered as global search heuristic technique. HS algorithm is quite efficient, because the convergence rate of this algorithm is very fast. HS algorithm is based on the concept of music improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The two algorithms generate feasible and optimal solutions and overcome the limitations of the conventional methods including extensive computational effort, which increases exponentially as the size of the problem increases. The proposed methods are tested, validated and compared on the WAPDA electric system. (author)

  2. Historical Mass, Power, Schedule, and Cost Growth for NASA Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Marc R.; Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Stephen A.; Judnick, Daniel C.; Hallgrimson, Ingrid E.; Youngs, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Although spacecraft developers have been moving towards standardized product lines as the aerospace industry has matured, NASA's continual need to push the cutting edge of science to accomplish unique, challenging missions can still lead to spacecraft resource growth over time. This paper assesses historical mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for multiple NASA spacecraft from the last twenty years and compares to industry reserve guidelines to understand where the guidelines may fall short. Growth is assessed from project start to launch, from the time of the preliminary design review (PDR) to launch and from the time of the critical design review (CDR) to launch. Data is also assessed not just at the spacecraft bus level, but also at the subsystem level wherever possible, to help obtain further insight into possible drivers of growth. Potential recommendations to minimize spacecraft mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for future missions are also discussed.

  3. Distributed power generation using microturbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the bulk of the world is electricity is generated in central power stations. This approach, one of `economy of size generates electricity in large power stations and delivers it to load centres via an extensive network of transmission...

  4. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  5. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  6. Competitiveness of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    In view of the various merits of nuclear power generation, Japanese electric utilities will continue to promote nuclear power generation. At the same time, however, it is essential to further enhance cost performance. Japanese electric utilities plan to reduce the cost of nuclear power generation, such as increasing the capacity factor, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing construction costs. In Asia, nuclear power will also play an important role as a stable source of energy in the future. For those countries planning to newly introduce nuclear power, safety is the highest priority, and cost competitiveness is important. Moreover, financing will be an essential issue to be resolved. Japan is willing to support the establishment of nuclear power generation in Asia, through its experience and achievements. In doing this, support should not only be bilateral, but should include all nuclear nations around the Pacific rim in a multilateral support network. (author)

  7. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  8. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  9. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  10. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  11. Combined scheduling of electricity and heat in a microgrid with volatile wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guang Ya; Xu, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    An optimization model is developed for scheduling electricity and heat production in a microgrid under a day-ahead market environment considering the operation constraints and the volatility of wind power generation. The model optimizes the total operation costs from energy and heating consumption...... into a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical simulations present the efficacy of the proposed model for day-ahead scheduling of a microgrid with wind penetration under the deregulated environment. © 2011 State Grid Electrtic Resarch Institute Press....

  12. Economics of generating electricity from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, H.O.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews and compares experiences and projected future construction and electricity generation costs for nuclear and fossil fired power plants. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitive position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budgets, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors is identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climate impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard, mitigation of emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power (au)

  13. Hydro-Thermal-Wind Generation Scheduling Considering Economic and Environmental Factors Using Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Damodaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-thermal-wind generation scheduling (HTWGS with economic and environmental factors is a multi-objective complex nonlinear power system optimization problem with many equality and inequality constraints. The objective of the problem is to generate an hour-by-hour optimum schedule of hydro-thermal-wind power plants to attain the least emission of pollutants from thermal plants and a reduced generation cost of thermal and wind plants for a 24-h period, satisfying the system constraints. The paper presents a detailed framework of the HTWGS problem and proposes a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO algorithm for evolving a solution. The competency of selected heuristic algorithms, representing different heuristic groups, viz. the binary coded genetic algorithm (BCGA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, improved harmony search (IHS, and JAYA algorithm, for searching for an optimal solution to HTWGS considering economic and environmental factors was investigated in a trial system consisting of a multi-stream cascaded system with four reservoirs, three thermal plants, and two wind plants. Appropriate mathematical models were used for representing the water discharge, generation cost, and pollutant emission of respective power plants incorporated in the system. Statistical analysis was performed to check the consistency and reliability of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results indicated that the proposed MPSO algorithm provided a better solution to the problem of HTWGS, with a reduced generation cost and the least emission, when compared with the other heuristic algorithms considered.

  14. Power generation in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the main characteristics of power generation in Southern Africa, in terms of primary energy resources, existing and projected power supply and demand, types and location of power plants, regional integration, and environmental management aspects. Various options for future development of power generation are presented as part of an overall integrated resource planning (IRP) process for the power industry. These include coal and natural gas based options, hydro power and other renewable energy, and nuclear power plants. A specific option, the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), under development by Eskom Enterprises and other international and local partners, is described in terms of overall design parameters, inherent safety features, economics and environmental aspects. Included is a high level discussion on the selection of materials for the design of this PBMR plant, an advanced design version of a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (orig.)

  15. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  16. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  17. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  18. Working environment in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers, of which 7 are devoted to nuclear power generation. They are concerned with the working environment in the controlled areas of the Bohunice nuclear power plant, the unsuitable design of the control rooms with respect to reliability and safety of operation of the nuclear power plant, optimization of the man-working conditions relation, operation of transport facilities, refuelling and fuel element inspection, the human factor and the probabilityy assessment of the nuclear power plant operating safety, a proposal to establish a universal ergonometric programme for the electric power distribution system, and physical factors in the ergonometric analysis of the working environment. (J.B.)

  19. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  20. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  1. Generating variable and random schedules of reinforcement using Microsoft Excel macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random-time reinforcement schedule values.

  2. Steam generator life cycle management: Ontario Power Generation (OPG) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruska, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic managed process for steam generators has been implemented at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) nuclear stations for the past several years. One of the key requirements of this managed process is to have in place long range Steam Generator Life Cycle Management (SG LCM) plans for each unit. The primary goal of these plans is to maximize the value of the nuclear facility through safe and reliable steam generator operation over the expected life of the units. The SG LCM plans integrate and schedule all steam generator actions such as inspection, operation, maintenance, modifications, repairs, assessments, R and D, performance monitoring and feedback. This paper discusses OPG steam generator life cycle management experience to date, including successes, failures and how lessons learned have been re-applied. The discussion includes relevant examples from each of the operating stations: Pickering B and Darlington. It also includes some of the experience and lessons learned from the activities carried out to refurbish the steam generators at Pickering A after several years in long term lay-up. The paper is structured along the various degradation modes that have been observed to date at these sites, including monitoring and mitigating actions taken and future plans. (author)

  3. Stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling of a power producer in joint energy and reserves markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic multiobjective model for self-scheduling of a power producer which participates in the day-ahead joint energy and reserves markets. The objective of a power producer is to compromise the conflicting objectives of payoff maximization and gaseous emissions minimization when committing its generation of thermal units. The proposed schedule will be used by the power producers to decide on emission quota arbitrage opportunities and for strategic bidding to the energy and reserves market. The paper analyzes a scenario-based multiobjective model in which random distributions, such as price forecasting inaccuracies as well as forced outage of generating units are modeled as scenarios tree using a combined fuzzy c-mean/Monte-Carlo simulation (FCM/MCS) method. With the above procedure the stochastic multiobjective self-scheduling problem is converted into corresponding deterministic problems. Then a multiobjective mathematical programming (MMP) approach based on ε-constraint method is implemented for each deterministic scenario. Piecewise linearized fuel and emission cost functions are applied for computational efficiency and the model is formulated as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical simulations for a power producer with 21 thermal units are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach in increasing expected payoffs by adjusting the emission quota arbitrage opportunities. (author)

  4. Applying dynamic priority scheduling scheme to static systems of pinwheel task model in power-aware scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Ye-In; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task's priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10-80% over the existing algorithms.

  5. A model for generating master surgical schedules to allow cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, J.M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time consuming tedious and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures complicates

  6. Scheduled power tracking control of the wind-storage hybrid system based on the reinforcement learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze

    2017-09-01

    In allusion to the intermittency and uncertainty of the wind electricity, energy storage and wind generator are combined into a hybrid system to improve the controllability of the output power. A scheduled power tracking control method is proposed based on the reinforcement learning theory and Q-learning algorithm. In this method, the state space of the environment is formed with two key factors, i.e. the state of charge of the energy storage and the difference value between the actual wind power and scheduled power, the feasible action is the output power of the energy storage, and the corresponding immediate rewarding function is designed to reflect the rationality of the control action. By interacting with the environment and learning from the immediate reward, the optimal control strategy is gradually formed. After that, it could be applied to the scheduled power tracking control of the hybrid system. Finally, the rationality and validity of the method are verified through simulation examples.

  7. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  8. Schedule and staffing of a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.; Csik, B.

    1977-01-01

    Establishment of construction schedule: a) preliminary construction schedule; b) PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) analytical method; c) identify key milestone target dates; d) inter-action by participants and contribution to support revised construction schedule. - Construction schedule control: a) ability to update and modify construction schedule; b) alternate plans to circumvent restraints (problems); c) critical path activity-controls; d) continuous review and report system. - Updating construction site reports to include: 1) progress, 2) accomplishments, 3) potential problems and alternate plans; b) progress reports on related support services; c) total assessment of participating groups on schedule; d) information required by management for decisions. - Typical causes for delays in project schedule. (orig.) [de

  9. Robust Optimization-Based Generation Self-Scheduling under Uncertain Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers generation self-scheduling in electricity markets under uncertain price. Based on the robust optimization (denoted as RO methodology, a new self-scheduling model, which has a complicated max-min optimization structure, is set up. By using optimal dual theory, the proposed model is reformulated to an ordinary quadratic and quadratic cone programming problems in the cases of box and ellipsoidal uncertainty, respectively. IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the new model. Some comparisons with other methods are done, and the sensitivity with respect to the uncertain set is analyzed. Comparing with the existed uncertain self-scheduling approaches, the new method has twofold characteristics. First, it does not need a prediction of distribution of random variables and just requires an estimated value and the uncertain set of power price. Second, the counterpart of RO corresponding to the self-scheduling is a simple quadratic or quadratic cone programming. This indicates that the reformulated problem can be solved by many ordinary optimization algorithms.

  10. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  11. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  12. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  13. Generation 'Next' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    My generation was labeled by Russian mass media as generation 'Next.' My technical education is above average. My current position is as a mechanical engineer in the leading research and development institute for Russian nuclear engineering for peaceful applications. It is noteworthy to point out that many of our developments were really first-of-a-kind in the history of engineering. However, it is difficult to grasp the importance of these accomplishments, especially since the progress of nuclear technologies is at a standstill. Can generation 'Next' be independent in their attitude towards nuclear power or shall we rely on the opinions of elder colleagues in our industry? (authors)

  14. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wei Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The devices of Internet of Things (IoT will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX to reduce device’s power consumption. However, the DRX may pose unexpected communication delay due to missing Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH information in sleep mode. Recent studies mainly focus on optimizing DRX parameters to manage the tradeoff between the energy consumption and communication latency. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based power saving scheduling scheme for IoT over the LTE/LTE-Advanced networks to deal with the issues of the radio resource management and power consumption from the scheduling and resource allocation perspective. The proposed scheme considers not only individual IoT device’s real-time requirement but also the overall network performance. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can meet the requirements of the DRX cycle and scheduling latency and can save about half of energy consumption for IoT devices compared to conventional approaches.

  15. Scheduling Model for Renewable Energy Sources Integration in an Insular Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo J. Osório

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insular power systems represent an asset and an excellent starting point for the development and analysis of innovative tools and technologies. The integration of renewable energy resources that has taken place in several islands in the south of Europe, particularly in Portugal, has brought more uncertainty to production management. In this work, an innovative scheduling model is proposed, which considers the integration of wind and solar resources in an insular power system in Portugal, with a strong conventional generation basis. This study aims to show the benefits of increasing the integration of renewable energy resources in this insular power system, and the objectives are related to minimizing the time for which conventional generation is in operation, maximizing profits, reducing production costs, and consequently, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  17. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, P.

    1980-01-01

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  18. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    1983-01-01

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  19. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  20. Fear of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D.J. [Paddington, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Communicating the benefits of nuclear power generation, although essential, is unlikely to be sufficient by itself to counter the misconceptions which hinder the adoption of this technology, viz: that it is unsafe, generates intractable waste, facilitates the proliferation of nuclear weapons, etc. Underlying most of these objections is the fear of radiation, engendered by misunderstandings of the effects of exposure - not the actual risks of radiation exposure themselves. Unfortunately, some aspects of current radiation protection practices promote the misconception that there is no safe dose. A prime purpose of communications from the nuclear industry should be to dispel these misconceptions. (author)

  1. Neighbourhood generation mechanism applied in simulated annealing to job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a neighbourhood generation mechanism for the job shop scheduling problems (JSSPs). In order to obtain a feasible neighbour with the generation mechanism, it is only necessary to generate a permutation of an adjacent pair of operations in a scheduling of the JSSP. If there is no slack time between the adjacent pair of operations that is permuted, then it is proven, through theory and experimentation, that the new neighbour (schedule) generated is feasible. It is demonstrated that the neighbourhood generation mechanism is very efficient and effective in a simulated annealing.

  2. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  3. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO 2 ) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO 2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods

  4. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  5. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  6. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  7. Transforming Ontario's Power Generation Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, J.; Epp, J.; Godsoe, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The OPG Review Committee was formed by the Ontario Ministry of Energy to provide recommendations and advice on the future role of Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) in the electricity sector. This report describes the future structure of OPG with reference to the appropriate corporate governance and senior management structure. It also discusses the potential refurbishing of the Pickering A nuclear generating Units 1, 2 and 3. The electricity system in Ontario is becoming increasingly fragile. The province relies heavily on electricity imports and the transmission system is being pushed to near capacity. Three nuclear generating units are out of service. The problems can be attributed to the fact that the electricity sector has been subjected to unpredictable policy changes for more than a decade, and that the largest electricity generator (OPG) has not been well governed. OPG has had frequent senior management change, accountability has been weak, and cost overruns have delayed the return to service of the Pickering nuclear power Unit 4. It was noted that the generating assets owned and operated by OPG are capable of providing more than 70 per cent of Ontario's electricity supply. Decisive action is needed now to avoid a potential supply shortage of about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts by 2007. In its current state, OPG risks becoming a burden on ratepayers. Forty recommendations were presented, some of which suggest that OPG should become a rate-regulated commercial utility focused on running and maintaining its core generating assets. This would require that the government act as a shareholder, and the company operate like a commercial business. It was also emphasized that the market must be allowed to bring in new players. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2011-02-13

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. Biofouling is one of the major problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems. Because of the dynamic variation in the power and water demands as well as the changes in the characteristics of seawater and the process, there is a need to develop an optimal policy for scheduling biocide usage and cleaning maintenance of the heat exchangers. The objective of this article is to introduce a systematic procedure for the optimization of scheduling the dosing of biocide and dechlorination chemicals as well as cleaning maintenance for a power production/thermal desalination plant. A multi-period optimization formulation is developed and solved to determine: the optimal levels of dosing and dechlorination chemicals; the timing of maintenance to clean the heat-exchange surfaces; and the dynamic dependence of the biofilm growth on the applied doses, the seawater-biocide chemistry, the process conditions, and seawater characteristics for each time period. The technical, economic, and environmental considerations of the system are accounted for. A case study is solved to elucidate the applicability of the developed optimization approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. An Improved Harmony Search algorithm for optimal scheduling of the diesel generators in oil rig platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Parikshit; Kumar, Rajesh; Panda, S.K.; Chang, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is music based meta-heuristic optimization method which is analogous with the music improvisation process where musician continue to polish the pitches in order to obtain better harmony. The paper focuses on the optimal scheduling of the generators to reduce the fuel consumption in the oil rig platform. The accurate modeling of the specific fuel consumption is significant in this optimization. The specific fuel consumption has been modeled using cubic spline interpolation. The SFC curve is non-linear and discrete in nature, hence conventional methods fail to give optimal solution. HS algorithm has been used for optimal scheduling of the generators of both equal and unequal rating. Furthermore an Improved Harmony Search (IHS) method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of HS has been employed. The paper also focuses on the impacts of constant parameters on Harmony Search algorithm. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Moreover, the fuel consumption for IHS algorithm is lower when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various engineering optimization problems.

  10. An improved Harmony Search algorithm for optimal scheduling of the diesel generators in oil rig platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Parikshit; Kumar, Rajesh; Panda, S.K.; Chang, C.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is music based meta-heuristic optimization method which is analogous with the music improvisation process where musician continue to polish the pitches in order to obtain better harmony. The paper focuses on the optimal scheduling of the generators to reduce the fuel consumption in the oil rig platform. The accurate modeling of the specific fuel consumption is significant in this optimization. The specific fuel consumption has been modeled using cubic spline interpolation. The SFC curve is non-linear and discrete in nature, hence conventional methods fail to give optimal solution. HS algorithm has been used for optimal scheduling of the generators of both equal and unequal rating. Furthermore an Improved Harmony Search (IHS) method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of HS has been employed. The paper also focuses on the impacts of constant parameters on Harmony Search algorithm. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Moreover, the fuel consumption for IHS algorithm is lower when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various engineering optimization problems. (author)

  11. The power of reordering for online minimum makespan scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Matthias; Özmen, Deniz; Westermann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the classic minimum makespan scheduling problem, we are given an input sequence of jobs with processing times. A scheduling algorithm has to assign the jobs to m parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the makespan, which is the time it takes until all jobs are processed. In this paper, we consider online scheduling algorithms without preemption. However, we do not require that each arriving job has to be assigned immediately to one of the machines. A reordering buffer with limited...

  12. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by an interval instead of a fixed value. We show that the introduction of flexible...

  13. Situation of nuclear power generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toukai, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants began to be built in Europe in the latter half of 1960. 146 plants are operating and generating about 33% of total power in 2002. France is top of Europe and operating 59 plants, which generate about 75% of power generation in the country. Germany is second and 30%. England is third and 30%. However, Germany decided not to build new atomic power plant in 2000. Movement of non-nuclear power generation is decreasing in Belgium and Switzerland. The liberalization of power generation decreased the wholesale price and BE Company in England was financial difficulties. New nuclear power generation is planning in Finland and France. (S.Y.)

  14. The role of demand response in single and multi-objective wind-thermal generation scheduling: A stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falsafi, Hananeh; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on using DR (Demand Response) as a means to provide reserve in order to cover uncertainty in wind power forecasting in SG (Smart Grid) environment. The proposed stochastic model schedules energy and reserves provided by both of generating units and responsive loads in power systems with high penetration of wind power. This model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming, where first-stage is associated with electricity market, its rules and constraints and the second-stage is related to actual operation of the power system and its physical limitations in each scenario. The discrete retail customer responses to incentive-based DR programs are aggregated by DRPs (Demand Response Providers) and are submitted as a load change price and amount offer package to ISO (Independent System Operator). Also, price-based DR program behavior and random nature of wind power are modeled by price elasticity concept of the demand and normal probability distribution function, respectively. In the proposed model, DRPs can participate in energy market as well as reserve market and submit their offers to the wholesale electricity market. This approach is implemented on a modified IEEE 30-bus test system over a daily time horizon. The simulation results are analyzed in six different case studies. The cost, emission and multiobjective functions are optimized in both without and with DR cases. The multiobjective generation scheduling model is solved using augmented epsilon constraint method and the best solution can be chosen by Entropy and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) methods. The results indicate demand side participation in energy and reserve scheduling reduces the total operation costs and emissions. - Highlights: • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Using demand response for covering wind generation forecast

  15. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  16. Generation maintenance scheduling based on multiple ob jectives and their relationship analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-peng ZHAN; Chuang-xin GUO; Qing-hua WU; Lu-liang ZHANG; Hong-jun FU

    2014-01-01

    In a market environment of power systems, each producer pursues its maximal profit while the independent system operator is in charge of the system reliability and the minimization of the total generation cost when generating the generation maintenance scheduling (GMS). Thus, the GMS is inherently a multi-objective optimization problem as its objectives usually conflict with each other. This paper proposes a multi-objective GMS model in a market environment which includes three types of objectives, i.e., each producer’s profit, the system reliability, and the total generation cost. The GMS model has been solved by the group search optimizer with multiple producers (GSOMP) on two test systems. The simulation results show that the model is well solved by the GSOMP with a set of evenly distributed Pareto-optimal solutions obtained. The simulation results also illustrate that one producer’s profit conflicts with another one’s, that the total generation cost does not conflict with the profit of the producer possessing the cheapest units while the total generation cost conflicts with the other producers’ profits, and that the reliability objective conflicts with the other objectives.

  17. More flexible and demand-oriented schedule operation. For market-driven power generation in biogas existing installation; Flexibilisierung und bedarfsorientierter Fahrplanbetrieb. Zur marktgerechten Stromerzeugung in Biogas-Bestandsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welteke-Fabricius, Uwe [CUBE Engineering GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    This lecture investigates the effects of the societal framework on operators of biogas plants in the further development of biogas and its contribution to the German Energiewende. Influences are not only from politics and economy but stakeholders also shape the development to come. A visible part of the existing plants have quickly to be transformed to a demand driven supply. If not, it is most likely that biogas will disappear from the stage within some 15 years - except for waste treatment. In a future of growing wind and solar energy supply we will experience a.. of shortage and surplus within a day, and through the.seasons. Prices will fluctuate increasingly. Controllable energy generators will run for a decreasing number of hours daily. Biogas should contribute to one or two high-price periods a day, when it is dark, low wind, or high demand, but at a higher capacity than today. This pattern, in combination with a valuable use of its thermal energy production, can furthermore offer an economic feasible prospect for biogas plants after their period of subsidized EEG feed-in tariff By now, only few biogas plants are designed accordingly. Most of them produce their power continuously. Only if biogas plants will change towards peak load operation, its unique combination of renewable and controllable energy supply will be recognized, and biogas can contribute a valuable share to a sustainable energy system. Stakeholders can and should support this change.

  18. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  19. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  20. Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, Masoud; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is presented. • The capability of electric vehicles in providing reserve has been analyzed. • A new electric vehicles charging/discharging management system is proposed. • The technical features of electric vehicle’s batteries are considered. - Abstract: Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the electric power system may bring up many technical issues. The power system may put at risk the security and reliability of operation due to intermittent nature of renewable generation and uncontrolled charging/discharging procedure of EVs. In this paper, an energy resources management model for a microgrid (MG) is proposed. The proposed method considers practical constraints, renewable power forecasting errors, spinning reserve requirements and EVs owner satisfaction. A case study with a typical MG including 200 EVs is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed energy resource scheduling method satisfies financial and technical goals of parking lot as well as the security and economic issues of MG. Moreover, EV owners could earn profit by discharging their vehicles’ batteries or providing the reserve capacity and finally have desired State Of Charge (SOC) in the departure time

  1. Attitudes of the general public and electric power company employees toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    We conducted an awareness survey targeted at members of the general public residing in urban areas and in areas scheduled for construction of nuclear power plants as well as employees of electric power company in order to determine the awareness and attitude structures of people residing near scheduled construction sites of nuclear power plants with respect to nuclear power generation, and to examine ways of making improvements in terms of promoting nuclear power plant construction sites. Analysis of those results revealed that there are no significant differences in the awareness and attitudes of people residing in urban areas and in areas near scheduled construction sites. On the contrary, a general sense of apprehension regarding the construction of nuclear power plants was observed common to both groups. In addition, significant differences in awareness and attitudes with respect to various factors were determined to exist between members of the general public residing in urban areas and scheduled construction sites and employees of electric power company. (author)

  2. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  3. Optimal coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power fuel cell, wind, and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power units in micro grid considering wind turbine and photovoltaic units. Uncertainties of electrical market price; the speed of wind and solar radiation are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using roulette wheel mechanism based on probability distribution functions of input random variables. Using this method, the probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective function, coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power, wind turbine, and photovoltaic units change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. Therefore to solve this problem modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed. The mentioned uncertainties lead to an increase in profit. Moreover, the optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro grids increase the total profit. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, its performance is executed on modified 33 bus distributed system as a micro grid. - Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. • Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. • Optimal scheduling of renewable energy sources and thermal units increases profit.

  4. Optimal Power Scheduling for an Islanded Hybrid Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    model, wherein the disconnection of the load and not charging the battery when there is surplus of energy are penalized while physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system are considered. The proposed scheduling scheme is tested using a real-time control platform (d...

  5. Application exploration of primavera6.0 for design-schedule in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    The ideas and flow of plan establishment during the nuclear power station design is discussed in this paper, including the main steps in the plan establishment, and the design schedule and the management of documents and interfaces are improved. An integral design management innovation is proposed for the management of 'schedule, interfaces and drawings and files'. (authors)

  6. Scheduling the maintenance of gaseous diffusion and electric power distribution plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, D.

    1990-01-01

    A computer aided scheduling applied to the maintenance of a uranium enrichment plant is presented. The plant exploits gaseous diffusion and electric power distribution plants, for which the operating conditions must be satisfied. The management and the execution of the maintenance actions are computer aided. Concerning the techniques, the cost, the safety and the scheduling actions were optimized [fr

  7. Reactive power supply by distributed generators

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed reactive power supply is necessary in distribution networks for an optimized network operation. This paper presents first the reactive power supply capabilities of generators connected to the distribution network (distributed generators). In a second step an approach is proposed of determining the energy losses resulting from reactive power supply by distributed generators. The costs for compensating these losses represent the operational costs of reactive power supply. These cost...

  8. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...... our solution is, we generate a bound on the difference between the true optimal objective and the objective in our solution. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that our Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster...... than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with larger or more loosely constrained instances. By using the techniques introduced in this paper, a more extensive set of real world cases can be solved either to optimality or within a small deviation from optimality....

  9. Intelligent control of diesel generators using gain-scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jepsen, Kasper; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    The development of an intelligent control solution for a wide range of diesel generators is discussed. Compared with most existing solutions, the advantages of the proposed solution lie in two folds: (i) The proposed control has the plug-and-play capability which is reflected by an automatic...... recognition procedure when it is plugged into a specific diesel generator, such that some extensive manual-tuning of the installed controller can be significantly reduced; (ii) The proposed control has an real-time adaptability by using the online external load estimation, such that the integrated system can...... keep a consistent performance for a wide range of operating conditions. Technically, a general nonlinear dynamic model is firstly developed based on fundamental principles of diesel generators. Then, the system parameters of this model can be identified experimentally or partially retrieved from...

  10. A Bilevel Scheduling Approach for Modeling Energy Transaction of Virtual Power Plants in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the use of distributed generation (DG in the distribution network operation, an entity called virtual power plant (VPP has been introduced to control, dispatch and aggregate the generation of DGs, enabling them to participate either in the electricity market or the distribution network operation. The participation of VPPs in the electricity market has made challenges to fairly allocate payments and benefits between VPPs and distribution network operator (DNO. This paper presents a bilevel scheduling approach to model the energy transaction between VPPs and DNO.  The upper level corresponds to the decision making of VPPs which bid their long- term contract prices so that their own profits are maximized and the lower level represents the DNO decision making to supply electricity demand of the network by minimizing its overall cost. The proposed bilevel scheduling approach is transformed to a single level optimizing problem using its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. Several scenarios are applied to scrutinize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed model. 

  11. Frequency deviations and generation scheduling in the nordic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongwei; Samuelsson, Olaf; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    to be considered, the disturbances caused to this control by the hourly dispatch of generation has received less attention and is the focus of this paper. Based on years of recorded PMU data, statistics of frequency events and analysis of frequency quality are made to demonstrate the relation between the frequency...

  12. 77 FR 42332 - Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: July 12, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward...

  13. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  14. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  15. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  16. Optimal Control of Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Pijarski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system control is a complex task, which is strongly related to the number and kind of generating units as well as to the applied technologies, such as conventional coal fired power plants or wind and photovoltaic farms. Fast development of wind generation that is considered as unstable generation sets new strong requirements concerning remote control and data hubs cooperating with SCADA systems. Considering specific nature of the wind power generation, the authors analyze the problem of optimal control for wind power generation in farms located over a selected remote-controlled part of the Operator grid under advantageous wind conditions. This article presents an original stepwise method for tracing power flows that makes possible to eliminate current (power overloading of power grid branches. Its core idea is to consider the discussed problem as an optimization task.

  17. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  18. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  19. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  20. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  1. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  2. Power generator in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to perform stable and dynamic conditioning operation for nuclear fuels in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels is performed by varying the reactor core thermal power in a predetermined pattern by changing the predetermined power changing pattern of generator power, the rising rate of the reactor core thermal power and the upper limit for the rising power of the reactor core thermal power are calculated and the power pattern for the generator is corrected by a power conditioning device such that the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate and the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate are at the predetermined levels. Thus, when the relation between the reactor core thermal power and the generator electrical power is fluctuated, the fluctuation is detected based on the variation in the thermal power rising rate and the limit value for the thermal power rising rate, and the correction is made to the generator power changing pattern so that these values take the predetermined values to thereby perform the stable conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Fast Lagrangian relaxation for constrained generation scheduling in a centralized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Petcharaks, Nit

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast Lagrangian relaxation (FLR) for constrained generation scheduling (CGS) problem in a centralized electricity market. FLR minimizes the consumer payment rather than the total supply cost subject to the power balance, spinning reserve, transmission line, and generator operating constraints. FLR algorithm is improved by new initialization of Lagrangian multipliers and adaptive adjustment of Lagrangian multipliers. The adaptive subgradient method using high quality initial feasible multipliers requires much less number of iterations to converge, leading to a faster computational time. If congestion exists, the alleviating congestion index is proposed for congestion management. Finally, the unit decommitment is performed to prevent excessive spinning reserve. The FLR for CGS is tested on the 4 unit and the IEEE 24 bus reliability test systems. The proposed uniform electricity price results in a lower consumer payment than system marginal price based on uniformly fixed cost amortized allocation, non-uniform price, and electricity price incorporating side payment, leading to a lower electricity price. In addition, observations on objective functions, pricing scheme comparison and interpretation of Lagrangian multipliers are provided. (author)

  4. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1996-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  5. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  6. Evolutionarily stable learning schedules and cumulative culture in discrete generation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Lehmann, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Individual learning (e.g., trial-and-error) and social learning (e.g., imitation) are alternative ways of acquiring and expressing the appropriate phenotype in an environment. The optimal choice between using individual learning and/or social learning may be dictated by the life-stage or age of an organism. Of special interest is a learning schedule in which social learning precedes individual learning, because such a schedule is apparently a necessary condition for cumulative culture. Assuming two obligatory learning stages per discrete generation, we obtain the evolutionarily stable learning schedules for the three situations where the environment is constant, fluctuates between generations, or fluctuates within generations. During each learning stage, we assume that an organism may target the optimal phenotype in the current environment by individual learning, and/or the mature phenotype of the previous generation by oblique social learning. In the absence of exogenous costs to learning, the evolutionarily stable learning schedules are predicted to be either pure social learning followed by pure individual learning ("bang-bang" control) or pure individual learning at both stages ("flat" control). Moreover, we find for each situation that the evolutionarily stable learning schedule is also the one that optimizes the learned phenotype at equilibrium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The optimal scheduling of decentralised co-generation plants in microgrids; Optimale Einsatzplanung von Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen in Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunkel, David [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hess, Tobias; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik

    2011-07-01

    The daily operational scheduling of decentralised unit is an important optimization task of power systems. This proceeding deals with planning of small scaled co-generation power units for district heating in a microgrid. This power system can be mathematically formulated and solved by an optimization algorithm. The solution process consists of a unit commitment and dispatch. The starting unit commitment is characterised by a mixed integer nonlinear problem defining the on-off-state of all units. Subsequently, the dispatch distributes the generation requirements to every committed unit considering thermal demand. The dispatching is based on a mixed integer linear problem. Additionally, it presents a way for flexible reducing the outage reserve related to the operational condition. The given microgrid operates in an islanding mode. The method can also be applied in a grid connected model considering the possible requirements of a grid operator. (orig.)

  8. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  9. Nuclear power reactors of new generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Slesarev, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents discussions on the following topics: fuel supply for nuclear power; expansion of the sphere of nuclear power applications, such as district heating; comparative estimates of power reactor efficiencies; safety philosophy of advanced nuclear plants, including passive protection and inherent safety concepts; nuclear power unit of enhanced safety for the new generation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis is that designers of new generation reactors face a complicated but technically solvable task of developing highly safe, efficient, and economical nuclear power sources having a wide sphere of application

  10. An extended NSGA-III for solution multi-objective hydro-thermal-wind scheduling considering wind power cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Tian, Hao; Yuan, Yanbin; Huang, Yuehua; Ikram, Rana M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective hydro-thermal-wind scheduling model (MO-HTWS) is establish. • The extra cost in MO-HTWS problem caused by wind uncertainty is considered. • An extended NSGA-III is proposed to solve MO-HTWS problem. • Constraint handling strategies are presented to modify infeasible solutions. • The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by example. - Abstract: Due to the characteristics of clean and renewable, wind power is significant to economic and environmental operation of electric power system so that it attracts more and more attention from researchers. This paper integrates wind power with hydrothermal scheduling to establish multi-objective economic emission hydro-thermal-wind scheduling problem (MO-HTWS) model with considering wind uncertain cost. To solve MO-HTWS problem with various complicated constraints, this paper extends NSGA-III by introducing the dominance relationship criterion based on constraint violation to select new generation. Moreover, the constraint handling strategy which repairs the infeasible solutions by modifying the decision variables in feasible zone according to the violation amount is proposed. Finally, a daily scheduling example of hydro-thermal-wind system is used to test the ability of NSGA-III for solving MO-HTWS problem. It is concluded from the superior quality and good distribution of the Pareto optimal solutions that, NSGA-III can offer an efficient alternative for optimizing MO-HTWS problem

  11. Conscience of Japanese on nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio

    1995-01-01

    There are considerably many investigations and researches on the attitude of general public to nuclear power generation, but those which analyzed the contents of attitude or the research which got into the problem of what method is desirable to obtain the understanding of nuclear power generation for power generation side is rarely found. Therefore, the research on where is its cause was begun. As the result, since the attitude to nuclear power generation is related to the attitudes to many things that surround nuclear power generation in addition to that directly to nuclear power generation, it is necessary to elucidate the problem synthetically. The social investigation was carried out for the public of from 18 to 79 years old who live in the supply area of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The data were obtained from those selected by probabilistic sampling, 1000 in urban area (rate of recovery 76%) and 440 in country area (rate of recovery 77%). The way of thinking on making questionnaire is shown. The investigation and the analysis of the obtained data were carried out. What do you recollect as a dangerous matter, the attitude to nuclear power generation, the structure of the conscience to nuclear power generation and its significance, the type classification of people and its features are reported and discussed. (K.I.)

  12. Power generation using photovoltaic induction in an isolated power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, M.; Jiang, J.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to increased emphasis on renewable resources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydroelectric, biogas and etc. has recently assumed greater significance. A single phase capacitor self excited induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate of isolated power sources. This paper presents performance analysis of a single phase self-excited induction generator driven by photovoltaic (P V) system for low power isolated stand-alone applications. A single phase induction machine can work as a self-excited induction generator when its rotor is driven at suitable speed by an photovoltaic powered do motor. Its excitation is provided by connecting a single phase capacitor bank at a stator terminals. Either to augment grid power or to get uninterrupted power during grid failure stand-alone low capacity ac generators are used. These are driven by photovoltaic, wind power or I C engines using kerosene, diesel, petrol or biogas as fuel. Self-excitation with capacitors at the stator terminals of the stator terminals of the induction machines is well demonstrated experimentally on a P V powered dc motor-induction machine set. The parameters and the excitation requirements of the induction machine run in self-excited induction generator mode are determined. The effects of variations in prime mover speed,terminal capacitance and load power factor on the machine terminal voltage are studied

  13. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  14. Presenting a multi-objective generation scheduling model for pricing demand response rate in micro-grid energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghajani, G.R.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Shayeghi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using DRPs to cover the uncertainties resulted from power generation by WT and PV. • Proposing the use of price-offer packages and amount of DR for implement DRPs. • Considering a multi-objective scheduling model and use of MOPSO algorithm. - Abstract: In this paper, a multi-objective energy management system is proposed in order to optimize micro-grid (MG) performance in a short-term in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) for wind and solar energy generation with a randomized natural behavior. Considering the existence of different types of customers including residential, commercial, and industrial consumers can participate in demand response programs. As with declare their interruptible/curtailable demand rate or select from among different proposed prices so as to assist the central micro-grid control in terms of optimizing micro-grid operation and covering energy generation uncertainty from the renewable sources. In this paper, to implement Demand Response (DR) schedules, incentive-based payment in the form of offered packages of price and DR quantity collected by Demand Response Providers (DRPs) is used. In the typical micro-grid, different technologies including Wind Turbine (WT), PhotoVoltaic (PV) cell, Micro-Turbine (MT), Full Cell (FC), battery hybrid power source and responsive loads are used. The simulation results are considered in six different cases in order to optimize operation cost and emission with/without DR. Considering the complexity and non-linearity of the proposed problem, Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) is utilized. Also, fuzzy-based mechanism and non-linear sorting system are applied to determine the best compromise considering the set of solutions from Pareto-front space. The numerical results represented the effect of the proposed Demand Side Management (DSM) scheduling model on reducing the effect of uncertainty obtained from generation power and predicted by WT and PV in a MG.

  15. Prescriptions for schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines increase after the introduction of computer-generated prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGerald, Genevieve; Dvorkin, Ronald; Levy, David; Lovell-Rose, Stephanie; Sharma, Adhi

    2009-06-01

    Prescriptions for controlled substances decrease when regulatory barriers are put in place. The converse has not been studied. The objective was to determine whether a less complicated prescription writing process is associated with a change in the prescribing patterns of controlled substances in the emergency department (ED). The authors conducted a retrospective nonconcurrent cohort study of all patients seen in an adult ED between April 19, 2005, and April 18, 2007, who were discharged with a prescription. Prior to April 19, 2006, a specialized prescription form stored in a locked cabinet was obtained from the nursing staff to write a prescription for benzodiazepines or Schedule II opioids. After April 19, 2006, New York State mandated that all prescriptions, regardless of schedule classification, be generated on a specialized bar-coded prescription form. The main outcome of the study was to compare the proportion of Schedule III-V opioids to Schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines prescribed in the ED before and after the introduction of a less cumbersome prescription writing process. Of the 26,638 charts reviewed, 2.1% of the total number of prescriptions generated were for a Schedule II controlled opioid before the new system was implemented compared to 13.6% after (odds ratio [OR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.4 to 8.4). The corresponding percentages for Schedule III-V opioids were 29.9% to 18.1% (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.55) and for benzodiazepines 1.4% to 3.9% (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.4). Patients were more likely to receive a prescription for a Schedule II opioid or a benzodiazepine after a more streamlined computer-generated prescription writing process was introduced in this ED. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  17. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  18. Application of linear scheduling method (LSM) for nuclear power plant (NPP) construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woojoong; Ryu, Dongsoo; Jung, Youngsoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixed use of linear scheduling method with traditional CPM is suggested for NPP. • A methodology for selecting promising areas for LSM application is proposed. • A case-study is conducted to validate the proposed LSM selection methodology. • A case-study of reducing NPP construction duration by using LSM is introduced. - Abstract: According to a forecast, global energy demand is expected to increase by 56% from 2010 to 2040 (EIA, 2013). The nuclear power plant construction market is also growing with sharper competition. In nuclear power plant construction, scheduling is one of the most important functions due to its large size and complexity. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate the ‘distinct characteristics of construction commodities and the complex characteristics of scheduling techniques’ (Jung and Woo, 2004) when selecting appropriate schedule control methods for nuclear power plant construction. However, among various types of construction scheduling techniques, the traditional critical path method (CPM) has been used most frequently in real-world practice. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to examine the viability and effectiveness of linear scheduling method (LSM) applications for specific areas in nuclear power plant construction. In order to identify the criteria for selecting scheduling techniques, the characteristics of CPM and LSM were compared and analyzed first through a literature review. Distinct characteristics of nuclear power plant construction were then explored by using a case project in order to develop a methodology to select effective areas of LSM application to nuclear power plant construction. Finally, promising areas for actual LSM application are suggested based on the proposed evaluation criteria and the case project. Findings and practical implications are discussed for further implementation

  19. Application of linear scheduling method (LSM) for nuclear power plant (NPP) construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woojoong, E-mail: minidung@nate.com [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsoo, E-mail: energyboy@khnp.co.kr [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Youngsoo, E-mail: yjung97@mju.ac.kr [College of Architecture, Myongji University, Yongin 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Mixed use of linear scheduling method with traditional CPM is suggested for NPP. • A methodology for selecting promising areas for LSM application is proposed. • A case-study is conducted to validate the proposed LSM selection methodology. • A case-study of reducing NPP construction duration by using LSM is introduced. - Abstract: According to a forecast, global energy demand is expected to increase by 56% from 2010 to 2040 (EIA, 2013). The nuclear power plant construction market is also growing with sharper competition. In nuclear power plant construction, scheduling is one of the most important functions due to its large size and complexity. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate the ‘distinct characteristics of construction commodities and the complex characteristics of scheduling techniques’ (Jung and Woo, 2004) when selecting appropriate schedule control methods for nuclear power plant construction. However, among various types of construction scheduling techniques, the traditional critical path method (CPM) has been used most frequently in real-world practice. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to examine the viability and effectiveness of linear scheduling method (LSM) applications for specific areas in nuclear power plant construction. In order to identify the criteria for selecting scheduling techniques, the characteristics of CPM and LSM were compared and analyzed first through a literature review. Distinct characteristics of nuclear power plant construction were then explored by using a case project in order to develop a methodology to select effective areas of LSM application to nuclear power plant construction. Finally, promising areas for actual LSM application are suggested based on the proposed evaluation criteria and the case project. Findings and practical implications are discussed for further implementation.

  20. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Sluis, van der L.; Kling, W.L.; Kurowicka, D.; Cooke, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic generation, i.e., electrical power production by an uncontrolled primary energy source, is expected to play an important role in future power systems. A new power system structure is created due to the large-scale implementation of this small-scale, distributed, non-dispatchable

  1. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  2. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  3. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Gun; Lee, Han Myung; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Cho, Sang Goo

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of nuclear power generation under the circumstances of growing concerns about environmental impact and to help decision making in electricity sector. In this study, efforts are made to estimate electricity power generation cost of major power options by incorporating additional cost to reduce environmental impact and to suggest an optimal plant mix in this case. (Author)

  4. Optimal stochastic reactive power scheduling in a microgrid considering voltage droop scheme of DGs and uncertainty of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorramdel, Benyamin; Raoofat, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generators (DGs) in a microgrid may operate in three different reactive power control strategies, including PV, PQ and voltage droop schemes. This paper proposes a new stochastic programming approach for reactive power scheduling of a microgrid, considering the uncertainty of wind farms. The proposed algorithm firstly finds the expected optimal operating point of each DG in V-Q plane while the wind speed is a probabilistic variable. A multi-objective function with goals of loss minimization, reactive power reserve maximization and voltage security margin maximization is optimized using a four-stage multi-objective nonlinear programming. Then, using Monte Carlo simulation enhanced by scenario reduction technique, the proposed algorithm simulates actual condition and finds optimal operating strategy of DGs. Also, if any DGs are scheduled to operate in voltage droop scheme, the optimum droop is determined. Also, in the second part of the research, to enhance the optimality of the results, PSO algorithm is used for the multi-objective optimization problem. Numerical examples on IEEE 34-bus test system including two wind turbines are studied. The results show the benefits of voltage droop scheme for mitigating the impacts of the uncertainty of wind. Also, the results show preference of PSO method in the proposed approach. -- Highlights: ► Reactive power scheduling in a microgrid considering loss and voltage security. ► Stochastic nature of wind farms affects reactive power scheduling and is considered. ► Advantages of using the voltage droop characteristics of DGs in voltage security are shown. ► Power loss, voltage security and VAR reserve are three goals of a multi-objective optimization. ► Monte Carlo method with scenario reduction is used to determine optimal control strategy of DGs.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  6. Generator technology for HTGR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, D.; Thiot, D.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the worlds installed capacity in electric energy production is from generators developed and manufactured by GEC Alsthom. GEC Alsthom is now working on the application of generators for HTGR power conversion systems. The main generator characteristics induced by the different HTGR power conversion technology include helium immersion, high helium pressure, brushless excitation system, magnetic bearings, vertical lineshaft, high reliability and long periods between maintenance. (author)

  7. Power: towards a third generation definition

    OpenAIRE

    13250612 - Zaaiman, Stephanus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl) and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morris...

  8. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  9. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  10. Capacity value evaluation of photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an example of capacity value (kW-value) evaluation of photovoltaic generation from power companies generation planning point of view. The method actually applied to evaluate the supplying capability of conventional generation plants is briefly described. 21 figs, 1 tab

  11. Decentralized controller gain scheduling using PSO for power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It gives approximately two-thirds of the total power output of a typical combined cycle plant (S. Barsali, et al 2008, M. Nagpal, et al,. 2001). When the load is suddenly increased the speed drops quickly, but the regulator reacts and increases the fuel flow to a maximum of 100% thereby improving the efficiency of the system.

  12. Decentralized controller gain scheduling using PSO for power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this reason, in this study the P and I control parameters are tuned based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for a better Load-Frequency Control in a Two-Area Two-Unit Thermal Reheat Power System (TATURIPS) with step load perturbation. To exemplify the optimum parameter search PSO is used as it is ...

  13. Generation of Look-Up Tables for Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Decision Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviandri, Muchamad; Hassan, Adnan; Mohd Shaharoun, Awaluddin

    2016-02-01

    Majority of existing scheduling techniques are based on static demand and deterministic processing time, while most job shop scheduling problem are concerned with dynamic demand and stochastic processing time. As a consequence, the solutions obtained from the traditional scheduling technique are ineffective wherever changes occur to the system. Therefore, this research intends to develop a decision support tool (DST) based on promising artificial intelligent that is able to accommodate the dynamics that regularly occur in job shop scheduling problem. The DST was designed through three phases, i.e. (i) the look-up table generation, (ii) inverse model development and (iii) integration of DST components. This paper reports the generation of look-up tables for various scenarios as a part in development of the DST. A discrete event simulation model was used to compare the performance among SPT, EDD, FCFS, S/OPN and Slack rules; the best performances measures (mean flow time, mean tardiness and mean lateness) and the job order requirement (inter-arrival time, due dates tightness and setup time ratio) which were compiled into look-up tables. The well-known 6/6/J/Cmax Problem from Muth and Thompson (1963) was used as a case study. In the future, the performance measure of various scheduling scenarios and the job order requirement will be mapped using ANN inverse model.

  14. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  15. A Statistical Model for Uplink Intercell Interference with Power Adaptation and Greedy Scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of uplink inter-cell interference (ICI) considering greedy scheduling with power adaptation based on channel conditions. The derived model is implicitly generalized for any kind of shadowing and fading environments. More precisely, we develop a generic model for the distribution of ICI based on the locations of the allocated users and their transmit powers. The derived model is utilized to evaluate important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity, average fairness and average power preservation numerically. Monte-Carlo simulation details are included to support the analysis and show the accuracy of the derived expressions. In parallel to the literature, we show that greedy scheduling with power adaptation reduces the ICI, average power consumption of users, and enhances the average fairness among users, compared to the case without power adaptation. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. A Statistical Model for Uplink Intercell Interference with Power Adaptation and Greedy Scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Dawy, Zaher; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of uplink inter-cell interference (ICI) considering greedy scheduling with power adaptation based on channel conditions. The derived model is implicitly generalized for any kind of shadowing and fading environments. More precisely, we develop a generic model for the distribution of ICI based on the locations of the allocated users and their transmit powers. The derived model is utilized to evaluate important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity, average fairness and average power preservation numerically. Monte-Carlo simulation details are included to support the analysis and show the accuracy of the derived expressions. In parallel to the literature, we show that greedy scheduling with power adaptation reduces the ICI, average power consumption of users, and enhances the average fairness among users, compared to the case without power adaptation. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Centralized power generation: what share for gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, A.; Pharabod, E.; Lecointe, O.; Poyer, L.

    2007-01-01

    Up to a recent past, most energy scenarios were foreseeing a fast growth of natural gas consumption thanks to an assumed strong penetration of gas-fueled power plants. The share of natural gas in the centralized power generation has been the subject of a meeting of the French gas association (AFG) which aimed at answering the following questions: today's position of gas power generation in Europe in the present day context of gas prices (level, volatility), the share of natural gas in the French power mix in the coming years, the strategies of development of gas power plants by historical operators and newcomers, the gas arbitration between its sale to end-users and its use for power generation, and the integration of the CO 2 risk. (J.S.)

  18. Deterministic and stochastic approach for safety and reliability optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using GA/SA-based hybrid techniques: A comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, Dusmanta Kumar; Sadhu, Pradip Kumar; Chakrabarti, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of results for optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm (GA) as well as hybrid GA/simulated annealing (SA) techniques. As utilities catered by captive power plants are very sensitive to power failure, therefore both deterministic and stochastic reliability objective functions have been considered to incorporate statutory safety regulations for maintenance of boilers, turbines and generators. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate stochastic feature of generating units and that of load using levelized risk method. Another significant contribution of this paper is to evaluate confidence interval for loss of load probability (LOLP) because some variations from optimum schedule are anticipated while executing maintenance schedules due to different real-life unforeseen exigencies. Such exigencies are incorporated in terms of near-optimum schedules obtained from hybrid GA/SA technique during the final stages of convergence. Case studies corroborate that same optimum schedules are obtained using GA and hybrid GA/SA for respective deterministic and stochastic formulations. The comparison of results in terms of interval of confidence for LOLP indicates that levelized risk method adequately incorporates the stochastic nature of power system as compared with levelized reserve method. Also the interval of confidence for LOLP denotes the possible risk in a quantified manner and it is of immense use from perspective of captive power plants intended for quality power

  19. DAILY SCHEDULING OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANTS DISPATCH WITH MODIFIED PARTICLES SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinvaldo Rodrigues Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for short-term hydro power scheduling of reservoirs using an algorithm-based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. PSO is a population-based algorithm designed to find good solutions to optimization problems, its characteristics have encouraged its adoption to tackle a variety of problems in different fields. In this paper the authors consider an optimization problem related to a daily scheduling of small hydro power dispatch. The goal is construct a feasible solution that maximize the cascade electricity production, following the environmental constraints and water balance. The paper proposes an improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which takes advantage of simplicity and facility of implementation. The algorithm was successfully applied to the optimization of the daily schedule strategies of small hydro power plants, considering maximum water utilization and all constraints related to simultaneous water uses. Extensive computational tests and comparisons with other heuristics methods showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Coordinated Scheduling and Power Control in Cloud-Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the joint coordinated scheduling and power control problem in cloud-enabled networks. Consider the downlink of a cloud-radio access network (CRAN), where the cloud is only responsible for the scheduling policy, power control, and synchronization of the transmit frames across the single-antenna base-stations (BS). The transmit frame consists of several time/frequency blocks, called power-zones (PZ). The paper considers the problem of scheduling users to PZs and determining their power levels (PL), by maximizing the weighted sum-rate under the practical constraints that each user cannot be served by more than one base-station, but can be served by one or more power-zones within each base-station frame. The paper solves the problem using a graph theoretical approach by introducing the joint scheduling and power control graph formed by several clusters, where each is formed by a set of vertices, representing the possible association of users, BSs, and PLs for one specific PZ. The problem is, then, formulated as a maximumweight clique problem, in which the weight of each vertex is the sum of the benefits of the individual associations belonging to that vertex. Simulation results suggest that the proposed crosslayer scheme provides appreciable performance improvement as compared to schemes from recent literature.

  1. Coordinated Scheduling and Power Control in Cloud-Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the joint coordinated scheduling and power control problem in cloud-enabled networks. Consider the downlink of a cloud-radio access network (CRAN), where the cloud is only responsible for the scheduling policy, power control, and synchronization of the transmit frames across the single-antenna base-stations (BS). The transmit frame consists of several time/frequency blocks, called power-zones (PZ). The paper considers the problem of scheduling users to PZs and determining their power levels (PL), by maximizing the weighted sum-rate under the practical constraints that each user cannot be served by more than one base-station, but can be served by one or more power-zones within each base-station frame. The paper solves the problem using a graph theoretical approach by introducing the joint scheduling and power control graph formed by several clusters, where each is formed by a set of vertices, representing the possible association of users, BSs, and PLs for one specific PZ. The problem is, then, formulated as a maximumweight clique problem, in which the weight of each vertex is the sum of the benefits of the individual associations belonging to that vertex. Simulation results suggest that the proposed crosslayer scheme provides appreciable performance improvement as compared to schemes from recent literature.

  2. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  3. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher; Ju, Yiguang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of these devices to realize their full potential. Engineers and scientists working in energy-related fields will find: An overview of the fundamental physics and phenomena of microscale combustion; Presentations of the latest modeling and simulation techniques for gasphase and catalytic micro-reactors; The latest results from experiments in small-scale liquid film, microtube, and porous combustors, micro-thrusters, a...

  4. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  5. Power and the future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author, who was acting president of AECL at the time of the conference, emphasizes the importance of nuclear energy to Canada, and its future importance to the developing countries. In 1992, nuclear energy supplied 15% of Canada's electricity, employed 30,000 people in Canada, created at least 10,000 jobs in other sectors, generated federal tax revenues of C$700 million, and by supplanting coal and gas imports saved about C$1 billion. Export sales prospects in China, Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are indicated. AECL is presently undergoing reorganization for greater efficiency. A public opinion poll indicated about 70% Canadian public support for nuclear energy

  6. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  7. Gain-Scheduled Control of a Fossil-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    -scheduling which interpolates between unstable controllers is not allowed using traditional schemes. The results show that a considerable optimization of the conventional controlled system is obtainable. Also the gain-scheduled optimizing controller is seen to have a superior performance compared to the fixed LTI......In this paper the objective is to optimize the control of a coal fired 250 MW power plant boiler. The conventional control system is supplemented with a multivariable optimizing controller operating in parallel with the conventional control system. Due to the strong dependence of the gains...... and dynamics upon the load, it is beneficial to consider a gain-scheduling control approach. Optimization using complex mu synthesis results in unstable LTI controllers in some operating points of the boiler. A recent gain-scheduling approach allowing for unstable fixed LTI controllers is applied. Gain...

  8. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  9. Uranium availability for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, S.M.; Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are encouraged to participate in the effort to explore and develop adequate supplies of uranium in order to assure a high level of effort and have some control over production rates. Regulatory commissions are likewise encouraged to be receptive to utility initiatives by granting assurances of favorable rate treatment to cover investments. Confusion arises over the difference between forward coverage based on proven reserves of commercial-grade uranium and long-range availability based on potential resources. Cancellations and delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants have made it difficult for uranium suppliers to proceed with confidence. Drilling difficulties and the short productive life of most uranium mines will probably keep proven reserve levels lower than long-term plant requirements. Several approaches are outlined for developing uranium reserve estimates. ERDA projections are based on ''favorable ground'' areas where uranium deposits are most probable. It is assumed that, where a market exists, minerals will be extracted and traditional procurement methods will evolve. Since utilities are the only industry committed to a viable fuel cycle, they are justified in joining in the search for supplies

  10. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  11. Solar power generation in a rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The book contains the papers discussions and results of a German/Senegalese seminar on photovoltaic power generation in rural regions of Senegal which was held in Dakar on 19-23 November 1990. (HP) [de

  12. The third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached of are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objective of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry. (author)

  13. Third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached or are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objectives of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry

  14. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin; Atilhan, Selma; Batchelor, Bill; Linke, Patrick; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts

  15. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  16. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  17. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies

  18. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, 4 DEPARTMENT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, YABA, ... pumped storage system for generating hydroelectric power all year round. ... Power supply situation in Nigeria has no doubt ..... (objective functions), criteria for evaluation of control .... adsen H “Para eter esti ation in distributed.

  19. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  20. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  1. Entropy-generated power and its efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.; Esposito, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple model for a motor that generates mechanical motion by exploiting an entropic force arising from the topology of the underlying phase space. We show that the generation of mechanical forces in our system is surprisingly robust to local changes in kinetic and topological paramet...... parameters. Furthermore, we find that the efficiency at maximum power may show discontinuities....

  2. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  3. Situation of nuclear power generation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S [Swedish Atomic Forum

    1978-01-01

    In Sweden, nuclear power generation was received initially favorably. In the end of 1960s, however, nuclear power generation got involved in the activities of environment preservation. Then, political parties became opposed to nuclear power generation, and now, the need of nuclear power generation itself is regarded as questionable. In the general election in 1976, the Government opposing the nuclear power generation won. As the result, the conditional nuclear power development law and the energy committee were set up. The committee composed of parliament members, experts, and representatives of enterprises and trade unions is to submit its report so that the parliament can prepare a new energy program in the fall of 1978. Meanwhile, the nuclear fuel safety project formed newly has studied to satisfy the conditions of the law. In Sweden, which has developed nuclear reactors independently from the technology of USA, the oppositions are on the decrease, however. It is awaited what decision will be made by the Government in this fall.

  4. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  5. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  6. Nuclear power generation and automation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korei, Yoshiro

    1985-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the total generated electric power has been increasing year after year, and the ensuring of its stable supply has been demanded. For the further development of nuclear power generation, the heightening of economical efficiency which is the largest merit of nuclear power and the public acceptance as a safe and stable electric power source are the important subjects. In order to solve these subjects, in nuclear power generation, various automation techniques have been applied for the purpose of the heightening of reliability, labor saving and the reduction of radiation exposure. Meeting the high needs of automation, the automation technology aided by computers have been applied to the design, manufacture and construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Computer-aided design and the examples of design of a reactor building, pipings and a fuel assembly, an automatic welder for pipings of all position TIG welding type, a new central monitoring and control system, an automatic exchanger of control rod-driving mechanism, an automatic in-service inspection system for nozzles and pipings, and a robot for steam generator maintenance are shown. The trend of technical development and an intelligent moving robot, a system maintenance robot and a four legs walking robot are explained. (Kako, I.)

  7. Economic power schedule and transactive energy through an intelligent centralized energy management system for a DC residential distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Jingpeng; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    and the demand side. The utilization of distributed generation (DG) requires an economic operation, stability, and an environmentally friendly approach in the whole DC system. This paper not only presents an optimization schedule and transactive energy (TE) approach through a centralized energy management system...... is aligned with the command of the unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is used as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, and a cost minimization objective is proposed that is to be achieved based on the real-time electrical price. The results show...... that the proposed framework and methods will help the targeted DC residential system to reduce the total cost and reach stability and efficiency....

  8. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  9. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  10. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  11. A Systematical Framework of Schedule Risk Management for Power Grid Engineering Projects’ Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Schedule risks are the main threat for high efficiency of schedule management in power grid engineering projects (PGEP. This paper aims to build a systematical framework for schedule risk management, which consists of three dimensions, including the personnel dimension, method dimension and time dimension, namely supervisory personnel, management methods and the construction process, respectively. Responsibilities of staff with varied functions are discussed in the supervisory personnel part, and six stages and their corresponding 40 key works are ensured as the time dimension. Risk identification, analysis, evaluation and prevention together formed the method dimension. Based on this framework, 222 schedule risks occur in the whole process of PGEPs are identified via questionnaires and expert interviews. Then, the relationship among each risk is figured out based on the Interpretative Structure Model (ISM method and the impact of each risk is quantitatively assessed by establishing evaluation system. The actual practice of the proposed framework is verified through the analysis of the first stage of a PGEP. Finally, the results show that this framework of schedule risk management is meaningful for improving the efficiency of project management. It provides managers with a clearer procedure with which to conduct risk management, helps them to timely detect risks and prevent risks from occurring. It is also easy for managers to judge the influence level of each risk, so they can take actions based on the level of each risk’s severity. Overall, it is beneficial for power grid enterprises to achieve a sustainable management.

  12. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  13. Accelerator magnet power supply using storage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, a study investigated the feasibility of a large, 60 GeV accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design of the magnet power supply (PS() and energy storage system. The main ring magnets are supplied by six, high-voltage and two, low-voltage power supplies. These power supplies drive a trapezoidal shaped current wave through the magnets. The peak current is 10 kA and the repetition frequency is 3.3 Hz. During the acceleration period the current is increased from 1040 A to 10,000 A within 50 msec which requires a loop voltage of 120 kV and a peak power of 1250 MW. During the reset period, the PS operates as an inverter with a peak power of -1250 MW. The large energy fluctuation necessitates the use of a storage generator. Because of the relatively high operation frequency, this generator operates in a transient mode which significantly increases the rotor current and losses. The storage generator is directly driven by a variable speed drive, which draws a practically constant power of 17 MW from the ac supply network and eliminates the pulse loading. For the reduction of dc ripple, the power supplies operate in a 24 pulse mode

  14. Analysis of Linear MHD Power Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1965-02-15

    The finite electrode size effects on the performance of an infinitely long MHD power generation duct are calculated by means of conformal mapping. The general conformal transformation is deduced and applied in a graphic way. The analysis includes variations in the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter of the gas and the electrode/insulator length ratio as well as the influence of the external circuitry and loading. A general criterion for a minimum of the generator internal resistance is given. The same criterion gives the conditions for the occurrence of internal current leakage between adjacent electrodes. It is also shown that the highest power output at a prescribed efficiency is always obtained when the current is made to flow between exactly opposed electrodes. Curves are presented showing the power-efficiency relations and other generator properties as depending on the segmentation degree and the Hall parameter in the cases of axial and transverse power extraction. The implications of limiting the current to flow between a finite number of identical electrodes are introduced and combined with the condition for current flow between opposed electrodes. The characteristics of generators with one or a few external loads can then be determined completely and examples are given in a table. It is shown that the performance of such generators must not necessarily be inferior to that of segmented generators with many independent loads. However, the problems of channel end losses and off-design loading have not been taken into consideration.

  15. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    the possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without......Denmark has the World?s highest penetration of wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 (DEA, 2004). This is unevenly distributed in the two electricity systems of Denmark giving a share as high as 20.7% in Western Denmark in 2003 up from 18...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  16. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  17. Power import or domestic power generation using gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettler, M.; Bohnenschaefer, W.; Schlesinger, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents expert opinion on the question of how Switzerland could meet its demands for power in the future. The results of the analysis of two options - the import of electrical power or its generation using natural-gas-fired power stations - made in the light of gas market liberalisation are presented. These include the assessment of the use of 'GuD' (combined gas and steam-turbine) power stations in the 100 MW e l to 400 MW e l class regarding their cost, their emissions and primary energy consumption. The authors discuss the assessments from the political and economic points of view. An appendix supplies characteristic data for 'GuD' power stations and an example of a model calculation for a 400 MW e l 'GuD' power station

  18. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su

    1997-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : - long-term forecast to the year of 2040 is provided for nuclear electricity generating capacity by means of logistic curve fitting method. - the role of nuclear power in a national economy is analyzed in terms of environmental regulation. To do so, energy-economy linked model is developed. By using this model, the benefits from the introduction of nuclear power in Korea are estimated. Study on inter-industry economic activity for nuclear industry is carried out by means of an input-output analysis. Nuclear industry is examined in terms of inducement effect of production, of value-added, and of import. - economic analysis of nuclear power generation is performed especially taking into consideration wide variations of foreign currency exchange rate. The result is expressed in levelized generating costs. (author). 27 refs., 24 tabs., 44 figs

  19. A Heuristic Approach for Determining Lot Sizes and Schedules Using Power-of-Two Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ekinci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining realistic and easy-to-schedule lot sizes in a multiproduct, multistage manufacturing environment. We concentrate on a specific type of production, namely, flow shop type production. The model developed consists of two parts, lot sizing problem and scheduling problem. In lot sizing problem, we employ binary integer programming and determine reorder intervals for each product using power-of-two policy. In the second part, using the results obtained of the lot sizing problem, we employ mixed integer programming to determine schedules for a multiproduct, multistage case with multiple machines in each stage. Finally, we provide a numerical example and compare the results with similar methods found in practice.

  20. Outline of geothermal power generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Y

    1960-01-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy in electrical power generation throughout the world is described. Details of generating capacity and cost are given for Larderello, Italy; Wairakei, New Zealand: and the Geysers, USA. In Japan three types of conversion systems are used. These include the direct use of steam, direct use of hot water and binary fluid type systems. The history of Japanese investigation and exploitation of geothermal energy is reviewed and the status of the Matsukawa, Hakone, Otake and Takenoyu geothermal power plants is discussed. It is recommended that laws be enacted in Japan to encourage the development of this form of energy conversion.

  1. Analysis of Application Power and Schedule Composition in a High Performance Computing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purkayastha, Avi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wunder, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-05

    As the capacity of high performance computing (HPC) systems continues to grow, small changes in energy management have the potential to produce significant energy savings. In this paper, we employ an extensive informatics system for aggregating and analyzing real-time performance and power use data to evaluate energy footprints of jobs running in an HPC data center. We look at the effects of algorithmic choices for a given job on the resulting energy footprints, and analyze application-specific power consumption, and summarize average power use in the aggregate. All of these views reveal meaningful power variance between classes of applications as well as chosen methods for a given job. Using these data, we discuss energy-aware cost-saving strategies based on reordering the HPC job schedule. Using historical job and power data, we present a hypothetical job schedule reordering that: (1) reduces the facility's peak power draw and (2) manages power in conjunction with a large-scale photovoltaic array. Lastly, we leverage this data to understand the practical limits on predicting key power use metrics at the time of submission.

  2. Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)

  3. Power generator system for HCL reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, R. L.; Parker, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A power generation system includes a nuclear reactor having a core which in addition to generating heat generates a high frequency electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic radiation chamber is positioned to receive at least a portion of the radiation generated by the reactor core. Hydrogen and chlorine are connected into the electromagnetic reactor chamber and react with controlled explosive violence when exposed to the radiation from the nuclear reactor. Oxygen is fed into the reactor chamber as a control medium. The resulting gases under high pressure and temperature are utilized to drive a gas turbine generators. In an alternative embodiment the highly ionized gases, hydrogen and chlorine are utilized as a fluid medium for use in magnetohydrodynamic generators which are attached to the electromagnetic reactor chambers

  4. PEOPLE - The cutting edge in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, M.J.; Hankal, S.

    1995-01-01

    As competition for the United States power consumer increases, generating companies must seek new ways to do business. One way to keep up with the pace of change is to implement unique ideas into various areas of daily operation at the generating station. From subtle new management styles to ambitious employee education programs, changes in operating the management techniques can produce valuable results over time. An educated confident workforce is capable of vast improvement in efficiency and technical competence. We become empowered

  5. Life cycle management at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the Life Cycle Management (LCM) program at Ontario Power Generation. LCM is carried out at different levels that includes components, systems, unit and fleet. A system involves cumulative effect of individual component aging. These components include steam generators, pressure tubes and feeders. A unit involves an overall unit aging strategy integrating all systems. At the fleet level, there is an optimal strategy for plant-level investments including end-of-life of a unit

  6. Electric power generation and uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szergenyi, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    Assuming the present trend of nuclear power generation growth, the ratio of nuclear energy in the world power balance will double by the turn of the century. The time of reasonably exploited uranium resources can be predicted as a few decades. Therefore, new nuclear reactor types and more rational uranium management is needed to prolong life of known uranium resources. It was shown how can a better uranium utilization be expected by closed fuel cycles, and what advantages in uranium management can be expected by a better co-operation between small countries and big powers. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Stochastic Methods in Power System Scheduling and Dispatch with Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yishen [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Cong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As more wind power and other renewable resources are being integrated into the electric power grid, the forecast uncertainty brings operational challenges for the power system operators. In this report, different operational strategies for uncertainty management are presented and evaluated. A comprehensive and consistent simulation framework is developed to analyze the performance of different reserve policies and scheduling techniques under uncertainty in wind power. Numerical simulations are conducted on a modified version of the IEEE 118-bus system with a 20% wind penetration level, comparing deterministic, interval, and stochastic unit commitment strategies. The results show that stochastic unit commitment provides a reliable schedule without large increases in operational costs. Moreover, decomposition techniques, such as load shift factor and Benders decomposition, can help in overcoming the computational obstacles to stochastic unit commitment and enable the use of a larger scenario set to represent forecast uncertainty. In contrast, deterministic and interval unit commitment tend to give higher system costs as more reserves are being scheduled to address forecast uncertainty. However, these approaches require a much lower computational effort Choosing a proper lower bound for the forecast uncertainty is important for balancing reliability and system operational cost in deterministic and interval unit commitment. Finally, we find that the introduction of zonal reserve requirements improves reliability, but at the expense of higher operational costs.

  8. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  9. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  10. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  11. Ensuring the Reliable Operation of the Power Grid: State-Based and Distributed Approaches to Scheduling Energy and Contingency Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Jose Fernando

    Keeping a contingency reserve in power systems is necessary to preserve the security of real-time operations. This work studies two different approaches to the optimal allocation of energy and reserves in the day-ahead generation scheduling process. Part I presents a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment model to co-optimize energy and the locational reserves required to respond to a set of uncertain generation contingencies, using a novel state-based formulation. The model is applied in an offer-based electricity market to allocate contingency reserves throughout the power grid, in order to comply with the N-1 security criterion under transmission congestion. The objective is to minimize expected dispatch and reserve costs, together with post contingency corrective redispatch costs, modeling the probability of generation failure and associated post contingency states. The characteristics of the scheduling problem are exploited to formulate a computationally efficient method, consistent with established operational practices. We simulated the distribution of locational contingency reserves on the IEEE RTS96 system and compared the results with the conventional deterministic method. We found that assigning locational spinning reserves can guarantee an N-1 secure dispatch accounting for transmission congestion at a reasonable extra cost. The simulations also showed little value of allocating downward reserves but sizable operating savings from co-optimizing locational nonspinning reserves. Overall, the results indicate the computational tractability of the proposed method. Part II presents a distributed generation scheduling model to optimally allocate energy and spinning reserves among competing generators in a day-ahead market. The model is based on the coordination between individual generators and a market entity. The proposed method uses forecasting, augmented pricing and locational signals to induce efficient commitment of generators based on firm

  12. Improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By principle, hydroelectric power generation relies on the law of conservation of energy where kinetic energy that resulted from the movement of the mass of water from the river is translated into electr icity, the quantum of which depends on systemic variables viz: plant efficiency, volumetric water flow through the turbine and ...

  13. Power generation choices: costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document from OECD deals with the choices between the different means of producing electricity: supply and demand trends, power generation choices, management of development and technologies, environmental impacts and costs around energy sources. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers of this volume. (TEC)

  14. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  15. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  16. Free piston linear generator for low grid power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Izzeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating power is of great importance nowadays across the world. However, recently, the world became aware of the climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emissions and began seeking solutions to reduce the negative impact on the environment. Besides, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and their environmental impact, make it is crucial to develop clean energy sources, and efforts are focused on developing and improving the efficiency of all energy consuming systems. The tubular permanent magnet linear generators (TPMLGs are the best candidate for energy converters. Despite being suffering problem of attraction force between permanent magnets and stator teeth, to eliminate such attraction force, ironless-stator could be considered. Thus, they could waive the presence of any magnetic attraction between the moving and stator part. This paper presents the design and analysis of ironless -cored TPMLG for low grid power generation. The main advantages of this generator are the low cogging force and high efficiency. Therefore, the magnetic field computation of the proposed generator has been performed by applying a magnetic vector potential and utilizing a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA. Moreover, the experimental results for the current profile, pressure profile and velocity profile have been presented.

  17. Ocean Current Power Generator. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G. A.

    2002-07-26

    The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.

  18. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Lim, Chae Young

    1998-12-01

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO 2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Isolated Power Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Improved Power Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sabha Raj; Patel, Ashish; Giri, Ashutosh

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals wind energy based power generation system using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). It is controlled using advanced enhanced phase-lock loop for power quality features using distribution static compensator to eliminate the harmonics and to provide KVAR compensation as well as load balancing. It also manages rated potential at the point of common interface under linear and non-linear loads. In order to have better efficiency and reliable operation of PMSG driven by wind turbine, it is necessary to analyze the governing equation of wind based turbine and PMSG under fixed and variable wind speed. For handling power quality problems, power electronics based shunt connected custom power device is used in three wire system. The simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been carried out in order to demonstrate this model and control approach used for the power quality enhancement. The performance results show the adequate performance of PMSG based power generation system and control algorithm.

  20. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  1. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  2. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  3. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  4. High power RF oscillator with Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    A method to maintain RF oscillation by using many Marx generators was proposed and studied experimentally. Many charging circuits were connected to an oscillator circuit, and successive pulsed charging was made. This successive charging amplified and maintained the RF oscillation. The use of vacuum gaps and high power silicon diodes improved the characteristics of RF current cut-off of the circuit. The efficiency of the pulsed charging from Marx generators to a condenser was theoretically investigated. The theoretical result showed the maximum efficiency of 0.98. The practical efficiency obtained by using a proposed circuit with a high power oscillator was in the range 0.50 to 0.56. The obtained effective output power of the RF pulses was 11 MW. The maximum holding time of the RF pulses was about 21 microsecond. (Kato, T.)

  5. Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given

  6. Packet-Scheduling Algorithm by the Ratio of Transmit Power to the Transmission Bits in 3GPP LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Gye-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet scheduler plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the 3GPP long-term evolution (LTE based on packet-switching operation. In this paper, a novel minimum transmit power-based (MP packet-scheduling algorithm is proposed that can achieve power-efficient transmission to the UEs while providing both system throughput gain and fairness improvement. The proposed algorithm is based on a new scheduling metric focusing on the ratio of the transmit power per bit and allocates the physical resource block (PRB to the UE that requires the least ratio of the transmit power per bit. Through computer simulation, the performance of the proposed MP packet-scheduling algorithm is compared with the conventional packet-scheduling algorithms by two primary criteria: fairness and throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the fairness and throughput.

  7. A SCHEDULING SCHEME WITH DYNAMIC FREQUENCY CLOCKING AND MULTIPLE VOLTAGES FOR LOW POWER DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Dongxin; Wang Ling; Yang Xiaozong

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, a scheduling scheme based on Dynamic Frequency Clocking (DFC) and multiple voltages is proposed for low power designs under the timing and the resource constraints.Unlike the conventional methods at high level synthesis where only voltages of nodes were considered,the scheme based on a gain function considers both voltage and frequency simultaneously to reduce energy consumption. Experiments with a number of DSP benchmarks show that the proposed scheme achieves an effective energy reduction.

  8. QUALITY EVALUATION OF THE TPP POWER GENERATING UNITS WEAR RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  9. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  10. Thermoelectrical generator powered by human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasyova, Zuzana; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the possibility of using alternative energy sources for power of biomedical sensors with low power consumption, especially using the Peltier effect sources. Energy for powering of the target device has been used from the available renewable photovoltaic effect. The work is using of "energy harvesting" or "harvest energy" produced by autonomous generator harvesting accumulate energy. It allows to start working from 0.25 V. Measuring chain consists of further circuit which is a digital monitoring device for monitoring a voltage, current and power with I2C bus interface. Using the Peltier effect was first tested in a thermocontainer with water when the water heating occurred on the basis of different temperature differential between the cold and hot side of the Peltier element result in the production of energy. Realized prototype was also experimentally tested on human skin, specifically on the back, both in idle mode and under load.

  11. Improvement of power quality using distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, M.A.; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento A.C., Electronica y T.E., Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); de-la-Rosa, J.J.G. [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202-Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain); Ruiz-de-Adana, M. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper addresses how Distributed Generation (DG), particularly when configured in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode, can become a powerful reliability solution in highlight automated factories, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper presents results from the PQ audit conducted at a highly automated plant over last year. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags. Among all categories of electrical disturbances, the voltage sag (dip) and momentary interruption are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addressed the role of the DG/CHP on the reliability of digital factories. (author)

  12. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  13. Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Grid-connected microgrids with storage systems are reliable configurations for critical loads which can not tolerate interruptions of energy supply. In such cases, some of the energy resources should be scheduled in order to coordinate optimally the power generation according to a defined objective...

  14. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  15. Generation and exploration of aggregation abstractions for scheduling and resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Linden, Theodore A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents research on the abstraction of computational theories for scheduling and resource allocation. The paper describes both theory and methods for the automated generation of aggregation abstractions and approximations in which detailed resource allocation constraints are replaced by constraints between aggregate demand and capacity. The interaction of aggregation abstraction generation with the more thoroughly investigated abstractions of weakening operator preconditions is briefly discussed. The purpose of generating abstract theories for aggregated demand and resources includes: answering queries about aggregate properties, such as gross feasibility; reducing computational costs by using the solution of aggregate problems to guide the solution of detailed problems; facilitating reformulating theories to approximate problems for which there are efficient problem-solving methods; and reducing computational costs of scheduling by providing more opportunities for variable and value-ordering heuristics to be effective. Experiments are being developed to characterize the properties of aggregations that make them cost effective. Both abstract and concrete theories are represented in a variant of first-order predicate calculus, which is a parameterized multi-sorted logic that facilitates specification of large problems. A particular problem is conceptually represented as a set of ground sentences that is consistent with a quantified theory.

  16. Schedule and cost reduction of nuclear generating facilities in Ontario study overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.

    1991-01-01

    During the five year period 1985 to 1990, Ontario Hydro conducted a major study with the objective to reduce the cost and construction duration for future nuclear generating facilities in Ontario. This paper reports on the study called Major Projects: Schedule and Cost Reduction Study (SCRS). Ontario Hydro is a public utility with the responsibility for meeting electricity need for the province of Ontario with a population of 9.6 million. In order to adequately address future electricity needs, Ontario Hydro has developed and submitted a demand/supply plan which covers the next 25 years. The SCRS for major projects contributed to this demand/supply plan

  17. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  18. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  19. A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model for a virtual power plant connected to a wind–photovoltaic–energy storage system considering the uncertainty and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Tan, Zhongfu; Yuan, Jinyun; Tan, Qingkun; Li, Huanhuan; Dong, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on Virtual Power Plant (VPP). • Virtual Power Plant consists of WPP, PV, CGT, ESSs and DRPs. • Robust optimization theory is introduced to analyze uncertainties. • A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model is proposed for VPP. • Models are built to measure the impacts of ESSs and DERPs on VPP operation. - Abstract: To reduce the uncertain influence of wind power and solar photovoltaic power on virtual power plant (VPP) operation, robust optimization theory (ROT) is introduced to build a stochastic scheduling model for VPP considering the uncertainty, price-based demand response (PBDR) and incentive-based demand response (IBDR). First, the VPP components are described including the wind power plant (WPP), photovoltaic generators (PV), convention gas turbine (CGT), energy storage systems (ESSs) and demand resource providers (DRPs). Then, a scenario generation and reduction frame is proposed for analyzing and simulating output stochastics based on the interval method and the Kantorovich distance. Second, a bi-level robust scheduling model is proposed with a double robust coefficient for WPP and PV. In the upper layer model, the maximum VPP operation income is taken as the optimization objective for building the scheduling model with the day-ahead prediction output of WPP and PV. In the lower layer model, the day-ahead scheduling scheme is revised with the actual output of the WPP and PV under the objectives of the minimum system net load and the minimum system operation cost. Finally, the independent micro-grid in a coastal island in eastern China is used for the simulation analysis. The results illustrate that the model can overcome the influence of uncertainty on VPP operations and reduce the system power shortage cost by connecting the day-ahead scheduling with the real-time scheduling. ROT could provide a flexible decision tool for decision makers, effectively addressing system uncertainties. ESSs could

  20. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Scheduling and coordination for in-service inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songbai

    1996-11-01

    Based on the practice and experiences of pre-service and in-service inspections for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) by Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operation (RINPO) following RSEM code, requirements of utility and actual situation in China, the in-service inspection preparation for organization, techniques and equipment/tooling, materials, personnel and documentation is briefly described. And the scheduling and coordinating consideration for planed in-service inspection activities during NPP outage is emphatically introduced. (2 refs., 4 figs.)

  2. Regulation of Electric Power Generation while Improving TTP Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking integrated power system of theRepublicofBelarusas an example the paper considers a possibility of heat accumulator use for TPP operation in accordance with the schedule of electric power consumption while maintaining daily supply of heat energy from turbine power takes-off and without involvement of peak-loader boilers used for covering energy loads.

  3. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  4. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    the challenging issues and, more importantly, to leverage the energy generation, stringent demands from both utility operators and consumers have been imposed on the DPGS. Furthermore, as the core of energy conversion, numerous power electronic converters employing advanced control techniques have been developed...... for the DPGS to consolidate the integration. In light of the above, this paper reviews the power-conversion and control technologies used for DPGSs. The impacts of the DPGS on the distributed grid are also examined, and more importantly, strategies for enhancing the connection and protection of the DPGS...

  5. Power generation: country risk and other financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, M.

    2000-01-01

    Larger banks are very familiar with power generation financing. However, financing nuclear power plants remains a very peculiar field where nothing is possible without an agreement between the country of the buyer (sovereign guarantee) and the country of the supplier (intervention of the Export Credit Agency). The banks involved in such financing will commit themselves for a very long period of time which will exceed the financial markets' standard capabilities. Therefore it is only the intervention of the Export Credit Agencies which will allow the implementation of the required financing. It is, in fact, impossible to by-pass the country risks for these operations. Who, in 1986, during the signing ceremony of the Daya Bay contract, in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, would have imagined that, three years later, the tanks would be rolling in on the adjacent Tien An Men Square, to confront the students and that one of the consequences would be the re-scheduling of the credits granted to Bank of China? Nobody. The Power Generation, above all the nuclear one, is a long term process and, as ever, all the parameters are not known from the very beginning. This situation provides an ideal setting for a good combination of joys and shudders. (author)

  6. Initial examination of the effects of overtime and shift scheduling on nuclear power plant safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.; Olson, J.; Montgomery, J.

    1990-01-01

    The research reported here uses currently available data to begin to document overtime and shift scheduling practices in the nuclear industry and assess their safety consequences. Overtime and the 12-hour shift schedule have been found to affect employee fatigue and human error in other industries but neither of these practices have been systematically researched within the nuclear industry. Overtime has long been a standard practice in the nuclear industry and, recently, several licensees have adopted a 12-hour shift schedule for control room operations crews. Although 12-hour shifts have certain benefits for the employer and employee alike (e.g., can require fewer total employees and provide longer periods of time-off) there is some concern that the 12-hour shift may produce greater employee fatigue. Moreover, the 12-hour shift may exacerbate the negative effect of overtime. The potential effect of human error in the nuclear industry for the health and safety of both nuclear power plant workers and the general public requires that these practices be assessed. Data on overtime practices was obtained from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) for plants covered by the bargaining unit - approximately 63% of the total number of operating plants. Information on operator shift schedule was collected from all operating plants in 1987 by the NRC. The research produced fairly strong evidence that greater amounts of overtime worked by operators is associated with a greater number of operational problems

  7. Some economic aspects of steam generator replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebegner, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generator replacements performed over last decade (about 25 replacements until now), indicate trends towards improved techniques, shorter schedules and reduced total exposure and total costs. The goal of this paper is to give a worldwide review of SG replacement experience with accent on the economic aspect of the SG replacement. The main information about carried out replacements will be presented: cost, schedules, exposures, SG supplier and type, date of replacement, etc. Furthermore, the paper will contain the list of planned steam generator replacements in Europe, Japan and US future replacement plans. Finally, some of NPPs will be described whose initial nominal power has been increased along with SG replacement. (author)

  8. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  9. Network integration of distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Peter; Bayoumi, Deia; Haederli, Christoph; Julian, Danny; Suter, Marco

    The world-wide move to deregulation of the electricity and other energy markets, concerns about the environment, and advances in renewable and high efficiency technologies has led to major emphasis being placed on the use of small power generation units in a variety of forms. The paper reviews the position of distributed generation (DG, as these small units are called in comparison with central power plants) with respect to the installation and interconnection of such units with the classical grid infrastructure. In particular, the status of technical standards both in Europe and USA, possible ways to improve the interconnection situation, and also the need for decisions that provide a satisfactory position for the network operator (who remains responsible for the grid, its operation, maintenance and investment plans) are addressed.

  10. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  11. ICAN: High power neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustaizis, S.D.; Lalousis, P.; Perrakis, K.; Auvray, P.; Larour, J.; Ducret, J.E.; Balcou, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years there is an increasing interest on the development of alternative high power new negative ion source for Tokamak applications. The proposed new neutral beam device presents a number of advantages with respect to: the density current, the acceleration voltage, the relative compact dimension of the negative ion source, and the coupling of a high power laser beam for photo-neutralization of the negative ion beam. Here we numerically investigate, using a multi- fluid 1-D code, the acceleration and the extraction of high power ion beam from a Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID). The diode configuration will be coupled to a high power device capable of extracting a current up to a few kA with an accelerating voltage up to MeV. An efficiency of up to 92% of the coupling of the laser beam, is required in order to obtain a high power, up to GW, neutral beam. The new high energy, high average power, high efficiency (up to 30%) ICAN fiber laser is proposed for both the plasma generation and the photo-neutralizer configuration. (authors)

  12. Improvement of the Performance of Scheduled Stepwise Power Programme Changes within the European Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welfonder, E.; Weissbach, T.; Schulz, U.

    2008-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the electrical energy market, the technical realisation of power transactions based on energy market contracts often effects large stepwise power programme changes – especially at the change of the hour. Due to mainly economic reasons these stepwise power programme changes...... extended discussions with power plant and power system operators as well as with power plant dispatchers the described issues will be adopted into a VGB-recommendation which shall be published by VGB Powertech for Germany and Europe. Subsequently, it is intended to include the main elements of the VGB...

  13. Unregulated generation relationships at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrayshuen, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the contractual and mandated power generation pricing relationships between an electric utility and unregulated power generation stations. The topics of the paper include types of generation facilities, current capacity of unregulated generators, rights to power markets, utility planning, responding to a changing market, power purchase agreement relationships, enforcement and renegotiation

  14. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  15. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  16. Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.

  17. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  18. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  19. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Marmolejo

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  20. Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures

  1. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Miao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of electric vehicles into the transportation sector helps reduce global warming and carbon emissions. The interaction between electric vehicles and the power grid has spurred the emergence of a smart grid technology, denoted as vehicle-to grid-technology. Vehicle-to-grid technology manages the energy exchange between a large fleet of electric vehicles and the power grid to accomplish shared advantages for the vehicle owners and the power utility. This paper presents an optimal scheduling of vehicle-to-grid using the genetic algorithm to minimize the power grid load variance. This is achieved by allowing electric vehicles charging (grid-to-vehicle whenever the actual power grid loading is lower than the target loading, while conducting electric vehicle discharging (vehicle-to-grid whenever the actual power grid loading is higher than the target loading. The vehicle-to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various simulation investigations. This research proposal also recommends an appropriate setting for the power utility in terms of the selection of the target load based on the electric vehicle historical data.

  2. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  3. Photovoltaic technologies for commerical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  4. Pec power generation system using pure energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Sonai, A; Kano, A [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Cell Technology Development Dept.; Yatake, T [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power generation system using pure hydrogen was developed by Toshiba International Fuel Cells (TIFC), Japan, under the sponsorship of the World Energy Network (WE-NET) Project. The goals of the project consist of the construction of 30 kilowatt power generation plant for stationary application and target electrical efficiency of over 50 per cent. Two critical technologies were investigated for high utilization stack, as high hydrogen utilization operation represents one of the most important items for the achievement of target efficiency. The first technology examined was the humidification method from cathode side, while the second was the two-block configuration, which is arranged in series in accordance with the flow of hydrogen. Using these technologies as a basis for the work, a 5 kilowatt short stack was developed, and a steady performance was obtained under high hydrogen utilization of up to 98 per cent. It is expected that by March 2003 the design of the hydrogen fueled 30 kilowatt power generation plant will be completed and assembled. 1 ref., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  5. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  6. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  7. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  8. Parylene-based electret power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsi-wen; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    An electret power generator is developed using a new electret made of a charged parylene HT® thin-film polymer. Here, parylene HT® is a room-temperature chemical-vapor-deposited thin-film polymer that is MEMS and CMOS compatible. With corona charge implantation, the surface charge density of parylene HT® is measured as high as 3.69 mC m −2 . Moreover, it is found that, with annealing at 400 °C for 1 h before charge implantation, both the long-term stability and the high-temperature reliability of the electret are improved. For the generator, a new design of the stator/rotor is also developed. The new micro electret generator does not require any sophisticated gap-controlling structure such as tethers. With the conformal coating capability of parylene HT®, it is also feasible to have the electret on the rotors, which is made of either a piece of metal or an insulator. The maximum power output, 17.98 µW, is obtained at 50 Hz with an external load of 80 MΩ. For low frequencies, the generator can harvest 7.7 µW at 10 Hz and 8.23 µW at 20 Hz

  9. Strategic Maintenance Scheduling of an Offshore Wind Farm in a Deregulated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mazidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for strategic maintenance scheduling of offshore wind farms (SMSOWF in a deregulated power system. The objective of the model is to plan the maintenance schedules in a way to maximize the profit of the offshore wind farm. In addition, some network constraints, such as transmission lines capacity, and wind farm constraints, such as labor working shift, wave height limit and wake effect, as well as unexpected outages, are included in deterministic and stochastic studies. Moreover, the proposedmodel provides theability to incorporate information from condition monitoring systems. SMSOWF is formulated through a bi-level formulation and then transformed into a single-level through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. The model is validated through a test system, and the results demonstrate applicability, advantages and challenges of harnessing the full potential of the model.

  10. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  11. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  12. Long-term generation scheduling of Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydro plants considering monthly streamflow forecasting error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Mengfei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Chunlong; Zhu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Monthly streamflow forecasting error is considered. • An improved parallel progressive optimality algorithm is proposed. • Forecasting dispatching chart is manufactured accompanying with a set of rules. • Applications in Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydro plants. - Abstract: Reliable streamflow forecasts are very significant for reservoir operation and hydropower generation. But for monthly streamflow forecasting, the forecasting result is unreliable and it is hard to be utilized, although it has a certain reference value for long-term hydro generation scheduling. Current researches mainly focus on deterministic scheduling, and few of them consider the uncertainties. So this paper considers the forecasting error which exists in monthly streamflow forecasting and proposes a new long-term hydro generation scheduling method called forecasting dispatching chart for Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydro plants. First, in order to consider the uncertainties of inflow, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to generate streamflow data according to the forecasting value and error distribution curves. Then the large amount of data obtained by Monte Carlo simulation is used as inputs for long-term hydro generation scheduling model. Because of the large amount of streamflow data, the computation speed of conventional algorithm cannot meet the demand. So an improved parallel progressive optimality algorithm is proposed to solve the long-term hydro generation scheduling problem and a series of solutions are obtained. These solutions constitute an interval set, unlike the unique solution in the traditional deterministic long-term hydro generation scheduling. At last, the confidence intervals of the solutions are calculated and forecasting dispatching chart is proposed as a new method for long-term hydro generation scheduling. A set of rules are proposed corresponding to forecasting dispatching chart. The chart is tested for practical operations and achieves

  13. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  14. An on-time power-aware scheduling scheme for medical sensor SoC-based WBAN systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Jung-Guk

    2012-12-27

    The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless communication scheme with an extremely low duty-cycle, high bit rate, and energy-efficient media access protocols. Because such devices must be sustained for over 5 years without access to battery replacement, they must be designed to have extremely low power consumption in sleep mode. Here, an on-time, energy-efficient scheduling scheme is proposed that performs power adjustments to minimize the sleep-mode current. The novelty of this scheduler is that it increases the determinacy of power adjustment and the predictability of scheduling by employing non-pre-emptible dual priority scheduling. This predictable scheduling also guarantees the punctuality of important periodic tasks based on their serialization, by using their worst case execution time) and the power consumption optimization. The scheduler was embedded into a system on chip (SoC) developed to support the wireless body area network-a wakeup-radio and wakeup-timer for implantable medical devices. This scheduling system is validated by the experimental results of its performance when used with life-time extensions of ICD devices.

  15. An On-Time Power-Aware Scheduling Scheme for Medical Sensor SoC-Based WBAN Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Jung-Guk

    2013-01-01

    The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless communication scheme with an extremely low duty-cycle, high bit rate, and energy-efficient media access protocols. Because such devices must be sustained for over 5 years without access to battery replacement, they must be designed to have extremely low power consumption in sleep mode. Here, an on-time, energy-efficient scheduling scheme is proposed that performs power adjustments to minimize the sleep-mode current. The novelty of this scheduler is that it increases the determinacy of power adjustment and the predictability of scheduling by employing non-pre-emptible dual priority scheduling. This predictable scheduling also guarantees the punctuality of important periodic tasks based on their serialization, by using their worst case execution time) and the power consumption optimization. The scheduler was embedded into a system on chip (SoC) developed to support the wireless body area network—a wakeup-radio and wakeup-timer for implantable medical devices. This scheduling system is validated by the experimental results of its performance when used with life-time extensions of ICD devices. PMID:23271602

  16. An On-Time Power-Aware Scheduling Scheme for Medical Sensor SoC-Based WBAN Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Guk Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD, which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless communication scheme with an extremely low duty-cycle, high bit rate, and energy-efficient media access protocols. Because such devices must be sustained for over 5 years without access to battery replacement, they must be designed to have extremely low power consumption in sleep mode. Here, an on-time, energy-efficient scheduling scheme is proposed that performs power adjustments to minimize the sleep-mode current. The novelty of this scheduler is that it increases the determinacy of power adjustment and the predictability of scheduling by employing non-pre-emptible dual priority scheduling. This predictable scheduling also guarantees the punctuality of important periodic tasks based on their serialization, by using their worst case execution time and the power consumption optimization. The scheduler was embedded into a system on chip (SoC developed to support the wireless body area network—a wakeup-radio and wakeup-timer for implantable medical devices. This scheduling system is validated by the experimental results of its performance when used with life-time extensions of ICD devices.

  17. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-01-01

    Kuwait is facing a surge in the consumption of power. The current power fuel mix, based on oil, appears unsustainable. Yet Kuwait has a large number of assets. The power fuel mix can be optimized and diversified to include alternatives to oil such as gas or renewables, so as to benefit from the opportunity cost of oil (the price at which this oil could be sold on international market). The country has gas reserves and a good potential in renewable technologies. If energy efficiency can be considered as a potential resource, then much can be achieved in this area as well, given Kuwait's current power and water per capita consumption rates, which are among the highest in the world. The present tendency has been to go for step-by-step fixes, adding emergency power plants which have increased power generation costs and a non-optimized system. Kuwait is on the verge of defining a new power fuel mix, with more gas, and developing new R and D projects. In this context, this memorandum looks at alternatives, and concludes that in the long term a diversified power mix has to be developed. The current gas glut at the world level, resulting both from the production of unconventional gas resources and the economic recession hitting Europe, offers a sizable opportunity for gas imports. A transition strategy for the power sector could make use of gas imports. In the longer term, however, Kuwait should not make a one-way bet and develop its domestic gas resources. This paper urges the adoption of a common gas strategy integrated into a power sector strategy, through consultation with all actors. It would include reserves, costs, feasibility and potential uses, as well as economic opportunities. As the region is facing gas shortages and Kuwait ranks independence of supply among its policy priorities, renewable, and in particular solar have their own place in the power mix. The country indeed disposes of substantial and relatively predictable renewable energy resources. Those are

  18. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  19. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  20. Development of the ultra high efficiency thermal power generation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Toshihiro

    2010-09-15

    In order to prevent global warming, attention is focused on nuclear power generation and renewable energy such as wind and solar power generation. The electric power suppliers of Japan are aiming to increase the amount of nuclear and non-fossil fuel power generation over 50% of the total power generation by 2020. But this means that the remaining half will still be of thermal power generation using fossil fuel and will still play an important role. Under such circumstances, further efficiency improvement of the thermal power generation and its aggressive implementation is ongoing in Japan.

  1. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  2. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  3. Development of wind power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiquan, Y.; Yan, C.; Lijun, X.

    1995-01-01

    Present status and development of wind power generation in China is described in this paper. China is vast in territory with abundant wind resources. The exploitable wind energy in China is estimated up to 253,000 MW. At present, more than 150 thousand small WTGs of a total capacity of 17 MW are used to provide residential electricity uses in non-grid connected areas and 13 wind farms, with above 160 medium and large scale grid connected WTGs (50-500 kW) of a total capacity of 30 MW, have been constructed. At the same time, some progress has been made in the fields of nation-wide wind resource assessment, measurement technology of wind turbine performance, the assimilation of foreign wind turbine technology, grid connected WTG technology and the operation of wind farm etc. It is planned that the total installed capacity of WTGs will reach 1000 MW by the end of 2000. Wind power generation could be a part of electric power industry in China. (Author)

  4. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  5. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  6. Multi-objective stochastic scheduling optimization model for connecting a virtual power plant to wind-photovoltaic-electric vehicles considering uncertainties and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Kangting; Tan, Qingkun; Tan, Zhongfu

    2016-01-01

    optimize customers’ power consumption behaviors and improve the grid connection space of the virtual power plant. The electric vehicle group and demand response could achieve a linkage optimization effect between the generation side and demand side, achieving optimal system scheduling objectives.

  7. Day-Ahead Self-Scheduling of Thermal Generator in Competitive Electricity Market Using Hybrid PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pindoriya, N.M.; Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in day-ahead energy market subject to operational constraints and 2) at the same time, to minimize the risk due to uncertainty in price forecast. Therefore, it is a conflicting biobjective optimization problem which has both binary and continuous optimization variables considered as constrained mixed......This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO) to solve the day-ahead selfscheduling for thermal power producer in competitive electricity market. The objective functions considered to model the selfscheduling problem are: 1) to maximize the profit from selling energy...... integer nonlinear programming. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-scheduling in a dayahead energy market, the locational margin price (LMP) forecast uncertainty in PJM electricity market is considered. An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) is used to forecast the dayahead...

  8. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  9. Low-Complexity Scheduling and Power Adaptation for Coordinated Cloud-Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2017-07-17

    In practical wireless systems, the successful implementation of resource allocation techniques strongly depends on the algorithmic complexity. Consider a cloud-radio access network (CRAN), where the central cloud is responsible for scheduling devices to the frames’ radio resources blocks (RRBs) of the single-antenna base-stations (BSs), adjusting the transmit power levels, and for synchronizing the transmit frames across the connected BSs. Previous studies show that the jointly coordinated scheduling and power control problem in the considered CRAN can be solved using an approach that scales exponentially with the number of BSs, devices, and RRBs, which makes the practical implementation infeasible for reasonably sized networks. This paper instead proposes a low-complexity solution to the problem, under the constraints that each device cannot be served by more than one BS but can be served by multiple RRBs within each BS frame, and under the practical assumption that the channel is constant during the duration of each frame. The paper utilizes graph-theoretical based techniques and shows that constructing a single power control graph is sufficient to obtain the optimal solution with a complexity that is independent of the number of RRBs. Simulation results reveal the optimality of the proposed solution for slow-varying channels, and show that the solution performs near-optimal for highly correlated channels.

  10. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  11. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Clean fossil-fuelled power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using fossil fuels is likely to remain the dominant means of producing electricity in 2030 and even 2050, partly because power stations have long lives. There are two main ways of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. These are carbon capture and storage (CCS), which can produce near-zero CO 2 emissions, and increases in plant efficiency, which can give rise to significant reductions in CO 2 emissions and to reduced costs. If a typical UK coal-fired plant was replaced by today's best available technology, it would lead to reductions of around 25% in emissions of CO 2 per MW h of electricity produced. Future technologies are targeting even larger reductions in emissions, as well as providing a route, with CCS, to zero emissions. These two routes are linked and they are both essential activities on the pathway to zero emissions. This paper focuses on the second route and also covers an additional third route for reducing emissions, the use of biomass. It discusses the current status of the science and technologies for fossil-fuelled power generation and outlines likely future technologies, development targets and timescales. This is followed by a description of the scientific and technological developments that are needed to meet these challenges. Once built, a power plant can last for over 40 years, so the ability to upgrade and retrofit a plant during its lifetime is important

  13. The environmental challenges of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In two decades, three momentous changes have occurred that will influence power generation for decades to come. Coal has become a culprit responsible for respiratory disease and acid rain; carbon dioxide has become a culprit widely believed capable of changes in climate greater than any that have occurred in ten thousand years; and nuclear power in many countries has become an outcast. The irony is that nuclear power promised clean air and no greenhouse effect. The great gathering of heads of state in Rio in 1992 was the celebration of a problem; whether it was the beginning of a solution remains to be seen. The paper is followed by a discussion by Dominique Finon, Director, Institut d'Economie et de Politique de l'Energie, CNRS and Universite of Grenoble, France. He presents a divergent view to the wait-and-see attitude that appears from Schelling's discourse. He points to the increasing array of technological options available to the power industry and discusses the need for dynamic approaches to problems such as global warming. 5 refs

  14. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  15. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  16. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  17. Next-Generation Shipboard DC Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Sulligoi, Giorgio; Cuzner, Rob

    2016-01-01

    sources (RES) are commonly recognized as the major driven force of the revolution, the outburst of customer electronics and new kinds of household electronics is also powering this change. In this context, dc power distribution technologies have made a comeback and keep gaining a commendable increase...... in research interests and industrial applications. In addition, the concept of flexible and smart distribution has also been proposed, which tends to exploit distributed generation and pack the distributed RESs and local electrical loads as an independent and self-sustainable entity, namely microgrid....... At present, the research of dc microgrid has investigated and developed a series of advanced methods in control, management and objective-oriented optimization, which would found the technical interface enabling the future applications in multiple industrial areas, such as smart buildings, electric vehicles...

  18. Integrated control of next generation power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  19. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  20. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kang Miao; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Yong, Jia Ying

    2017-01-01

    -to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance...... of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various...

  1. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs

  3. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  4. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  5. Ontario Power Generation Nuclear: results and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermarkar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the accomplishments of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Nuclear and outlines future opportunities. OPG's mandate is to cost effectively produce electricity, while operating in a safe, open and environmentally responsible manner. OPG's nuclear production has been increasing over the past three years - partly from the addition of newly refurbished Pickering A Units 1 and 4, and partly from the increased production from Darlington and Pickering B. OPG will demonstrate its proficiency and capability in nuclear by continuing to enhance the performance and cost effectiveness of its existing operations. Its priorities are to focus on performance excellence, commercial success, openness, accountability and transparency

  6. Sparking investment in Ontario's power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the business strategy needed to spark investment in Ontario's power generation industry. It examines the process of decision making and investing in an uncertain environment. The paper suggests that any strategy based on one view of the future courts trouble and that strategic flexibility can prepare for what cannot be predicted. Finally the paper suggests that Ontario needs to create a stable policy and regulatory environment that allows investors to fulfill reasonable expectations and investors need to place bets that provide the flexibility to respond quickly to changing market conditions

  7. British power generation/delivery handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the British electricity-supply system and covers: the CEGB, nuclear power - AGR design, boiler plant development coal-fired boilers and oil-fired boilers, steam turbine/generators, boiler-feed pumps, pumped storage, gas turbine plants, transmission system including the link to France, the Sizewell-BPWR, future AGR development, future coal-fired stations, fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification, and wind energy developments. Also included is a list of British equipment suppliers to the electricity supply industry, and a buyer's guide to British equipment and services.

  8. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  9. Bringing customer focus to power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.V. [USGen Power Services (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of the power generation industry and the impact it will have on a company`s success was discussed. Some companies are following one of three distinct strategies for survival, the GENCO, MARKETCO and TRADECO. The GENCO focuses on aggregating low cost, kick butt generation assets that could be either regionally concentrated or geographically distributed. The TRADECO invests in few, or even no, assets. Its only objective is to maximize net income. The MARKETCO structure focuses on understanding and meeting customers` needs. The MARKETCO puts as much value in aggregating `load` as it does on assets. It was suggested that the MARKETCO was the quickest path to success in the restructured electric industry, since it is plainly evident that in the New Millenium the customer will be king, and companies will not survive unless they focus the majority of their efforts on the customer.

  10. Neutron generator power supply modeling in EMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Montgomery, S.T.; Peery, J.S.; Merewether, K.O.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prime responsibility for neutron generator design and manufacturing, and is committed to developing predictive tools for modeling neutron generator performance. An important aspect of understanding component performance is explosively driven ferroelectric power supply modeling. EMMA (ElectroMechanical Modeling in ALEGRA) is a three dimensional compile time version of Sandia's ALEGRA code. The code is built on top of the general ALEGRA framework for parallel shock-physics computations but also includes additional capability for modeling the electric potential field in dielectrics. The overall package includes shock propagation due to explosive detonation, depoling of ferroelectric ceramics, electric field calculation and coupling with a general lumped element circuit equation system. The AZTEC parallel iterative solver is used to solve for the electric potential. The DASPK differential algebraic equation package is used to solve the circuit equation system. Sample calculations are described

  11. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  12. Power Generation Strategy Development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curkovic, A.; Androcec, I.; Tarnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity generation as an economic sector contributes to the national GDP through increasing investments and exports. In the period from 2000 to 2008 the annual growth rate of final electricity demand was 3,8% which was higher than for any other energy form. Almost 1200 MW of thermal power plants will go out of system due to lifetime (more than 30 years). Energy Strategy is a basic document of the Energy Act with the purpose to define energy policy and future plans for energy development of the Republic of Croatia till 2020. Based on the adopted strategy the Government will create the Energy Strategy Implementation Programme for the four-year period. Croatian's energy development should be based on best available technologies as well as on energy-related, economic and environmental assessment of all available energy options. Energy strategy of Croatia (NN 130/09) puts up next goals: 300 MW hydro power plants (bigger than 10 MW), 1200 MW gas-fired thermal power plants (including 300 MW of cogeneration), 1200 MW of coal-fired thermal power plants, and 35% of renewable (including hydro). The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital as well as earning of reasonable profit for investors. Choose of location, environmental impact and competitiveness are main criteria for decision making. Technological and financial terms of new power plant is under influence of the law of supply and demand, so short marginal costs are in the first view - power plant life is at least 30 years - how to deal with this conditions, who will invest in long-term projects with condition of short pay-back period. Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have become a priority development issue. The main challenge is a long-term development of economy with decreased emission of carbon dioxide. Kyoto protocol obligations, Copenhagen Accord

  13. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  14. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  15. Power generation enhancement in a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant using thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Saadat, Mohammad; Palideh, Vahid; Afzal, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric generator was used and simulated within a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant. • Results showed that the thermoelectric generator can be able to enhance the power plant efficiency. • Results showed that the presented models can be able to produce generation even in the cold months. • The optimum size of area of solar pond based on its effect on efficiency is 50,000 m 2 . - Abstract: Salinity-gradient solar pond (SGSP) has been a reliable supply of heat source for power generation when it has been integrated with low temperature thermodynamics cycles like organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Also, thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a critical role in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper investigates the potential of thermoelectric generator as a power generation system using heat from SGSP. In this work, thermoelectric generator was used instead of condenser of ORC with the purpose of improving the performance of system. Two new models of SGSP have been presented as: (1) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC without heat exchanger and (2) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC with heat exchanger. These proposed systems was evaluated through computer simulations. The ambient conditions were collected from beach of Urmia lake in IRAN. Simulation results indicated that, for identical conditions, the model 1 has higher performance than other model 2. For models 1 and 2 in T LCZ = 90 °C, the overall thermal efficiency of the solar pond power plant, were obtained 0.21% and 0.2% more than ORC without TEG, respectively.

  16. Present state of research and development of MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shigeru

    1978-01-01

    MHD power generation can obtain electric energy directly from the heat energy of high speed plasma flow, and the power generating plant of 1 million kW can be realized by this method. When the MHD power generation method is combined before conventional thermal power generation method, the thermal efficiency can be raised to about 60% as compared with 38% in thermal power generation plants. The research and development of MHD power generation are in progress in USA and USSR. The research and development in Japan are in the second stage now after the first stage project for 10 years, and the Mark 7 generator with 100 kW electric output for 200 hr continuous operation is under construction. The MHD power generation is divided into three types according to the conductive fluids used, namely combustion type for thermal power generation, unequilibrated type and liquid metal type for nuclear power generation. The principle of MHD power generation and the constitution of the plant are explained. In Japan, the Mark 2 generator generated 1,180 kW for 1 min in 1971, and the Mark 3 generator generated 1.9 kW continuously for 110 hr in 1967. The MHD generator with superconducting magnet succeeded in 1969 to generate 25 kW for 6 min. The second stage project aimes at collecting design data and obtaining operational experience for the construction of 10 MW class pilot plant, and the Mark 7 and 8 generators are planned. (Kako, I.)

  17. The Energy Cost Analysis of Hybrid Systems and Diesel Generators in Powering Selected Base Transceiver Station Locations in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ozaveshe Oviroh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As more locations gain access to telecommunication, there is a growing demand to provide energy in a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly manner while effectively addressing growing energy needs. Erratic power supply and rising operation costs (OPEX in Nigeria have increased the need to harness local renewable energy sources. Thus, identifying the right generator schedule with the renewable system to reduce OPEX is a priority for operators and vendors. This study evaluates the energy costs of hybrid systems with different generator schedules in powering base transceiver stations in Nigeria using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. A load range of 4 kW to 8 kW was considered using: (i an optimised generator schedule; (ii forced-on generator schedule and (iii the generator-only schedule. The results showed an optimal LCOE range between averages of USD 0.156/kWh to 0.172/kWh for the 8 kW load. The percent energy contribution by generator ranges from 52.80% to 60.90%, and by the solar PV system, 39.10% to 47.20%. Excess energy ranges from 0.03% to 14.98%. The optimised generator schedule has the highest solar PV penetration of 56.8%. The OPEX savings on fuel ranges from 41.68% to 47% for the different load schedules and carbon emission savings of 4222 kg to 31,428.36 kg. The simulation results shows that powering base stations using the optimised hybrid system schedule would be a better option for the telecom industry.

  18. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Z, S.

    1996-01-01

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  19. Power generation from residual industrial heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Slawnwhite, J.D.; Boulama, K.Goni

    2010-01-01

    Industrial plants continuously reject large amounts of thermal energy through warm liquid or gaseous effluents during normal operation. These energy losses contribute to an inflation of production costs and also threaten the environment. This paper investigates methods of recovering the residual low grade thermal energy and converting it into higher quality mechanical energy using the thermodynamic Rankine cycle principle. For the temperature range of the available thermal energy, water was shown to be a poor working fluid for the conversion system, thus several potential working fluids, including ammonia, synthetic refrigerants, and organic compounds have been considered as alternatives. A comparative analysis led to the identification of different performance evaluation criteria. For example, the water-based Rankine cycle and, to a lesser extent, the ammonia-based Rankine cycle proved to be interesting when the power generation potential per unit working fluid mass flow rate was considered. On the other hand, Rankine-like cycles using dry hydrocarbon working fluids proved much more interesting in terms of energy conversion efficiency, as well as in terms of the net mechanical power generation potential for a given heat source. All performance indicators were low at low temperatures, and improved as the primary heat source was available at higher temperatures. This paper also discusses the influence of various external and internal operating parameters, such as heat source and heat sink temperatures, turbine and pump isentropic efficiencies and the addition of an internal heat exchanger on the overall performance of the energy recovery and conversion system.

  20. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  1. Power generation investment in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most IEA countries are liberalizing their electricity markets, shifting the responsibility for financing new investment in power generation to private investors. No longer able to automatically pass on costs to consumers, and with future prices of electricity uncertain, investors face a much riskier environment for investment in electricity infrastructure. This report looks at how investors have responded to the need to internalize investment risk in power generation. While capital and total costs remain the parameters shaping investment choices, the value of technologies which can be installed quickly and operated flexibly is increasingly appreciated. Investors are also managing risk by greater use of contracting, by acquiring retail businesses, and through mergers with natural gas suppliers. While liberalization was supposed to limit government intervention in the electricity market, volatile electricity prices have put pressure on governments to intervene and limit such prices. This study looks at several cases of volatile prices in IEA countries' electricity markets, and finds that while market prices can be a sufficient incentive for new investment in peak capacity, government intervention into the market to limit prices may undermine such investment

  2. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  3. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  4. Analysis of critical paths for schedule control of nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liangmin; Ma Limin; Fan Kai

    2005-01-01

    Study on the critical paths for the schedule control of nuclear power projects has been performed for reactor M310, based on the experiences from Daya Bay project and Ling Ao project. The study shows that the critical paths for the nuclear power project are from NI civil work, NI erection, commissioning of single systems directly serving the CFT to the joint-test. For NI civil work, the critical path is the main civil work of the reactor building, pre-stressing, handover of rooms for important areas, and key CW-erection interfaces; there are four critical paths for NI erection; For startup, two stages can be identified: commissioning of 16 single systems directly serving the CFT and joint-test. (authors)

  5. Flat tie-line power scheduling control of grid-connected hybrid microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Guerrero, Josep M.; Shuang, Jia

    2018-01-01

    In future active distribution networks (ADNs), microgrids (MGs) may have the possibility to control the power dispatched to the ADN by coordinating the output power of their multiple renewable generation units and energy storage units (ESUs). In this way, each MG may support the active distribution....... Also, a method to calculate the tie-line power flow to be exchanged between the MG and the ADN is explored, and a power ramp rate is given between different dispatch intervals. Finally, a simulation model of the hybrid MG is built and tested. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical...

  6. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  7. Optimization of the scheduled maintenance on the power units of the nuclear power plants with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Kovrizhkin, Yu.L.; Kolykhanov, V.N.; Kochneva, V.Yu.; Urbanskij, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced international and domestic experience in the field of the maintenance optimization of the power units of NPPs, as well, as on the base of the planning optimization, the maintenance organization and carrying out, the technical maintenance and repair control system automatization, the testing and monitoring optimization during the service process, the modernization of the technology and technical tools of the maintenance service and control is represented

  8. Piezoelectric Structures and Low Power Generation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinela CHILIBON

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of different piezoelectric structures and devices for generating renewable electricity under mechanical actions is presented. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. Several techniques have been developed to extract energy from the environment. Generally, “vibration energy” could be converted into electrical energy by three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. Mechanical resonance frequency of piezoelectric bimorph transducers depends on geometric size (length, width, and thickness of each layer, and the piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric material. Manufacturing processes and intended applications of several energy harvesting devices are presented.

  9. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  10. Safety improvement technologies for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Adachi, Hirokazu; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Takeshi, Noriaki; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Itou, Kanta; Kurihara, Takao; Hino, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    As the Hitachi Group's efforts in nuclear power generation, this paper explains the safety improvement technologies that are currently under development or promotion. As efforts for the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the following items have been developed. (1) As for the spent fuel removal of Unit 4, the following items have mainly been conducted: removal of the debris piled up on the top surface of existing reactor building (R/B), removal of the debris deposited in spent fuel pool (SFP), and fuel transfer operation by means of remote underwater work. The removal of all spent fuels was completed in 2014. (2) The survey robots inside R/B, which are composed of a basement survey robot to check leaking spots at upper pressure suppression chamber and a floor running robot to check leaking spots in water, were verified with a field demonstration test at Unit 1. These robots were able to find the leaking spots at midair pipe expansion joint. (3) As the survey robot for reactor containment shells, robots of I-letter posture and horizontal U-letter posture were developed, and the survey on the upper part of first-floor grating inside the containment shells was performed. (4) As the facilities for contaminated water measures, sub-drain purification equipment, Advanced Liquid Processing System, etc. were developed and supplied, which are now showing good performance. On the other hand, an advanced boiling water reactor with high safety of the United Kingdom (UK ABWR) is under procedure of approval for introduction. In addition, a next-generation light-water reactor of transuranic element combustion type is under development. (A.O.)

  11. A Work-Demand Analysis Compatible with Preemption-Aware Scheduling for Power-Aware Real-Time Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ren Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of slack time utilization for power-aware scheduling algorithms,we propose a work-demand analysis method called parareclamation algorithm (PRA to increase slack time utilization of the existing real-time DVS algorithms. PRA is an online scheduling for power-aware real-time tasks under rate-monotonic (RM policy. It can be implemented and fully compatible with preemption-aware or transition-aware scheduling algorithms without increasing their computational complexities. The key technique of the heuristics method doubles the analytical interval and turns the deferrable workload out the potential slack time. Theoretical proofs show that PRA guarantees the task deadlines in a feasible RM schedule and takes linear time and space complexities. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method combining the preemption-aware methods seamlessly reduces the energy consumption by 14% on average over their original algorithms.

  12. Power generation operations management : due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Paul, G.

    1998-01-01

    The practical applications of an emergency planning process within Edmonton Power's power generation operations management were discussed. A project was initiated to develop a corporate emergency planning standard which incorporates existing emergency procedures into a unified management system. The need for an emergency planning standard which would establish planning criteria became evident after a tornado hit Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27 and causing $330 million in damages. The emergency plans in effect at the time were less than adequate. The components of the new emergency planning standards include: (1) policy and hazard analysis, (2) functional responsibilities, (3) initial response, (4) emergency support, (5) mutual aid, (6) business protection and recovery, (7) emergency response debriefing, (8) training and exercises, and (9) emergency plan distribution and maintenance. A brief summary of the intent of each section, and some of the experiences learned during the development of this emergency plan are described for the benefit of those who may be called upon to develop an integrated emergency plan in the future. 1 ref

  13. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Flexible power generation systems and their planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbach, A.; Wunsch, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    By determining their specific annual costs and expressing them in relation to the period of utilization or to the load factor, it is possible to compare the relative merits of different combinbations of power generation systems. This method, with which unsuitable planning variants can be eliminated without having to go through long, intricate calculations and without taking up costly computer time, has the advantage that it points up the origin of the costs and at the same time makes clear how improvement can be achieved by combining base-load, medium-load and peak-load plants. The different types of power plant (hydro-electric, nuclear, steam, gas-turbine, combined cycle, cogeneration and coal gasification) are characterized by their approximate specific capital investment, construction period, efficiency, fuel, duty, and time from cold start to full load. They are compared by plotting their total specific annual costs in SFr/kWa against the load factor. The special benefits which combined cycle plants, with gas turbines, heat-recovery boilers and steam plant, can offer today (not only high fuel utilization and relatively low first-time costs, but also the short time needed for planning and construction) are underlined. 5 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Lawsuits concerning nuclear power generation in FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    The confirmation of the courts of justice is required for the permission of power stations. This proposition is not in the laws in FRG, but in view of the recent judicatory regulation, it seems to be the norm established experimentally. From the character of German nation, more than 40 specialists and the committees independent of administration take part in the procedure of administrative permission, but considering the temporary procedure, the processes of five classes of courts join in these. Based on the background of such situation, the author outlined the traditional practice in the legislation and administration in the field of nuclear power generation, then investigated into the decisions of Freiburg and Wuerzburg courts of administrative litigation in 1977 and the decision of the federal constitutional court in 1978. Confronting the same technology of light water reactors, the Freiburg court said that the device protecting from the burst of a pressure vessel is necessary, but the Wuerzburg court did not demand it. The confrontations similar to it were seen in the requirements for the utilization of radioactive substances and the final storage of them. The recent decision of the federal constitutional court is concerned with FBRs, and the court discussed the problem of ''residual risks''. The studies on the German decisions are useful for Japan. (Kako, I.)

  16. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made...

  17. Decision support tool for Virtual Power Players: Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization applied to Day-ahead Vehicle-To-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, João; Valle, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support Tool methodology to help virtual power players (VPPs) in the Smart Grid (SGs) context to solve the day-ahead energy ressource scheduling considering the intensive use of Distributed Generation (DG) and Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G). The main focus is the application...... of a new hybrid method combing a particle swarm approach and a deterministic technique based on mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) to solve the day-ahead scheduling minimizing total operation costs from the aggregator point of view. A realistic mathematical formulation, considering the electric network...... constraints and V2G charging and discharging efficiencies is presented. Full AC power flow calculation is included in the hybrid method to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 1800 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance...

  18. Real-time integration of optimal generation scheduling with MPC for the energy management of a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrollese, Mario; Valverde, Luis; Cocco, Daniele; Cau, Giorgio; Guerra, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy for a renewable hydrogen-based microgrid. • Integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control. • Experimental tests are carried out simulating typical summer and winter days. • Effective improvement in performance and reduction in microgrid operating cost are achieved. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel control strategy for the optimal management of microgrids with high penetration of renewable energy sources and different energy storage systems. The control strategy is based on the integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control in order to achieve both long and short-term optimal planning. In particular, long-term optimization of the various microgrid components is obtained by the adoption of an optimal generation scheduling, in which a statistical approach is used to take into account weather and load forecasting uncertainties. The real-time management of the microgrid is instead entrusted to a model predictive controller, which has the important feature of using the results obtained by the optimal generation scheduling. The proposed control strategy was tested in a laboratory-scale microgrid present at the University of Seville, which is composed of an electronic power source that emulates a photovoltaic system, a battery bank and a hydrogen production and storage system. Two different experimental tests that simulate a summer and a winter day were carried out over a 24-h period to verify the reliability and performance enhancement of the control system. Results show an effective improvement in performance in terms of reduction of the microgrid operating cost and greater involvement of the hydrogen storage system for the maintenance of a spinning reserve in batteries.

  19. Stand-alone induction generators for small water power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Adam [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom); Smith, Nigel [Smith Associates, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Conventional technology for isolated power generation is the synchronous generator. Using stand-alone induction generators has proved to have tremendous advantages in remote regions of developing countries, where electricity has significant social benefits. (author)

  20. The central government power generating capacity- reforms and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The alarming resource gap that the states were facing in 1970's has prompted the Central Government to augment the resources for power generation by creating two new entities in November 1975 viz the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Few other organisations also exist in central sector which are engaged in power generation like Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC). NTPC being the leading player in the power sector, it can neither be indifferent nor dissociate itself from the reforms sweeping the sector today. The article describes the Central Government's role in power generation, reforms and NTPC and further prospects of NTPC

  1. Combined Rate and Power Allocation with Link Scheduling in Wireless Data Packet Relay Networks with Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Subhrakanti Dey; Minyi Huang

    2007-01-01

    We consider a joint rate and power control problem in a wireless data traffic relay network with fading channels. The optimization problem is formulated in terms of power and rate selection, and link transmission scheduling. The objective is to seek high aggregate utility of the relay node when taking into account buffer load management and power constraints. The optimal solution for a single transmitting source is computed by a two-layer dynamic programming algorithm which leads to optimal ...

  2. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  3. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  4. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion

  5. Coordinated Volt/Var Control in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations Based on Joint Active and Reactive Powers Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant control schemes in optimal operation of distribution networks is Volt/Var control (VVC. Owing to the radial structure of distribution systems and distribution lines with a small X/R ratio, the active power scheduling affects the VVC issue. A Distribution System Operator (DSO procures its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Generations (DGs along with the wholesale electricity market. This paper proposes a new operational scheduling method based on a joint day-ahead active/reactive power market at the distribution level. To this end, based on the capability curve, a generic reactive power cost model for DGs is developed. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model presented in this paper motivates DGs to actively participate not only in the energy markets, but also in the VVC scheme through a competitive market. The proposed method which will be performed in an offline manner aims to optimally determine (i the scheduled active and reactive power values of generation units; (ii reactive power values of switched capacitor banks; and (iii tap positions of transformers for the next day. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model for daily VVC is modeled in GAMS and solved with the DICOPT solver. Finally, the plausibility of the proposed scheduling framework is examined on a typical 22-bus distribution test network over a 24-h period.

  6. A realistic way for graduating from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, fundamental reform of Japanese energy policy was under way. As for reform of power generation share for the future, nuclear power share should be decided by three independent elements of the progress: (1) extension of power generation using renewable energy, (2) reduction of power usage by electricity saving and (3) technical innovation toward zero emission of coal-fired thermal power. In 2030, nuclear power share would still remain about 20% obtained by the 'subtraction' but in the long run nuclear power would be shutdown judging from difficulties in solution of backend problems of spent fuel disposal. (T. Tanaka)

  7. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  8. Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization based Day-Ahead Self-Scheduling for Thermal Generator in Competitive Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pindoriya, Naran M.; Singh, S.N.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in day-ahead energy market subject to operational constraints and 2) at the same time, to minimize the risk due to uncertainty in price forecast. Therefore, it is a conflicting bi-objective optimization problem which has both binary and continuous optimization variables considered as constrained mixed......This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO) to solve the day-ahead self-scheduling for thermal power producer in competitive electricity market. The objective functions considered to model the self-scheduling problem are 1) to maximize the profit from selling energy...... integer nonlinear programming. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-scheduling in a day-ahead energy market, the locational margin price (LMP) forecast uncertainty in PJM electricity market is considered. An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) is used to forecast the day...

  9. Comment on “Short-term combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal power systems with cascaded reservoirs using differential evolution” by K.K. Mandal and N. Chakaborty [Energy Convers. Manage. 50 (2009) 97–104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Abdollah; Nezhad, Ali Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the short-term combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal power systems with cascaded reservoirs [Energy Convers Manage. 50 (2009) 97–104], while differential evolution algorithm has been employed to solve the optimization problem. However, this problem is subjected to several constraints like the generation limitations of generating units. The solutions reported in the original paper do not satisfy the constraint on the initial and final reservoir storage volumes of hydro units as well as the constraint on the generated power by such units, which should be positive at any time of the scheduling period. Thus, this paper intends to prove this issue and solve the problem using Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method, in order to propose the correct solutions satisfying all the constraints of the short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem

  10. The changing face of international power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I. [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  11. An approach to the conversion of the power generated by an offshore wind power farm connected into seawave power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzitta, Vicenzo; Messineo, Antonio; Trapanese, Marco

    2011-07-01

    The development of renewable energy systems has been undergoing for the past decades but sea wave's energy resource has been under-utilized. This under-utilization has several reasons: the energy concentration is low in sea waves, extraction of this energy requires leading edge technologies and conversion of the energy into electrical energy is difficult. This study compares two different methods to connect the sea waves' generator to the network and to the offshore wind power farm. The first method consists in a decentralized approach: each generator is connected to the grid through an AC converter. The second method is a partially centralized approach: a rectifier is connected to each generator, all of the generators are then connected together to a common DC bus and power is then converted in AC to be connected to the grid. This study has shown that the partially centralized approach is more reliable and efficient than the decentralized approach.

  12. Power generation in India: analysing trends and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide up-to-date data, critical analysis and information encompassing all aspects of power generation in India. The report provides historic and future outlook for power generation in India. It also provides an evaluation of private participation in power generation segment of India and investment opportunities in Indian power sector. In addition, the report examines policies, regulatory framework and financing of power generation in India. It also highlights key issues and challenges that are restricting the accelerated development of this sector. The report has thirteen chapters in total. (author)

  13. Nuclear power generation: challenge in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the lecture ''Nuclear power generation - challenge in the 1980s'', attempt is made to predict the events arising in 1980s on the basis of the data available in the International Atomic Energy Agency. By the term ''challenge'', emphasis is placed on the potentiality of nuclear power for solving the world energy problem. This is indicated clearly by nuclear power currently accounting for 8%, of the total power generation in the world. The explanation in the above connection with figures and tables is made, including geographical distribution of reactors, nuclear power generation and total power generation in various countries, future capacity of nuclear power generation, situation of reactor operation, future installation of nuclear power plants, uranium demand/supply situation, spent fuel storage, etc. Then, discussion and analysis are made on such problems as waste management, economy, safety, and safeguards. (J.P.N.)

  14. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    Unlike traditional fossil-fuel based power generation, renewable generation such as wind power relies on uncontrollable prime sources such as wind speed. Wind speed varies stochastically, which to a large extent determines the stochastic behavior of power generation from wind farms...... that such a stochastic model can be used to simulate the effect of load management on the load duration curve. As CHP units are turned on and off by regulating power, CHP generation has discrete output and thus can be modeled by a transition matrix based discrete Markov chain. As the CHP generation has a strong diurnal...

  15. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  16. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...

  17. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  18. Novel Power Conditioning Circuits for Piezoelectric Micro Power Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Jouranne, Annette

    2003-01-01

    .... The objective of this research is to design a power conditioning circuit "PCC" for use in conjunction with low voltage microelectromechanical systems "MEMS"-based Palouse Piezoelectric Power "P3...

  19. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  20. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  1. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yen-Wei; Chou, Li-Der

    2015-01-01

    The devices of Internet of Things (IoT) will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) to reduce device’s power consumption. Howev...

  2. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    . As an example, the latest published grid codes stress the ability of distributed generators, especially wind turbines, to stay connected during short grid disturbances and in addition to provide active/reactive power control at the point of common coupling. Based on the above facts, the need for improving...... reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power and an enhanced contribution of distributed power generation systems to power system stability...... and adding more features to the control of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) arises. As a consequence, this thesis focuses on grid monitoring methods and possible approaches in control in order to obtain a more reliable and  exible power generation system during normal and faulty grid conditions...

  3. Managing strategic alliances in the power generation industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the challenges for power development developers in initiating alliances in the power generation industry. Importance of strategic alliances in the industry; Nature of the alliances in the independent power industry; Strategies for creating and sustaining value in global power development......; Management of tensions inherent in internal and external alliances....

  4. Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CARABINEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.

  5. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  6. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  7. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nevrala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generators connected to the power grid. Methods of control these systems as a separately working, directly connecting to power grid, control by frequency converter and wiring by synchronous cascade are confronted on the measuring base too.

  8. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  10. Financing of nuclear power plant using resources of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Milackova, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs

  11. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  12. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  13. Delay consequencies in the construction time-schedule of nuclear power plants in relation to its safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    An important delay in the construction time-schedule of a Nuclear Power Plant affects its safety and quality. This mainly occurs as a consequence of four reasons: discontinuity of the personnel working for the project; discontinuities of project suppliers; new safety and quality concepts; long-term storage. This work analyses each of the above reasons so as to foresee countermeasures to garantee the non deterioration of a Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  14. Nuclear reactors for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the operation of a nuclear power plant, the status quo about the application of nuclear energy in the world are explained, the subjects of discussion between supporters and adversaries nowadays and the prospects for prolonged usage of nuclear power are summarized, viewed from the actual technical possibilities. 2 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  16. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sites are suitable for the generation of electrical energy. Also, the results ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 36, No. ... parameter in the wind-power generation system. ..... [3] A. Zaharim, A. M Razali, R. Z Abidin, and K Sopian,.

  17. Simulation of the energy - environment economic system power generation costs in power-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, H.

    1978-09-01

    The costs of power generation are an important point in the electricity industry. The present report tries to supply a model representation for these problems. The costs of power generation for base load, average and peak load power stations are examined on the basis of fossil energy sources, nuclear power and water power. The methods of calculation where dynamic investment calculation processes are used, are given in the shape of formulae. From the point of view of long term prediction, power generation cost sensitivity studies are added to the technical, economic and energy-political uncertainties. The sensitivity of models for calculations is examined by deterministic and stochastic processes. In the base load and average region, power generation based on nuclear power and water power is economically more favourable than that from fossilfired power stations. Even including subsidies, this cost advantage is not in doubt. In the peak load region, pumped storage power stations are more economic than fossilfired power stations. (orig.) [de

  18. New generation of reactors for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, J.E.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    Space nuclear reactor power is expected to enable many new space missions that will require several times to several orders of magnitude anything flown in space to date. Power in the 100-kW range may be required in high earth orbit spacecraft and planetary exploration. The technology for this power system range is under development for the Department of Energy with the Los Alamos National Laboratory responsible for the critical components in the nuclear subsystem. The baseline design for this particular nuclear sybsystem technology is described in this paper; additionally, reactor technology is reviewed from previous space power programs, a preliminary assessment is made of technology candidates covering an extended power spectrum, and the status is given of other reactor technologies

  19. A decision support system for real-time hydropower scheduling in a competitive power market environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawwash, Ziad Khaled Elias

    2000-10-01

    The electricity supply market is rapidly changing from a monopolistic to a competitive environment. Being able to operate their system of reservoirs and generating facilities to get maximum benefits out of existing assets and resources is important to the British Columbia Hydro Authority (B.C. Hydro). A decision support system has been developed to help B.C. Hydro operate their system in an optimal way. The system is operational and is one of the tools that are currently used by the B.C. Hydro system operations engineers to determine optimal schedules that meet the hourly domestic load and also maximize the value B.C. Hydro obtains from spot transactions in the Western U.S. and Alberta electricity markets. This dissertation describes the development and implementation of the decision support system in production mode. The decision support system consists of six components: the input data preparation routines, the graphical user interface (GUI), the communication protocols, the hydraulic simulation model, the optimization model, and the results display software. A major part of this work involved the development and implementation of a practical and detailed large-scale optimization model that determines the optimal tradeoff between the long-term value of water and the returns from spot trading transactions in real-time operations. The postmortem-testing phase showed that the gains in value from using the model accounted for 0.25% to 1.0% of the revenues obtained. The financial returns from using the decision support system greatly outweigh the costs of building it. Other benefits are the savings in the time needed to prepare the generation and trading schedules. The system operations engineers now can use the time saved to focus on other important aspects of their job. The operators are currently experimenting with the system in production mode, and are gradually gaining confidence that the advice it provides is accurate, reliable and sensible. The main lesson

  20. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  1. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Allen, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wan, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  2. Future independent power generation and implications for instruments and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the independent power producers market is comprised of cogeneration, small power generation, and independent power production (IPP) segments. Shortfalls in future electric supply are expected to lead to significant growth in this market. The opportunities for instruments and controls will shift from traditional electric utility applications to the independent power market with a more diverse set of needs. Importance will be placed on system reliability, quality of power and increased demand for clean kWh

  3. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  4. Security-constrained self-scheduling of generation companies in day-ahead electricity markets considering financial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A security-constrained self-scheduling is presented. ► The proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices. ► We model the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. ► Unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in an MIP model. ► Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a new security-constrained self-scheduling framework incorporating the transmission flow limits in both steady state conditions and post-contingent states is presented to produce efficient bidding strategy for generation companies (GENCOs) in day-ahead electricity markets. Moreover, the proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices and models the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. Furthermore, unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in the suggested model converting it to a mixed-integer programming (MIP) optimization problem. Sensitivity of the proposed framework with respect to both the level of the market prices and adopted risk level is also evaluated in the paper. Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems illustrating the performance of the proposed self-scheduling model.

  5. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions in ...

  6. An overview of advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.; Shaw, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief review of the technologies currently applied in Australian electricity generation and the technologies which are likely to be employed in the future. The paper opens with a review of the primary energy resources available for the generation of electricity in Australia, and the technologies currently employed. The development of advanced generation technologies around the world is reviewed, and the most likely technologies to be employed in Australia are described. There are a number of renewable and alternative technologies, such as generation from sewage digester, landfill or mine gases. Their impact would, however, be disproportionate because of the strong climate forcing effect of methane. Of the wide range of other emerging renewable technologies examined, solar thermal offers the best prospect of maturing into a financially-competitive technology for large scale generation in the next 20 years. However, will remain unable to compete with non-renewable technologies in normal financial terms, at least until 2005 and probably well beyond that date. Generation using the fission of nuclear fuels is a mature, proven technology. Based on the most likely fuel and other assumptions made in this study, the costs of nuclear generation are only moderately higher than conventional coal-fired options. Nuclear generation is thus a relatively low cost route to reductions in carbon dioxide emission for new plant, at $19/tonne CO 2 saved, in comparison with conventional black coal technology, and $13/tonne CO 2 compared with conventional brown coal firing. While major considerations of societal acceptance clearly exist, nuclear generation has the necessary technical and financial qualifications for serious consideration as an element in any greenhouse strategy. 5 tab., 2 figs

  7. A Column Generation Approach for Solving the Patient Admission Scheduling Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    This paper addresses the Patient Admission Scheduling (PAS) problem. The PAS problem deals with assigning elective patients to beds, satisfying a number of soft and hard constraints. The problem can be seen as part of the functions of hospital management at an operational level. There exists a sm...... to produce new best solutions for ve out of six instances from a publicly available repository....

  8. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  9. CHP in Switzerland from 1990 to 1998. Thermal power generation including combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a study on thermal power generation in Switzerland show that combined heat and power (CHP) systems have grown rapidly. Statistics are presented on the development of CHP-based power and also on thermal power stations without waste heat usage. Figures are given for gas and steam turbine installations, combined gas and steam turbine stations and motor-driven CHP units. Power production is categorised, separating small and large (over 1 Megawatt electrical) power generation facilities. On-site, distributed power generation at consumers' premises and the geographical distribution of plant is described

  10. Prospect of laser fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Inertial fusion ignition, burn and energy gain are expected to be achieved within the first decade of next century with new Megajoule laser facilities which are under construction in the USA and France. Fusion reactor design studies indicate that Inertial Fusion Energy(IFE) power plants are technically feasible and have attractive safety and environmental features. The recent progress on implosion physics and relevant technologies require us to consider a strategic approach toward IFE development. The design study for a laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. The progress of high power laser technology gives us feasible project toward a laser driven IFE Power Plant. The technical breakthrough in the field of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) has opened wide application of power laser to industrial technologies. Laser fusion energy development will be proceeded jointly with industrial photonics research and development. International collaborations are also promoted for efficient progress and activation of R and D on advanced technologies which are required for IFE and also useful for modern industries. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  11. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  12. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 0930-7516 Grant - others:Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  13. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  14. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2004-02-01

    The development work during this quarter was focused in the assembly of the downhole power generator hardware and its electronics module. The quarter was also spent in the development of the surface system electronics and software to extract the acoustic data transmitted from downhole to the surface from the noise generated by hydrocarbon flow in wells and to amplify very small acoustic signals to increase the distance between the downhole tool and the surface receiver. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Assembly of the downhole power generator mandrel for generation of electrical power due to flow in the wellbore. (2) Test the piezoelectric wafers to assure that they are performing properly prior to integrating them to the mechanical power generator mandrel. (3) Coat the power generator wafers to prevent water from shorting the power generator wafers. (4) Test of the power generator using a water tower and an electric pump to create a water flow loop. (5) Test the power harvesting electronics module. (6) Upgrade the signal condition and amplification from downhole into the surface system. (7) Upgrade the surface processing system capability to process data faster. (8) Create a new filtering technique to extract the signal from noise after the data from downhole is received at the surface system.

  15. Windfarm Generation Assessment for ReliabilityAnalysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis; Holmstrøm, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  16. Windfarm generation assessment for reliability analysis of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  17. Survey, design, development, and installation of micro hydel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the survey, design, development and installation Of micro hydel power generation using low head Kaplan water turbine. Electricity production from hydro power has been and still is today, the first renewable source used to generate electricity. The development of energy from renewable is very important step in reduction of carbon emissions(CO/sub 2/).

  18. Modeling of Optimal Power Generation using Multiple Kites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, P.; Lansdorp, B.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Kite systems have the potential to revolutionize energy generation. Large scale systems are envisioned that can fly autonomously in “power generation” cycles which drive a ground-based generator. In order for such systems to produce power efficiently, good models of the system are required. This

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must... or sources must be sufficient to supply those services necessary to provide normal operational...

  20. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1999-01-01

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  1. Direct Drive Generator for Renewable Power Conversion from Water Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segergren, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis permanent magnet direct drive generator for power conversion from water currents is studied. Water currents as a power source involves a number of constrains as well as possibilities, especially when direct drive and permanent magnets are considered. The high power fluxes and low current velocities of a water current, in combination with its natural variations, will affect the way the generator is operated and, flowingly, the appearance of the generator. The work in this thesis can, thus, be categorized into two general topics, generator technology and optimization. Under the first topic, fundamental generator technology is used to increase the efficiency of a water current generator. Under the latter topic, water current generators are optimized to a specific environment. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible to design very low speed direct drive generators with good electromagnetic properties and wide efficiency peak

  2. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  3. Is there a tomorrow for nuclear power generation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, T.

    1996-01-01

    Critical comments are publicly made about nuclear power generation and the nuclear fuel cycle. This criticism is directed at three areas of concern: accidents, radioactive waste disposal, and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In addition, there are other comments that ask 'Why are there countries pushing for nuclear power generation when other countries around the world are giving it up?' and 'Will further efforts to develop new energy sources and energy conservation not eliminate the nneed for nuclear power generation?' Such critical comments appear in some media more often than those expressing other opinions. Is there really no tomorrow for nuclear power? This question is studied below. (author)

  4. Introduction guide book for wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden donyu guide book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper arranges essential items for introduction of wind power generation to local governments. Natural wind power energy which is free from emission of atmospheric pollutants such as CO2 and probably profitable, is leading regenerative energy among several new energies, and its rapid diffusion is expected. At the end of 1995, a wind power generation facility capacity amounts to 4900MW in the world, 1770MW in USA, 1140MW in Germany, 630MW in Denmark, 550MW in India, and 250MW in the Netherlands. In Japan, its introduction to local governments is in progress with preparation of a purchase system of surplus electric power and a system interconnection guideline. A total facility capacity reached 10MW in 1996, and is scheduled to reach 150MW in fiscal 2010. NEDO`s wind characteristic map of Japan shows many promising areas for power generation. Since these information is not yet well known, the following are summarized: the present state, features of wind condition, power generation systems, application cases, an approach to survey research, construction, maintenance and related laws, and a subsidy system. 31 refs., 48 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Implementing China's national energy conservation policies at state-owned electric power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofan; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Guideline identified energy conservation as one of the country's fundamental policies and established a mandatory target: 20% reduction in national average energy intensity by 2010. Despite the various policies, laws, and administrative reforms to support energy conservation, China fell behind schedule for meeting its conservation targets in 2006 and 2007. Using a combination of available literature and an interview-based case study, this paper examines the implementation of energy conservation and investigates impediments to achieving China's conservation goal in the electric power generation sector. Three key impediments are detailed: (1) municipal governments' incentives to overlook conservation-related central directives primarily because of budget pressures linked to financial decentralization, (2) procedural obstacles in the form of time required to obtain project approvals for high-efficiency power generation units, and (3) financial obstacles making it difficult for power generation enterprises to raise capital for energy conservation projects. An interview-based case study of a state-owned coal-fired electric power generation company demonstrates the influence of the aforementioned obstacles. While procedural obstacles are notable, they can be managed. However, electricity pricing reforms and/or stronger subsidy programs will be needed to address the financial obstacles facing Chinese power generation companies.

  6. Validation of probabilistic methodology for generating actual inhabitants' behavior schedules for accurate prediction of maximum energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A data set of myriad and time-varying inhabitant-behavior schedules with a 15 min time resolution, generated by the authors in a previous study, is validated through a comparison analysis. We show three comparisons. The first and second compare the estimated demand with a time series of actual utility demand. The comparisons indicate that the generated data and its algorithm, described by the authors, have an appropriate robustness. Another comparison between the estimate and the annual averaged daily water demand of a residential area, consisting of 9327 residences, also shows an acceptable consistency. (author)

  7. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  8. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  9. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  10. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A thermal power plant reheat cycle system is described in which the discharge from a first expansion stage is reheated prior to expansion in a subsequent expansion stage. The primary coolant has a high sheet transfer rate and can accommodate temperature changes in the reheat vapor. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear energy resources for electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    'Nuclear Energy Resources' is interpreted as the nuclear power systems currently available commercially and those at an advanced stage of development, together with full and associated resources required to implement large-scale nuclear programs. Technical advantages and disadvantages of the established power reactor systems are reviewed, and the uranium fuel situation is outlined in terms of supply and demand, the relationship of resources to the requiremnts of current reactor types, and the likely future implications of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Because of its importance for the future, the problems, status, and likely time scale of the FBR are discussed in some detail. It is concluded that the most important areas for nearterm attention in Australia are the criteria and conditions that would apply to nuclear installations, and the possible development of uranium fuel cycle industries. The pattern of development of reactor and fuel cycle strategies overseas is important for uranium industry planning, and in the long term plutonium availability may be a key factor in power and energy planning. Finally, acceptance of nuclear power includes acceptance that its radioactive wastes will have to be stored on earth, and recent developments to demonstrate that this can be done safely and economically are very important in terms of longterm public attitudes. (author)

  12. The price of fuel oil for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, G.J.Y.; Liaw, Y.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study establishes a break-even analysis model for fuel oil generation. The authors calculate the break-even points of the international fuel oil prices for the existing coal-fired power plants, the nuclear power plants and the newly-built coal/oil-fired power plants

  13. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  14. Assessment of ethanol-fueled IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell power plants in distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, R. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lefeld, J. [PSI Energy, Plainfield, IN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ethanol-fueled cell power plants presents several significant opportunities for the power generation industry. The potential exists to reduce pollution, help the nation shift from its dependence on imported fuels, reduce global warming, and strengthen the economy. Two important developments can be merged to create a clean, high-technology, bio-based energy system: the production of ethanol fuels and the application of fuel cell power plants. Utilization of ethanol will be in dual-fueled applications initially, and evolve toward the primary fuel as the need for renewable energy sources increase and the economic competitiveness improves. This assessment addresses the major issues of this proposed concept and outlines the benefits anticipated to the environment, US agriculture, energy supplies, and electric power customers. Economic and technical aspects of the concept are also reviewed. One of PSI Energy`s primary interests is the utilization of renewable fuels supplied by their customer base. The IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell is an advanced electric power generation technology currently under development by M-C Power. Commercial applications within the power generation industry are scheduled to begin during the late 1990s.

  15. Automatic motion inhibit system for a nuclear power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.R.; Torres, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an automatic motion inhibit system for a nuclear power generating system for inhibiting automatic motion of the control elements to reduce reactor power in response to a turbine load reduction. The system generates a final reactor power level setpoint signal which is continuously compared with a reactor power signal. The final reactor power level setpoint is a setpoint within the capacity of the bypass valves to bypass steam which in no event is lower in value than the lower limit of automatic control of the reactor. If the final reactor power level setpoint is greater than the reactor power, an inhibit signal is generated to inhibit automatic control of the reactor. 6 claims, 5 figures

  16. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiannas, A.G.; Askounis, D.T.; Psarras, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  17. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  18. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  19. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included

  20. Life cycle analysis of advanced nuclear power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoji; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors, for the object of all the processes from the mining, transport and refining of fuel, electric power generation to the treatment and disposal of waste, the amount of energy input and the quantity of CO 2 emission over the life cycle were analyzed, and regarding the influence that the technical progress of nuclear power generation exerted to environment, the effect of improvement was elucidated. Attention has been paid to nuclear power generation as its CO 2 emission is least, and the effect of global warming is smallest. In order to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generation in LWRs and the cost of fuel cycle, and to extend the operation cycle, the technical development for heightening fuel burnup is in progress. The process of investigation of the new technologies of nuclear power generation taken up in this research is described. The analysis of the energy balance of various power generation methods is discussed. In the case of pluthermal process, the improvement of energy balance ratio is dependent on uranium enrichment technology. Nuclear power generation requires much materials and energy for the construction, and emits CO 2 indirectly. The CO 2 unit emission based on the analysis of energy balance was determined for the new technologies of nuclear power generation, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  1. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  2. Impact of power generation on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the impact of the electric power industry on air quality. Much of the data are presented in chronological order starting with the London smogs in the late nineteenth century and the Clean Air Act of 1956. With the building of bigger and bigger coal-fired power stations, apparatus to restrict emissions of dust became common and a Royal Commission reported on the progress of smoke control in 1974 and 1976. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) role of Local Authorities; (ii) weather and smog; (iii) trends in emissions; (iv) dispersal and dilution; (v) smoke and sulfur dioxide exported; (vi) atmospheric lifetime of sulfur dioxide; (vii) proportionality between emissions and deposition; (viii) critical loads; (ix) international agreements on transboundary pollution; (x) road transport pollution; (xi) local air quality management and (xii) climate change

  3. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper

  4. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  5. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Hasani; Younos Vakilalroaia

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC m...

  6. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  7. Global movement in reviewing nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    The price of crude oil, natural gas and coal has increased since 2004 with the rapid increase of primary energy demand in China, India and other developing countries. Moreover due to the political uncertainty in the Middle East, and the state control of energy resources in countries like Russia, the issue of energy security has become a critical issue. Nuclear power has been reconsidered in recent years in the US and European countries, because nuclear power is one of the cheapest sources of low carbon energy and also has relatively stable costs, and is thereby useful to energy security and to prevent climate change. Electricity demand is growing very rapidly in China and additional reactors are planned to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40,000 MWe by 2020. India has a largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2020. Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for a much expanded role of nuclear energy, and the restructuring of nuclear industries has begun to strengthen competitiveness in international nuclear markets. (author)

  8. Wind Turbine Generator Efficiency Based on Powertrain Combination and Annual Power Generation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmyung Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators are eco-friendly generators that produce electric energy using wind energy. In this study, wind turbine generator efficiency is examined using a powertrain combination and annual power generation prediction, by employing an analysis model. Performance testing was conducted in order to analyze the efficiency of a hydraulic pump and a motor, which are key components, and so as to verify the analysis model. The annual wind speed occurrence frequency for the expected installation areas was used to predict the annual power generation of the wind turbine generators. It was found that the parallel combination of the induction motors exhibited a higher efficiency when the wind speed was low and the serial combination showed higher efficiency when wind speed was high. The results of predicting the annual power generation considering the regional characteristics showed that the power generation was the highest when the hydraulic motors were designed in parallel and the induction motors were designed in series.

  9. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. It includes a new protection technique for renewable generators along with the inclusion of current status of smart grid.

  10. Low-Complexity Scheduling and Power Adaptation for Coordinated Cloud-Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In practical wireless systems, the successful implementation of resource allocation techniques strongly depends on the algorithmic complexity. Consider a cloud-radio access network (CRAN), where the central cloud is responsible for scheduling

  11. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we

  12. Application of 3D model in the schedule management of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fayang

    2009-01-01

    While 3D technology has been widely used in engineering design, the 3D model of engineering design also includes information that can be used to construction. By the visual interface, the 3D model can be used in different aspects of construction. By linking the 3D model with the construction schedule, the 4D model can be created, through which the visual manage of the construction schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  13. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  14. Distributed power generation, a market assessment; Marktaspekte der verteilten Energieerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, T.

    2001-03-01

    The article assesses in the light of current energy policy the development of distributed power generation in the future, and resulting impacts on the structure the deregulated power industry in Germany. The author defines the essential characteristics of distributed power generation as opposed to centralized power generation, explains the various existing and emerging power generation technologies, and discusses market penetration scenarios and marketing opportunities in the context of technological developments, environmental and energy efficiency aspects, and consumer attitudes. (orig./CB) [German] Der Artikel bietet wichtige Definitionen fuer eine zielfuehrende Diskussion ueber das gesamte Gebiet der verteilten und dezentralen Energieerzeugung. Er versucht, teilweise emotional besetzte Themen auf sachlich begruendbare Grundannahmen zurueckzufuehren und zieht erste Folgerungen fuer das Zusammenwirken von erneuerbaren Energien und verteilter Energieerzeugung. (orig./CB)

  15. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  16. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui; Ge, Cong

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation

  17. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui, E-mail: liangjr@shanghaitech.edu.cn; Ge, Cong [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, No. 8 Building, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2015-10-05

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  18. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-64-000] Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Exelon Generation Company, LLC, CER Generation II, LLC...

  19. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint