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Sample records for powder dissolution measurement

  1. The measurement of mixture homogeneity and dissolution to predict the degree of drug agglomerate breakdown achieved through powder mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M M; Van der Watt, J G

    1994-11-01

    Interactive mixing of agglomerates of small, cohesive particles with coarse carrier particles facilitate the deaggregation of agglomerates. In this study dispersion of agglomerates of microfine furosemide particles by such a mixing process was followed by measuring changes in the content uniformity and area under the dissolution curve. Interactive mixtures between agglomerates of different sized furosemide particles and coarse sodium chloride particles were prepared using different mixers, mixing times and mixer speeds. The dissolution rate of the drug from and content uniformity of the mixtures were measured, and degrees of dispersion were calculated. These degrees of dispersion were compared to the dispersion values obtained from the decrease in agglomerate size after mixing. An increase in mixing time led to an increase in dispersion. An initial fast deagglomeration, indicated by an increase in dissolution, increase in content uniformity and a decrease in particle size, was followed by substantially slower deaggregation of remaining agglomerates and smaller aggregates. For all mixtures studied the degree of dispersion estimated from dissolution measurements, when compared to equivalent content uniformity measurements, agreed closely with the degree of dispersion as indicated by the decrease in particle size. The use of the area under the dissolution curve to predict agglomerate breakdown proved useful and may find application in situations where it is impossible to follow directly deagglomeration through particle size measurements.

  2. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  3. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  4. Optimization of dissolution process parameters for uranium ore concentrate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, M.; Reddy, D.M.; Reddy, A.L.V.; Tiwari, S.K.; Venkataswamy, J.; Setty, D.S.; Sheela, S.; Saibaba, N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear fuel complex processes Uranium Ore Concentrate (UOC) for producing uranium dioxide powder required for the fabrication of fuel assemblies for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)s in India. UOC is dissolved in nitric acid and further purified by solvent extraction process for producing nuclear grade UO{sub 2} powder. Dissolution of UOC in nitric acid involves complex nitric oxide based reactions, since it is in the form of Uranium octa oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) or Uranium Dioxide (UO{sub 2}). The process kinetics of UOC dissolution is largely influenced by parameters like concentration and flow rate of nitric acid, temperature and air flow rate and found to have effect on recovery of nitric oxide as nitric acid. The plant scale dissolution of 2 MT batch in a single reactor is studied and observed excellent recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) as nitric acid. The dissolution process is automated by PLC based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for accurate control of process parameters and successfully dissolved around 200 Metric Tons of UOC. The paper covers complex chemistry involved in UOC dissolution process and also SCADA system. The solid and liquid reactions were studied along with multiple stoichiometry of nitrous oxide generated. (author)

  5. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  6. Cesium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution of Analytical Reference Glass-1 in Both Powder and Shard Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Spencer, W.A.

    1998-04-01

    CsOH has been shown to be an effective and convenient dissolution reagent for Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1). This glass standard was prepared from nonradioactive DWPF Start-up Glass. Therefore, its composition is similar to DWPF product glass and many of the glass matrices prepared at SRTC.The principal advantage of the CsOH fusion dissolution is that the reagent does not add the alkali metals Li, Na, and K usually needed by SRS customers. Commercially available CsOH is quite pure so that alkali metals can be measured accurately, often without blank corrections. CsOH fusions provide a single dissolution method for applicable glass to replace multiple dissolution schemes used by most laboratories. For example, SRTC glass samples are most commonly dissolved with a Na 2 O 2 -NaOH fusion (ref.1) and a microwave- assisted acid dissolution with HNO 3 -HF-H 3 BO 3 -HCl (ref.2). Othe laboratories use fusion methods based on KOH, LiBO 2 , and Na 2 CO 3 CsOH fusion approach reduces by half not only the work in the dissolution laboratory, but also in the spectroscopy laboratories that must analyze each solution.Experiments also revealed that glass shards or pellets are rapidly attacked if the flux temperature is raised considerably above the glass softening point. The softening point of ARG-1 glass is near 650 degrees C. Fusions performed at 750 degrees C provided complete dissolutions and accurate elemental analyses of shards. Successful dissolution of glass shards was demonstrated with CsOH, Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, KOH, and RbOH. Ability to dissolve glass shards is of considerable practical importance. Crushing glass to a fine powder is a slow and tedious task, especially for radioactive glasses dissolved in shielded cells. CsOH fusion of glass powder or shards is a convenient, cost-effective dissolution scheme applicable in SRTC, the DWPF, and the commercial glass industry

  7. Dissolution of powdered spent fuel and U crystallization from actual dissolver solution for 'NEXT' process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kazunori; Hinai, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Masaumi; Kaji, Naoya; Kamiya, Masayoshi; Ohyama, Koichi; Sano, Yuichi; Washiya, Tadahiro; Komaki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The beaker-scale experiments on the effective powdered fuel dissolution and the U crystallization from dissolver solution with the irradiated MOX fuel from the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' were carried out. The powdered fuel was effectively dissolved into the nitric acid solution. In the U crystallization experiments, U crystal was obtained from the actual dissolver solution without any addition of reagent. (authors)

  8. Downstream processing of a ternary amorphous solid dispersion: The impacts of spray drying and hot melt extrusion on powder flow, compression and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark T; Potter, Catherine B; Walker, Gavin M

    2018-06-10

    Downstream processing aspects of a stable form of amorphous itraconazole exhibiting enhanced dissolution properties were studied. Preparation of this ternary amorphous solid dispersion by either spray drying or hot melt extrusion led to significantly different powder processing properties. Particle size and morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Flow, compression, blending and dissolution were studied using rheometry, compaction simulation and a dissolution kit. The spray dried material exhibited poorer flow and reduced sensitivity to aeration relative to the milled extrudate. Good agreement was observed between differing forms of flow measurement, such as Flow Function, Relative flow function, Flow rate index, Aeration rate, the Hausner ratio and the Carr index. The stability index indicated that both powders were stable with respect to agglomeration, de-agglomeration and attrition. Tablet ability and compressibility studies showed that spray dried material could be compressed into stronger compacts than extruded material. Blending of the powders with low moisture, freely-flowing excipients was shown to influence both flow and compression. Porosity studies revealed that blending could influence the mechanism of densification in extrudate and blended extrudate formulations. Following blending, the powders were compressed into four 500 mg tablets, each containing a 100 mg dose of amorphous itraconazole. Dissolution studies revealed that the spray dried material released drug faster and more completely and that blending excipients could further influence the dissolution rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  10. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping

    2016-01-01

    is hygroscopic and rifampicin is hydrophobic, moisture absorption of combination formulations was significantly lower than the pure colistin formulation in the dynamic vapour sorption results. To investigate the dissolution characteristics, four dissolution test methods (diffusion Franz cell, modified Franz cell......, flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither...

  11. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Evangelista Sita; Stephany Pires da Silva; Paulo Rogério Catarini da Silva; Alexandre Urbano; Jair Scarminio

    2015-01-01

    A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP) were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder e...

  12. Dissolution characteristics of mixed UO2 powders in J-13 water under saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Hoh, J.C.

    1991-03-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project/Spent Fuel program at Argonne National Laboratory is designed to determine radionuclide release rates by exposing high-level waste to repository-relevant groundwater. To gain experience for the tests with spent fuel, a scoping experiment was conducted at room temperature to determine the uranium release rate from an unirradiated UO 2 powder mixture (14.3 wt % enrichment in 235 U) to J-13 water under saturated conditions. Another goal set for the experiment was to develop a method for utilizing isotope dilution techniques to determine whether the dissolution rate of UO 2 matrix is in accordance with an existing kinetic model. Results of these analyses revealed unequal uranium dissolution rates from the enriched and depleted portions of the powder mixture because of undisclosed differences between them. Although the presence of this inhomogeneity has precluded the application of the kinetic model, it also provided an opportunity to elaborate on the utilization of isotope dilution data in recognizing and quantifying such conditions. Detailed listings of uranium release and solution chemistry data are presented. Other problems commonly associated with spent fuel, such as the effectiveness of filtering media, the existence of uranium concentration peaks during early stages of the leach tests, the need for concentration corrections due to water replenishments of sample volumes, and experience derived from isotope dilution data are discussed in the context of the present results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Evangelista Sita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder extraction than DMF solutions. At 100 oC and under mechanical stirring or low power ultrasound bath NMP solution optimizes the binder dissolution. Powder extractions under DMF solutions are slow and an increase in the powder extraction efficiency was observed for crushed cathodes on solutions under ultrasound bath, at medium power. Filtration processes can separate the decanted LiCoO2 powder extracted upon DMF dissolution while the powder in suspension in the NMP solutions is separated by centrifugation techniques.

  14. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolution of [ 111 In]labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of [ 111 In]lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a [ 111 In]salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system

  15. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct dissolution and supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from UO2 powder, granule, green pellet and sintered pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, direct dissolution and extraction of UO 2 from the solid rejects various stages of fuel fabrication viz. powder granules green pellet and, sintered pellet has been studied. Powder and granules could be easily dissolved in TBP-HNO 3 complex at 50 deg C., whereas in case of green and sintered pellets at elevated temperature at raised to 80 deg C in TBP-HNO 3 complex. With supercritical (SC) CO 2 alone the efficiency was ∼70%. But with SC CO 2 +2.5% TBP, the efficiency was ∼95% for powder and granules, and ∼60% for green and sintered pellets. Nearly complete extraction (∼99%) was achievable for SC CO 2 + 2.5 % TTA in all cases. The method has distinct advantage of elimination of acid usage and minimization of liquid waste generation. (author)

  17. A drop penetration method to measure powder blend wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Zhanjie; Muzzio, Fernando; Drazer, German; Callegari, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Water wettability of pharmaceutical blends affects important quality attributes of final products. We investigate the wetting properties of a pharmaceutical blend lubricated with Magnesium Stearate (MgSt) as a function of the mechanical shear strain applied to the blend. We measure the penetration dynamics of sessile drops deposited on slightly compressed powder beds. We consider a blend composed of 9% Acetaminophen 90% Lactose and 1% MgSt by weight. Comparing the penetration time of water and a reference liquid Polydimethylsiloxane (silicon oil) we obtain an effective cosine of the contact angle with water, based on a recently developed drop penetration method. We repeat the experiments for blends exposed to increasing levels of shear strain and demonstrate a significant decrease in water wettability (decrease in the cosine of the contact angle). The results are consistent with the development of a hydrophobic film coating the powder particles as a result of the increased shear strain. Finally, we show that, as expected dissolution times increase with the level of shear strain. Therefore, the proposed drop penetration method could be used to directly assess the state of lubrication of a pharmaceutical blend and act as a quality control on powder blend attributes before the blend is tableted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  19. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  20. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A [Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y, E-mail: hosokawa@mech.kobe-u.ac.j [Panasonic Electric Works Co., Ltd., 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  1. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A; Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y

    2009-01-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  2. Measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, D. L.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, H.-D.; Persiani, P. J.; Wolf, S. F.

    1999-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection, α-spectrometry (α-S), and γ-spectrometry (γ-S) were used for the determination of nuclide content in five samples excised from a high-burnup fuel rod taken from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The samples were prepared for analysis by dissolution of dry-powdered samples. The measurement techniques required no separation of the plutonium, uranium, and fission products. The sample preparation and analysis techniques showed promise for in-line analysis of highly-irradiated spent fuels in a dry-powdered process. The analytical results allowed the determination of fuel burnup based on 148 Nd, Pu, and U content. A goal of this effort is to develop the HPLC-ICPMS method for direct fissile material accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuel

  3. Measurement of agglomerate strength distributions in agglomerated powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, M.; Aking, M.; Burkhart, L.

    1986-01-01

    Strength distributions of particle agglomerates in six different yttria powders were measured using a calibrated ultrasonic sound field. The density of sintered pellets was directly related to the agglomerate strength of each powder. No systematic relation to the sintered density was observed for bulk densities or pressure-density compaction data for the loose powders, or for pore size distributions or green densities for the pressed compacts

  4. Electrochemical and CMT measurements of the anomalous dissolution of nickel in solutions containing oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; de Fontenay, Frank; Poulsen, Henning

    1997-01-01

    In addition to single nickel crystals also nickel samples produced by dc and pr (pulse-reversal) plating were examined. As previously reported the true rate of dissolution of nickel in solutions containing oxygen was found to be as much as three times the electrochemical rate at the corrosion...... potential. When passivation was approached (spontaneously or by anodic polarization) the true rate of dissolution approached the rate of anodic reaction. During cathodic polarization there was still a significant rate of dissolution. The true rate of dissolution was determined by CMT measurements (Corrosion...

  5. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at m...

  6. In situ measurement of solvent-mediated phase transformations during dissolution testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Heinänen, Paula; Peltonen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    In this study, solvent-mediated phase transformations of theophylline (TP) and nitrofurantoin (NF) were measured in a channel flow intrinsic dissolution test system. The test set-up comprised simultaneous measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium (with UV-Vis spectrophotometry......) and measurement of the solid-state form of the dissolving solid (in situ with Raman spectroscopy). The solid phase transformations were also investigated off-line with scanning electron microscopy. TP anhydrate underwent a transformation to TP monohydrate, and NF anhydrate (form beta) to NF monohydrate (form II......). Transformation of TP anhydrate to TP monohydrate resulted in a clear decrease in the dissolution rate, while the transformation of NF anhydrate (form beta) to NF monohydrate (form II) could not be linked as clearly to changes in the dissolution rate. The transformation of TP was an order of magnitude faster than...

  7. Measurement uncertainty of dissolution test of acetaminophen immediate release tablets using Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cancelli Romero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Analytical results are widely used to assess batch-by-batch conformity, pharmaceutical equivalence, as well as in the development of drug products. Despite this, few papers describing the measurement uncertainty estimation associated with these results were found in the literature. Here, we described a simple procedure used for estimating measurement uncertainty associated with the dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets. A fractionate factorial design was used to define a mathematical model that explains the amount of acetaminophen dissolved (% as a function of time of dissolution (from 20 to 40 minutes, volume of dissolution media (from 800 to 1000 mL, pH of dissolution media (from 2.0 to 6.8, and rotation speed (from 40 to 60 rpm. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimated measurement uncertainty for dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets (95.2 ± 1.0%, with a 95% confidence level. Rotation speed was the most important source of uncertainty, contributing about 96.2% of overall uncertainty. Finally, it is important to note that the uncertainty calculated in this paper reflects the expected uncertainty to the dissolution test, and does not consider variations in the content of acetaminophen.

  8. In vitro and in vivo measurements of the dissolution parameters of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides in biological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matton, S.

    1999-01-01

    During the mixed-oxide fuel fabrication process, inhalation is potentially the main route of internal contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends experimental measurement of parameters such as size and dissolution rate for specific industrial compounds. First, we validated the use of PERALS (Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) for alpha measurement in biological samples which, in some cases, could improve detection limit. We characterised physical chemical properties in terms of size, specific area and activity of 3 different powders: MOX made according to either the MIMAS process, which showed heterogeneous chemical composition, or the SOLGEL, which showed homogeneous chemical composition and industrial PuO 2 . Their dissolution parameters, f r and s s , as defined in the simplest model proposed by ICRP 66 were measured in vivo, after inhalation in the rat, and in vitro. The statistical variation of these values were expressed as standard deviation. Moreover, in vitro studies demonstrated variation of the s s value depending on the duration of the incubation. We also developed methods to characterise interactions between UO 2 particles and phosphate ions which could be involved in the actinide toxicity. (author) [fr

  9. Mechanisms and kinetics laws of inactive R7T7 reference glass dissolution in water at 90 deg C: initial dissolution rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.

    1993-02-01

    The initial dissolution rate of inactive R7T7 reference glass was measured at 90 deg C in dilute aqueous solutions first at unspecified pH, then with imposed pH values. In distilled water, R7T7 glass corrosion initially involved preferential extraction of boron and network modifier elements (Li, Na, Ca) as long as the solution pH remained acid. When the solution pH became alkaline, glass dissolution was stoichiometric. These two mechanisms were confirmed by dissolution tests in aqueous solutions at imposed pH values under acid and alkaline conditions. The initial dissolution rate r 0 in mole.cm -3 .s -1 also increased significantly in alkaline media when the pH of the aqueous phase increased: in slightly acid media, selective glass dissolution formed a residual, de-alkalinized, hydrated glass that was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Under steady-state dissolution conditions, the initial glass corrosion rate (in mole.cm -3 .s -1 ) was: in acid and alkaline media, amorphous and crystallized alteration products formed after complete dissolution of the silicated glass network. The first products formed consisted mainly of Zr, Rare Earths, Fe and Al. (author). 67 refs., 29 figs., 26 tabs., 21 plates

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDER FLOWABILITY USING MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE OF REPOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.; Geldart; E.; C.; Abdullah; A.; Hassanpour; L.; C.; Nwoke; I.; Wouters

    2006-01-01

    In response to the need in industry for a quick and reproducible method of measuring the flowability of powders in processes involving transport and storage, the apparently simple idea of measuring angle of repose has been revived. The simple tester first used has evolved over a number of years into the present version which is shown to be capable of handling quite small samples of powders that are even slightly cohesive. Experimental data are presented and results shown to compare consistently with the better known Hausner ratio.

  11. New experimental procedure for measuring volume magnetostriction on powder samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, G.; Multigner, M.; Valdes, J.; Crespo, P.; Martinez, A.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional techniques used for volume magnetostriction measurements, as strain gauge or cantilever method, are very useful for ribbons or thin films but cannot be applied when the samples are in powder form. To overcome this problem a new experimental procedure has been developed. In this work, the experimental set-up is described, together with the results obtained in amorphous FeCuZr powders, which exhibit a strong dependence of the magnetization on the strength of the applied magnetic field. The magnetostriction measurements presented in this work point out that this dependence is related to a magnetovolume effect

  12. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms.

  13. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate...... in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved....... Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing....

  14. Nondestructive density measured in powder metallurgy and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlieper, G.; Arnold, V.; Dirkes, H.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption measurements with gamma radiation have been utilized for the determination of porosities (densities) in materials compacted or sintered from metallic or ceramic powders. The mathematical background for the assessment of this method, and for evaluations of the accuracy of measurement is presented within the reported paper. The equipment for the practical application of density measurements in industry has been developed. Hardware and software of this computerized instrument are designed for a maximum of safety, ease of operation, reliability, flexibility, and efficiency. (orig./RHM) [de

  15. Recent developments in the dissolution and automated analysis of plutonium and uranium for safeguards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Rein, J.E.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The status of a program to develop assay methods for plutonium and uranium for safeguards purposes is presented. The current effort is directed more toward analyses of scrap-type material with an end goal of precise automated methods that also will be applicable to product materials. A guiding philosophy for the analysis of scrap-type materials, characterized by heterogeneity and difficult dissolution, is relatively fast dissolution treatment to effect 90 percent or more solubilization of the uranium and plutonium, analysis of the soluble fraction by precise automated methods, and gamma-counting assay of any residue fraction using simple techniques. A Teflon-container metal-shell apparatus provides acid dissolutions of typical fuel cycle materials at temperatures to 275 0 C and pressures to 340 atm. Gas--solid reactions at elevated temperatures separate uranium from refractory materials by the formation of volatile uranium compounds. The condensed compounds then are dissolved in acid for subsequent analysis. An automated spectrophotometer is used for the determination of uranium and plutonium. The measurement range is 1 to 14 mg of either element with a relative standard deviation of 0.5 percent over most of the range. The throughput rate is 5 min per sample. A second-generation automated instrument is being developed for the determination of plutonium. A precise and specific electroanalytical method is used as its operational basis. (auth)

  16. Contact Angle Measurements: an Alternative Approach Towards Understanding the Mechanism of Increased Drug Dissolution from Ethylcellulose Tablets Containing Surfactant and Exploring the Relationship Between Their Contact Angles and Dissolution Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Hao, Jingqiang; Yang, Baixue; Hu, Beibei; Cui, Zhixiang; Li, Sanming

    2018-05-01

    The addition of surfactant in tablet was a well-defined approach to improve drug dissolution rate. While the selected surfactant played a vital role in improving the wettability of tablet by medium, it was equally important to improve the dissolution rate by permeation effect due to production of pores or the reduced inter-particle adhesion. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of dissolution rate increased was significant. In this work, contact angle measurement was taken up as an alternative approach for understanding the dissolution rate enhancement for tablet containing surfactant. Ethylcellulose, as a substrate, was used to prepare tablet. Four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS), were used. Berberine hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, and rutin were selected as model drugs. The contact angle of tablet in the absence and presence of surfactant was measured to explore the mechanism. The dissolution test was investigated to verify the mechanism and to establish a correlation with the contact angle. The result showed that the mechanism was the penetration effect rather than the wetting effect. The dissolution increased with a reduction in the contact angle. DTAB was found to obtain the highest level of dissolution enhancement and the lowest contact angle, while SDS, SDBS, and SLS were found to be the less effective in both dissolution enhancement and contact angle decrease. Therefore, contact angle was a good indicator for dissolution behavior besides exploring the mechanism of increased dissolution, which shows great potential in formula screening.

  17. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  19. Measurements of diffusive sublayer thicknesses in the ocean by alabaster dissolution, and their implications for the measurements of benthic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Bowles, Walter

    1991-06-01

    Fluxes of reactive chemical species across the sediment-water interface can profoundly influence the dominant biogeochemical cycles in the worlds ocean. However, reliable in-situ measurements of benthic fluxes of many reactive species cannot be carried out without adjustment of stirring rates inside benthic flux chambers to match boundary layer conditions prevailing outside. A simple method to compare flow levels consists of measurements of gypsum dissolution rates inside benthic chambers and on the seafloor. The measurement of the diffusion-controlled dissolution rate of gypsum allows the estimation of the diffusive sublayer thickness and the time-averaged bottom stress on the seafloor. This method had previously been intercalibrated with the stress sensor method in flumes and inside benthic chambers. We describe here free-vehicle deployments of alabaster plates on the bottom of the ocean which gave results consistent with hydrodynamic theory. Errors in the calculated diffusive sublayer thicknesses were estimated to be about 10-15% for typical deployment conditions in the ocean. Current velocities 5 m off the bottom, which were measured concurrently during two deployments, allowed for comparisons with hydrodynamic predictions of diffusive sublayer thicknesses. The values obtained this way agreed within 15%. The measured mass transfer velocity was found to correlate with the plate dimension L, to the power of ⅓. This confirms the theoretical procedure for extrapolating to infinite plate size when calculating the sublayer impedance of solute fluxes from sediments (where L is large). Typical values of diffusive sublayer thicknesses, corrected to infinite plate size, were 1200 μm for current velocities, U100, of 2 cm s-1, and 500 μm at 8 cm s-1. Furthermore, values of friction velocities calculated from alabaster dissolution were compared with those using stress sensors. Gypsum plate values of u* were 0 and 30% lower than skin friction values of u*, at u* values

  20. A rapid approach for measuring silver nanoparticle concentration and dissolution in seawater by UV-Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mithun; Lead, Jamie R; Chandler, G Thomas; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2018-03-15

    Detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental systems is challenging and requires sophisticated analytical equipment. Furthermore, dissolution is an important environmental transformation process for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which affects the size, speciation and concentration of AgNPs in natural water systems. Herein, we present a simple approach for the detection, quantification and measurement of dissolution of PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) based on monitoring their optical properties (extinction spectra) using UV-vis spectroscopy. The dependence of PVP-AgNPs extinction coefficient (ɛ) and maximum absorbance wavelength (λ max ) on NP size was experimentally determined. The concentration, size, and extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were characterized during dissolution in 30ppt synthetic seawater. AgNPs concentration was determined as the difference between the total and dissolved Ag concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were monitored by UV-vis; and size evolution was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) over a period of 96h. Empirical equations for the dependence of maximum absorbance wavelength (λ max ) and extinction coefficient (ɛ) on NP size were derived. These empirical formulas were then used to calculate the size and concentration of PVP-AgNPs, and dissolved Ag concentration released from PVP-AgNPs in synthetic seawater at variable particle concentrations (i.e. 25-1500μgL -1 ) and in natural seawater at particle concentration of 100μgL -1 . These results suggest that UV-vis can be used as an easy and quick approach for detection and quantification (size and concentration) of sterically stabilized PVP-AgNPs from their extinction spectra. This approach can also be used to monitor the release of Ag from PVP-AgNPs and the concurrent NP size change. Finally, in seawater, AgNPs dissolve faster and to a higher extent with the decrease in NP

  1. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  2. Effect of alkali metal cations on anodic dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions. Potentiodynamic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, R.Yu.; Rogozhnikov, N.A.; Kosolapov, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that gold dissolution rate in cyanic solutions in Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + cation series increases basically and decreases under cation concentration increasing. Cation effect on current value is caused by cations drawing in dense layer. A model of dense part of double layer with two Helmholtz planes (anion and cation) is suggested. Effect of nature and concentration of alkali metal cations on gold dissolution rate is explained on the base of the model [ru

  3. A discrete finite element modelling and measurements for powder compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J L; Gethin, D T

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation into friction between powder and a target surface together with numerical modelling of compaction and friction processes at a micro-scale are presented in this paper. The experimental work explores friction mechanisms by using an extended sliding plate apparatus operating at low load while sliding over a long distance. Tests were conducted for copper and 316 steel with variation in loads, surface finish and its orientation. The behaviours of the static and dynamic friction were identified highlighting the important influence of particle size, particle shape, material response and surface topography. The results also highlighted that under light loading the friction coefficient remains at a level lower than that derived from experiments on equipment having a wider dynamic range and this is attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the measurement equipment. The results also suggest that friction variation with sliding distance is a consequence of damage, rather than presentation of an uncontaminated target sliding surface. The complete experimental cycle was modelled numerically using a combined discrete and finite element scheme enabling exploration of mechanisms that are defined at the particle level. Using compaction as the starting point, a number of simulation factors and process parameters were investigated. Comparisons were made with previously published work, showing reasonable agreement and the simulations were then used to explore the process response to the range of particle scale factors. Models comprising regular packing of round particles exhibited stiff response with high initial density. Models with random packing were explored and were found to reflect trends that are more closely aligned with experimental observation, including rearrangement, followed by compaction under a regime of elastic then plastic deformation. Numerical modelling of the compaction stage was extended to account for the shearing stage of the

  4. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  5. Improving the de-agglomeration and dissolution of a poorly water soluble drug by decreasing the agglomerate strength of the cohesive powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter J; Das, Shyamal C

    2013-11-30

    Influence of ternary, poorly water-soluble components on the agglomerate strength of cohesive indomethacin mixtures during dissolution was studied to explore the relationship between agglomerate strength and extent of de-agglomeration and dissolution of indomethacin (Ind). Dissolution profiles of Ind from 20% Ind-lactose binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures containing additional dibasic calcium phosphate (1% or 10%; DCP), calcium sulphate (10%) and talc (10%) were determined. Agglomerate strength distributions were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation of particle size, work of cohesion and packing fraction distributions. The agglomerate strength of Ind decreased from 1.19 MPa for the binary Ind mixture to 0.84 MPa for 1DCP:20Ind mixture and to 0.42 MPa for 1DCP:2Ind mixture. Both extent of de-agglomeration, demonstrated by the concentration of the dispersed indomethacin distribution, and extent of dispersion, demonstrated by the particle size of the dispersed indomethacin, were in descending order of 1DCP:2Ind>1DCP:20Ind>binary Ind. The addition of calcium sulphate dihydrate and talc also reduced the agglomerate strength and improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of indomethacin. While not definitively causal, the improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug by poorly water soluble components was related to the agglomerate strength of the cohesive matrix during dissolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Silica and Carbon Black Powders at Different pressures by Thermal COnductivity Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.G.Liang; X.S.Ge; 等

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was done to study the gas filled powder insulation and thermal conductivity probe for the measurent of thermal conductivity of powders.The mathematical analysis showed that the heat capacity of the probe itself and the thermal rsistance between the probe and powder must be considered .The authors developed a slender probe and measured the effective thermal conductivity of sillca and carbon black powders under a variety of conditions.

  7. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  8. Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of soluble pigments from both tin-based and tin-free chemically active antifouling (AF) paints is a key process influencing their polishing and biocide leaching rates. In this context, a low time- and resources-consuming method capable of screening the pigment behaviour in the sea...

  9. Dissolution comparisons using a Multivariate Statistical Distance (MSD) test and a comparison of various approaches for calculating the measurements of dissolution profile comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardot, J-M; Roudier, B; Schütz, H

    2017-07-01

    The f 2 test is generally used for comparing dissolution profiles. In cases of high variability, the f 2 test is not applicable, and the Multivariate Statistical Distance (MSD) test is frequently proposed as an alternative by the FDA and EMA. The guidelines provide only general recommendations. MSD tests can be performed either on raw data with or without time as a variable or on parameters of models. In addition, data can be limited-as in the case of the f 2 test-to dissolutions of up to 85% or to all available data. In the context of the present paper, the recommended calculation included all raw dissolution data up to the first point greater than 85% as a variable-without the various times as parameters. The proposed MSD overcomes several drawbacks found in other methods.

  10. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting

  11. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations 500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics of dissolution. The interplay of mineral

  12. On-line monitoring of lithium carbonate dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhu; Song, Xingfu; Wang, Jin; Luo, Yan; Yu, Jianguo [National Engineering Research Center for Integrated Utilization Salt Lake Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    Dissolution of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in aqueous solution was investigated using three on-line apparatuses: the concentration of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was measured by electrical conductivity equipment; CLD (Chord Length Distribution) was monitored by FBRM (Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement); crystal image was observed by PVM (Particle Video Microscope). Results show dissolution rate goes up with a decrease of particle size, and with an increase in temperature; stirring speed causes little impact on dissolution; ultrasound facilitates dissolution obviously. The CLD evolution and crystal images of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}powders in stirred fluid were observed detailedly by FBRM and PVM during dissolution. Experimental data were fitted to Avrami model, through which the activation energy was found to be 34.35 kJ/mol. PBE (Population Balance Equation) and moment transform were introduced to calculate dissolution kinetics, obtaining correlation equations of particle size decreasing rate as a function of temperature and undersaturation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns

  14. Diffusion and Swelling Measurements in Pharmaceutical Powder Compacts Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Samy; Su, Ke; Lin, Hungyen; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Tablet dissolution is strongly affected by swelling and solvent penetration into its matrix. A terahertz-pulsed imaging (TPI) technique, in reflection mode, is introduced as a new tool to measure one-dimensional swelling and solvent ingress in flat-faced pharmaceutical compacts exposed to dissolution medium from one face of the tablet. The technique was demonstrated on three tableting excipients: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), Eudragit RSPO, and lactose. Upon contact with water, HPMC initially shrinks to up to 13% of its original thickness before undergoing expansion. HPMC and lactose were shown to expand to up to 20% and 47% of their original size in 24 h and 13 min, respectively, whereas Eudragit does not undergo dimensional change. The TPI technique was used to measure the ingress of water into HPMC tablets over a period of 24 h and it was observed that water penetrates into the tablet by anomalous diffusion. X-ray microtomography was used to measure tablet porosity alongside helium pycnometry and was linked to the results obtained by TPI. Our results highlight a new application area of TPI in the pharmaceutical sciences that could be of interest in the development and quality testing of advanced drug delivery systems as well as immediate release formulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:1658–1667, 2015 PMID:25645509

  15. Dissolution of uranium oxide TBP-HNO3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Mineo; Kosaka, Yuji; Mori, Yukihide; Shimada, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    As a head end process for the pulverization of the spent fuel, the mechanical method (the shredder method) and the pyro-chemical method (oxidisation heat-treatment) have been examined. UO 2 is a main ingredient of Uranium oxide powder by the mechanical method, and U 3 O 8 is that by the pyro-chemical method. Moreover, the particle size of the pulverized powder depend on the conditions of the pulverizing process. As it was considered that the difference of dissolution rates of samples was caused by the difference of sample chemical forms and dissolution temperature, parametric surveys on chemical form and particle size of powder and dissolution temperature were carried out, and the following results were obtained. 1) The remarkable difference of dissolution rate between U 3 O 8 powder (average particle size 3.7 μm) and UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm) which have comparatively similar particle size was not observed. 2) It was confirmed that the dissolution rate became lower according to the particle size increase (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). And it was considered that dissolution rate had strong dependency on particle size, according to the results that the powder with 1 mm particle size did not dissolute completely after 5 hours test. 3) The temperature dependency of the dissolution rate was confirmed by dissolution test with UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). The higher dissolution rate was obtained in the higher dissolution temperature, and 11 kcal/mol was obtained as activation energy of dissolution. 4) In the dissolution test of UO 2 powder, the nitric acid concentration started to change earlier than that of U 3 O 8 powder and concentration change range became larger compared with that in the dissolution test of U 3 O 8 powder. It was considered that those differences were caused by difference in mole ratio of Uranium and nitric acid which are consumed in the dissolution reaction (3:7 for U 3 O 8 , 3:8 for UO 2 ). 5) In case

  16. Comparative study of methods to measure the density of Cementious powders

    OpenAIRE

    Helsel, Michelle A.; Ferraris, Chiara F.; Bentz, Dale

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the density of hydraulic cement has an essential role in the determination of concrete mixture proportions. As more supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, and slag, or cement replacements materials such as limestone and calcium carbonate are used in blended cements, knowledge of the density of each powder or of the blended cement would allow a more accurate calculation of the proportions of a concrete mixture by volume instead of by mass. The ...

  17. Antibacterial effects and dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Leppäranta, Outi; Munukka, Eveliina; Ylänen, Heimo; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses was correlated with the antibacterial effects of the same glasses against sixteen clinically important bacterial species. Powdered glasses (<45 microm) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 48 h. The pH in the solution inside the glass powder was measured in situ with a microelectrode. After 2, 4, 27, and 48 h, the pH and concentration of ions after removing the particles and mixing the SBF were measured with a normal glass pH electrode and ICP-OES. The bacteria were cultured in broth with the glass powder for up to 4 days, after which the viability of the bacteria was determined. The antibacterial effect of the glasses increased with increasing pH and concentration of alkali ions and thus with increased dissolution tendency of the glasses, but it also depended on the bacterium type. The changes in the concentrations of Si, Ca, Mg, P, and B ions in SBF did not show statistically significant influence on the antibacterial property. Bioactive glasses showed strong antibacterial effects for a wide selection of aerobic bacteria at a high sample concentration (100 mg/mL). The antibacterial effects increased with glass concentration and a concentration of 50 mg/mL (SA/V 185 cm(-1)) was required to generate the bactericidal effects. Understanding the dissolution mechanisms of bioactive glasses is essential when assessing their antibacterial effects. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous UV Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy for the Measurement of Solvent-Mediated Phase Transformations During Dissolution Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Wu, Jian; Naelapää, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The current work reports the simultaneous use of UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy for detailed characterization of drug dissolution behavior including solid-state phase transformations during dissolution. The dissolution of drug substances from compacts of sodium naproxen in 0.1 HCl as well as t...... of UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy offers a detailed characterization of drug dissolution behavior in a time-effective and sample-sparing manner. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:1149-1156, 2014....

  19. Non-destructive Determination of Disintegration Time and Dissolution in Immediate Release Tablets by Terahertz Transmission Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Sauerwein, Johanna; Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of terahertz (THz) transmission measurements to accurately measure and predict the critical quality attributes of disintegration time and the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) dissolved after 15, 20 and 25 min for commercial tablets processed at production scale. Samples of 18 batches of biconvex tablets from a production-scale design of experiments study into exploring the design space of a commercial tablet manufacturing process were used. The tablet production involved the process steps of high-shear wet granulation, fluid-bed drying and subsequent compaction. The 18 batches were produced using a 4 factor split plot design to study the effects of process changes on the disintegration time. Non-destructive and contactless terahertz transmission measurements of the whole tablets without prior sample preparation were performed to measure the effective refractive index and absorption coefficient of 6 tablets per batch. The disintegration time (R 2  = 0.86) and API dissolved after 15 min (R 2  = 0.96) linearly correlates with the effective refractive index, n eff , measured at terahertz frequencies. In contrast, no such correlation could be established from conventional hardness measurements. The magnitude of n eff represents the optical density of the sample and thus it reflects both changes in tablet porosity as well as granule density. For the absorption coefficient, α eff , we observed a better correlation with dissolution after 20 min (R 2  = 0.96) and a weaker correlation with disintegration (R 2  = 0.83) compared to n eff . The measurements of n eff and α eff provide promising predictors for the disintegration and dissolution time of tablets. The high penetration power of terahertz radiation makes it possible to sample a significant volume proportion of a tablet without any prior sample preparation. Together with the short measurement time (seconds), the potential to

  20. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  1. 8 Dissolution Kinetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Experiments measuring the dissolution rates of stilbite (NaCa [Al Si O ].14H O) in pH-buffered ... The rate law was established as R = k (a ) , where k is ... crystalline hydrated aluminosilicate minerals ..... from the crushing process, thin edges or.

  2. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th (from 208 Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464± 12 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452±10 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,19 ± 0

  3. A broadband variable-temperature test system for complex permittivity measurements of solid and powder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, En; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Chengyong; Zheng, Hu; Guo, Gaofeng

    2018-02-01

    A microwave test system to measure the complex permittivity of solid and powder materials as a function of temperature has been developed. The system is based on a TM0n0 multi-mode cylindrical cavity with a slotting structure, which provides purer test modes compared to a traditional cavity. To ensure the safety, effectiveness, and longevity, heating and testing are carried out separately and the sample can move between two functional areas through an Alundum tube. Induction heating and a pneumatic platform are employed to, respectively, shorten the heating and cooling time of the sample. The single trigger function of the vector network analyzer is added to test software to suppress the drift of the resonance peak during testing. Complex permittivity is calculated by the rigorous field theoretical solution considering multilayer media loading. The variation of the cavity equivalent radius caused by the sample insertion holes is discussed in detail, and its influence to the test result is analyzed. The calibration method for the complex permittivity of the Alundum tube and quartz vial (for loading powder sample), which vary with the temperature, is given. The feasibility of the system has been verified by measuring different samples in a wide range of relative permittivity and loss tangent, and variable-temperature test results of fused quartz and SiO2 powder up to 1500 °C are compared with published data. The results indicate that the presented system is reliable and accurate. The stability of the system is verified by repeated and long-term tests, and error analysis is presented to estimate the error incurred due to the uncertainties in different error sources.

  4. Determination of crystal structures with large known fragments directly from measured X-ray powder diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rius, J.; Miravitlles, C.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for the determination of crystal structures with large known fragments directly from measured X-ray powder diffraction intensities is presented. It is based on the automated full-symmetry Patterson search method described by Rius and Miravitlles where the Fourier coefficients of the observed Patterson function are modified to allow the use of powder diffraction intensity data. Its application to two structures, one with simulated and one with experimental data, is shown. (orig.)

  5. Study of the dissolution of uranium nitrides in nitric acid by measuring the isotope ratios, 15N/14N, of the formed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadibi-Olschewski, Nathalie

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dissolution behavior of nitride fuels in nitric acid. The use of nitride fuels in nuclear reactor has many advantages compared with the oxide fuels. One problem in employing nitrides as fuels is the formation of radio-toxic 14 C upon irradiation of natural nitrogen ( 14 N:99.64 pc, 15 N:0.36 pc) in a nuclear reactor ( 14 N (n,p) 14 C reaction). The use of 15 N-enriched fuels avoids these drawbacks. This study was undertaken so as to better understand the mechanisms of the dissolution process and also to follow the distribution of the expensive nitrogen isotope 15 N from the point of view of its behaviour during the recycling process. This study is based on previous work, where the evolution of the nitrogen compounds formed during the dissolution was measured as a function of time for different dissolution parameters. Using 15 N-enriched uranium nitrides or 15 N-enriched nitric acid, two methods were developed to study the influence of the dissolution parameters, nitric acid temperature and concentration, on the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of the nitrogen, nitrogen oxides and ammonium ions utilising a coupled gas-chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The main results are: - similar isotopic composition for NH 4 + and UN; - mixed 14 N/ 15 N composition for N 2 and N 2 O; - similar isotopic composition for NO, NO 2 and HNO 3 ; - no influence of the dissolution parameters on the isotopic composition of the products; an exception maybe made for the N 2 case, which contains more 15 N with increasing acidity and temperature. This work confirms that the first dissolution step is the oxidation of UN with HNO 3 to form NH 4 + and HNO 2 and that HNO 2 has a catalytic role in the dissolution to form other products. And we can conclude that to recycle 15 N, the ammonium ions must be recycled, at least for the case where nitrides are dissolved directly in HNO 3 . (author) [fr

  6. Characterization of spent fuel hulls and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Andriessen, H.

    1985-04-01

    The main results obtained within the framework of CEC programmes, by KFK, UKAEA and CEA, are reviewed concerning the characterization of dissolution wastes. The contents were determined of the main radioactive emitters contained in the hulls originating in a whole fuel assembly sampled at the La Hague plant, or from Dounreay PFR fuels. Radiochemical characterizations were carried out by different methods including neutron emission measurement, alpha and beta-gamma spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Decontamination of the hulls by using rinsings and supplementary treatment were also dealt with. The ignition and explosion risks associated with the zircaloy fines formed during the shearing of LWR fuels were examined, and the ignition properties of irradiated and unirradiated zircaloy powders were determined and compared. The physical properties and compositions of the dissolution residues of PFR fuels were defined, in order to conduct tests on the immobilization of these wastes in cement

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: jbarefield@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  8. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calorimetry (DSC), powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Phase solubility studies revealed an AL-type diagram indicating a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex and a stability constant value of 914 M-1. Solubility and dissolution rates of PYR and the binary systems were ...

  9. Can We Trust Real Time Measurements of Lung Deposited Surface Area Concentrations in Dust from Powder Nanomaterials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Witschger, Olivier; Bau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A comparison between various methods for real-time measurements of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) using spherical particles and powder dust with specific surface area ranging from 0.03 to 112 m2 g-1 was conducted. LDSA concentrations measured directly using Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor...... gravimetrical filter measurements and specific surface areas. Measurement of LDSA showed very good correlation in measurements of spherical particles (R2 > 0.97, Ratio 1.0 to 1.04). High surface area nanomaterial powders showed a fairly reliable correlation between NSAM and Aerotrak (R2 0...... present. We conclude that there is currently insufficient reliability and comparability between methods in the measurement of LDSA concentrations. Further development is required to enable use of LDSA for reliable dose metric and regulatory enforcement of exposure....

  10. Evaluation of fine ceramics raw powders with particle size analyzers having different measuring principle and its problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Osamu; Nakahira, Kenji; Tsubaki, Junichiro.

    1995-01-01

    Many kinds of analyzers based on various principles have been developed for measuring particle size distribution of fine ceramics powders. But the reproducibility of the results, interchangeability of the models, reliability of the ends of the measured distribution have not been investigated for each principle. In this paper, these important points for particle size analysis were clarified by measuring raw material powders of fine ceramics. (1) in the case of laser diffraction and scattering method, the reproducibility in the same model is good, however, interchangeability of the different models is not so good, especially at the ends of the distribution. Submicron powders having high refractive index show such a tendency remarkably. (2) the photo sedimentation method has some problems to be conquered, especially in measuring submicron powders having high refractive index or flaky shape particles. The reproducibility of X-ray sedimentation method is much better than that of photo sedimentation. (3) the light obscuration and electrical sensing zone methods, show good reproducibility, however, sometime bad interchangeability is affected by calibration and so on. (author)

  11. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  12. Dissolution of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Pereira Sanchez, G.

    1968-01-01

    The dissolution of aluminum with acid solutions ( nitric acid-mercuric nitrate) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate) has been studied. The instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) has been studied in function of the concentration of the used reagents and the dissolution temperature. The complete dissolution has been included in the second part of this report, to know the total dissolution time, the consume of reagents and the stability of the resultant solutions. (Author)

  13. Development of an abiraterone acetate formulation with improved oral bioavailability guided by absorption modeling based on in vitro dissolution and permeability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Tamás; Ötvös, Zsolt; Angi, Réka; Ordasi, Betti; Jordán, Tamás; Semsey, Sándor; Molnár, László; Ránky, Soma; Filipcsei, Genovéva; Heltovics, Gábor; Glavinas, Hristos

    2017-10-30

    Particle size reduction of drug crystals in the presence of surfactants (often called "top-down" production methods) is a standard approach used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Based on the mathematical model used to predict the fraction dose absorbed this formulation approach is successful when dissolution rate is the main rate limiting factor of oral absorption. In case compound solubility is also a major factor this approach might not result in an adequate improvement in bioavailability. Abiraterone acetate is poorly water soluble which is believed to be responsible for its very low bioavailability in the fasted state and its significant positive food effect. In this work, we have successfully used in vitro dissolution, solubility and permeability measurements in biorelevant media to describe the dissolution characteristics of different abiraterone acetate formulations. Mathematical modeling of fraction dose absorbed indicated that reducing the particle size of the drug cannot be expected to result in significant improvement in bioavailability in the fasted state. In the fed state, the same formulation approach can result in a nearly complete absorption of the dose; thereby, further increasing the food effect. Using a "bottom-up" formulation method we improved both the dissolution rate and the apparent solubility of the compound. In beagle dog studies, this resulted in a ≫>10-fold increase in bioavailability in the fasted state when compared to the marketed drug and the elimination of the food effect. Calculated values of fraction dose absorbed were in agreement with the observed relative bioavailability values in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishment of X-ray Measurement System for On-line Monitoring of Water Content in Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J. S. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Idealsystem Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On-line process monitoring is of critical importance in many industries, and therefore a variety of the state-of-the-art physical and chemical measurement techniques have been proposed. But, these techniques have their own pros and cons under the field process environments. Because the field process environments are very different from the well-organized chemical laboratories, many factors should be considered in order to optimize the process monitoring system. However, there have been few studies on the on-line measurement of water content in powder materials. For that reason, the X-ray measurement system based on the X-ray scattering technique, which was first proposed in 2011 as a new method for the determination of water content in powder, has been improved. in the present study, our original X-ray measurement system has been modified for more rapid, simple, and adequate for maximizing the field applicability of the on-line monitoring system

  15. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    OpenAIRE

    Vuichoud , Basile; Milani , Jonas; Chappuis , Quentin; Bornet , Aurélien; Bodenhausen , Geoffrey; Jannin , Sami

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (Delta E < kT) is violated for the nuclear Zeeman interaction Delta E = gamma B(0)h/(2 pi) of most isotopes. Provided that, after rapid dissolution and transfer to an NMR or MRI system, the hyperpolarized molecules contain at least two nuclear spins I and S with a scalar coupling J(IS), the polarization of spin I (short for 'inve...

  16. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  17. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  18. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  19. Molecularly-Limited Fractal Surface Area of Mineral Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jandacka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the specific surface area (SSA of powders is not sufficiently described in the literature in spite of its nontrivial contribution to adsorption and dissolution processes. Fractal geometry provides a way to determine this parameter via relation SSA ~ x(D − 3s(2 − D, where x (m is the particle size and s (m is a scale. Such a relation respects nano-, micro-, or macro-topography on the surface. Within this theory, the fractal dimension 2 ≤ D < 3 and scale parameter s plays a significant role. The parameter D may be determined from BET or dissolution measurements on several samples, changing the powder particle sizes or sizes of adsorbate molecules. If the fractality of the surface is high, the SSA does not depend on the particle size distribution and vice versa. In this paper, the SSA parameter is analyzed from the point of view of adsorption and dissolution processes. In the case of adsorption, a new equation for the SSA, depending on the term (2 − D∙(s2 − sBET/sBET, is derived, where sBET and s2 are effective cross-sectional diameters for BET and new adsorbates. Determination of the SSA for the dissolution process appears to be very complicated, since the fractality of the surface may change in the process. Nevertheless, the presented equations have good application potential.

  20. Influence of material surface on the scanning error of a powder-free 3D measuring system

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Michael; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of a powder-free three-dimensional (3D) measuring system (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona), when scanning the surface of a material at different angles. Additionally, the influence of water was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine different materials were combined with human tooth surface (enamel) to create n = 27 specimens. These materials were: Controls (InCoris TZI and Cerec Guide Bloc), ceramics (Vitablocs® Mark II and IPS Empress CAD), met...

  1. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  2. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  3. Dissolution of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present program objectives are to lay out the fundamentals of crystalline waste form dissolution. Nuclear waste ceramics are polycrystalline. An assumption of the work is that to the first order, the release rate of a particular radionuclide is the surface-weighted sum of the release rates of the radionuclide from each crystalline form that contains it. In the second order, of course, there will be synergistic effects. There will be also grain boundary and other microstructural influences. As a first approximation, we have selected crystalline phases one at a time. The sequence of investigations and measurements is: (i) Identification of the actual chemical reactions of dissolution including identification of the solid reaction products if such occur. (ii) The rates of these reactions are then determined empirically to give what may be called macroscopic kinetics. (iii) Determination of the rate-controlling mechanisms. (iv) If the rate is controlled by surface reactions, the final step would be to determine the atomic kinetics, that is the specific atomic reactions that occur at the dissolving interface. Our concern with the crystalline forms are in two areas: The crystalline components of the reference ceramic waste form and related ceramics and the alumino-silicate phases that appear in some experimental waste forms and as waste-rock interaction products. Specific compounds are: (1) Reference Ceramic Phases (zirconolite, magnetoplumbite, spinel, Tc-bearing spinel and perovskite); (2) Aluminosilicate phases (nepheline, pollucite, CsAlSi 5 O 12 , Sr-feldspar). 5 figures, 1 table

  4. Influence of material surface on the scanning error of a powder-free 3D measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Michael; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of a powder-free three-dimensional (3D) measuring system (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona), when scanning the surface of a material at different angles. Additionally, the influence of water was investigated. Nine different materials were combined with human tooth surface (enamel) to create n = 27 specimens. These materials were: Controls (InCoris TZI and Cerec Guide Bloc), ceramics (Vitablocs® Mark II and IPS Empress CAD), metals (gold and amalgam) and composites (Tetric Ceram, Filtek Supreme A2B and A2E). The highly polished samples were scanned at different angles with and without water. The 216 scans were then analyzed and descriptive statistics were obtained. The height difference between the tooth and material surfaces, as measured with the 3D scans, ranged from 0.83 μm (±2.58 μm) to -14.79 μm (±3.45 μm), while the scan noise on the materials was between 3.23 μm (±0.79 μm) and 14.24 μm (±6.79 μm) without considering the control groups. Depending on the thickness of the water film, measurement errors in the order of 300-1,600 μm could be observed. The inaccuracies between the tooth and material surfaces, as well as the scan noise for the materials, were within the range of error for measurements used for conventional impressions and are therefore negligible. The presence of water, however, greatly affects the scan. The tested powder-free 3D measuring system can safely be used to scan different material surfaces without the prior application of a powder, although drying of the surface prior to scanning is highly advisable.

  5. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  6. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  7. The Influence of Pressure on the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate of Amorphous Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Löbmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of a drug and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling indomethacin (IND, a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and the final compacts were visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND–PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage of the amorphous form might be underestimated. It is thus suggested that for a reasonable interpretation of the IDR, surface properties of the different analyzed samples should be investigated and for amorphous samples the IDR should be measured also as a function of the compression pressure used to prepare the solid sample for IDR testing.

  8. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  9. Measurement of microbic contamination rate in the dispensing process making suspension of barium sulfate powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Keun; Lee, Yang Sub; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun; Lee, Kyung Sup

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the contamination rate of barium sulfate suspension made in the exposed state in usual circumstances. This study was performed in four university hospital using the contrast media by barium sulfate powder. The specimen were detected at dispensing water, agitator and mixing tank. We also classified the suspension into general bacteria, mycete and Bacillus coli infection. The tap water were used to dispense water in the all hospitals. Bacillus coli were not detected in the all. General bacteria and mycete were not detected in the one specimen, but detected in two specimen over defined value. In the contamination rate of agitator, mixing tank, and the manufactured. Bacillus coli were not detected in all. However, general bacteria and mycete were detected too numberous to count. In conclusion, the refined water must be used in dispensing water in manufacturing suspension. The disinfectant is also used in washing the agitator and mixing tank for sterilization. Hand washing is indispensable to manufacturing suspension for preventing from infection

  10. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  11. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  12. ESTIMATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN THE DETERMINATION OF Fe CONTENT IN POWDERED TONIC FOOD DRINK USING GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of uncertainty measurement in the determination of Fe content in powdered tonic food drink using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. The specification of measurand, source of uncertainty, standard uncertainty, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty from this measurement were evaluated and accounted. The measurement result showed that the Fe content in powdered tonic food drink sample was 569.32 µg/5g, with the expanded uncertainty measurement ± 178.20 µg/5g (coverage factor, k = 2, at confidende level 95%. The calibration curve gave the major contribution to the uncertainty of the final results.   Keywords: uncertainty, powdered tonic food drink, iron (Fe, graphite furnace AAS

  13. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  14. Dissolution rates of DWPF glasses from long-term PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Tam, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    We have characterized the corrosion behavior of several Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference waste glasses by conducting static dissolution tests with crushed glasses. Glass dissolution rates were calculated from measured B concentrations in tests conducted for up to five years. The dissolution rates of all glasses increased significantly after certain alteration phases precipitated. Calculation of the dissolution rates was complicated by the decrease in the available surface area as the glass dissolves. We took the loss of surface area into account by modeling the particles to be spheres, then extracting from the short-term test results the dissolution rate corresponding to a linear decrease in the radius of spherical particles. The measured extent of dissolution in tests conducted for longer times was less than predicted with this linear dissolution model. This indicates that advanced stages of corrosion are affected by another process besides dissolution, which we believe to be associated with a decrease in the precipitation rate of the alteration phases. These results show that the dissolution rate measured soon after the formation of certain alteration phases provides an upper limit for the long-term dissolution rate, and can be used to determine a bounding value for the source term for radionuclide release from waste glasses. The long-term dissolution rates measured in tests at 20,000 per m at 90 degrees C in tuff groundwater at pH values near 12 for the Environmental Assessment glass and glasses made with SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits, respectively

  15. Dissolution of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Rainey, R.

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory study was made of the instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) for unirradiated uranium metal rods and UO 2 , PuO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets in boiling nitric acid alone and with additives. The uranium metal and UO 2 dissolved readily in nitric acid alone; PuO 2 dissolved slowly even with the addition of fluoride; PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets containing as much as 35% PuO 2 in UO 2 gave values of the instantaneous dissolution rate to indicate can be dissolved with nitric acid alone. An equation to calculate the time for complete dissolution has been determinate in function of the instantaneous dissolution rates. The calculated values agree with the experimental. Uranium dioxide pellets from various sources but all having a same density varied in instantaneous dissolution rate. All the pellets, however, have dissolved ved in the same time. The time for complete dissolution of PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets, having the same composition, and the concentration of the used reagents are function of the used reagents are function of the fabrication method. (Author) 8 refs

  16. Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders at the Hanford Site: Statistical design and heterogeneity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Johnson, W.C.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative physical measurements are a n component of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material m ampersand guards verification regime. In December 1994, LA.FA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of excess plutonium powder items at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Vault 3, on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The material originl from the US nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of this inventory were anticipated to challenge the precision and accuracy of quantitative destructive analytical techniques. A sampling design was used to estimate the degree of heterogeneity of the plutonium content of a variety of inventory items. Plutonium concentration, the item net weight, and the 240 Pu content were among the variables considered in the design. Samples were obtained from randomly selected location within each item. Each sample was divided into aliquots and analyzed chemically. Operator measurements by calorimetry and IAEA measurements by coincident neutron nondestructive analysis also were performed for the initial physical inventory verification materials and similar items not yet under IAEA safeguards. The heterogeneity testing has confirmed that part of the material is indeed significantly heterogeneous; this means that precautionary measures must be taken to obtain representative samples for destructive analysis. In addition, the sampling variability due to material heterogeneity was found to be comparable with, or greater than, the variability of the operator's calorimetric measurements

  17. Selection of mode for the measurement of lead isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and its application to milk powder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Ebdon, L.; Massey, R.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the selection of the optimum mode for the measurement of isotope ratios in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is reported, with particular reference to lead isotope ratios. Variation in the accuracy and precision achievable using the measurement modes of scanning and peak jumping are discussed. It is concluded that if sufficient sample and time are available, scanning gives best accuracy and precision. Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) has been applied to the measurement of the lead content of two dried milk powders of Australian and European origin introduced as slurries into ICP-MS. Differences in the lead isotope ratios in the two milk powders were investigated and the total lead content determined by IDA. Isotope dilution analysis permitted accurate data to be obtained with an RSD of 4.2% or milk powder containing less than 30 ng g -1 of lead. The ICP-MS technique is confirmed as a useful tool for IDA. (author)

  18. NDA (Non Destructive Assay) measurements for isotopic homogeneity of UO2 powder form mechanical blending and results comparison between gamma and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Carlos A.; Rojo, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    Eight batches of 0.95% UO2 powder, obtained by mechanical blending of 3.5% and 0.711 % UO2 powders, were sampled. From each batch, samples at the top and the bottom from four drums were taken. Each sample was analysed using different measurement systems, two with NaI(Tl) detectors and another two with HPGe detectors. The Mini Multichannel Analyser (MMCA), model GBS 166, and the calculation codes NaIGEM and MEGAU-EM for peak area analysis and enrichment determination were used. For all cases the WinSPEC acquisition code was used. From the statistical analysis of the measurement results it arises that it is possible to determine the homogeneity grade of UO2 powder samples with a lower error than 0.5% for both types of detectors. The performance of the HPGe measurement system is only slightly more precise than the NaI system. (author)

  19. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  20. Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study dissolution of minerals with initial rough surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and a scaling approach. We consider a simple cubic lattice structure, a thermally activated rate of detachment of a molecule (site), and rough surface configurations produced by fractional Brownian motion algorithm. First we revisit the problem of dissolution of initial flat surfaces, in which the dissolution rate rF reaches an approximately constant value at short times and is controlled by detachment of step edge sites. For initial rough surfaces, the dissolution rate r at short times is much larger than rF ; after dissolution of some hundreds of molecular layers, r decreases by some orders of magnitude across several time decades. Meanwhile, the surface evolves through configurations of decreasing energy, beginning with dissolution of isolated sites, then formation of terraces with disordered boundaries, their growth, and final smoothing. A crossover time to a smooth configuration is defined when r = 1.5rF ; the surface retreat at the crossover is approximately 3 times the initial roughness and is temperature-independent, while the crossover time is proportional to the initial roughness and is controlled by step-edge site detachment. The initial dissolution process is described by the so-called rough rates, which are measured for fixed ratios between the surface retreat and the initial roughness. The temperature dependence of the rough rates indicates control by kink site detachment; in general, it suggests that rough rates are controlled by the weakest microscopic bonds during the nucleation and formation of the lowest energy configurations of the crystalline surface. Our results are related to recent laboratory studies which show enhanced dissolution in polished calcite surfaces. In the application to calcite dissolution in alkaline environment, the minimal values of recently measured dissolution rate spectra give rF ∼10-9 mol/(m2 s), and the calculated rate

  1. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the formation of atorvastatin calcium (AC) co-crystal to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Method: Co-crystallization of AC in equimolar ratio with isonicotinamide (INA) was carried out by slow solvent evaporation method using methanol. The solid obtained was characterized by powder x-ray ...

  2. Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess Pu powders at the Hanford Site: Operator and IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative physical measurements are necessary components of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material safeguards verification regime. In December 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of plutonium-bearing oxide and scrap items in Vault 3 of the 2736-Z Building of the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Hanford Site. The material originated in the United States nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of the plutonium in this inventory were expected to challenge the target precision and accuracy of methods employed by IAEA: quantitative destructive analytical techniques (which are susceptible to sampling error) and quantitative coincident neutron measurements (which rely on knowledge of the material's chemical form and purity). Because of the diverse and heterogenous nature of plutonium-bearing scrap, plant operations increasingly have adopted calorimetric techniques both for item inventory measurements and for verification purposes. During the recent advent of IAEA safeguards at Vault 3, a set of destructive and nondestructive methods were applied to a number of inventory items (cans of plutonium-bearing powders) with widely ranging chemical purities. Results of these measurements, gathered by the operator's and IAEA's laboratories and instruments as well as by instruments from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and USDOE's Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are presented and statistically compared

  3. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  4. Comparison of calorimetry and destructive analytical measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    In Dec. 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on inventory of Pu- bearing materials, originating from the US nuclear weapons complex, at vault 3 of DOE's Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford. Because of the diversity and heterogeneity of the Pu, plant operators have increasingly used calorimetry for accountability measurements. During the recent commencement of IAEA safeguards at vault 3, destructive (electrochemical titration) methods were used to determine Pu concentrations in subsamples of inventory items with widely ranging chemical purities. The Pu concentrations in the subsamples were determined and contribution of heterogeneity to total variability was identified. Measurement results, gathered by PFP and IAEA laboratories, showed total measurement variability for calorimetry to be comparable with or lower than those of sampling and chemical analyses

  5. Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffres, Scott N; Malen, Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    A novel 3ω thermal conductivity measurement technique called metal-coated 3ω is introduced for use with liquids, gases, powders, and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3ω exceeds alternate 3ω based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases), using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques, including transient hot-wire, steady-state methods, and solid-wire 3ω are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3ω was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress in a powder metallurgy component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.C.R.; Hainsworth, S.V.; Cocks, A.C.F.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stresses in a typical industrial green component were determined using neutron diffraction. The measured residual stresses were found to correlate with cross-sectional variations. Residual stress at the edge of the compact in contact with the die wall during compaction reached up to +80 MPa (tension) and -100 MPa (compression)

  7. Study on the dissolution of uranium dibutyl phosphate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufus, A.L.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan

    2008-01-01

    An insoluble sticky complex of uranium dibutyl phosphate (U-DBP) formed on the inner surfaces of a reprocessing facility can host radioactive nuclides resulting in radiation exposure hazard. Removal of this layer will greatly result in the reduction of radiation field. Hence, dissolution studies with synthetically prepared U-DBP were carried out. A two-step dissolution process consisting of an initial oxidation with acid permanganate followed by reduction with NAC (NTA, Ascorbic acid and Citric acid) was used. Oxidation kinetics of DBP by permanganate, dissolution of synthetic U-DBP complex as a powder and also as a film over SS surface was studied. XRF and SEM techniques were used to monitor the process of dissolution. Material compatibility of welded SS-304 specimens was also studied. It was found that the two-step process was more efficient when compared to either permanganate or NAC treatment alone. (author)

  8. Study on the dissolution of uranium dibutyl phosphate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufus, A.L.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam (India)], E-mail: svn@igcar.gov.in

    2008-07-01

    An insoluble sticky complex of uranium dibutyl phosphate (U-DBP) formed on the inner surfaces of a reprocessing facility can host radioactive nuclides resulting in radiation exposure hazard. Removal of this layer will greatly result in the reduction of radiation field. Hence, dissolution studies with synthetically prepared U-DBP were carried out. A two-step dissolution process consisting of an initial oxidation with acid permanganate followed by reduction with NAC (NTA, Ascorbic acid and Citric acid) was used. Oxidation kinetics of DBP by permanganate, dissolution of synthetic U-DBP complex as a powder and also as a film over SS surface was studied. XRF and SEM techniques were used to monitor the process of dissolution. Material compatibility of welded SS-304 specimens was also studied. It was found that the two-step process was more efficient when compared to either permanganate or NAC treatment alone. (author)

  9. Dissolution of artemisinin/polymer composite nanoparticles fabricated by evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Li, Lin; Judeh, Zaher

    2010-04-01

    An evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN) method was used to fabricate composite particles of a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, artemisinin, with a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), with the aim of enhancing the dissolution rate of artemisinin. We investigated the effect of polymer concentration on the physical, morphological and dissolution properties of the EPN-prepared artemisinin/PEG composites. The original artemisinin powder, EPN-prepared artemisinin nanoparticles and artemisinin/PEG composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dissolution testing and HPLC. The percentage dissolution efficiency, relative dissolution, time to 75% dissolution and mean dissolution time were calculated. The experimental drug dissolution data were fitted to various mathematical models (Weibull, first-order, Korsemeyer-Peppas, Hixson-Crowell cube root and Higuchi models) in order to analyse the release mechanism. The DSC and XRD studies suggest that the crystallinity of the EPN-prepared artemisinin decreased with increasing polymer concentration. The phase-solubility studies revealed an A(L)-type curve, indicating a linear increase in drug solubility with PEG concentration. The dissolution rate of the EPN-prepared artemisinin and artemisinin/PEG composites increased markedly compared with the original artemisinin powder. EPN can be used to prepare artemisinin nanoparticles and artemisinin/PEG composite particles that have a significantly enhanced dissolution rate. The mechanism of drug release involved diffusion and erosion.

  10. Initial dissolution rate of a Japanese simulated high-level waste glass P0798 as a function of pH and temperature measured by using micro-channel flow-through test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Makigaki, Hikaru; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Mitsui, Sei-ichiro; Noshita, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests were performed for a Japanese type of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass P0798 by using a newly developed test method of micro-channel flow-through (MCFT) method, and the initial dissolution rate of glass matrix, r 0 , was measured as a function of solution pH (3-11) and temperature (25-90degC) precisely and consistently for systematic evaluation of the dissolution kinetics. The MCFT method using a micro-channel reactor with a coupon shaped glass specimen has the following features to provide precise and consistent data on the glass dissolution rate: (1) any controlled constant solution condition can be provided over the test duration; (2) the glass surface area actually reacting with solution can be determined accurately; and (3) direct and totally quantitative analyses of the reacted glass surface can be performed for confirming consistency of the test results. The present test results indicated that the r 0 shows a 'V-shaped' pH dependence with a minimum at around pH 6 at 25degC, but it changes to a 'U-shaped' one with a flat bottom at neutral pH at elevated temperatures of up to 90degC. The present results also indicated that the r 0 increases with temperature according to an Arrhenius law at any pH, and the apparent activation energy evaluated from Arrhenius relation increases with pH from 54 kJ/mol at pH 3 to 76 kJ/mol at pH 10, which suggests that the dissolution mechanism changes depending on pH. (author)

  11. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  12. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Dissolution kinetics for alumina in cryolite melts. Distribution of alumina in the electrolyte of industrial aluminium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobbeltvedt, Ove

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the understanding of which factors determine the rate of dissolution of alumina added to the bath in alumina reduction cells. Knowing this may help reduce the occurrences of operation interruptions and thus make it possible to produce aluminium using less energy. When alumina powder was added to a stirred cryolite melt, the alumina dissolved in two distinct main stages. In the first stage, the dissolution rate was very high, which reflects dissolution of single alumina grains that are being dispersed in the bath upon addition. In the second stage, lumps of alumina infiltrated with bath dissolved at a rate considerably slower than that of the first stage. The formation of these alumina agglomerates is the most important contributor to slow dissolution. The parameters varied in the experiments were convection, batch size, and temperature of the bath and of the added alumina. Increased gas stirring of the bath speeded up dissolution in both stages but the size of the batch was of little significance. Increasing the bath temperature had no effect in the first stage but speeded up dissolution considerably in the second stage. Compared to adding alumina at room temperature, preheating it to a high temperature (600 {sup o}C) increased the dissolution rate in the first stage while preheating to lower temperatures (100-300 {sup o}C) decreased the dissolution rate. In the second stage, preheating slowed the dissolution. The two latter phenomena of reduced dissolution rates are ascribed to the removal of moisture from the alumina upon preheating. The bath flow and the distribution of alumina in the bath were measured in four different types of cells. It was found that if a certain asymmetry of the magnetic field traverse to the cell was present, due to the presence of risers, then loops of high velocity bath flow occurred near the short ends of the cell. Thus, alumina added near the short ends is effectively transferred away from the feeding

  14. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Petroleum Coke Powder by Means of Four-Probe Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouget, G.; Majidi, B.; Picard, D.; Gauvin, G.; Ziegler, D.; Mashreghi, J.; Alamdari, H.

    2017-10-01

    Carbon anodes used in Hall-Héroult electrolysis cells are involved in both electrical and chemical processes of the cell. Electrical resistivity of anodes depends on electrical properties of its constituents, of which carbon coke aggregates are the most prevalent. Electrical resistivity of coke aggregates is usually characterized according to the ISO 10143 standardized test method, which consists of measuring the voltage drop in the bed of particles between two electrically conducing plungers through which the current is also applied. Estimation of the electrical resistivity of coke particles from the resistivity of particle bed is a challenging task and needs consideration of the contribution of the interparticle void fraction and the particle/particle contact resistances. In this work, the bed resistivity was normalized by subtracting the interparticle void fraction. Then, the contact size was obtained from discrete element method simulation and the contact resistance was calculated using Holm's theory. Finally, the resistivity of the coke particles was obtained from the bed resistivity.

  15. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  16. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  17. The kinetics of Dissolution of Biologically Formed Calcific Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokidi, Stamatia; Koutsoukos, Petros

    2015-04-01

    The calcification of aortic valves results in the formation of non stoichiometric apatitic deposits which may have serious health implications because of the fact that these minerals adhere tenaciously on tissues like heart valves and arteries causing permanent damage which is partly due to their low solubility. In the present work, calcium phosphate biominerals were extracted from clinically removed tissues and were characterized with respect to their mineralogical constituents and other properties including morphology, specific surface area analyses and thermogravimetric analysis. In all cases, the biominerals may be described as non stoichiometric apatitic materials, although traces of the precursor phase of octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6•5H2O, OCP) were identified on the basis of their morphological examination. The kinetics of dissolution of the biomineral deposits was investigated in solutions undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH, HAP) at conditions of constant undersaturation at pH 7.40, 37°C, 0.15M NaCl. Synthetic stoichiometric HAP was used as the control mineral. The experiments in the present work used solutions prepared from calcium chloride and sodium hydrogen phosphate and the relative undersaturation, σ, was in the range 0.38-0.74 with respect to HAP and 0.49-0.85 with respect to OCP (σ=1 in water). The dissolution process started immediately upon the introduction of an accurately weighted amount of powdered biomineral in the undersaturated solutions homogenized by magnetic stirring. Inert atmosphere was ensured with the bubbling of water vapor saturated nitrogen through the demineralizing solutions. A glass/Ag/AgCl combination electrode was used as a probe to monitor the process and to control the addition of diluent solutions with the stoichiometry of the dissolving mineral. The measurements of the rates of crystal dissolution, showed a parabolic dependence on the relative solution undersaturation for HAP and higher

  18. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental hydrothermal dissolution of forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and labradorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponader, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Natural hydrothermal water/rock interactions such as those which occur during mineral dissolution and serpentinization were experimentally duplicated using a flow-through apparatus. Labradorite, forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and lherzolite powders were reached with flowing aqueous fluids ({approximately} 10 ml/day) at 300 C and 300 bars for up to 58 days in order to quantify mineral stabilities and dissolution rates, and to characterize dissolution textures and mechanisms. The principal methods for characterization of the solids included surface sensitive spectroscopies (SAM and SPS), SEM, and XRD; reacted fluids were analyzed for major element chemistry and pH. Chapters 1 and 2 investigate labradorite dissolution by deionized water. The labradorite powder dissolved extensively while boehmite and halloysite precipitated. The SAM results show that, in general, the reacted surfaces are enriched in Al and depleted in Si, Na, and Ca. Chapter 3 describes the experiments that reacted deionized water with diopside, enstatite, forsterite, and lherzolite, from which lizardite {plus minus} chrysotile {plus minus} Fe-oxides precipitated. The reacted diopside and enstatite surfaces appeared highly corroded; their crystal structures, in part, control the mechanisms by which they dissolve. The stabilities of the minerals decrease in the order: lherzolite > diopside > enstatite > forsterite. At near neutral pH, the degree to which total surface areas influence dissolution rates appears greater that the effect of mineral composition and interaction of the primary minerals within the lherzolite.

  1. Dissolution Enhancement of Rosuvastatin Calcium by Liquisolid Compact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Kapure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present investigation liquisolid compact technique is investigated as a tool for enhanced dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug Rosuvastatin calcium (RVT. The model drug RVT, a HMG-Co A reductase inhibitor was formulated in form of directly compressed tablets and liquisolid compacts; and studied for in-vitro release characteristics at different dissolution conditions. In this technique, liquid medications of water insoluble drugs in non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders. Formulated systems were assessed for precompression parameters like flow properties of liquisolid system, Fourior transform infra red spectra (FTIR analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and post compression parameters like content uniformity, weight variation, hardness and friability, disintegration test, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies, effect of dissolution volume on drug release rate, and estimation of fraction of molecularly dispersed drug in liquid medication. As liquisolid compacts demonstrated significantly higher drug release rates, we lead to conclusion that it could be a promising strategy in improving the dissolution of poor water soluble drugs and formulating immediate release solid dosage forms.

  2. Near surface bulk density estimates of NEAs from radar observations and permittivity measurements of powdered geologic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Dylan; Boivin, Alexandre; Daly, Michael G.; Ghent, Rebecca; Nolan, Michael C.; Tait, Kimberly; Cunje, Alister; Tsai, Chun An

    2018-05-01

    The variations in near-surface properties and regolith structure of asteroids are currently not well constrained by remote sensing techniques. Radar is a useful tool for such determinations of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) as the power of the reflected signal from the surface is dependent on the bulk density, ρbd, and dielectric permittivity. In this study, high precision complex permittivity measurements of powdered aluminum oxide and dunite samples are used to characterize the change in the real part of the permittivity with the bulk density of the sample. In this work, we use silica aerogel for the first time to increase the void space in the samples (and decrease the bulk density) without significantly altering the electrical properties. We fit various mixing equations to the experimental results. The Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz mixing formula has the best fit and the Lichtenecker mixing formula, which is typically used to approximate planetary regolith, does not model the results well. We find that the Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz formula adequately matches Lunar regolith permittivity measurements, and we incorporate it into an existing model for obtaining asteroid regolith bulk density from radar returns which is then used to estimate the bulk density in the near surface of NEA's (101955) Bennu and (25143) Itokawa. Constraints on the material properties appropriate for either asteroid give average estimates of ρbd = 1.27 ± 0.33g/cm3 for Bennu and ρbd = 1.68 ± 0.53g/cm3 for Itokawa. We conclude that our data suggest that the Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz mixing model, in tandem with an appropriate radar scattering model, is the best method for estimating bulk densities of regoliths from radar observations of airless bodies.

  3. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  4. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  5. Collective dissolution of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sébastien; Guérin, Etienne; Lauga, Eric

    2018-04-01

    A microscopic bubble of soluble gas always dissolves in finite time in an undersaturated fluid. This diffusive process is driven by the difference between the gas concentration near the bubble, whose value is governed by the internal pressure through Henry's law, and the concentration in the far field. The presence of neighboring bubbles can significantly slow down this process by increasing the effective background concentration and reducing the diffusing flux of dissolved gas experienced by each bubble. We develop theoretical modeling of such diffusive shielding process in the case of small microbubbles whose internal pressure is dominated by Laplace pressure. We first use an exact semianalytical solution to capture the case of two bubbles and analyze in detail the shielding effect as a function of the distance between the bubbles and their size ratio. While we also solve exactly for the Stokes flow around the bubble, we show that hydrodynamic effects are mostly negligible except in the case of almost-touching bubbles. In order to tackle the case of multiple bubbles, we then derive and validate two analytical approximate yet generic frameworks, first using the method of reflections and then by proposing a self-consistent continuum description. Using both modeling frameworks, we examine the dissolution of regular one-, two-, and three-dimensional bubble lattices. Bubbles located at the edge of the lattices dissolve first, while innermost bubbles benefit from the diffusive shielding effect, leading to the inward propagation of a dissolution front within the lattice. We show that diffusive shielding leads to severalfold increases in the dissolution time, which grows logarithmically with the number of bubbles in one-dimensional lattices and algebraically in two and three dimensions, scaling respectively as its square root and 2 /3 power. We further illustrate the sensitivity of the dissolution patterns to initial fluctuations in bubble size or arrangement in the case

  6. Dissolution experiments of unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the dissolution rate of uranium from unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets in deionized water and natural groundwater. Moreover, the solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater was measured. Two different temperatures, 25 and 60 deg C were used. The low oxygen content of deep groundwater was simulated. The dissolution rate of uranium varied from 10 -7 to 10 -8 g cm -2 d -1 . The rate in reionized water was one order of magnitude lower than in groundwater. No great difference was observed between the natural groundwaters with different composition. Temperature seems to have effect on the dissolution rate. The solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater in reducing conditions, at 25 deg C, varied from 20 to 600 μg/l and in oxidizing conditions, at 60 deg C, from 4 to 17 mg/l

  7. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  8. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  9. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  11. Predicting foliar biochemistry of tea (Camellia sinensis) using reflectance spectra measured at powder, leaf and canopy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Wang, T.; Liu, X.; Zeng, R.; Fei, T.

    2013-01-01

    Some biochemical compounds are closely related with the quality of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)). In this study, the concentration of these compounds including total tea polyphenols, free amino acids and soluble sugars were estimated using reflectance spectroscopy at three different levels: powder,

  12. Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzymatic Reactors Filled by Various Types of Silica and Amalgam Powders for Measurements in Flow Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Oksana; Barek, J.; Josypčuk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2016), s. 3028-3038 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03139S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemical biosensors * enzymatic reactor * silica powders Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  13. Artemether-Lumefantrine Concentrations in Tablets and Powders from Ghana Measured by a New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrah, Philip; Nettey, Henry; Miltersen, Katja Kjeldgaard

    2016-01-01

    We developed and validated a new analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and lumefantrine in fixed-dose tablets and powders for reconstitution into pediatric suspensions (PSs). The method showed linearity (r2 > 0.9947), precision (coefficient of variation < 2%), accura...

  14. Aqueous dissolution rates of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, S.A.; Mones, E.T.

    1994-10-01

    An understanding of the long-term dissolution of waste forms in groundwater is required for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste in an underground repository. The main routes by which radionuclides could be released from a geological repository are the dissolution and transport processes in groundwater flow. Because uranium dioxide is the primary constituent of spent nuclear fuel, the dissolution of its matrix in spent fuel is considered the rate-limiting step for release of radioactive fission products. The purpose of our work has been to measure the intrinsic dissolution rates of uranium oxides under a variety of well-controlled conditions that are relevant to a repository and allow for modeling. The intermediate oxide phase U 3 O 8 , triuranium octaoxide, is quite stable and known to be present in oxidized spent fuel. The trioxide, UO 3 , has been shown to exist in drip tests on spent fuel. Here we compare the results of essentially identical dissolution experiments performed on depleted U 3 O 8 and dehyrated schoepite or uranium trioxide monohydrate (UO 3 ·H 2 O). These are compared with earlier work on spent fuel and UO 2 under similar conditions

  15. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  16. Design and fabrication of a real-time measurement system for the capsaicinoid content of Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method through visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of...

  17. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  18. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  19. Biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilardia-Arana, David; Kristensen, Henning G; Müllertz, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt...... is partitioned between the aqueous phase and the aggregates. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of dilution on the size distribution of aggregates and its effect on the solubilization capacity. Clear buffered solutions of four intestinal amphiphiles (sodium glycocholate, lecithin, monoolein...

  20. Characteristics of MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is to be applied to the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is though to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid. In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed from the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO{sub 2} purging. (author)

  1. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  2. Does the dose-solubility ratio affect the mean dissolution time of drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lánský, P; Weiss, M

    1999-09-01

    To present a new model for describing drug dissolution. On the basis of the new model to characterize the dissolution profile by the distribution function of the random dissolution time of a drug molecule, which generalizes the classical first order model. Instead of assuming a constant fractional dissolution rate, as in the classical model, it is considered that the fractional dissolution rate is a decreasing function of the dissolved amount controlled by the dose-solubility ratio. The differential equation derived from this assumption is solved and the distribution measures (half-dissolution time, mean dissolution time, relative dispersion of the dissolution time, dissolution time density, and fractional dissolution rate) are calculated. Finally, instead of monotonically decreasing the fractional dissolution rate, a generalization resulting in zero dissolution rate at time origin is introduced. The behavior of the model is divided into two regions defined by q, the ratio of the dose to the solubility level: q 1 (saturation of the solution, saturation time). The singular case q = 1 is also treated and in this situation the mean as well as the relative dispersion of the dissolution time increase to infinity. The model was successfully fitted to data (1). This empirical model is descriptive without detailed physical reasoning behind its derivation. According to the model, the mean dissolution time is affected by the dose-solubility ratio. Although this prediction appears to be in accordance with preliminary application, further validation based on more suitable experimental data is required.

  3. Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Gamlen, Michael; Morton, David A V

    2015-05-01

    Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate.

  4. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  5. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • F chrysotile (mol/m 2 /s) = 10 −0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO 2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 . Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: F Mg =-0.22pH-10.02;F Si =-0.19pH-10.37;F chrysotile =-0.21pH-10.57 where F Mg , F Si , and F chrysotile are the log 10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m 2 /s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO 2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 . Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has

  6. Predicting foliar biochemistry of tea (Camellia sinensis) using reflectance spectra measured at powder, leaf and canopy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Meng; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Schlerf, Martin; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Yanfang; Zeng, Rong; Fei, Teng

    2013-04-01

    Some biochemical compounds are closely related with the quality of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)). In this study, the concentration of these compounds including total tea polyphenols, free amino acids and soluble sugars were estimated using reflectance spectroscopy at three different levels: powder, leaf and canopy, with partial least squares regression. The focus of this study is to systematically compare the accuracy of tea quality estimations based on spectroscopy at three different levels. At the powder level, the average r2 between predictions and observations was 0.89 for polyphenols, 0.81 for amino acids and 0.78 for sugars, with relative root mean square errors (RMSE/mean) of 5.47%, 5.50% and 2.75%, respectively; at the leaf level, the average r2 decreased to 0.46-0.81 and the relative RMSE increased to 4.46-7.09%. Compared to the results yielded at the leaf level, the results from canopy spectra were slightly more accurate, yielding average r2 values of 0.83, 0.77 and 0.56 and relative RMSE of 6.79%, 5.73% and 4.03% for polyphenols, amino acids and sugars, respectively. We further identified wavelength channels that influenced the prediction model. For powder and leaves, some bands identified can be linked to the absorption features of chemicals of interest (1648 nm for phenolic, 1510 nm for amino acids, 2080 nm and 2270 nm for sugars), while more indirectly related wavelengths were found to be important at the canopy level for predictions of chemical compounds. Overall, the prediction accuracies achieved at canopy level in this study are encouraging for future study on tea quality estimated at the landscape scale using airborne and space-borne sensors.

  7. Dissolution performance of plutonium nitride based fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, E.; Hedberg, M. [Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, Gothenburg, SE41296 (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Nitride fuels have been regarded as one viable fuel option for Generation IV reactors due to their positive features compared to oxides. To be able to close the fuel cycle and follow the Generation IV concept, nitrides must, however, demonstrate their ability to be reprocessed. This means that the dissolution performance of actinide based nitrides has to be thoroughly investigated and assessed. As the zirconium stabilized nitrides show even better potential as fuel material than does the pure actinide containing nitrides, investigations on the dissolution behavior of both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N has been undertaken. If possible it is desirable to perform the fuel dissolutions using nitric acid. This, as most reprocessing strategies using solvent-solvent extraction are based on a nitride containing aqueous matrix. (Pu,Zr)N/C microspheres were produced using internal gelation. The spheres dissolution performance was investigated using nitric acid with and without additions of HF and Ag(II). In addition PuN fuel pellets were produced from powder and their dissolution performance were also assessed in a nitric acid based setting. It appears that both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N/C fuel material can be completely dissolved in nitric acid of high concentration with the use of catalytic amounts of HF. The amount of HF added strongly affects dissolution kinetics of (Pu, Zr)N and the presence of HF affects the 2 solutes differently, possibly due to inhomogeneity o the initial material. Large additions of Ag(II) can also be used to facilitate the dissolution of (Pu,Zr)N in nitric acid. PuN can be dissolved by pure nitric acid of high concentration at room temperature while (Pu, Zr)N is unaffected under similar conditions. At elevated temperature (reflux), (Pu,Zr)N can, however, also be dissolved by concentrated pure nitric acid.

  8. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  9. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  10. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-06-11

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  11. Investigation of pressing of molybdenum powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mymrin, S.A.; Kuznetsov, V.Eh.; Yampol'skij, M.L.; Leonov, S.A.; Mikhridinov, R.M.; Korzukhin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into pressing of compacts of MCh type molybdenum powders using the industrial equipment are presented. To measure the density of powder molybdenum billets a radioisotopic density meter with cesium-137 is used as radioactive gamma radiation source. The dependence of the produced billet density on the specific compacting pressure at different values of the powder bulk density is ascertained

  12. Physical heterogeneity control on effective mineral dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heewon; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis

    2018-04-01

    Hydrologic heterogeneity may be an important factor contributing to the discrepancy in laboratory and field measured dissolution rates, but the governing factors influencing mineral dissolution rates among various representations of physical heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we present multiple reactive transport simulations of anorthite dissolution in 2D latticed random permeability fields and link the information from local grid scale (1 cm or 4 m) dissolution rates to domain-scale (1m or 400 m) effective dissolution rates measured by the flux-weighted average of an ensemble of flow paths. We compare results of homogeneous models to heterogeneous models with different structure and layered permeability distributions within the model domain. Chemistry is simplified to a single dissolving primary mineral (anorthite) distributed homogeneously throughout the domain and a single secondary mineral (kaolinite) that is allowed to dissolve or precipitate. Results show that increasing size in correlation structure (i.e. long integral scales) and high variance in permeability distribution are two important factors inducing a reduction in effective mineral dissolution rates compared to homogeneous permeability domains. Larger correlation structures produce larger zones of low permeability where diffusion is an important transport mechanism. Due to the increased residence time under slow diffusive transport, the saturation state of a solute with respect to a reacting mineral approaches equilibrium and reduces the reaction rate. High variance in permeability distribution favorably develops large low permeability zones that intensifies the reduction in mixing and effective dissolution rate. However, the degree of reduction in effective dissolution rate observed in 1 m × 1 m domains is too small (equilibrium conditions reduce the effective dissolution rate by increasing the saturation state. However, in large domains where less- or non-reactive zones develop, higher

  13. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  14. Biorelevant characterisation of amorphous furosemide salt exhibits conversion to a furosemide hydrate during dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Pajander, Jari Pekka

    2013-01-01

    , as well as of crystalline furosemide salt and acid showed a higher rate of dissolution of the salt forms in comparison with the two acid forms. The measured dissolution rates of the four furosemide forms from the UV imaging system and from eluted effluent samples were consistent with dissolution rates...... obtained from micro dissolution experiments. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis of Raman spectra of the amorphous acid form during flow through dissolution showed that the amorphous acid exhibited a fast conversion to the crystalline acid. Flow through dissolution coupled with Raman spectroscopy...... showed a conversion of the amorphous furosemide salt to a more stable polymorph. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis and hot stage microscopy that the salt forms of furosemide converted to a trihydrate during dissolution. It can be concluded that during biorelevant dissolution, the amorphous...

  15. Mathematical modeling of drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2013-08-30

    The dissolution of a drug administered in the solid state is a pre-requisite for efficient subsequent transport within the human body. This is because only dissolved drug molecules/ions/atoms are able to diffuse, e.g. through living tissue. Thus, generally major barriers, including the mucosa of the gastro intestinal tract, can only be crossed after dissolution. Consequently, the process of dissolution is of fundamental importance for the bioavailability and, hence, therapeutic efficacy of various pharmaco-treatments. Poor aqueous solubility and/or very low dissolution rates potentially lead to insufficient availability at the site of action and, hence, failure of the treatment in vivo, despite a potentially ideal chemical structure of the drug to interact with its target site. Different physical phenomena are involved in the process of drug dissolution in an aqueous body fluid, namely the wetting of the particle's surface, breakdown of solid state bonds, solvation, diffusion through the liquid unstirred boundary layer surrounding the particle as well as convection in the surrounding bulk fluid. Appropriate mathematical equations can be used to quantify these mass transport steps, and more or less complex theories can be developed to describe the resulting drug dissolution kinetics. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of modeling drug dissolution and points out the assumptions the different theories are based on. Various practical examples are given in order to illustrate the benefits of such models. This review is not restricted to mathematical theories considering drugs exhibiting poor aqueous solubility and/or low dissolution rates, but also addresses models quantifying drug release from controlled release dosage forms, in which the process of drug dissolution plays a major role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Maria [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bryant, Michael [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Susann [Thin Film Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hall, Richard M. [Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (iMBE), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Persson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.persson@angstrom.uu.se [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiN{sub x} coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiN{sub x} coatings was evaluated to 0.2–1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7–1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si–N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si–N and/or Si–Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si–O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiN{sub x} coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiN{sub x} coatings for joint replacements. - Graphical abstract: Dissolution rates of SiN{sub 0.3}, SiN{sub 0.8}, and SiN{sub 1.1} coatings on CoCrMo compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Dissolution rates were obtained from i) electrochemical measurements of I{sub corr}, ii) the step height between covered and solution-exposed surfaces, measured using VSI, and iii) the ion concentration in the solution, measured with ICP. - Highlights: • The dissolution of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated in comparison to (bulk) CoCrMo. • The coatings gave a lower or similar dissolution rate to CoCrMo, of 0.2–1.2 nm/day. • An increased nitrogen content in the coatings gave lower dissolution rates. • SiN{sub x} coatings on CoCrMo reduced the metal ion release

  17. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics

  18. Dissolution of FFTF vendor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on FFTF vendor fuel (both mechanically mixed and coprecipitated) during 1974, 1975, and 1976. A marked improvement was noted in the completeness of fuel dissolution from 1974 to 1976. The reason for this is unknown but may have been attributable to slight changes in fuel fabrication conditions. In general, the bulk of the fuel pellets tested dissolved to greater than 99.9% in nitric acid alone

  19. Dissolution of FFTF vendor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on FFTF vendor fuel (both mechanically mixed and coprecipitated) during 1974, 1975, and 1976. A marked improvement was noted in the completeness of fuel dissolution from 1974 to 1976. The reason for this is unknown but may have been attributable to slight changes in fuel fabrication conditions. In general, the bulk of the fuel pellets tested dissolved to greater than 99.9% in nitric acid alone.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR. The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2 and standard error of prediction (SEP for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S

    2015-10-29

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45-159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  2. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  3. Evaluation of the coat quality of sustained release pellets by individual pellet dissolution methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-15

    This study explored the application of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 for individual pellet dissolution methodology by a design of experiment approach and compared its capability with that of the USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 for differentiating the coat quality of sustained release pellets. Drug loaded pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization from powder blends comprising 50%, w/w metformin, 25%, w/w microcrystalline cellulose and 25%, w/w lactose, and then coated with ethyl cellulose to produce sustained release pellets with 8% and 10%, w/w coat weight gains. Various pellet properties were investigated, including cumulative drug release behaviours of ensemble and individual pellets. When USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 were used for drug release study of the sustained release pellets prepared, floating and clumping of pellets were observed and confounded the release profiles of the ensemble pellets. Hence, the release profiles obtained did not characterize the actual drug release from individual pellet and the applicability of USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 to evaluate the coat quality of sustained release pellets was limited. The cumulative release profile of individual pellet using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 was found to be more precise at distinguishing differences in the applied coat quality. The dip speed and dip interval of the reciprocating holder were critical operational parameters of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 that affected the drug release rate of a sustained release pellet during the individual dissolution study. The individual dissolution methodology using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 is a promising technique to evaluate the individual pellet coat quality without the influence of confounding factors such as pellet floating and clumping observed during drug release test with dissolution apparatus 1 and 2, as well as to facilitate the elucidation of the actual drug release mechanism conferred by the applied sustained

  4. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients: Validated and tested for the adsorption of 1-Octanol at a microscopic air-water interface and its dissolution into water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David

    2017-02-15

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain "dead time" at initial measurement. These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the "micropipette interfacial area-expansion method" was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion controlled molecular adsorption at the air-water interfaces. To validate the new technique, the diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol in water was investigated with existing models: the Ward Tordai model for the long time adsorption regime (1-100s), and the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherm models for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2±0.8×10 -6 cm 2 /s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, "single microdroplet catching method", to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet dissolution, 7.3±0.1×10 -6 cm 2 /s. These new techniques for determining adsorption and diffusion coefficients can apply for a range of surface active molecules, especially the less-characterized ionic surfactants, and biological compounds such as lipids, peptides, and proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  6. Thorium oxide dissolution kinetics for hydroxide and carbonate complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, R.; Curran, V.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution in the environment. Solubility is important because it establishes an upper concentration limit on the concentration of a dissolved radionuclide in solution L1. While understanding the behavior of thorium fuels in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is most applicable, a more rigorous study of thorium solubility over a wide pH range was performed so that the data could also be used to model the behavior of thorium fuels in any environmental system. To achieve this, the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution under both pure argon and argon with P CO2 of 0. 1 were studied under the full pH range available in each atmosphere. In addition, thorium oxide powder remnants were studied after each experiment to examine structural changes that may affect kinetics

  7. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  8. Dissolution of aluminium; Disolucion de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A; Berberana Eizmendi, M; Pereira Sanchez, G

    1968-07-01

    The dissolution of aluminum with acid solutions ( nitric acid-mercuric nitrate) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate) has been studied. The instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) has been studied in function of the concentration of the used reagents and the dissolution temperature. The complete dissolution has been included in the second part of this report, to know the total dissolution time, the consume of reagents and the stability of the resultant solutions. (Author)

  9. Uranium dissolution in hyper-alkaline TMA-OH solutions: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachoir, C.; Salah, S.; Mennecart, T.; Lemmens, K. [Belgian Research Nuclear Centre - SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2016-07-01

    Leaching experiments were performed with depleted UO{sub 2} powders in tetramethylammonium solutions (TMA-OH) at pH 13.5 and 12.5, and at different UO{sub 2} surface area to volume of solution (SA/V) ratio's to determine the solubility and the dissolution kinetics of UO{sub 2} at high pH in absence of cations dominating cementitious waters (Ca, Na, K). The solubility of UO{sub 2} increased from pH 12.5 to 13.5 and by increasing the SA/V ratio up to 100 m{sup -1}. However, no known U secondary-phases were predicted by geochemical calculations to control the measured U-concentrations. We interpreted the UO{sub 2} dissolution process as a 2-step process. For all experiments, we observe a fast initial rate, hydroxo promoted and likely surface controlled. Afterwards the rate is apparently negative at low SA/V over time while it is positive at higher SA/V ratio's. The former is interpreted to be related to a sorption process, while the latter reveals a continuous residual dissolution process. No solubility enhancing effect of U-colloids was observed in the TMA-OH media. However, there is much less uranium colloid formation in TMA-OH tests with low Ca (Na, K) concentration than in previous tests with higher Ca (Na, K) concentrations. This suggests that the colloid formation is promoted by alkali and/or alkali-earth elements.

  10. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  11. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  12. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  13. Effect of the microstructural morphology on UO{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziouane, Y.; Lalleman, S.; Leturcq, G. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA, LED, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Arab-Chapelet, B. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA, LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Several UO{sub 2} powders with different morphologies were synthesized and characterized. Three different morphologies were synthesized thanks to sol-gel process (big heap of about 200 μm wide consisting of sintered crystallites) on the one hand, and to oxalic precipitations (one square platelet morphology and one hexagonal stick morphology) on the other hand. Significant differences in dissolution kinetics were observed. Therefore, the morphology of the powders was found to be a key parameter that has to be considered in the studies of UO{sub 2} dissolution kinetics. The second part of the study consists in dissolving in nitric acid in in the same operating conditions three UO{sub 2} powders having different crystallites sizes. It was shown that dissolution kinetics is dependent on the morphology at the micrometer scale but also on the powder oxygen stoichiometry. (authors)

  14. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly polydispersed. Their sedimentation rates in seawater were measured to be 4–10 mm/day. Humic acid (HA), further increased their size and polydispersity, and slowed sedimentation. Light increased their dissolution and release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell also slowed release of Cd ions. With sufficient light, HA increased the dissolution of QDs, while with low light, HA alone did not change their dissolution. The benthic zone in estuarine systems is the most probable long-term destination of QDs due to aggregation and sedimentation. The bioavailability of was evaluated using the mysid Americamysis bahia. The 7-day LC50s of particulate and dissolved QDs were 290 and 23 μg (total Cd)/L, respectively. For mysids, the acute toxicity appears to be from Cd ions; however, research on the effects of QDs should be conducted with other organisms where QDs may be lodged in critical tissues such as gills or filtering apparatus and Cd ions may be released and delivered directly to those tissues. Because of their increasing use and value to society, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) will inevitably find their way into marine systems. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuar

  15. Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution of Ag (citrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and chitosan coated), ZnO, CuO and carbon coated Cu nanoparticles (with two nominal sizes each) has been studied in artificial aqueous media, similar in chemistry to environmental waters, for up to 19 days. The dissolved fraction was determined using DGT (Diffusion Gradients in Thin films), dialysis membrane (DM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Relatively small fractions of Ag nanoparticles dissolved, whereas ZnO dissolved nearly completely within few hours. Cu and CuO dissolved as a function of pH. Using DGT, less dissolved Ag was measured compared to UF and DM, likely due to differences in diffusion of organic complexes. Similar dissolved metal concentrations of ZnO, Cu and CuO nanoparticles were determined using DGT and UF, but lower using DM. The results indicate that there is a need to apply complementary techniques to precisely determine dissolution of nanoparticles in aqueous media. - Highlights: • Three different techniques used simultaneously to measure NPs dissolution. • ZnO-NPs are the most soluble, followed by CuO-NPs, carbon coated Cu-NPs and Ag-NPs. • Dissolution is an important process affecting the fate of nanoparticles. • Complementary techniques are needed to precisely determine dissolution of NPs. - Dissolution of several types of nanoparticles was examined in aqueous media using three complementary techniques

  16. Solid-state properties and dissolution behaviour of tablets containing co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev

    2015-01-01

    –arginine in a larger production scale. In this work, a tablet formulation was developed for a co-amorphous salt, namely spray dried indomethacin–arginine (SD IND–ARG). The effects of compaction pressure on tablet properties, physical stability and dissolution profiles under non-sink conditions were examined....... Dissolution profiles of tablets with SD IND–ARG (TAB SD IND–ARG) were compared to those of tablets containing a physical mixture of crystalline IND and ARG (TAB PM IND–ARG) and to the dissolution of pure spray dried powder. Concerning tableting, the developed formulation allowed for the preparation of tablets...... with a broad range of compaction pressures resulting in different porosities and tensile strengths. XRPD results showed that, overall, no crystallization occurred neither during tableting nor during long-term storage. Dissolution profiles of TAB SD IND–ARG showed an immediate release of IND by erosion...

  17. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  18. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  19. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingyun Hu; Mengchang He

    2017-01-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated.Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl,hydroxyl,hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen,namely oxalic acid,citric acid,tartaric acid,EDTA,salicylic acid,phthalandione,glycine,thiolactic acid,xylitol,glucose and catechol.These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH =3.7,6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred,thermostatted reactor (25℃).The addition of EDTA,tartaric acid,thiolactic acid,citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH 3.7 and catechol at pH 8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony.In the 10 mmol/L thiolactic acid solution,up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120 min reaction.There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands.A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found.All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex,but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface.This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands,but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals.

  20. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2017-06-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb 2 O 3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb 2 O 3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Solvents effects on crystallinity and dissolution of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Yin, Xianzhen; Singh, Parbeen; Wu, Li; Xu, Xiaonan; Guo, Tao; Sun, Lixin; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-03-01

    β-artemether (ARM) is a widely used anti-malarial drug isolated from the Chinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. The solvent effects on crystal habits and dissolution of ARM were thoroughly investigated and discussed herein. The ARM was recrystallized in nine different solvents of varied polarity, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and hexane by solvent evaporation method. The obtained crystals were morphologically characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The average sizes of crystals were 1.80-2.64 μm calculated from microscopic images using Image-Pro software. No significant change in chemical structure was noticed after recrystallization and the specific band at 875 cm -1 wavenumber (C-O-O-C) confirmed the presence of most sensitive functional group in the ARM chemical structure. The existence and production of two polymorphic forms, polymorph A and polymorph B, was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The data suggested that the fabrication of polymorph B can be simply obtained from the recrystallization of ARM in a specific solvent. Significant effects of solvent polarity, crystals shapes and sizes on drug dissolution were noticed during in vitro dissolution test. The release kinetics were calculated and well fitted by the Higuchi and Hixon-Crowell models. The ARM-methanol and ARM-hexane showed highest and slowest dissolution, respectively, due to the effects of solvent polarity and crystal morphologies. Overall, proper selection of the solvents for the final crystallization of ARM helps to optimize dissolution and bioavailability for a better delivery of anti-malarial drug.

  2. Development of simulation code for MOX dissolution using silver-mediated electrochemical method (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Takashi; Umeda, Miki; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution using silver-mediated electrochemical method will be employed for the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution in the criticality safety experiments in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). A simulation code for the MOX dissolution has been developed for the operating support. The present report describes the outline of the simulation code, a comparison with the experimental data and a parameter study on the MOX dissolution. The principle of this code is based on the Zundelevich's model for PuO{sub 2} dissolution using Ag(II). The influence of nitrous acid on the material balance of Ag(II) is taken into consideration and the surface area of MOX powder is evaluated by particle size distribution in this model. The comparison with experimental data was carried out to confirm the validity of this model. It was confirmed that the behavior of MOX dissolution could adequately be simulated using an appropriate MOX dissolution rate constant. It was found from the result of parameter studies that MOX particle size was major governing factor on the dissolution rate. (author)

  3. Mechanism and Kinetics for the Dissolution of Apatitic Materials in Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmanovici C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work concerns the study of the digestion step in the production process of phosphoric acid. Some qualitative experiments indicate that the difference between the pH at the surface of the phosphate and that in the bulk of the solution is negligible and that the dissolution is controlled by diffusion of products away from the phosphate particle. In further experiments, to isolate the dissolution phenomenon from the formation of calcium sulfate, the sulfuric acid normally used industrially is replaced by hydrochloric acid. The phosphate material used in our experiments is a model apatitic material: synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP. The dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite was studied with increasing amounts of calcium and phosphate at different temperatures. A simple method was developed for this observation based on the time required for complete dissolution of the HAP powder. The results confirm that the dissolution is controlled by a diffusional process through an interface of calcium and phosphate ions released from the solid surface. A kinetic model for the dissolution of apatitic materials is proposed which assumes a shrinking particle behaviour controlled by diffusion of calcium ions. The experimental results are fitted to this model to determine the mass transfer constant for HAP dissolution in acid solutions. The activation energy of the reaction is about 14kJ/mol. This study was carried on in conditions similar to the industrial ones for the production of phosphoric acid by the dihydrate-process

  4. Marital dissolution: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.

  5. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  6. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Wang; Ning Qiao; Mingzhong Li

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated...

  7. Photon Doppler Velocimeter to Measure Entrained Additive Manufactured Bulk Metal Powders in Hot Subsonic and Supersonic Oxygen Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Parts produced by additive manufacturing, particularly selective laser melting (SLM), have been shown to silt metal particulate even after undergoing stringent precision aerospace cleaning processes (Lowrey 2016). As printed parts are used in oxygen systems with increased pressures, temperatures, and gas velocity, the risk of ignition by particle impact, the most common direct ignition source of metals in oxygen, substantially increases. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), in collaboration with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), desires to test the ignitability of SLM metals by particle impact in heated oxygen. The existing test systems rely on gas velocity calculations to infer particle velocity in both subsonic and supersonic particle impact systems. Until now, it was not possible to directly measure particle velocity. To increase the fidelity of planned SLM ignition studies, it is necessary to validate that the Photon Doppler Velocimetry(PDV) test system can accurately measure particle velocity.

  8. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  9. Nonmarital romantic relationship commitment and leave behavior: the mediating role of dissolution consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderdrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Wilson, Juan E

    2009-09-01

    Two studies investigated the process by which individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships characterized by low commitment move toward enacting leave behaviors. Predictions based on the behavioral, goal, and implementation intention literatures were tested using a measure of dissolution consideration developed for this research. Dissolution consideration assesses how salient relationship termination is for an individual while one's relationship is intact. Study 1 developed and validated a measure of dissolution consideration and Study 2 was a longitudinal test of the utility of dissolution consideration in predicting the enactment of leave behaviors. Results indicated that dissolution consideration mediates the association between commitment and enacting leave behaviors, is associated with taking more immediate action, and provides unique explanatory power in leave behavior beyond the effect of commitment alone. Collectively, the findings suggest that dissolution consideration is an intermediate step between commitment and stay/leave behavior in close relationships.

  10. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOX depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  11. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  12. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteille, C; Hollenstein, C; Dorier, J L; Gay, P; Schwarzenbach, W; Howling, A A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Bertran, E; Viera, G [Barcelona Univ., Dep. de de Fisica Aplicada I Electronica, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, R; Macarico, A [FCTUNL, Materials Science Dep., Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135{sup o} and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs.

  13. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Gay, P.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Bertran, E.; Viera, G.; Martins, R.; Macarico, A.

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 o and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs

  14. Improved Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability of Celecoxib by a Dry Elixir System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwan Hyung; Jee, Jun-Pil; Yang, Da A; Kim, Sung Tae; Kang, Dongjin; Kim, Dae-Young; Sim, Taeyong; Park, Sang Yeob; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Jang, Dong-Jin

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a dry elixir (DE) system for enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of celecoxib. DE system has been used for improving solubility, oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The encapsulated drugs or solubilized drugs in the matrix are rapidly dissolved due to the co-solvent effect, resting in both an enhanced dissolution and bioavailability. DEs containing celecoxib were prepared by spray-drying method and characterized by morphology, drug/ethanol content, drug crystallinity, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. The ethanol content and drug content in DE system could be easily altered by controlling the spraydrying conditions. The dissolution profile of celecoxib from DE proved to be much higher than that of celecoxib powder due to the nano-structured matrix, amorphous state and encapsulated ethanol. The bioavailability of celecoxib from DEs was compared with celecoxib powder alone and commercial product (Celebrex®) in rats. In particular, blood concentrations of celecoxib form DE formulation were much greater than those of native celecoxib and market product. The data demonstrate that the DE system could provide an useful solid dosage form to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of celecoxib.

  15. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  16. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly...... soluble drugs griseofulvin and felodipine in a biorelevant dissolution medium (BDM). Dissolution constants from dissolution profiles of drug discs with and without SDS were measured using miniaturized rotating disc dissolution. Solid state changes were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Solubility...... showed that the addition of SDS made the BS:PC micelles grow up to 2.5 times in volume. As a function of SDS addition, the dissolution constant showed an apparent exponential increase, while drug solubility showed a weak linear dependence. The pronounced effect on dissolution constant with SDS...

  17. Effect of powder geometry on densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasskij, M.R.; Spasskaya, I.A.; Shatalova, I.G.; Shchukin, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of particle shape and size composition on the processes of powder vibratory compacting is considered. Using microstress measurements in compacted structures of conglomerated and disintegrated tungsten powders as well as powder strength testing the existence of a zone of transition from a structural deformation to a plastic one has been shown. The formation of phase interparticle contacts of practically stable strength (approximately 5-6 dyn) is a characteristic feature of the zone. The width of the transition zone greatly depends upon geometrical powder properties; 55-65 % for conglomerated tungsten, 63-66 % for integrated tungsten

  18. Specific surface area behavior of a dissolving population of particles. Augmenting Mercer Dissolution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Specific surface area (Sp) measurements were made on two uranium oxide aerosol materials before and after in vitro dissolution studies were performed on the materials. The results of these Sp measurements were evaluated relative to predictions made from extending Mercer dissolution theory to describe the Sp behavior of a dissolving population of particles

  19. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  20. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  1. Chemoinformetrical evaluation of dissolution property of indomethacin tablets by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki; Osaki, Kazuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa). Dissolution tests were performed in phosphate buffer, and the time required for 75% dissolution (T75) and mean dissolution time (MDT) were calculated. DRNIR and TNIR spectra were recorded, and the both NIR spectra used to establish a calibration model for predicting the dissolution properties by principal component regression analysis (PCR). The T75 and MDT increased as the compression pressure increased, since tablet porosity decreased with increasing pressure. Intensity of the DRNIR spectra of the compressed tablets decreased as the compression pressure increased. However, the intensity of TNIR spectra increased along with the pressure. The calibration models used to evaluate the dissolution properties of tablets were established by using PCR based on both DRNIR and TNIR spectra of the tablets. The multiple correlation coefficients of the relationship between the actual and predictive T75 by the DRNIR and TNIR methods were 0.831 and 0.962, respectively. It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Coamorphous drug systems: enhanced physical stability and dissolution rate of indomethacin and naproxen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Grohganz, Holger

    2011-01-01

    . In this study, a coamorphous drug/drug combination between the two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, naproxen and ¿-indomethacin, was prepared and investigated. At molar ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, the drugs were quench cooled in order to obtain a coamorphous binary phase. Physical stability was examined...... at 277.15 and 298.15 K under dry conditions (phosphorus pentoxide) and analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Intrinsic dissolution testing was carried out to identify dissolution advantages of the coamorphous form over its crystalline counterparts or amorphous indomethacin. Fourier transform...

  3. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  4. Development of in situ ion selective sensors for dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohets, Hugo [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vanhoutte, Koen [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); De Maesschalck, Roy [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Cockaerts, Paul [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Vissers, Bert [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Nagels, Luc J. [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)]. E-mail: luc.nagels@ua.ac.be

    2007-01-02

    The dissolution of formulations of the drugs dapoxetine, paliperidone, cinnarizine, tetrazepam, mebeverine, loperamide, galantamine and ibuprofen was studied by an in-line potentiometric measurement system. The transpose of a Nikolskii-Eisenman type function performed the conversion of potential to percentage of dissolution. A novel gradient membrane electrode was developed especially for dissolution, varying continuously in composition from an ionically conducting rubber phase to an electronically conducting solid state PVC/graphite composite. The gradient part had a thickness of 200 {mu}m. The electrodes life span exceeded 6 months. An ion exchange procedure was used to prepare them for one specific drug. This enabled us to use one universal electrode built to measure a wide array of drugs. The system parameters such as accuracy, reproducibility and linearity were presented with the data obtained for the drug dapoxetine. In dissolution, accurate measurements were possible from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -3} M concentrations, for high log P drugs. The effect of t {sub 90} response times on the measurement error was estimated. The t {sub 90} response times of the electrodes were concentration dependent, and varied between 50 and 10 s for, respectively, 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -3} M concentrations. Potential drift was studied in detail. The measurements performed with these electrodes showed an accuracy of 1%, and inter- and intra electrode variabilities of 0.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The electrodes were successfully applied in colloidal media containing suspended matter, typically formed during dissolution of tablets. The advantages and pitfalls of potentiometry over the presently used techniques for dissolution testing are discussed.

  5. Development of in situ ion selective sensors for dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohets, Hugo; Vanhoutte, Koen; De Maesschalck, Roy; Cockaerts, Paul; Vissers, Bert; Nagels, Luc J.

    2007-01-01

    The dissolution of formulations of the drugs dapoxetine, paliperidone, cinnarizine, tetrazepam, mebeverine, loperamide, galantamine and ibuprofen was studied by an in-line potentiometric measurement system. The transpose of a Nikolskii-Eisenman type function performed the conversion of potential to percentage of dissolution. A novel gradient membrane electrode was developed especially for dissolution, varying continuously in composition from an ionically conducting rubber phase to an electronically conducting solid state PVC/graphite composite. The gradient part had a thickness of 200 μm. The electrodes life span exceeded 6 months. An ion exchange procedure was used to prepare them for one specific drug. This enabled us to use one universal electrode built to measure a wide array of drugs. The system parameters such as accuracy, reproducibility and linearity were presented with the data obtained for the drug dapoxetine. In dissolution, accurate measurements were possible from 10 -9 to 10 -3 M concentrations, for high log P drugs. The effect of t 90 response times on the measurement error was estimated. The t 90 response times of the electrodes were concentration dependent, and varied between 50 and 10 s for, respectively, 10 -6 and 10 -3 M concentrations. Potential drift was studied in detail. The measurements performed with these electrodes showed an accuracy of 1%, and inter- and intra electrode variabilities of 0.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The electrodes were successfully applied in colloidal media containing suspended matter, typically formed during dissolution of tablets. The advantages and pitfalls of potentiometry over the presently used techniques for dissolution testing are discussed

  6. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  7. Solving Crystal Structures from Powder Diffraction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. Nørlund; Lehmann, M. S.; Nielsen, Mogens

    1985-01-01

    High resolution powder data from both neutron and X-ray (synchrotron) sources have been used to estimate the possibility of direct structure determination from powder data. Two known structures were resolved by direct methods with neutron and X-ray data. With synchrotron X-ray data, the measured ...

  8. Study of dissolution factors of U, Th and Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Pitassi, Gabriel; Lima, Cintia; Leite, Carlos Vieira Barros; Nascimento, Jose Eduardo; Dalia, Kely Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution can be a problem in industrial processes, but monitoring and controlling the aerosols in the work place is not enough to estimate the occupational risk due to dust particle inhalation. The solubility in lung fluid is considered to estimate this risk. The aim of this study is to determine in vitro specific dissolution parameters for thorium (Th), uranium (U) and tantalum (Ta) associated to crystal lattice of a niobium mineral (pyrochlore). Th, U and Ta dissolution factors in vitro were obtained using the Gamble solution (Simulant Lung Fluid, SLF), PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) and alpha spectrometry as analytical techniques. Ta, Th and U are present in the pyrochlore crystal lattice as oxide; however they have shown different dissolution parameters. The rapid dissolution fraction (fr), rapid dissolution rate (λr); slow dissolution rate (fs) and slow dissolution fraction ((λs) measured for tantalum oxide were equal to 0.1, 0.45 d -1 and 0.00007 d -1 , respectively; for uranium oxide fr was equal to 0.05, (λr equal to 1.1 d -1 ; (λs equal to 0.000068 d -1 ; for thorium oxide fr was 0.025, (λr was 1.5 d -1 and (λs: 0.000065 d -1 . These results show that chemical behavior of these 3 compounds in the SLF could not be represented by the same parameter. The ratio of uranium concentration in urine and feces samples from workers exposed to pyrochlore dust particle was determined. These values agree with the theoretical values of estimated uranium concentration using specific parameters for uranium oxide present in pyrochlore. (author)

  9. Dissolution of unirradiated UO{sub 2} fuel in synthetic groundwater. Final report (1996-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    This study was a part of the EU R and D programme 1994-1998: Nuclear Fission Safety, entitled `Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form`. The research carried out at VTT Chemical Technology was focused on the effects of granitic groundwater composition and redox conditions on UO{sub 2} solubility and dissolution mechanisms. The synthetic groundwater compositions simulated deep granitic fresh and saline groundwaters, and the effects of the near-field material, bentonite, on very saline groundwater. Additionally, the Spanish granite/bentonite water was used. The redox conditions (Eh), which are obviously the most important factors that influence on UO{sub 2} solubility under the disposal conditions of spent fuel, varied from strongly oxidising (air-saturated), anaerobic (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} < l ppm) to reducing (N{sub 2}, low Eh). The objective of the air-saturated dissolution experiments was to yield the maximum solution concentrations of U, and information on the formation of secondary phases that control the concentrations, with different groundwater compositions. The static batch solubility experiments of long duration (up to 1-2 years) were performed using unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and powder. Under anaerobic and reducing conditions, the solubilities were also approached from oversaturation. The results of the oxic, air-saturated dissolution experiments with UO{sub 2} powder showed that the increase in the salinity (< 1.7 M) had a minor effect on the measured steady-state concentrations of U. The concentrations, (1.2 ...2.5) x 10{sup -5} M, were at the level of the theoretical solubility of schoepite or another uranyl oxide hydrate, e.g. becquerelite (possibly Na-polyuranate). The higher alkalinity of the fresh (Allard) composition increased the aqueous U concentration. Only some kind of oxidised U-phase (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-UO{sub 3}) was identified with XRD when studying possible secondary phases after the contact time of one year

  10. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO 2 has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  11. Dissolution Flowsheet for High Flux Isotope Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Karay, N. S [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-27

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing campaign, H-Canyon is planning to begin dissolving High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel in late FY17 or early FY18. Each HFIR fuel core contains inner and outer fuel elements which were fabricated from uranium oxide (U3O8) dispersed in a continuous Al phase using traditional powder metallurgy techniques. Fuels fabricated in this manner, like other SNF’s processed in H-Canyon, dissolve by the same general mechanisms with similar gas generation rates and the production of H2. The HFIR fuel cores will be dissolved and the recovered U will be down-blended into low-enriched U. HFIR fuel was previously processed in H-Canyon using a unique insert in both the 6.1D and 6.4D dissolvers. Multiple cores will be charged to the same dissolver solution maximizing the concentration of dissolved Al. The objective of this study was to identify flowsheet conditions through literature review and laboratory experimentation to safely and efficiently dissolve the HFIR fuel in H-Canyon. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the dissolution of HFIR fuel using both Al 1100 and Al 6061 T6 alloy coupons. The Al 1100 alloy was considered a representative surrogate which provided an upper bound on the generation of flammable (i.e., H2) gas during the dissolution process. The dissolution of the Al 6061 T6 alloy proceeded at a slower rate than the Al 1100 alloy, and was used to verify that the target Al concentration in solution could be achieved for the selected Hg concentration. Mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to provide continuous monitoring of the concentration of H2 and other permanent gases in the dissolution offgas, allowing the development of H2 generation rate profiles. The H2 generation rates were subsequently used to evaluate if a full HFIR core could be dissolved in an H-Canyon dissolver without exceeding 60% of the

  12. Advances in heterogeneous autocatalytic reactions applied to uranium dissolution - 5317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, P.; Magnaldo, A.; Godard, J.; Schaer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution and the solubilization of the chemical elements is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes. When dissolving spent nuclear fuels, additional constraints are added due to the permanent need to strictly control and limit the hold-up. Thus the need for kinetic modeling concerning the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels in nitric acid. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physical-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric medium. It has been documented that the nitric acid attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites. This non uniform attack leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks can lead to the solid cleavage. In this case, we show that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the time required for the complete cleavage of the solid. These points motivated the measurements of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. A comparison of the measured kinetics with the diffusion kinetics by the mean of the external resistance fraction allows discriminating between measured kinetics corresponding to the chemical reaction or mass-transport limitation. This capability to measure, for the very first time, the 'true' chemical kinetics of the reaction has enabled the confirmation of the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction, and first evaluation of the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws. These data are fundamental to set the kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions in a future model of the dissolution of uranium dioxide sintered pellets. (authors)

  13. Interactions between a poorly soluble cationic drug and sodium dodecyl sulfate in dissolution medium and their impact on in vitro dissolution behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zongyun; Parikh, Shuchi; Fish, William P

    2018-01-15

    In the pharmaceutical industry, in vitro dissolution testing ofsolid oral dosage forms is a very important tool for drug development and quality control. However, ion-pairing interaction between the ionic drugand surfactants in dissolution medium often occurs, resulting in inconsistent and incomplete drug release. The aim of this study is toevaluate the effects ofsodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mediated medium onthe dissolution behaviors of a poorly soluble cationic drug (Drug B). The study was carried out by measuring solubility of Drug B substance and dissolution rate of Drug B product in media containing SDS.Desolubilization of Drug B substance was observed at pH 4.5 in the presence of SDS at concentrations below critical micelle concentration (CMC) which is attributed to the formation of an insoluble di-dodecyl sulfate salt between SDS and Drug B. This ion-pairing effect is less significant with increasing medium pH where Drug B is less ionized and CMC of SDS is lower. In medium at pH 4.5, dissolution of Drug B product was found incomplete with SDS concentration below CMC due to the desolubilization of Drug B substance. In media with SDS level above CMC, the dissolution rate is rather slower with higher inter-vessel variations compared to that obtained in pH 4.5 medium without SDS. The dissolution results demonstrate that the presence of SDS in medium generates unexpected irregular dissolution profiles for Drug B which are attributed to incompatible dissolution medium for this particular drug. Therefore, non-ionic surfactant was selected for Drug B product dissolution method and ion-pairing effect in SDS mediated medium should be evaluated when developing a dissolution method for any poorly soluble cationic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissolution kinetics of UO2: Flow-through tests on UO2.00 pellets and polycrystalline schoepite samples in oxygenated, carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solutions at 25 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, S.N.; Weed, H.C.; Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1991-10-01

    The modelling of radionuclide release from waste forms is an important part of the performance assessment of a potential, high-level radioactive waste repository. Since spent fuel consists of UO 2 containing actinide elements and other fission products, it is necessary to determine the principal parameters affecting UO 2 dissolution and quantify their effects on the dissolution rate before any prediction of long term release rates of radionuclides from the spent fuel can be made. As part of a complex matrix to determine the dissolution kinetics of UO 2 as a function of time, pH, carbonate/bicarbonate concentration and oxygen activity, we have measured the dissolution rates at 25 degrees C of: (1) UO 2 pellets; (2) UO 2.00 powder and (3) synthetic dehydrated schoepite, UO 3 .H 2 O using a single-pass flow through system in an argon-atmosphere glove box. Carbonate, carbonate/bicarbonate, and bicarbonate buffers with concentrations ranging from 0.0002 M to 0.02 M and pH values form 8 to 11 have been used. Argon gas mixtures containing oxygen (from 0.002 to 0.2 atm) and carbon dioxide (from 0 to 0.011 atm) were bubbled through the buffers to stabilize their pH values. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  15. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  16. Formalization of the kinetics for autocatalytic dissolutions. Focus on the dissolution of uranium dioxide in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, F.; Canion, D.; Gravinese, A.; Magnaldo, A.; Lalleman, S.; Borda, G.; Schaer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid is a complex reaction. On the one hand, the dissolution produces nitrous oxides (NOX), which makes it a triphasic reaction. On the other hand, one of the products accelerates the kinetic rate; the reaction is hence called autocatalytic.The kinetics for these kinds of reactions need to be formalized in order to optimize and design innovative dissolution reactors. In this work, the kinetics rates have been measured by optical microscopy using a single particle approach. The advantages of this analytical technique are an easier management of species transport in solution and a precise following of the dissolution rate. The global rate is well described by a mechanism considering two steps: a non-catalyzed reaction, where the catalyst concentration has no influence on the dissolution rate, and a catalyzed reaction. The mass transfer rate of the catalyst was quantified in order to discriminate when the reaction was influenced by catalyst accumulated in the boundary layer or uncatalyzed. This first approximation described well the sigmoid dissolution curve profile. Moreover, experiments showed that solutions filled with catalyst proved to lose reactivity over time. Results pointed out that the higher the liquid-gas exchanges, the faster the kinetic rate decreases with time. Thus, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that there is a link between catalyst and nitrous oxides. The outcome of this study leads to new ways for improving the design of dissolvers. Gas-liquid exchanges are indeed a lever to impact dissolution rates. Temperature and catalyst concentration can be optimized to reduce residence times in dissolvers. (authors)

  17. Dissolution of unirradiated UO2 fuel in synthetic groundwater. Final report (1996-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1999-05-01

    This study was a part of the EU R and D programme 1994-1998: Nuclear Fission Safety, entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form'. The research carried out at VTT Chemical Technology was focused on the effects of granitic groundwater composition and redox conditions on UO 2 solubility and dissolution mechanisms. The synthetic groundwater compositions simulated deep granitic fresh and saline groundwaters, and the effects of the near-field material, bentonite, on very saline groundwater. Additionally, the Spanish granite/bentonite water was used. The redox conditions (Eh), which are obviously the most important factors that influence on UO 2 solubility under the disposal conditions of spent fuel, varied from strongly oxidising (air-saturated), anaerobic (N 2 , O 2 2 , low Eh). The objective of the air-saturated dissolution experiments was to yield the maximum solution concentrations of U, and information on the formation of secondary phases that control the concentrations, with different groundwater compositions. The static batch solubility experiments of long duration (up to 1-2 years) were performed using unirradiated UO 2 pellets and powder. Under anaerobic and reducing conditions, the solubilities were also approached from oversaturation. The results of the oxic, air-saturated dissolution experiments with UO 2 powder showed that the increase in the salinity ( -5 M, were at the level of the theoretical solubility of schoepite or another uranyl oxide hydrate, e.g. becquerelite (possibly Na-polyuranate). The higher alkalinity of the fresh (Allard) composition increased the aqueous U concentration. Only some kind of oxidised U-phase (U 3 O 8 -UO 3 ) was identified with XRD when studying possible secondary phases after the contact time of one year with all groundwater compositions. Longer contact times are needed to identify secondary phases predicted by modelling (EQ3/6). In the anoxic dissolution experiments with UO 2 pellets, the

  18. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f 2  >   50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  19. Selection of lixiviant System for the alkaline in-situ Leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone and measuring the dissolution behaviour of some metals and non-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Y.; Shah, S.S.; Siddiq, M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory simulation study was carried out to check the possibility of alkaline in-situ leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone recovered from a specific location at a depth of 300-500 m. The ore body was overlaying impervious clay shale below the water table. Different CO/sub 3/ containing soluble salts were tested as complexing agent of the UO/sup +2/ ions along with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent. The lixiviant system, comprising NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ as complexing agent along with H/Sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent in concentrations of 5 g/L and 0.5 g/L respectively, was found to be the most efficient for the leaching of uranium among the 25 different compositions employed. Along with uranium, the dissolution behaviour of 15 other metals, non-metals and radicals, including eight transition metals, was also observed in the lixiviant employed. These were Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO/sub 4/, CO/sub 3/, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo. It was found that the leaching of uranium compared to non-transition et als/radicals followed the trend Cl > SO > U > Na > K > Mg > Ca > CO. The comparison of uranium leaching to the transition metals was in the order U > Cr > Mo > V > Ti > Cu > Zn > Mn > Fe. Physical parameters like pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity were also measured for the fresh and pregnant lixiviants. It was found that the leaching of uranium is directly related to the concentration of native soluble hexavalent uranium, contact time of the lixiviant and ore and to some extent with the total concentration of uranium as well as the porosity and permeability of the ore. (author)

  20. Development and characterization of nifedipine-amino methacrylate copolymer solid dispersion powders with various adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid dispersions of nifedipine (NDP, a poorly water-soluble drug, and amino methacrylate copolymer (AMCP with aid of adsorbent, that is, fumed silica, talcum, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, and mesoporous silica from rice husks (SRH, were prepared by solvent method. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions, compared to their physical mixtures, were determined using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The surface morphology of the prepared solid dispersions was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The dissolution of NDP from solid dispersions was compared to NDP powders. The effect of adsorbent type on NDP dissolution was also examined. The dissolution of NDP increased with the ratio of NDP:AMCP:adsorbent of 1:4:1 when compared to the other formulations. As indicated from PXRD patterns, DSC thermograms and SEM images, NDP was molecularly dispersed within polymer carrier or in an amorphous form, which confirmed the better dissolution of solid dispersions. Solid dispersions containing SRH provided the highest NDP dissolution, due to a porous nature of SRH, allowing dissolved drug to fill in the pores and consequently dissolve in the medium. The results suggested that solid dispersions containing adsorbents (SRH in particular demonstrated improved dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug when compared to NDP powder.

  1. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  2. The dissolution of unirradiated UO2 fuel pellets under simulated disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.; Leino-Forsman, H.

    1993-03-01

    The dissolution behaviour of unirradiated UO 2 pellets was studied as a function of water composition under oxidizing and reducing conditions at 25 deg C. The waters included deionized water as the reference water, sodium bicarbonate solutions with varying bicarbonate content, and two different synthetic groundwaters. The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (3-4 years)

  3. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  4. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  5. Operation whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  6. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  7. Oxidation and dissolution of UO{sub 2} in bicarbonate media: Implications for the spent nuclear fuel oxidative dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: francisco.javier.gimenez@upc.edu; Clarens, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rovira, M. [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1. 08240 Manresa (Spain); Pablo, J. de [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bruno, J. [Enresa-Enviros Environmental Science and Waste Management Chair, UPC, Jordi Girona 1-3 B2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The objective of this work is to study the UO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} and dissolution in bicarbonate media and to extrapolate the results obtained to improve the knowledge of the oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. The results obtained show that in the studied range the oxygen consumption rate is independent on the bicarbonate concentration while the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate does depend on. Besides, at 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} bicarbonate concentration, the oxygen consumption rate is almost two orders of magnitude higher than the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate. These results suggest that at low bicarbonate concentration (<10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}) the alteration of the spent nuclear fuel cannot be directly derived from the measured uranium concentrations in solution. On the other hand, the study at low bicarbonate concentrations of the evolution of the UO{sub 2} surface at nanometric scale by means of the SFM technique shows that the difference between oxidation and dissolution rates is not due to the precipitation of a secondary solid phase on UO{sub 2}.

  8. Factors affecting the differences in reactivity and dissolution rates between UO2 and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Tait, J.C.; Sunder, S.; Steward, S.; Russo, R.E.; Rudnicki, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    Strategies for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel are being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain site and by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in plutonic rock formations in the Canadian Shield. Uranium dioxide is the primary constituent of spent nuclear fuel and dissolution of the matrix is regarded as a necessary step for the release of radionuclides to repository groundwaters. In order to develop models to describe the dissolution of the U0 2 fuel matrix and subsequent release of radionuclides, it is necessary to understand both chemical and oxidative dissolution processes and how they can be affected by parameters such as groundwater composition, pH, temperature, surface area, radiolysis and redox potential. This report summarizes both published and on-going dissolution studies of U0 2 and both LWR and CANDU spent fuels being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in the U.S. and at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Canada. The studies include both dissolution tests and electrochemical experiments to measure uranium dissolution rates. The report focuses on identifying differences in reactivity towards aqueous dissolution between U0 2 and spent fuel samples as well as estimating bounding values for uranium dissolution rates. This review also outlines the basic tenets for the development of a dissolution model that is based on electrochemical principles. (author). 49 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  9. The complexity of nanoparticle dissolution and its importance in nanotoxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Superb K.; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Berhanu, Deborah; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Dissolution of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important property that alters their abundance and is often a critical step in determining safety of nanoparticles. The dissolution status of the NPs in exposure media (i.e. whether they remain in particulate form or dissolve — and to what extent), strongly affects the uptake pathway, toxicity mechanisms and the environmental compartment in which NPs will have the highest potential impact. A review of available dissolution data on NPs demonstrates there is a range of potential outcomes depending on the NPs and the exposure media. For example two nominally identical nanoparticles, in terms of size and composition, could have totally different dissolution behaviours, subject to different surface modifications. Therefore, it is imperative that toxicological studies are conducted in conjunction with dissolution of NPs to establish the true biological effect of NPs and hence, assist in their regulation. -- Graphical abstract: Various physicochemical factors affecting dissolution of nanoparticles. Highlights: ► In this study we discuss dissolution of nanoparticles. ► Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influence dissolution. ► Measuring dissolution of nanoparticles can help to understand their biological response.

  10. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  11. Dissolution and reactive oxygen species generation of inhaled cemented tungsten carbide particles in artificial human lung fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, A B; Leonard, S S; Hoover, M D; Virji, M A; Day, G A

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of both cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles is associated with development of hard metal lung disease (HMD) via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Co alone is sufficient to cause asthma via solubilization and hapten formation. We characterized bulk and aerodynamically size-separated W, WC, Co, spray dryer (pre-sintered), and chamfer grinder (post-sintered) powders. ROS generation was measured in the murine RAW 264.7 cell line using electron spin resonance. When dose was normalized to surface area, hydroxyl radical generation was independent of particle size, which suggests that particle surface chemistry may be an important exposure factor. Chamfer grinder particles generated the highest levels of ROS, consistent with the hypothesis that intimate contact of metals is important for ROS generation. In artificial extracellular lung fluid, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC), added to prevent mold growth during experiments, did not influence dissolution of Co (44.0±5.2 vs. 48.3±6.4%); however, dissolution was higher (p<0.05) in the absence of phosphate (62.0±5.4 vs. 48.3±6.4%). In artificial macrophage phagolysosomal fluid, dissolution of Co (36.2±10.4%) does not appear to be influenced (p=0.30) by the absence of glycine (29.8±2.1%), phosphate (39.6±8.6%), or ABDC (44.0±10.5%). These results aid in assessing and understanding Co and W inhalation dosimetry.

  12. The dissolution phenomenon of lysozyme crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Ulrich, J. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Thermal Separation Processes, Centre of Engineering Science, Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Dissolution studies on lysozyme crystals were carried out since the observed dissolution pattern look different from non-protein dissolved crystals. The Tetragonal, High Temperature and Low Temperature Orthorhombic morphologies, crystallized using sodium chloride, were chosen and the influence of different pH, salt and protein concentration on their dissolution was investigated. An increase in pH and/or salt concentration can modify the dissolution behaviour. The pattern of the crystals during the dissolution process will, therefore, develop differently. Frequently a skeleton like crystal pattern followed by a falling apart of the crystals is observed. The multi-component character of the lysozyme crystal (protein, water, buffer, salt) as well as ''solvatomorphism'' gives first insights in the phenomena happening in the dissolution process. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mansur, E. de.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 37 0 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  14. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Neutron Powder Diffraction Measurements of the Spinel MgGa2O4:Cr3+ - A Comparative Study between the High Flux Diffractometer D2B at the ILL and the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer Aurora at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M A F M; Sosman, L P; Yokaichiya, F; Henry, P F; Bordallo, H N; Mazzocchi, V L; Parente, C B R; Mestnik-Filho, J

    2012-01-01

    Optical materials that emit from the visible to the near-infrared spectral region are of great interest due to their possible application as tunable radiation sources, as signal transmission, display, optoelectronics signal storage, cellulose industry as well as in dosimetry. One important family of such systems are the spinel compounds doped with Cr 3+ , in which the physical the properties are related to the insertion of punctual defects in the crystalline structure. The purpose of our work is two fold. First, we compare the luminescence of the MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system with the single phase Ga 2 O 3 and MgGa 2 O 4 and relate structural changes observed in MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system to the optical properties, and secondly, to compare the neutron powder diffraction results obtained using two diffractometers: D2B located at the ILL (Grenoble, France) and Aurora located at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil). In the configuration chosen, Aurora shows an improved resolution, which is related to the design of its silicon focusing monochromator.

  17. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  18. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation's defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO 2 feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO 2 dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides

  19. Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glass approach ''saturation'' with respect to the leachate solution. Most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to ''saturation''. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to ''saturation'' is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. Interpretations of recent experimental data on the dissolution behaviour of silicate glasses and silicate minerals indicate the following: 1) simple affinity control does not explain the observed dissolution rate for silicate minerals or glasses; 2) dissolution rates can be significantly modified by dissolved cations even under conditions far from saturation where the affinity term is near unity; 3) the effects of dissolved species such as Al and Si on the dissolution rate vary with pH, temperature, and saturation state; and 4) as temperature is increased, the effect of both pH and temperature on glass and mineral dissolution rates decrease, which strongly suggests a switch in rate control from surface reaction-based to diffusion control. Borosilicate glass dissolution models need to be upgraded to account for these recent experimental observations. (A.C.)

  20. Influence of spray drying and dispersing agent on surface and dissolution properties of griseofulvin micro and nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhaval A; Patel, Manan; Murdande, Sharad B; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose for the current research is to compare and evaluate physiochemical properties of spray-dried (SD) microcrystals (MCs), nanocrystals (NCs), and nanocrystals with a dispersion agent (NCm) from a poorly soluble compound. The characterization was carried out by performing size and surface analysis, interfacial tension (at particle moisture interface), and in-vitro drug dissolution rate experiments. Nanosuspensions were prepared by media milling and were spray-dried. The SD powders that were obtained were characterized morphologically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and Flowchem. Solid-state characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the identification of the crystalline nature of all the SD powders. The powders were characterized for their redispersion tendency in the water and in pH 1.2. Significant differences in redispersion were noted for both the NCs in both dissolution media. The interfacial tension for particle moisture interface was determined by applying the BET (Braunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation to the vapor sorption data. No significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed between MCs and NCs; however, a significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed for NCm at both 25 °C and 35 °C temperatures. The difference in interfacial tension and redispersion behavior can be attributed to a difference in the wetting tendency for all the SD powders. The dissolution studies were carried out under sink and under non-sink conditions. The non-sink dissolution approach was found suitable for quantification of the dissolution rate enhancement, and also for providing the rank order to the SD formulations.

  1. Dissolution of anodic zirconium dioxide films in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merati, A.; Cox, B.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconium with a low thermal neutron cross section, good corrosion resistance in high-temperature water, and high thermal conductivity is an ideal material for nuclear reactors. Its good resistance to water and steam at reactor temperatures is of the greatest interest to nuclear fuel designers. Dissolution of zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ) films in aggressive media was investigated. The extent of uniform and localized dissolution was measured by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrometry and an alternating current (AC) impedance test, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the extent of dissolution of ZrO 2 was a function only of the fluoride ion content and pH of the medium. Cathodic polarization was used to identify the preferred sites for localized dissolution of the oxide film. In 0.1 M potassium bifluoride (KHF 2 ), both uniform thinning and local breakdown of the oxide were observed. Within the limits of the investigating techniques, no evidence of dissolution was observed in the other solutions tested: 0.5 M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). 1.0 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ), 5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 0.1 M potassium fluoride (KF). In areas around iron-containing particles, fine cracks in the anodic oxide at prior metal grain boundaries and arrays of cracks in the oxide associated with residual scratches from the initial specimen preparation were the preferred spots for localized dissolution of the oxide film. Iron precipitates immediately below the surface of the oxide layer increased the local electrical conductivity. Enrichment of iron in the oxide matrix around these precipitates during the anodization process appeared to cause prospective spots, acting as anodic sites for pH formation

  2. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  3. A novel particle engineering technology to enhance dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs: spray-freezing into liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, True L; Nelsen, Andrew C; Hu, Jiahui; Brown, Judith N; Sarkari, Marazban; Young, Timothy J; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2002-11-01

    A novel cryogenic spray-freezing into liquid (SFL) process was developed to produce microparticulate powders consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) molecularly embedded within a pharmaceutical excipient matrix. In the SFL process, a feed solution containing the API was atomized beneath the surface of a cryogenic liquid such that the liquid-liquid impingement between the feed and cryogenic liquids resulted in intense atomization into microdroplets, which were frozen instantaneously into microparticles. The SFL micronized powder was obtained following lyophilization of the frozen microparticles. The objective of this study was to develop a particle engineering technology to produce micronized powders of the hydrophobic drug, danazol, complexed with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and to compare these SFL micronized powders to inclusion complex powders produced from other techniques, such as co-grinding of dry powder mixtures and lyophilization of bulk solutions. Danazol and HPbetaCD were dissolved in a water/tetrahydrofuran cosolvent mixture prior to SFL processing or slow freezing. Identical quantities of the API and HPbetaCD used in the solutions were co-ground in a mortar and pestle and blended to produce a co-ground physical mixture for comparison. The powder samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, surface area analysis, and dissolution testing. The results provided by DSC, XRD, and FTIR suggested the formation of inclusion complexes by both slow-freezing and SFL. However, the specific surface area was significantly higher for the latter. Dissolution results suggested that equilibration of the danazol/HPbetaCD solution prior to SFL processing was required to produce the most soluble conformation of the resulting inclusion complex following SFL. SFL micronized powders exhibited better dissolution

  4. Revisiting classical silicate dissolution rate laws under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Marion; Daval, Damien; Saldi, Giuseppe; Knauss, Kevin; Wild, Bastien; Fritz, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    In the context of geothermal energy, the relative intensities of primary mineral leaching and secondary mineral precipitation can affect porosity and permeability of the reservoir, thereby influencing its hydraulic performance and the efficiency of the geothermal power station. That is why the prediction of reaction kinetics of fluid/rock interactions represents a critical issue in this context. Moreover, in several geothermal systems such as the one of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France), the circulation of aqueous fluids induces only modest modifications of their chemical composition. Therefore, fluid-rock interactions take place at close-to-equilibrium conditions, where the rate-affinity relations are poorly known and intensively debated [1]. To describe more precisely the dissolution processes, our strategy consists in investigating the dissolution of the main cleavages of K-spar minerals (one of the prevalent primary minerals in the reservoir of Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal system) over a wide range of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) conditions. The aims are to decipher the impact of crystallographic orientation and microstructural surface modifications on the dissolution kinetics and to propose a relation between K-spar dissolution rate and ΔG. Our experimental work relies on a coupled approach which combines classical experiments of K-spar dissolution monitored by aqueous chemical analyses (ICP-AES) and innovative techniques of nm- to μm-scale characterization of solid surface (SEM, AFM, VSI) [2]. Our results confirm that K-spar dissolution is an anisotropic process: we measure a tenfold factor between the slowest and the fastest-dissolving surfaces. Moreover, the formation of etch pits on surfaces during their alteration has been evidenced on all of the different faces that have been studied. This complex evolution of the surface topography casts doubt of the relevance of a surface model based on shrinking particles and represents a possible cause of an

  5. Research on Durability of Recycled Ceramic Powder Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. C.; Fang, W.; Xu, K. C.; Xie, L.

    2017-06-01

    Ceramic was ground into powder with 325 mesh and used to prepare for concrete. Basic mechanical properties, carbonation and chloride ion penetration of the concrete tests were conducted. In addition, 6-hour electric fluxes of recycled ceramic powder concrete were measured under loading. The results showed that the age strength of ceramics powder concrete is higher than that of the ordinary concrete and the fly ash concrete. The ceramic powder used as admixture would reduce the strength of concrete under no consideration of its impact factor; under consideration of the impact factor for ceramic powder as admixture, the carbonation resistance of ceramic powder concrete was significantly improved, and the 28 day carbonation depth of the ceramic powder concrete was only 31.5% of ordinary concrete. The anti-chloride-permeability of recycled ceramic powder concrete was excellent.

  6. An autoclave system for uranium oxide dissolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1985-05-01

    According to the decision in principle of the Council of State of Finland the nuclear energy producers must provide preparedness for carrying out the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. By the present principal concept the spent fuel will be disposed deep into the granitic bedrock. A parameter needed by risk analysis models is the dissolution rate of the uranium oxide matrix in the fuel pellets. In order to approach conditions prevailing deep in the groundwater, and autoclave system for dissolution experiments was developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The low oxygen content and high pressure at elevated temperatures are simulated in the system. 20 MPa and 100 deg C are the upper operation limits of pressure and temperature. Water can be changed in the experiment autoclave without remarkable pressure and temperature variations. This has been arranged by using three pressure vessels: a supply vessel, a dissolution vessel and a depletion vessel. The extreme vessels serve pressure balancing purposes during water exchange. The water is deoxygenated during a preparation phase in the supply vessel by flushing it with nitrogen gas. Polytetrafluoroethylene is the principal material in contact with the water. A redox electrode couple was developed for potential measurements inside the dissolution vessel. The reference electrode is of Ag/AgCl-type with saturated KC1 electrolyte. A platinum wire operates as a measuring electrode

  7. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  8. Use of the liquisolid compact technique for improvement of the dissolution rate of valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Chella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate of the poorly soluble drug valsartan by delivering the drug as a liquisolid compact. Liquisolid compacts were prepared using propylene glycol as solvent, Avicel PH102 as carrier, and Aerosil 200 as the coating material. The crystallinity of the newly formulated drug and the interaction between excipients was examined by X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The dissolution studies for the liquisolid formulation and the marketed product were carried out at different pH values. The results showed no change in the crystallinity of the drug and no interaction between excipients. The dissolution efficiency of valsartan at 15 min was increased from 4.02% for plain drug and 13.58% for marketed product to 29.47% for the liquisolid formulation. The increase in the dissolution rate was also found to be significant compared to the marketed product at lower pH values, simulating the gastric environment where valsartan is largely absorbed. The liquisolid technique appears to be a promising approach for improving the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs like valsartan.

  9. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. Results All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. Conclusions The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy. PMID:25755998

  10. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy.

  11. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  12. CALCIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION RATE IN LIMESTONE CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of carbonate mineral dissolution from limestone was studied using a rotating disk apparatus and samples of limestone of varied composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone composition on the kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution. Th...

  13. Kinetics of oxidic phase dissolution in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorichev, I.G.; Kipriyanov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The critical analysis of the experimental data on dissolution kinetics of metal oxides (BeO, V 2 O 5 , UO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 etc.) in acid media is carried out. Kinetic peculiarities of oxide dissolution are explained on the basis of the notions of electron- proton theory. It is established that the surface nonstoichiometric ccomposition of oxide phase and potential jump, appearing on the interface of the oxide-electrolyte phase are the important factors, determining the dissolution rate of a solid phase. The dissolution rate of metal oxides is limited by the transition of protons into the solid oxide phase. Morphological models of heterogeneous kinetics are used when explaining kinetic regularities of oxide dissolution process [ru

  14. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shete Amol S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  15. Impact of dissolution on the sedimentary record of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Kelly, D. Clay; Gibbs, Samantha; Farley, Kenneth; Eccles, Laurie; Lindemann, T. Logan; Smith, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    The input of massive amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜55.53 Ma) resulted in pervasive carbonate dissolution at the seafloor. At many sites this dissolution also penetrated into the underlying sediment column. The magnitude of dissolution at and below the seafloor, a process known as chemical erosion, and its effect on the stratigraphy of the PETM, are notoriously difficult to constrain. Here, we illuminate the impact of dissolution by analyzing the complete spectrum of sedimentological grain sizes across the PETM at three deep-sea sites characterized by a range of bottom water dissolution intensity. We show that the grain size spectrum provides a measure of the sediment fraction lost during dissolution. We compare these data with dissolution and other proxy records, electron micrograph observations of samples and lithology. The complete data set indicates that the two sites with slower carbonate accumulation, and less active bioturbation, are characterized by significant chemical erosion. At the third site, higher carbonate accumulation rates, more active bioturbation, and possibly winnowing have limited the impacts of dissolution. However, grain size data suggest that bioturbation and winnowing were not sufficiently intense to diminish the fidelity of isotopic and microfossil assemblage records.

  16. Enamel erosion caused by the effervescent acid powder in Tiritón ice cream: An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to visualize the erosive effect on human dental enamel of effervescent acid powder in the Tiritón ice cream (Savory, Nestle, Vevey, Switzerland. The erosive potential of Tiritón ice cream was determined in in vitro conditions by submitting 5 enamel pieces from 3 healthy first molars. The samples were submitted to the mixture of saliva from a girl without cavity incidence and the effervescent powder in the Tiritón ice cream, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 seconds, then the results were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and measurement of pH. All specimens showed pH 3.0. SEM showed increasing degrees of erosion with longer periods of exposure. The Tiritón ice cream generates a much larger acid solution than necessary for the onset of the dissolution of enamel which subsequently causes susceptibility to dental cavities and erosion, higher than reported for other candies. The images obtained by SEM made possible to visualize clearly the erosive effect produced by the effervescent acid powder in periods of exposure of less than a minute.

  17. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  18. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  19. Feldspar dissolution rates in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C.R.; Helean, K.B.; Marshall, B.D.; Brady, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    Two different field-based methods are used here to calculate feldspar dissolution rates in the Topopah Spring Tuff, the host rock for the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The center of the tuff is a high silica rhyolite, consisting largely of alkali feldspar (???60 wt%) and quartz polymorphs (???35 wt%) that formed by devitrification of rhyolitic glass as the tuff cooled. First, the abundance of secondary aluminosilicates is used to estimate the cumulative amount of feldspar dissolution over the history of the tuff, and an ambient dissolution rate is calculated by using the estimated thermal history. Second, the feldspar dissolution rate is calculated by using measured Sr isotope compositions for the pore water and rock. Pore waters display systematic changes in Sr isotopic composition with depth that are caused by feldspar dissolution. The range in dissolution rates determined from secondary mineral abundances varies from 10-16 to 10-17 mol s-1 kg tuff-1 with the largest uncertainty being the effect of the early thermal history of the tuff. Dissolution rates based on pore water Sr isotopic data were calculated by treating percolation flux parametrically, and vary from 10-15 to 10-16 mol s-1 kg tuff-1 for percolation fluxes of 15 mm a-1 and 1 mm a-1, respectively. Reconciling the rates from the two methods requires that percolation fluxes at the sampled locations be a few mm a-1 or less. The calculated feldspar dissolution rates are low relative to other measured field-based feldspar dissolution rates, possibly due to the age (12.8 Ma) of the unsaturated system at Yucca Mountain; because oxidizing and organic-poor conditions limit biological activity; and/or because elevated silica concentrations in the pore waters (???50 mg L-1) may inhibit feldspar dissolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  1. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  2. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  3. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  4. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  5. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  6. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  7. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhu

    2006-08-31

    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this strategy. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory measured and field derived feldspar dissolution rates. To date, there is no real guidance as to how to predict silicate reaction rates for use in quantitative models. Current models for assessment of geological carbon sequestration have generally opted to use laboratory rates, in spite of the dearth of such data for compositionally complex systems, and the persistent disconnect between laboratory and field applications. Therefore, a firm scientific basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO2 injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation to measure silicate dissolution rates and iron carbonate precipitation rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In the second year of the project, we completed CO{sub 2}-Navajo sandstone interaction batch and flow-through experiments and a Navajo sandstone dissolution experiment without the presence of CO{sub 2} at 200 C and 250-300 bars, and initiated dawsonite dissolution and solubility experiments. We also performed additional 5-day experiments at the

  8. Dissolution of thorium/uranium mixed oxide in nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, S.A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The dissolution process of thorium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide is studied, as a step of the head-end of the fuel reprocessing. An extensive bibliography was analysed, concerning the main aspects of the system, specially the most important process variables. Proposed mechanisms and models for the thorium oxide dissolution are presented. The laboratory tests were performed in two phases: at first, powdered thoria was used as the material to be dissolved. The objective was to know how changes in he concentrations of the dissolvent solution components HNO 3 , HF and Al(NO 3 ) 3 affect the dissolution rate. The tests were planned according to the fractional factorial method. Thes results showed that it is advantageous to work with powdered material, since the reaction occurs rapidly. And, if the Thorex solution (HNO 3 13M, HF 0.05M and Al(NO 3 ) 3 0.10M) is a suitable dissolvent, it was verified that it is possible to reduce the concentration of either nitric or fluoridric acid, without reducing the reaction rate to an undesirable value. It was also observed significant interaction between the components of the dissolvent solution. In the second phase of the tests, (Th, 5%U)O 2 sintered pellets were used. The main goals were to know the pellets dissolution behaviour and to compare the results for different pellets among themselves. It was observed that the metallurgical history of the material strongly influences its dissolution, specially the density and the microstructure. It was also studied how the (Th,U)O 2 mass/Thorex solution volume ratio affects the time needed to obtain an 1 M Th/liter solution. The activation energy for the reaction was obtained. (Author) [pt

  9. UO2 dissolution rates: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report reviews literature data on UO 2 dissolution kinetics and provides a framework for guiding future experimental studies as well as theoretical modeling studies. Under oxidizing conditions, UO 2 dissolution involves formation of an oxidized surface layer which is then dissolved by formation of aqueous complexes. Higher oxygen pressures or other oxidants are required at higher temperatures to have dissolution rates independent of oxygen pressure. At high oxygen pressures (1-5 atm, 25-70 C), the dissolution rate has a one-half order dependence on oxygen pressure, whereas at oxygen pressures below 0.2 atm, Grandstaff (1976), but nobody else, observed a first-order dependence on dissolution rate. Most people found a first-order dependence on carbonate concentration; Posey-Dowty (1987) found independence of carbonate at pH 7 to 8.2. Dissolution rates increase with temperature except in experiments involving granitic groundwater. Dissolution rates were generally greater under acid or basic conditions than near neutral pH

  10. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolution rate of BTEX contaminants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njobuenwu, D.O.; Amadi, S.A.; Ukpaka, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) and substituted benzenes are the most common aromatic compounds in petroleum. BTEX components are the most soluble and mobile fraction of crude oil and many petroleum products, and frequently enter soil, sediments and aquatic environments because of accidental spills, leaks and improper oil waste disposal practices. The mass transfer process of hydrocarbons in aquatic mediums has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focused on the molecular mass transfer rate of BTEX in water, with the aim of understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport. A comprehensive model was developed to simulate the molecular dissolution rate of BTEX in a natural water stream. The model considered the physicochemical properties of the BTEX compounds and physical processes relevant to the spreading of contaminants in the sea. The dissolution rate was a function of oil slick area, dissolution mass transferability and oil solubility in water. The total dissolution rate N was calculated and the dissolution mass transfer coefficient K was given as the point value of mass transfer coefficient. Results for the dissolution rate based on the solubility of the components in the water were compared with analytical solutions from previous studies and showed good agreement. The model showed that benzene had the largest dissolution rate, while o-xylene had the lowest rate because of its lower fraction. Benzene dissolution rate was approximately 2.6, which was 20.6 times that of toluene and ethylbenzene. It was concluded that the model is useful in predicting and monitoring the dissolution rate of BTEX contaminants in soil and water systems. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  13. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  14. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  15. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  16. Dissolution of metallic uranium in alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.; Wilkinson, Maria V.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution of U metallic foils has been studied in the framework of the development of an improved 99 Mo-production process. The best conditions for the dissolution of uranium foils of approximately 150 μm are the following: a) NaClO concentrations of 0.20 and 0.23 M with NaOH of 0.27 and 0.31 M respectively; b) temperature of the solution, 70 C degrees; c) volume of the solution, 15 ml / cm 2 of uranium foil; d) dissolution time, 30 minutes. (author)

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Dissolution flowsheet for high flux isotope reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-27

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing campaign, H-Canyon is planning to begin dissolving High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel in late FY17 or early FY18. Each HFIR fuel core contains inner and outer fuel elements which were fabricated from uranium oxide (U3O8) dispersed in a continuous Al phase using traditional powder metallurgy techniques. Fuels fabricated in this manner, like other SNF’s processed in H-Canyon, dissolve by the same general mechanisms with similar gas generation rates and the production of H2. The HFIR fuel cores will be dissolved and the recovered U will be down-blended into low-enriched U. HFIR fuel was previously processed in H-Canyon using a unique insert in both the 6.1D and 6.4D dissolvers. Multiple cores will be charged to the same dissolver solution maximizing the concentration of dissolved Al. The objective of this study was to identify flowsheet conditions through literature review and laboratory experimentation to safely and efficiently dissolve the HFIR fuel in H-Canyon. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the dissolution of HFIR fuel using both Al 1100 and Al 6061 T6 alloy coupons. The Al 1100 alloy was considered a representative surrogate which provided an upper bound on the generation of flammable (i.e., H2) gas during the dissolution process. The dissolution of the Al 6061 T6 alloy proceeded at a slower rate than the Al 1100 alloy and was used to verify that the target Al concentration in solution could be achieved for the selected Hg concentration. Mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to provide continuous monitoring of the concentration of H2 and other permanent gases in the dissolution offgas allowing the development of H2 generation rate profiles. The H2 generation rates were subsequently used to evaluate if a full HFIR core could be dissolved in an H-Canyon dissolver without exceeding 60% of the

  19. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  20. Electrical conductivity of metal powders under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.; Urban, P.

    2011-12-01

    A model for calculating the electrical conductivity of a compressed powder mass consisting of oxide-coated metal particles has been derived. A theoretical tool previously developed by the authors, the so-called `equivalent simple cubic system', was used in the model deduction. This tool is based on relating the actual powder system to an equivalent one consisting of deforming spheres packed in a simple cubic lattice, which is much easier to examine. The proposed model relates the effective electrical conductivity of the powder mass under compression to its level of porosity. Other physically measurable parameters in the model are the conductivities of the metal and oxide constituting the powder particles, their radii, the mean thickness of the oxide layer and the tap porosity of the powder. Two additional parameters controlling the effect of the descaling of the particle oxide layer were empirically introduced. The proposed model was experimentally verified by measurements of the electrical conductivity of aluminium, bronze, iron, nickel and titanium powders under pressure. The consistency between theoretical predictions and experimental results was reasonably good in all cases.

  1. Cognitive Processing in the Aftermath of Relationship Dissolution: Associations with Concurrent and Prospective Distress and Posttraumatic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2017-01-01

    Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event...... Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution. Initially, 148 participants completed measures of trait-like and dissolution-specific cognitive processing, growth, and distress (T1). A subsample completed a seven-month follow-up (T2). Higher frequency of relationship-dissolution intrusive...... thoughts predicted concurrent distress after accounting for brooding and relationship characteristics. Further, higher brooding and lower reflection predicted higher distress prospectively. Concurrent growth was predicted by both higher brooding and more deliberate relationship-dissolution thoughts...

  2. Surface properties, solubility and dissolution kinetics of bamboo phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Fabrice; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2006-04-01

    Although phytoliths, constituted mainly by micrometric opal, exhibit an important control on silicon cycle in superficial continental environments, their thermodynamic properties and reactivity in aqueous solution are still poorly known. In this work, we determined the solubility and dissolution rates of bamboo phytoliths collected in the Réunion Island and characterized their surface properties via electrophoretic measurements and potentiometric titrations in a wide range of pH. The solubility product of "soil" phytoliths ( pKsp0=2.74 at 25 °C) is equal to that of vitreous silica and is 17 times higher than that of quartz. Similarly, the enthalpy of phytoliths dissolution reaction (ΔHr25-80°C=10.85kJ/mol) is close to that of amorphous silica but is significantly lower than the enthalpy of quartz dissolution. Electrophoretic measurements yield isoelectric point pH IEP = 1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.2 for "soil" (native) and "heated" (450 °C heating to remove organic matter) phytoliths, respectively. Surface acid-base titrations allowed generation of a 2-p K surface complexation model. Phytoliths dissolution rates, measured in mixed-flow reactors at far from equilibrium conditions at 2 ⩽ pH ⩽ 12, were found to be intermediate between those of quartz and vitreous silica. The dissolution rate dependence on pH was modeled within the concept of surface coordination theory using the equation: R=k1·{>SiOH2+}n+k2·{>SiOH0}+k3·{>SiO-}m, where {> i} stands for the concentration of the surface species present at the SiO 2-H 2O interface, ki are the rate constants of the three parallel reactions and n and m represent the order of the proton- and hydroxy-promoted reactions, respectively. It follows from the results of this study that phytoliths dissolution rates exhibit a minimum at pH ˜ 3. This can explain their good preservation in the acidic soil horizons of Réunion Island. In terms of silicon biogeochemical cycle, phytoliths represent a large buffering reservoir

  3. Measurement of sample temperatures under magic-angle spinning from the chemical shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of 79Br in KBr powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of sample temperatures in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) can be problematic, particularly because frictional heating and heating by radio-frequency irradiation can make the internal sample temperature significantly different from the temperature outside the MAS rotor. This paper demonstrates the use of (79)Br chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates in KBr powder as temperature-dependent parameters for the determination of internal sample temperatures. Advantages of this method include high signal-to-noise, proximity of the (79)Br NMR frequency to that of (13)C, applicability from 20 K to 320 K or higher, and simultaneity with adjustment of the MAS axis direction. We show that spin-lattice relaxation in KBr is driven by a quadrupolar mechanism. We demonstrate a simple approach to including KBr powder in hydrated samples, such as biological membrane samples, hydrated amyloid fibrils, and hydrated microcrystalline proteins, that allows direct assessment of the effects of frictional and radio-frequency heating under experimentally relevant conditions.

  4. Hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleman, T.S.; Rao, D.; Verghese, K.; Zumwalt, L.

    1979-01-01

    A review of hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation in metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, halides and hydrides is presented. Results are organized by compound and an effort has been made to resolve differences between measured results where wide disparities exist. The document has been prepared to provide needed data for the development of fusion reactor blankets but the results should be generally useful in technologies that involve interactions between hydrogen and non-metals

  5. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  6. Flow-injection system for automated dissolution testing of isoniazid tablets with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Zhang, Z; Liu, W

    2001-05-30

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system for automated dissolution testing is described and evaluated for monitoring of dissolution profiles of isoniazid tablets. The undissolved suspended particles in the dissolved solution were eliminated via on-line filter. The novel CL system of KIO(4)-isoniazid was also investigated. The sampling frequency of the system was 120 h(-1). The dissolution profiles of isoniazid fast-release tablets from three sources were determined, which demonstrates the stability, great sensitivity, large dynamic measuring range and robustness of the system.

  7. [Phytobezoar dissolution with Coca-Cola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Juan, F; Martínez-Lapiedra, C; Picazo, V

    2006-05-01

    The treatment of phytobezoar is empiric. The various therapeutic choices include dietary modifications, prokinetic drugs, gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic treatment, and surgery. We present two cases of phytobezoar with successful outcome after Coca-Cola administration.

  8. Dissolution studies of synthetic soddyite and uranophane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Perez, I.; Torrero, E.; Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.

    1997-09-01

    The dissolution of synthetically obtained soddyite and uranophane has been studied in solutions of low ionic strength. These are the likely final phases of the oxidative alternation pathway of uranium dioxide. The thermodynamic and kinetic dissolution properties of these phases have been determined at different bicarbonate concentrations. The solubilities determined in the experiments with soddyite correspond fairly well to the theoretical model calculated with a log K 0 s0 =3.9±0.7. For uranophane, the best fitting was obtained for a log K 0 s0 =11.7±0.6. The dissolution rate in the presence of bicarbonate gave for soddyite an average value of 6.8(±4.4) 10 -10 mol m -2 s -1 . For uranophane, under the same experimental conditions, the following dissolution rate equation has been derived: r 0 (mol m -2 s -1 )=10 -9±2. [HCO 3 - ] 0.69±0.09 2

  9. Simfuel dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.; Ollila, K.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwater at 25 deg C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend to congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release. Yttrium release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rates of dissolution of uranium has been observed

  10. Improvement of database on glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Maki; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    In geological disposal system, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass is expected to retain radionuclide for the long term as the first barrier to prevent radionuclide release. The advancement of its performance assessment technology leads to the reliability improvement of the safety assessment of entire geological disposal system. For this purpose, phenomenological studies for improvement of scientific understanding of dissolution/alteration mechanisms, and development of robust dissolution/alteration model based on the study outcomes are indispensable. The database on glass dissolution has been developed for supporting these studies. This report describes improvement of the prototype glass database. Also, this report gives an example of the application of the database for reliability assessment of glass dissolution model. (author)

  11. Low temperature dissolution flowsheet for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The H-Canyon flowsheet used to dissolve Pu metal for PuO2 production utilizes boiling HNO3. SRNL was requested to develop a complementary dissolution flowsheet at two reduced temperature ranges. The dissolution and H2 generation rates of Pu metal were investigated using a dissolving solution at ambient temperature (20-30 °C) and for an intermediate temperature of 50-60 °C. Additionally, the testing included an investigation of the dissolution rates and characterization of the off-gas generated from the ambient temperature dissolution of carbon steel cans and the nylon bags that contain the Pu metal when charged to the dissolver.

  12. SIMFUEL dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J; Sandino, A.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwaters at 25 degrees C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend of congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rate of dissolution of uranium has been observed. (au)

  13. Status report on dissolution model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    The computer program PROTOCOL models the dissolution reactions of chemical species in water. It is being developed particularly to study the dissolution of proposed nuclear waste forms and related phases. Experimentally derived leaching rate functions are coupled to thermochemical equilibrium calculations and water flow rates. The program has been developed over a period of years. This report describes improvements that have been done in the past year

  14. Linking dissolution to disintegration in immediate release tablets using image analysis and a population balance modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Wren, Stephen; Reynolds, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve an improved understanding of disintegration and dissolution phenomena for an immediate release tablet formulation, a technique to monitor the number and size of particles entrained within the dissolution media was developed in combination with a population balancing model. Tablets were first characterized for crushing force, disintegration time and dissolution performance using standard USP methodologies. The performance of the tablets was then assessed using a new measurement system which links a "QicPic" particle imaging device to a USP dissolution vessel. This system enables us to measure the number and size of particles generated during tablet dissolution. The population balance mathematical model allowed a tablet erosion rate to be manipulated to fit the experimental data. Results showed that tablets with differing crushing forces showed different dissolution behaviors that could be explained by differing rates of particle release into the dissolution media. These behaviors were then successfully modeled to provide a description of the dissolution and disintegration behavior of the tablets in terms of a tablet erosion rate. A new approach was developed that allowed the description of the dissolution behaviors of the tablets in terms of the rate that they release particles into solution. This was then successfully modeled in terms of a tablet erosion rate.

  15. Dissolution of subbituminous coal in tetrahydroquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, H F; Frazee, W S; Broderick, T E; Hurtubise, R J

    1986-05-01

    Two different samples of Wyodak subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were liquefied in a two dm/sup 3/ batch reactor using 1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline, THQ, as a solvent. Sufficient sample was produced to determine product boiling ranges by distillation and to measure THQ distribution in the product. Product distillation showed that even at cyclohexane conversions greater than 50%, net distillate yields produced using THQ as a solvent were negative. In some cases, high boiling, coal-derived residue yields were greater than the dry coal charged to the reactor. These observations have been attributed to THQ losses resulting from dimerization of the THQ and reactions between THQ and coal derived components. 5 references.

  16. Dissolution of UO2 in redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Pablo de, J.; Rovira, M.

    1998-01-01

    The performance assessment of the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel in geological formations is strongly dependent on the spent fuel matrix dissolution. Unirradiated uranium (IV) dioxide has shown to be very useful for such purposes. The stability of UO 2 is very dependent on vault redox conditions. At reducing conditions, which are expected in deep groundwaters, the dissolution of the UO 2 -matrix can be explained in terms of solubility, while under oxidizing conditions, the UO 2 is thermodynamically unstable and the dissolution is kinetically controlled. In this report the parameters which affect the uranium solubility under reducing conditions, basically pH and redox potential are discussed. Under oxidizing conditions, UO 2 dissolution rate equations as a function of pH, carbonate concentration and oxidant concentration are reported. Dissolution experiments performed with spent fuel are also reviewed. The experimental equations presented in this work, have been used to model independent dissolution experiments performed with both unirradiated and irradiated UO 2 . (Author)

  17. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of ∼ 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO 2 dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 microm) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions

  18. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a three compartment in vitro gastrointestinal simulator dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-11-01

    In vitro dissolution tests are performed for new formulations to evaluate in vivo performance, which is affected by the change of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, in the GI tract. Thus, those environmental changes should be introduced to an in vitro dissolution test. Many studies have successfully shown the improvement of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) by introducing those physiological changes into dissolution tests. The gastrointestinal simulator (GIS), a multicompartment in vitro dissolution apparatus, was developed to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution. A gastric-emptying rate along with transit rate are key factors to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution and, hence, drug absorption. Dissolution tests with the GIS were performed with Biopharmaceutical Classification System class I drugs at five different gastric-emptying rates in the fasted state. Computational models were used to determine in vivo gastric-emptying time for propranolol and metoprolol based on the GIS dissolution results. Those were compared with published clinical data to determine the gastric half-emptying time. In conclusion, the GIS is a practical tool to assess dissolution properties and can improve IVIVC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Role of nitrous acid during the dissolution of UO2 in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigan, N.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Joshi, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dissolution behaviour of sintered UO 2 pellet in nitric acid is very important in designing an industrial scale dissolution system for the plutonium rich fast reactor MOX fuel. In the current article we have established the role of nitrous acid on the dissolution kinetics of UO 2 pellets in nitric acid. Under the chemical conditions that prevail in a typical Purex process, NO and NO 2 gases gets generated in the process streams. These gases produce nitrous acid in nitric acid medium. In addition, during the dissolution of UO 2 in nitric acid medium, nitrous acid is further produced in-situ at the pellet solution interface. As uranium dissolves oxidatively in nitric acid medium wherein it goes from U(IV) in solid to U(VI) in liquid, presence of nitrous acid (a good oxidizing agent) accelerates the reaction rate. Hence for determining the reaction mechanism of UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid medium, knowing the nitrous acid concentration profile during the course of dissolution is important. The current work involves the measurement of nitrous acid concentration during the course of dissolution of sintered UO 2 pellets in 8M starting nitric acid concentration as a function of mixing intensity from unstirred condition to 1500 RPM

  1. Effects of natural organic matter properties on the dissolution kinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is a key step of controlling their environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity. Rates of dissolution often depend upon factors such as interactions of NPs with natural organic matter (NOM). We examined the effects of 16 different NOM isolates on the dissolution kinetics of ZnO NPs in buffered potassium chloride solution using anodic stripping voltammetry to directly measure dissolved zinc concentrations. The observed dissolution rate constants (kobs) and dissolved zinc concentrations at equilibrium increased linearly with NOM concentration (from 0 to 40 mg C L–1) for Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. When dissolution rates were compared for the 16 NOM isolates, kobs was positively correlated with certain properties of NOM, including specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), aromatic and carbonyl carbon contents, and molecular weight. Dissolution rate constants were negatively correlated to hydrogen/carbon ratio and aliphatic carbon content. The observed correlations indicate that aromatic carbon content is a key factor in determining the rate of NOM-promoted dissolution of ZnO NPs. The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of the fate of ZnO NPs in organic-rich aquatic environments and highlight SUVA as a facile and useful indicator of NOM interactions with metal-based nanoparticles.

  2. Baking Powder Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  3. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly

  4. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly

  5. Hydrothermal treatment of coprecipitated YSZ powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo; Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia stabilized with 8.5 mol% yttria (YSZ) were synthesized by coprecipitation and resulting gels were hydrothermally treated at 200°C and 220 PSI for 4, 8 and 16 hours. Products were oven dried at 70°C for 24 hours, uniaxially pressed as pellets and sintered at 1500 °C for 1 hour. Powders were characterized for surface area with N 2 gas adsorption, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction granulometric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Density of ceramics was measured by an immersion method based on the Archimedes principle. Results showed that powders dried at 70°C are amorphous and after treatment has tetragonal/cubic symmetry. Surface area of powders presented a significant reduction after hydrothermal treatment. Ceramics prepared from hydrothermally treated powders have higher green density but sintered pellets are less dense when compared to that made with powders calcined at 800°C for 1 hour due to the agglomerate state of powders. Solvothermal treatment is a promising procedure to enhance density. (author)

  6. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T.E.H.; Nourse, L.D.; Siebrits, F.K.; Hastings, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  7. Dissolution process for advanced-PWR-type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.E.; Decker, L.A.; Pearson, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The new Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility at ICPP will provide underwater storage of spent PWR fuel and a new head-end process for fuel dissolution. The dissolution will be two-stage, using HF and HNO 3 , with an intermittent H 2 SO 4 dissolution for removing stainless steel components. Equipment operation is described

  8. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  9. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  10. Modulation of solubility and dissolution of furosemide by preparation of phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Semalty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the solubility and dissolution of furosemide (a potent high ceiling diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and a Class IV drug that is low solubility and low permeability drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System by preparing its phospholipid complexes or pharmacosomes. Materials and Methods: Furosemide was complexed with phosphatidylcholine in four different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 by conventional solvent-evaporation technique. The pharmacosomes prepared were evaluated for drug content, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and in-vitro dissolution study. Results: Pharmacosomes of furosemide showed high drug content ranging from 88.30% to 100%. XRPD studies confirmed the formation of phospholipid complex and the amorphization of drug in the complex. The water solubility was found to be increased up to six-fold in the complexes. The octanol solubility also increased in the complexes indicating the probable increase in permeability. The in-vitro dissolution profile of the prepared complexes was found to be much better than furosemide. Conclusion: It was concluded that the phospholipid complexes can be effectively used for improving the solubility, dissolution, permeability and hence the bioavailability of furosemide like Class IV drugs.

  11. Carbonate mineral dissolution kinetics in high pressure experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, F.; Dörr, C.; Schäfer, D.; Ebert, M.

    2012-04-01

    reaction kinetics should be acknowledged when using reactive transport models, especially when modeling kinetically controlled pH-buffering processes between a CO2 leakage an a receptor like a ground water well. Currently, further experiments for the determination of the dolomite dissolution kinetics are being performed. Here, the knowledge of the dissolution rate constants can be even more important compared to the (still) fast calcite dissolution. This study is being funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG, E.ON Energie AG, E.ON Gas Storage AG, RWE Dea AG, Vattenfall Europe Technology Research GmbH, Wintershall Holding AG and Stadtwerke Kiel AG as part of the CO2-MoPa joint project in the framework of the Special Program GEOTECHNOLOGIEN. Literature Lasaga, A. C., 1984. Chemical Kinetics of Water-Rock Interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 4009-4025. Palandri, J. L. and Kharaka, Y. K., 2004. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling. USGS, Menlo Park, CA, USA. v. Grinsven, J. J. M. and Riemsdijk, W. H., 1992. Evaluation of batch and column techniques to measure weathering rates in soils. Geoderma 52, 41-57.

  12. Characterization and dissolution studies of Bruce Unit 3 steam generator secondary side deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, J.

    1998-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of secondary side steam generator deposits in the form of powder and flake obtained from Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (BNGS A) Unit 3 were studied. The chemical phases present in both types of deposits, collected prior to the 1994 chemical cleaning during the pre-clean water lancing campaign, were magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), metallic copper (Cu), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O). The major difference between the chemical composition of the powder and the flake was the presence of zinc silicate (Zn 2 SiO 4 ) and several unidentified silicate phases containing Ca, Al, Mn, and Mg in the flake. The flake deposit had high hardness values, high electrical resistivity, low porosity and a lower dissolution rate in the EPRI-SGOG (Electric Power Research Institute-Steam Generator Owner's Group) chemical cleaning solvents compared to the powder deposit. Differences in the deposit properties after chemical cleaning of the Unit 3 steam generators and after laboratory cleaning were noted. The presence of silicates in the deposit inhibit magnetite dissolution

  13. Application of carrier and plasticizer to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble baicalein by hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yi; Ke, Xue; Hu, Danrong; Han, Miaomiao

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a suitable formulation for baicalein (a poorly water-soluble drug exhibiting high melting point) to prepare solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion (HME). Proper carriers and plasticizers were selected by calculating the Hansen solubility parameters, evaluating melting processing condition, and measuring the solubility of obtained melts. The characteristic of solid dispersions prepared by HME was evaluated. The dissolution performance of the extrudates was compared to the pure drug and the physical mixtures. Physicochemical properties of the extrudates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative bioavailability after oral administration in beagle dogs was assessed. As a result, Kollidon VA64 and Eudragit EPO were selected as two carriers; Cremophor RH was used as the plasticizer. The dissolution of all the extrudates was significantly improved. DSC and PXRD results suggested that baicalein in the extrudates was amorphous. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the interaction between drug and polymers. After oral administration, the relative bioavailability of solid dispersions with VA64 and EPO was comparative, about 2.4- and 2.9-fold greater compared to the pure drug, respectively.

  14. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  15. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  16. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  17. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  18. Enhanced dissolution rate of dronedarone hydrochloride via preparation of solid dispersion using vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidone® VA 64)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Kang, Myung Joo [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Duk [Dong-A ST Rese arch Institute, Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Solid dispersion (SD) systems have been widely used to increase the dissolution rate and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds. In order to enhance the dissolution rate of dronedarone hydrochloride (DRN), a recent antiarrhythmic agent, SDs of DRN were formulated using conventional solvent evaporation method with amorphous polymers including hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (VA64). The prepared SDs were characterized in terms of drug crystallinity, morphology, and in vitro dissolution profile in aqueous medium. The physical characterization using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the active compound was molecularly dispersed in all polymeric carriers tested, in a stable amorphous form in drug to polymer ratios ranging from 1:0.5 to 1:2. The dissolution rates of DRN in all SDs were much higher than those from the corresponding physical mixture and drug powder alone. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the VA64-based SD in a drug to polymer weight ratio of 1:1, achieving almost complete drug release after 120 min at pH 1.2. Thus, VA64-based SD with higher drug dissolution rate along with a simple preparation process is suggested as an alternative for the oral formulation of the benzofuran derivative.

  19. Muonium in Al2O3 powder at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefl, R.F.; Warren, J.B.; Oram, C.J; Brewer, J.H.; Harshman, D.R.

    1982-04-01

    Measurements of muonium (μ + e - ) spin relaxation in a finely powdered sample of γ-Al 2 O 3 in a He (or Ne) atmosphere indicate that the muonium atoms escape the powder grains with a high efficiency at low temperatures (T < 30 K). The muonium spin relaxation rate is proportional to the fraction of the powder surface area not covered by adsorbed He (Ne)

  20. Dissolution testing of orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Johannes; Gajendran, Jayachandar; Guillot, Alexis; Schichtel, Julian; Tuereli, Akif

    2012-07-01

    For industrially manufactured pharmaceutical dosage forms, product quality tests and performance tests are required to ascertain the quality of the final product. Current compendial requirements specify a disintegration and/or a dissolution test to check the quality of oral solid dosage forms. These requirements led to a number of compendial monographs for individual products and, at times, the results obtained may not be reflective of the dosage form performance. Although a general product performance test is desirable for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), the complexity of the release controlling mechanisms and short time-frame of release make such tests difficult to establish. For conventional oral solid dosage forms (COSDFs), disintegration is often considered to be the prerequisite for subsequent dissolution. Hence, disintegration testing is usually insufficient to judge product performance of COSDFs. Given the very fast disintegration of ODTs, the relationship between disintegration and dissolution is worthy of closer scrutiny. This article reviews the current status of dissolution testing of ODTs to establish the product quality standards. Based on experimental results, it appears that it may be feasible to rely on the dissolution test without a need for disintegration studies for selected ODTs on the market. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  2. Effect of Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock on the dissolution rate of the SON68 simulated nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J., E-mail: James.Neeway@pnnl.gov [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Ribet, Solange; El Mendili, Yassine [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Schumacher, Stéphan [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Grambow, Bernd [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2015-04-15

    Long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste glass in France is expected to occur in an engineered barrier system (EBS) located in a subsurface Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock formation in the Paris Basin in northeastern France. Understanding the behavior of glass dissolution in the complex system is critical to be able to reliably model the performance of the glass in this complex environment. To simulate this multi-barrier repository scenario in the laboratory, several tests have been performed to measure glass dissolution rates of the simulated high-level nuclear waste glass, SON68, in the presence of COx claystone at 90 °C. Experiments utilized a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pump to pass simulated Bure site COx pore water through a reaction cell containing SON68 placed between two COx claystone cores for durations up to 200 days. Silicon concentrations at the outlet were similar in all experiments, even the blank experiment with only the COx claystone (∼4 mg/L at 25 °C and ∼15 mg/L at 90 °C). The steady-state pH of the effluent, measured at room temperature, was roughly 7.1 for the blank and 7.3–7.6 for the glass-containing experiments demonstrating the pH buffering capacity of the COx claystone. Dissolution rates for SON68 in the presence of the claystone were elevated compared to those obtained from flow-through experiments conducted with SON68 without claystone in silica-saturated solutions at the same temperature and similar pH values. Additionally, through surface examination of the monoliths, the side of the monolith in direct contact with the claystone was seen to have a corrosion thickness 2.5× greater than the side in contact with the bulk glass powder. Results from one experiment containing {sup 32}Si-doped SON68 also suggest that the movement of Si through the claystone is controlled by a chemically coupled transport with a Si retention factor, K{sub d}, of 900 mL/g.

  3. Anodic dissolution and corrosion of alloy Cu30Ni in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The anodic and corrosion behavior of alloy Cu30Ni is studied in a solution of 3 N NaCl + 0.01 N HCl by a radiometric method using gamma isotopes of 58 Co (as a marker for Ni) and 64 Cu in combination with electrochemical measurements. It was established that under stationary conditions there was uniform dissolution of the alloy both during free corrosion and anodic polarization. The authors obtained partial anodic dissolution curves for the components of the alloy. It was shown that the dissolution kinetics differed from the mechanisms controlling dissolution of the corresponding pure metals. During corrosion of the alloy in an oxygen atmosphere a back precipitation of copper on the surface of the alloy was not observed. The characteristics observed in the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of the alloy in concentrated chloride solutions can be explained by the presence of Ni on the surface of the dissolving alloy

  4. Dissolution of B-doped S1(100) layers in NaOH aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1988-12-01

    NaOH solution has been used to study the dissolution rates of boron doped Sl(100) wafers as a function of solution normality (0.02 N to 15 N) and temperature in the range of 30 deg. C to boiling point. For a dissolution at boiling point, two distinctive ranges of solution normalities have been observed. For N ≤ 4.5, the dissolution rate increases logarithmically and is defect dependent. For higher values of N ≥ 4.5 normal, the dissolution rate becomes a linear function of normality and reaction is defect dependent. The reaction activation energy has been measured equal to 0.65 +- 0.03 eV. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  5. Method to blend separator powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  6. Internal Friction Angle of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zegzulka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal powders are components with multidisciplinary usage as their application is very broad. Their consistent characterization across all disciplines is important for ensuring repeatable and trouble-free processes. Ten metal powders were tested in the study. In all cases, the particle size distribution and morphology (scanning electron microscope—SEM photos were determined. The aim of this work was to inspect the flow behavior of metal powders through another measured characteristic, namely the angle of internal friction. The measured values of the effective internal friction angle in the range 28.6–32.9°, together with the spherical particle shape and the particle size distribution, revealed the likely dominant mode of the metal particle transfer mechanism for stainless steel 316L, zinc and aluminum powder. This third piston flow mechanism is described and illustrated in detail. The angle of internal friction is mentioned as another suitable parameter for the characterization of metal powders, not only for the relative simplicity of the determination but also for gaining insight into the method of the movement of individual particles during the flow.

  7. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K; Alkan, S.; Yilmaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  8. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  9. Aqueous dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate geopolymers derived from metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Z., E-mail: zaynab.aly@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Perera, D.S. [School of Materials Science, University of NSW, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dilute solutions, Na, Al and Si releases were not sensitive to pH in range 4-10. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating from 18 to 90 Degree-Sign C in DIW, Na dissolution rate increased by a factor of {approx}4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental extractions in DIW at 18 Degree-Sign C increased linearly with time over 1-7 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Na release kinetics in DIW followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact with KCl, KHCO{sub 3} and phthalate buffers (pH6 and 10) resulted in Na{sup +} {r_reversible} K{sup +} exchange. - Abstract: In dilute aqueous solutions, the elemental releases of Na, Al and Si from a metakaolin-based sodium aluminosilicate geopolymer were not very sensitive to pH in the range of 4-10 but increased outside this range, particularly on the acidic side. To minimise pH drifts, experiments were carried out using small amounts of graded powders in relatively large volumes of water. In deionised water, the Na dissolution rate in 7 days was dominant and increased by at least a factor of {approx}4 on heating from 18 to 90 Degree-Sign C, with greater increases in the extractions of Al and Si. At 18 Degree-Sign C the elemental extractions in deionised water increased approximately linearly with time over the 1-7 days period. Further exposure led to a slower extraction into solution for Na and Si, with a decrease in extraction of Al. It was deduced that framework dissolution was important in significantly acidic or alkaline solutions, but that contributions from water transfer from pores to elemental extractions were present, even at low temperatures in neutral solutions. It was also deduced from the Na release data that the Na leaching kinetics of geopolymer in deionised water (dilute solutions) followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the pseudo-second-order rate constant evaluated. Contact with KCl, KHCO{sub 3}, and pH {approx}6 and 10

  10. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  11. Waste form dissolution in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model was devised for waste dissolution in bedded salt, a hydrologically tight medium. For a typical Spent UnReprocessed Fuel (SURF) emplacement, the dissolution rate wll be diffusion limited and will rise to a steady state value after t/sub eq/ approx. = 250 (1+(1-epsilon 0 ) K/sub D//epsilon 0 ) (years) epsilon 0 is the overpack porosity and K/sub d/ is the overpack sorption coefficient. The steady state dissolution rate itself is dominated by the solubility of UO 2 . Steady state rates between 5 x 10 -5 and .5 (g/year) are achievable by SURF emplacements in bedded salt without overpack, and rates between 5 x 10 -7 and 5 x 10 -3 (g/year) with an overpack having porosity of 10 -2

  12. In vitro dissolution of curium oxide using a phagolysosomal simulant solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfinstine, S.Y.; Guilmette, R.A.; Schlapper, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed study of actinide oxide behavior in alveolar macrophages (AM) in vitro is limited because of the short life span of these cells in culture. We created an in vitro dissolution system that could mimic the acidic phagolysosomal environment for the actinide and be maintained for an indefinite period so that dissolution of more insoluble materials could be measured. The dissolution system for this investigation, consisting of nine different solutions of HCl and the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) in distilled water, is called the phagolysosomal simulant solvent (PSS). In this system, both the pH and the amount of DTPA were varied. We could observe the effect of altering pH within a range of 4.0-6.0 (similar to that of the phagolysosome) and the effect of the molar ratio of DTPA to curium at 1000: 1, 100;1, or 10:1. We chose curium sesquioxide ( 244 Cm 2 O 3 ) to validate the PSS for actinide dissolution versus that occurring in AM in vitro because it dissolves significantly in less than 1 week. The polydisperse 244 Cm 2 O 3 aerosol was generated, collected on filters, resuspended, and added to the PSS solutions and to cultured canine AM. By comparing dissolution in the two systems directly, we hoped to arrive at an optimum PSS for future dissolution studies. PSS and cell culture samples were taken daily for 7 days after exposure and tested for the solubilized curium. The amount of soluble material was determined by ultracentrifugation to separate the insoluble CM 2 O 3 from the soluble curium in the PSS solutions and filtration for the cell-containing material. After separating the soluble and insoluble fractions, the samples were analyzed using alpha liquid scintillation counting. Time-dependent dissolution measurements from the PSS/AM showed that the CM 2 O 3 dissolution was similar for both the PSS solutions and the cultured AM. 13 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  14. Uranium Dioxide Powder Flow ability Improvement Using Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder

  15. Synthesis of alumina powders by precipitation method and solvothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politchuk, J.O.; Lima, N.B.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Yoshito, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of alumina powders synthesis processes has been focused on the preparation of ceramic powders with well defined crystalline structure and with high specific surface area and nanometric particle size without formation of hard agglomerates. For this purpose the precipitation step should be studied and and also the temperature of alumina crystallization should be reduced. The aim of this study was to obtain alumina powders by hydroxide precipitation with ammonia in the presence of cationic surfactant, followed by solvothermal treatment and calcination. The powders were characterized by TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements by gas adsorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that powders produced by solvothermal treatment without surfactant have higher crystallinity. However the presence of CTAB enhances 240% the specific surface area compared with powders produced without this reagent (author)

  16. DISSOLUTION OF IRRADIATED MURR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2010-06-17

    A literature survey on the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) has been performed. This survey encompassed both internal and external literature sources for the dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium alloy fuels. The most limiting aspect of dissolution in the current facility configuration involves issues related to the control of the flammability of the off-gas from this process. The primary conclusion of this work is that based on past dissolution of this fuel in H-Canyon, four bundles of this fuel (initial charge) may be safely dissolved in a nitric acid flowsheet catalyzed with 0.002 M mercuric nitrate using a 40 scfm purge to control off-gas flammability. The initial charge may be followed by a second charge of up to five bundles to the same dissolver batch depending on volume and concentration constraints. The safety of this flowsheet relies on composite lower flammability limits (LFL) estimated from prior literature, pilot-scale work on the dissolution of site fuels, and the proposed processing flowsheet. Equipment modifications or improved LFL data offer the potential for improved processing rates. The fuel charging sequence, as well as the acid and catalyst concentrations, will control the dissolution rate during the initial portion of the cycle. These parameters directly impact the hydrogen and off-gas generation and, along with the purge flowrate determine the number of bundles that may be charged. The calculation approach within provides Engineering a means to determine optimal charging patterns. Downstream processing of this material should be similar to that of recent processing of site fuels requiring only minor adjustments of the existing flowsheet parameters.

  17. The anodic dissolution of zinc and zinc alloys in alkaline solution. II. Al and Zn partial dissolution from 5% Al–Zn coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, T.N.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P.; Ogle, K.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The polarization behavior of a 5 wt% Al–Zn steel coating (Galfan™) has been investigated in alkaline solution using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC). The instantaneous Zn and Al dissolution rates were measured as a function of time during a linear scan and potential step transients. The formation rate of insoluble oxides was determined from the difference between the convoluted total current and the sum of the elemental dissolution currents. It was found that, over a wide potential range, the zinc and aluminum partial currents behaved in a similar way to pure zinc and pure aluminum independently. However, during the period in which zinc was active, aluminum dissolution was inhibited. This is attributed to the inhibitive effect of the first and/or the second states of zinc oxide that are formed during the active potential domain. The third form of zinc oxide, observed at higher potential and responsible for the passivation of zinc dissolution, does not have a measurable effect on the Al dissolution rate.

  18. Formation, transformation and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    The basic mechanisms of film growth, transformation, and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces are discussed. Film growth can occur via solid-state processes or via substrate (usally metal or alloy) dissolution, followed by local supersaturation and precipitation of an insoluble phase. The phase(s) formed may be metastable and transform to a more stable phase, via either solid-state or dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Film dissolution reactions can also occur via a variety of mechanisms, including: (i) direct chemical dissolution when no oxidation state change occurs; (ii) redox dissolution when the film dissolves via a redox reaction involving a reducing or oxidizing agent in solution; and (iii) autoreduction, where film dissolution is coupled to metal dissolution. Such film-growth and dissolution processes, which often produce complex multilayer films, are common in the nuclear industry. A number of examples are discussed

  19. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO_4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO_4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic

  20. Saltcake dissolution FY 1998 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory scouting study was completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford waste from three single-shell waste tanks: 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, and 241-B-106. Gross dissolution behavior (percent undissolved solids as a function of dilution) is explained in terms of characteristics of individual salts in the waste. The percentage of the sodium inventory retrievable from the tanks by dissolving saltcake at reasonable dilution levels is estimated at 86% of the total sodium for tank BY-102, 98% for BY-106, and 79% for B-106

  1. Investigating dissolution of mechanically activated olivine for carbonation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Tove Anette; Kleiv, Rolf Arne; Munz, Ingrid Anne

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dissolution of mechanically activated olivine increased with 3 orders of magnitude. → Crystallinity changes of olivine is important for the observed dissolution rates. → Activation probably decreases with the degree of dissolution of each particle. - Abstract: Mineral carbonation is one of several alternatives for CO 2 sequestration and storage. The reaction rates of appropriate minerals with CO 2 , for instance olivine and serpentine with vast resources, are relatively slow in a CO 2 sequestration context and the rates have to be increased to make mineral carbonation a good storage alternative. Increasing the dissolution rate of olivine has been the focus of this paper. Olivine was milled with very high energy intensity using a laboratory planetary mill to investigate the effect of mechanical activation on the Mg extraction potential of olivine in 0.01 M HCl solution at room temperature and pressure. Approximately 30-40% of each sample was dissolved and water samples were taken at the end of each experiment. The pH change was used to calculate time series of the Mg concentrations, which also were compared to the final Mg concentrations in the water samples. Percentage dissolved and the specific reaction rates were estimated from the Mg concentration time series. The measured particle size distributions could not explain the rate constants found, but the specific surface area gave a good trend versus dissolution for samples milled wet and the samples milled with a small addition of water. The samples milled dry had the lowest measured specific surface areas ( 2 /g), but had the highest rate constants. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffractograms, was the material parameter with the best fit for the observed differences in the rate constants. Geochemical modelling of mechanically activated materials indicated that factors describing the changes in the material properties related to the activation must be included. The

  2. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  3. Standard specification for uranium oxides with a 235U content of less than 5 % for dissolution prior to conversion to nuclear-grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers uranium oxides, including processed byproducts or scrap material (powder, pellets, or pieces), that are intended for dissolution into uranyl nitrate solution meeting the requirements of Specification C788 prior to conversion into nuclear grade UO2 powder with a 235U content of less than 5 %. This specification defines the impurity and uranium isotope limits for such urania powders that are to be dissolved prior to processing to nuclear grade UO2 as defined in Specification C753. 1.2 This specification provides the nuclear industry with a general standard for such uranium oxide powders. It recognizes the diversity of conversion processes and the processes to which such powders are subsequently to be subjected (for instance, by solvent extraction). It is therefore anticipated that it may be necessary to include supplementary specification limits by agreement between the buyer and seller. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for prevent...

  4. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  5. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate in dissolution media on dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Malayev, Vyacheslav; Rao, Venkatramana; Hussain, Munir

    2004-01-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a commonly used surfactant in dissolution media for poorly water soluble drugs. However, it has occasionally been observed that SLS negatively impacts the dissolution of drug products formulated in gelatin capsules. This study investigated the effect of SLS on the dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells. The USP paddle method was used with online UV monitoring at 214 nm (peptide bond). Empty size #0 capsule shells were held to the bottom of the dissolution vessel by magnetic three-prong sinkers. SLS significantly slowed down the dissolution of gelatin shells at pH < 5. Visually, the gelatin shells transformed into some less-soluble precipitate under these conditions. This precipitate was found to contain a higher sulfur content than the gelatin control sample by elemental analysis, indicating that SLS is part of the precipitate. Additionally, the slowdown of capsule shell dissolution was shown to be dependent on the SLS concentration and the ionic strength of the media. SLS interacts with gelatin to form a less-soluble precipitate at pH < 5. The use of SLS in dissolution media at acidic pH should be carefully evaluated for gelatin capsule products.

  6. Assessing the effect of dissolved organic ligands on mineral dissolution rates: An example from calcite dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaio, T.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments suggest that dissolved organic ligands may primarily modify mineral dissolution rates by three mechanisms: (1) metal-ligand (M-L) complex formation in solution, which increases the degree of undersaturation, (2) formation of surface M-L complexes that attack the surface, and (3) formation of surface complexes which passivate or protect the surface. Mechanisms (1) and (2) increase the dissolution rate and the third decreases it compared with organic-free solutions. The types and importance of these mechanisms may be assessed from plots of dissolution rate versus degree of undersaturation. To illustrate this technique, calcite, a common repository cementing and vein-filling mineral, was dissolved at pH 7.8 and 22 C in Na-Ca-HCO 3 -Cl solutions with low concentrations of three organic ligands. Low citrate concentrations (50 microM) increased the dissolution rate consistent with mechanism (1). Oxalate decreased the rate, consistent with mechanism (3). Low phthalate concentration (<50 microM) decreased calcite dissolution rates; however, higher concentrations increased the dissolution rates, which became faster than in inorganic solutions. Thus, phthalate exhibits both mechanisms (2) and (3) at different concentrations. In such cases linear extrapolations of dissolution rates from high organic ligand concentrations may not be valid

  7. The influence of pressure on the intrinsic dissolution rate of amorphous indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Flouda, Konstantina; Qiu, Danwen

    2014-01-01

    of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling) indomethacin (IND), a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and the final compacts were...... and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur) state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence...... visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND-PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However...

  8. Predicting dissolution patterns in variable aperture fractures: 1. Development and evaluation of an enhanced depth-averaged computational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detwiler, R L; Rajaram, H

    2006-04-21

    Water-rock interactions within variable-aperture fractures can lead to dissolution of fracture surfaces and local alteration of fracture apertures, potentially transforming the transport properties of the fracture over time. Because fractures often provide dominant pathways for subsurface flow and transport, developing models that effectively quantify the role of dissolution on changing transport properties over a range of scales is critical to understanding potential impacts of natural and anthropogenic processes. Dissolution of fracture surfaces is controlled by surface-reaction kinetics and transport of reactants and products to and from the fracture surfaces. We present development and evaluation of a depth-averaged model of fracture flow and reactive transport that explicitly calculates local dissolution-induced alterations in fracture apertures. The model incorporates an effective mass transfer relationship that implicitly represents the transition from reaction-limited dissolution to transport-limited dissolution. We evaluate the model through direct comparison to previously reported physical experiments in transparent analog fractures fabricated by mating an inert, transparent rough surface with a smooth single crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), which allowed direct measurement of fracture aperture during dissolution experiments using well-established light transmission techniques [Detwiler, et al., 2003]. Comparison of experiments and simulations at different flow rates demonstrate the relative impact of the dimensionless Peclet and Damkohler numbers on fracture dissolution and the ability of the computational model to simulate dissolution. Despite some discrepancies in the small-scale details of dissolution patterns, the simulations predict the evolution of large-scale features quite well for the different experimental conditions. This suggests that our depth-averaged approach to simulating fracture dissolution provides a useful approach for

  9. Quality-by-design (QbD): effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powder measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Wu, Huiquan; Shen, Meiyu; Augsburger, Larry L; Lyon, Robbe C; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Hoag, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powders measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester using design of experiments (DOE) approaches. The test blends consisted of 4% aspirin (ASP) and 96% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with and without magnesium stearate (MgS). The segregation tendency of a blend was determined by measuring the last/first (L/F) ratio, the ratio of aspirin concentrations between the first and last samples discharged from the tester. A 2(2) factorial design was used to determine the effects of measurement parameters [amount of material loaded (W), number of segregation cycles] with number of replicates 6. ANOVA showed that W was a critical parameter for segregation testing. The L/F value deviated further from 1 (greater segregation tendency) with increasing W. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to assess the effects of formulation variables: grade of ASP (unmilled, milled), grade of MCC, and amount of lubricant, MgS. MLR and ANOVA showed that the grade of ASP was the main effect contributing to segregation tendency. Principal Component Regression Analysis established a correlation between L/F and the physical properties of the blend related to ASP and MCC, the ASP/MCC particle size ratio (PSR) and powder cohesion. The physical properties of the blend related to density and flow were not influenced by the grade of ASP and were not related to the segregation tendency of the blend. The direct relationship between L/F and PSR was determined by univariate analysis. Segregation tendency increased as the ASP to MCC particle size increased. This study highlighted critical test parameters for segregation testing and identified critical physical properties of the blends that influence segregation tendency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  11. Nickel powders shape effect upon their isostatic compaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytermann, R.; Auguin, B.; Defresne, A.; Gilles, P.

    1975-01-01

    Two carbonyl nickel powders of the same purity, one spherical, the other of very irregular shape, were isostatically compacted at pressures from 0.5 to 13Kbars with two compacting speeds: 1Kbar/s and 1Kbar/15s. The influence of the powder shapes on the electrical resistivity, tensile strength and microcalorimetric measurements was studied [fr

  12. A kinetic model for borosilicate glass dissolution based on the dissolution affinity of a surface alteration layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Peiffer, D.W.; Knauss, K.G.; McKeegan, K.D.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    A kinetic model for the dissolution of borosilicate glass is used to predict the dissolution rate of a nuclear waste glass. In the model, the glass dissolution rate is controlled by the rate of dissolution of an alkali-depleted amorphous surface (gel) layer. Our model predicts that all components concentrated in the surface layer, affect glass dissolution rates. The good agreement between predicted and observed elemental dissolution rates suggests that the dissolution rate of the gel layer limits the overall rate of glass dissolution. The model predicts that the long-term rate of glass dissolution will depend mainly on ion concentrations in solution, and therefore on the secondary phases which precipitate and control ion concentrations. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Dissolution Dominating Calcification Process in Polar Pteropods Close to the Point of Aragonite Undersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednaršek, Nina; Tarling, Geraint A.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Fielding, Sophie; Feely, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Thecosome pteropods are abundant upper-ocean zooplankton that build aragonite shells. Ocean acidification results in the lowering of aragonite saturation levels in the surface layers, and several incubation studies have shown that rates of calcification in these organisms decrease as a result. This study provides a weight-specific net calcification rate function for thecosome pteropods that includes both rates of dissolution and calcification over a range of plausible future aragonite saturation states (Ωar). We measured gross dissolution in the pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean) by incubating living specimens across a range of aragonite saturation states for a maximum of 14 days. Specimens started dissolving almost immediately upon exposure to undersaturated conditions (Ωar∼0.8), losing 1.4% of shell mass per day. The observed rate of gross dissolution was different from that predicted by rate law kinetics of aragonite dissolution, in being higher at Ωar levels slightly above 1 and lower at Ωar levels of between 1 and 0.8. This indicates that shell mass is affected by even transitional levels of saturation, but there is, nevertheless, some partial means of protection for shells when in undersaturated conditions. A function for gross dissolution against Ωar derived from the present observations was compared to a function for gross calcification derived by a different study, and showed that dissolution became the dominating process even at Ωar levels close to 1, with net shell growth ceasing at an Ωar of 1.03. Gross dissolution increasingly dominated net change in shell mass as saturation levels decreased below 1. As well as influencing their viability, such dissolution of pteropod shells in the surface layers will result in slower sinking velocities and decreased carbon and carbonate fluxes to the deep ocean. PMID:25285916

  14. Plasma deposition by discharge in powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gamal, H.A.; El-Tayeb, H.A.; Abd El-Moniem, M.; Masoud, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Different types of material powders have been fed to the breach of a coaxial discharge. The coaxial discharge is powered from a 46.26 mu F, 24 KV capacitor bank. When the discharge takes place at the breach, the powder is heated and ionized to form a sheath of its material. The plasma sheath is ejected from the discharge zone with high velocity. The plasma sheath material is deposited on a glass substrate. It has been found from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis that the deposited material is almost homogenous for ceramic and graphite powders. The grain size is estimated to be the order of few microns. To measure the deposited material thickness the microdensitometer and a suitable arrangement of a laser interferometer and an optical microscope are used. It has also been found that deposited material thickness depends on the discharge number of shots and the capacitor bank energy

  15. Proportioning of U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.; Markvart, M.; Novy, P.; Vanka, M.

    1989-01-01

    The tests are briefly described or proportioning U 3 O 8 powder of a granulometric grain size range of 0-160 μm using a vertical screw, a horizontal dual screw and a vibration dispenser with a view to proportioning very fine U 3 O 8 powder fractions produced in the oxidation of UO 2 fuel pellets. In the tests, the evenness of proportioning was assessed by the percentage value of the proportioning rate spread measured at one-minute intervals at a proportioning rate of 1-3 kg/h. In feeding the U 3 O 3 in a flame fluorator, it is advantageous to monitor the continuity of the powder column being proportioned and to assess it radiometrically by the value of the proportioning rate spread at very short intervals (0.1 s). (author). 10 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  16. Enhanced ferrihydrite dissolution by a unicellular, planktonic cyanobacterium: a biological contribution to particulate iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Chana; Kessler, Nivi; Keren, Nir; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) bioavailability, as determined by its sources, sinks, solubility and speciation, places severe environmental constraints on microorganisms in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are a widespread group of aquatic, photosynthetic microorganisms with especially high iron requirements. While iron exists predominantly in particulate form, little is known about its bioavailability to cyanobacteria. Some cyanobacteria secrete iron solubilizing ligands called siderophores, yet many environmentally relevant strains do not have this ability. This work explores the bioavailability of amorphous synthetic Fe-oxides (ferrihydrite) to the non-siderophore producing, unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Iron uptake assays with 55 ferrihydrite established dissolution as a critical prerequisite for iron transport. Dissolution assays with the iron binding ligand, desferrioxamine B, demonstrated that Synechocystis 6803 enhances ferrihydrite dissolution, exerting siderophore-independent biological influence on ferrihydrite bioavailability. Dissolution mechanisms were studied using a range of experimental conditions; both cell-particle physical proximity and cellular electron flow were shown to be important determinants of bio-dissolution by Synechocystis 6803. Finally, the effects of ferrihydrite stability on bio-dissolution rates and cell physiology were measured, integrating biological and chemical aspects of ferrihydrite bioavailability. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Synechocystis 6803 actively dissolves ferrihydrite, highlighting a significant biological component to mineral phase iron bioavailability in aquatic environments. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of ions traces on the dissolution of bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jamil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of trace ions as Mg2+, Sr2+, (SiO44- and Al3+, brought by the raw material, on the dissolution of the calcium-phosphate bioceramics.  The precursor powders prepared by aqueous precipitation with molar ratio Ca / P = 1.630 ± 0.002, were calcined at 1100°C resulting in the formation of a mixture of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2 and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42.  Two mixtures which differ by the content of trace ions were characterized for phase purity, chemical composition and morphology.  The dissolution tests were performed at 37 °C in acidic buffers solution at pH 4.8.  The results showed that the dissolution of calcium ions is more important in the presence of ions trace while the phosphor ions were not affected.  The dissolution and dissolution-reprecipitation observed of various ions trace can modify the surface properties of calcium phosphate bioceramics and therefore the properties of biological products, such as resorbtion and reactivity can be affected.

  18. Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP Selectively Increase Biogenic Silica Dissolution From Fossil Diatoms as Compared to Fresh Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Toullec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatom production is mainly supported by the dissolution of biogenic silica (bSiO2 within the first 200 m of the water column. The upper oceanic layer is enriched in dissolved and/or colloidal organic matter, such as exopolymeric polysaccharides (EPS and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP excreted by phytoplankton in large amounts, especially at the end of a bloom. In this study we explored for the first time the direct influence of TEP-enriched diatom excretions on bSiO2 dissolution. Twelve dissolution experiments on fresh and fossil diatom frustules were carried out on seawater containing different concentrations of TEP extracted from diatom cultures. Fresh diatom frustules were cleaned from the organic matter by low ash temperature, and fossil diatoms were made from diatomite powder. Results confirm that newly formed bSiO2 dissolved at a faster rate than fossil diatoms due to a lower aluminum (Al content. Diatom excretions have no effect on the dissolution of the newly formed bSiO2 from Chaetoceros muelleri. Reversely, the diatomite specific dissolution rate constant and solubility of the bSiO2 were positively correlated to TEP concentrations, suggesting that diatom excretion may provide an alternative source of dSi when limitations arise.

  19. [Development of Inhalable Dry Powder Formulations Loaded with Nanoparticles Maintaining Their Original Physical Properties and Functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

     Functional nanoparticles, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are attractive drug delivery systems for solubilization, stabilization, sustained release, prolonged tissue retention, and tissue targeting of various encapsulated drugs. For their clinical application in therapy for pulmonary diseases, the development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations is considered practical due to such advantages as: (1) it is noninvasive and can be directly delivered into the lungs; (2) there are few biocomponents in the lungs that interact with nanoparticles; and (3) it shows high storage stability in the solid state against aggregation or precipitation of nanoparticles in water. However, in order to produce effective nanoparticle-loaded dry powders for inhalation, it is essential to pursue an innovative and comprehensive formulation strategy in relation to composition and powderization which can achieve (1) the particle design of dry powders with physical properties suitable for pulmonary delivery through inhalation, and (2) the effective reconstitution of nanoparticles that will maintain their original physical properties and functions after dissolution of the powders. Spray-freeze drying (SFD) is a relatively new powderization technique combining atomization and lyophilization, which can easily produce highly porous dry powders from an aqueous sample solution. Previously, we advanced the optimization of components and process conditions for the production of SFD powders suitable to DPI application. This review describes our recent results in the development of novel DPI formulations effectively loaded with various nanoparticles (electrostatic nanocomplexes for gene therapy, liposomes, and self-assembled lipid nanoparticles), based on SFD.

  20. Dissolution Of 3013-DE Sample 10-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-01-01

    The HB-Line Facility has a long-term mission to dissolve and disposition legacy fissile materials. HB-Line dissolves plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) from K-Area parting support of the 3013 Destructive Examination (DE) program. The PuO 2 -bearing solids originate from a variety of unit operations and processing facilities, but all of the material is assumed to be high-fired (i.e., calcined in air for a minimum of two hours at (ge) 750 C). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted dissolution flowsheet studies on 3013 DE Sample 10-16 (can R610826), which contains weapons-grade plutonium (Pu) as the fissile material. The dissolution flowsheet study was performed for 4 hours at 108 C on unwashed material using 12 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ) containing 0.20 M potassium fluoride (KF). After 4 hours at 108 C, the 239 Pu Equivalent concentration was 32.5 g/L (gamma, 5.0% uncertainty). The insoluble residue comprised 9.88 wt % of the initial bulk weight, and contained 5.31-5.95 wt % of the initial Pu. The residue contained Pu in the highest concentration, followed by tungsten (W). Analyses detected 2,770 mg/L chloride (Cl - ) in the final dissolver solution (3.28 wt %), which is significantly lower than the amount of Cl - detected by prompt gamma (9.86 wt %) and the 3013 DE Surveillance program (14.7 wt %). A low bias in chloride measurement is anticipated due to volatilization during the experiment. Gas generation studies found approximately 60 mL of gas per gram of sample produced during the first 30 minutes of dissolution. Little to no gas was produced after the first 30 minutes. Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) was not detected in the sample. Based on detection limits and accounting for dilution, the generated gas contained 2 , which is well below the 4.0 vol % flammability limit for H 2 in air. Filtration of the dissolver solution occurred readily. When aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) was added to the filtered dissolver solution at a 3:1 Al:F molar ratio, and stored at room

  1. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  2. Dissolution enhancement of Tibolone by micronization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Micronization technique has a significant impact on the dissolution of Tibolone. The experimental findings suggest that micronization can be used for the preparation of rapidly dissolving formulations of Tibolone, and could potentially lead to improvement in the in-vivo bioavailability of Tibolone oral tablets.

  3. Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Reeves, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1983 Salt Decontamination Demonstration Test and should not be considered as the rate determining step. Current analytical models for predicting the time to reach the composite lower flammability limit assume that the lag time is not more than 6 hours, and the data supports this assumption (i.e., dissolution by itself requires much less than 6 hours). The data suggests that another step--such as mass transport, the reaction of a benzene precursor or the mixing behavior--is the rate determining factor for benzene release to the vapor space in Tank 48H. In addition, preliminary results from this program show that the degree of agitation employed is not a significant parameter in determining the rate of NaTPB dissolution. As a result of this study, an improved equation for predicting equilibrium tetraphenylborate solubility with respect to temperature and sodium ion concentration has been determined

  4. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement I: Co-Micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIDS constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases, representing a major public health priority. Efavirenz (EFV, one of the most widely used drugs for this pathology, belongs to the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System for drugs with very poor water solubility. To improve EFV’s dissolution profile, changes can be made to the physical properties of the drug that do not lead to any accompanying molecular modifications. Therefore, the study objective was to develop and characterize systems with efavirenz able to improve its dissolution, which were co-processed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The technique used was co-micronization. Three different drug:excipient ratios were tested for each of the two carriers. The drug dispersion dissolution results showed significant improvement for all the co-processed samples in comparison to non-processed material and corresponding physical mixtures. The dissolution profiles obtained for dispersion with co-micronized SLS samples proved superior to those of co-micronized PVP, with the proportion (1:0.25 proving the optimal mixture. The improvements may be explained by the hypothesis that formation of a hydrophilic layer on the surface of the micronized drug increases the wettability of the system formed, corroborated by characterization results indicating no loss of crystallinity and an absence of interaction at the molecular level.

  5. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    reaction rates) may exhibit rapid increase of porosity and permeability near the inlet probably indicating a formation of high permeable channels (wormholes). Water saturation in the zone of dissolution increases due to an increase in the bulk volume accessible for the injected fluid. Volumetric non...

  6. 25 CFR 11.605 - Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Domestic Relations § 11.605 Dissolution. (a) The Court of Indian Offenses shall enter a decree of... supported by evidence that (i) the parties have lived separate and apart for a period of more than 180 days..., or provided for child custody, the support of any child entitled to support, the maintenance of...

  7. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  8. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. .... were carefully and homogenously blended in a mortar, to prepare ... different binary systems with HP-β-CD were carried out by adding an excess ..... Overall, the rank order of dissolution rates of.

  9. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  10. Combined wet-chemical process to synthesize 65PMN-35PT nanosized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis P.S.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2004-01-01

    Columbite MgNb 2 O 6 precursors were synthesized by a wet-chemical method by means of the dissolution of Nb 2 O 5 .5H 2 O and magnesium carbonate in a solution of oxalic acid. Pure 65PMN-35PT powders could be obtained by the columbite method with the use of the partial oxalate and oxidant peroxo methods. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy showing that pure 65PMN-35PT are obtained when the powders are calcined up to 800 deg. C, without any trace of Pb-Nb pyrochlore. Cubic Pb 1,86 Mg 0.24 Nb 1.76 O 6.5 pyrochlore phase is formed by lead loss in the powders calcined at 900 deg. C and higher temperatures as undoubtedly characterized by Raman spectroscopy

  11. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR. PMID:24300560

  12. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR.

  13. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-10-11

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR.

  14. Evaluation of ring shear testing as a characterization method for powder flow in small-scale powder processing equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements...... normal stress were approximately 200Pa and 114Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500Pa and 200Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level......, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress...

  15. Aqueous dissolution of silver iodide and associated iodine release under reducing conditions with FeCl2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Imamura, Toshitaka; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Kato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Asano, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    An empirical and analytical study was performed on the aqueous dissolution of silver iodide (AgI) to release iodine under reducing conditions with Fe 2+ in order to understand the fundamental chemical and/or physical behavior of potential radioactive iodine waste forms under geological disposal conditions. Aqueous dissolution tests of AgI powder in FeCl 2 solutions (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M) were performed in a glove box purged with a gas mixture (Ar + 5% H 2 ). The test results showed that AgI dissolves to release iodine at extremely slow rates, being controlled by a diffusion process in any FeCl 2 solution. The comparison with thermodynamic calculations based on redox equilibria suggested that the AgI dissolution proceeds by redox reaction between Ag + and Fe 2+ ; however, it was far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. These results suggested that the form of AgI itself has a potential to immobilize iodine for a long time even under the disposal conditions. Solid-phase analysis for the reacted AgI by using SEM/EDS showed a certain amount of silver (maybe metallic silver) precipitated at the surface. On the basis of these results and discussion, a potential mechanism for the actual AgI dissolution was proposed as follows. The AgI dissolution proceeds by redox reaction between Ag + and Fe 2+ to release I - , which results in the precipitation of metallic silver as a reduction product of Ag + at the AgI surface to form a thin layer covering the AgI surface. The silver layer evolves to be protective against the transport of reactant species, by which the further dissolution to reach the equilibrium is suppressed. Consequently, the dissolution proceeds at extremely slow rates, being controlled by a diffusion process. (author)

  16. Relation between the dissolution reactivity of powder substances and efficiency of their electroplating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gálová, M.; Orináková, R.; Grygar, Tomáš; Lux, L.; Heželová, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2001), s. 85-94 ISSN 0272-6351 Grant - others:GA SR VEGA(SK) 1/6024/99 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : iron * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.125, year: 2001

  17. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R.; Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system ( 2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α 2 /4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  18. Kinetic study of the thorium phosphate - diphosphate dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.; Thomas, A.C.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The thorium phosphate-diphosphate Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 (TPD) structure allows the replacement of large amounts of thorium by tetravalent actinides leading to the formation of solid solutions. This compound was obtained in powdered or sintered form after pressing at room temperature at 300-800 MPa then heating at 1250 deg. C for 10-30 hours. The resistance of this material to aqueous corrosion was determined by varying several parameters such as surface, leaching flow, acidity or temperature. It was thus possible to independently determine the influence of each parameter on the leaching rate provided that the saturation of the solution was not obtained. In acidic media, the partial order related to [H 3 O + ] was found to be in the 0.31-0.35 range while, in basic media, the partial order related to [OH - ] was almost the same (0.45). The activation energy (42 kJ/mol) was determined between 4 deg. C and 120 deg. C. Moreover, the addition of phosphate in the leachate slightly increased the TPD dissolution rate. When the saturation of the solution is reached, a gelatinous precipitate controls the thorium and phosphate concentrations. The complete characterization of this solid led to the proposed general formula Th 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (HPO 4 ). n H 2 O which conventional solubility product (at I = 0 M) is very low: K * S,0 10 -66.6±1.2 even in very acidic media. (authors)

  19. Evaluating the role of re-adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) during cinnabar dissolution using isotope tracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Guangliang; Yang, Guidi; Lagos, Leonel; Yin, Yongguang; Gu, Baohua; Jiang, Guibin; Cai, Yong

    2016-11-05

    Cinnabar dissolution is an important factor controlling mercury (Hg) cycling. Recent studies have suggested the co-occurrence of re-adsorption of the released Hg during the course of cinnabar dissolution. However, there is a lack of feasible techniques that can quantitatively assess the amount of Hg re-adsorbed on cinnabar when investigating cinnabar dissolution. In this study, a new method, based on isotope tracing and dilution techniques, was developed to study the role of Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar dissolution. The developed method includes two key components: (1) accurate measurement of both released and spiked Hg in aqueous phase and (2) estimation of re-adsorbed Hg on cinnabar surface via the reduction in spiked (202)Hg(2+). By adopting the developed method, it was found that the released Hg for trials purged with oxygen could reach several hundred μgL(-1), while no significant cinnabar dissolution was detected under anaerobic condition. Cinnabar dissolution rate when considering Hg re-adsorption was approximately 2 times the value calculated solely with the Hg detected in the aqueous phase. These results suggest that ignoring the Hg re-adsorption process can significantly underestimate the importance of cinnabar dissolution, highlighting the necessity of applying the developed method in future cinnabar dissolution studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolution patterns of biocompatible glasses in 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (Tris) buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, S; Hupa, L; Hupa, M

    2013-02-01

    A continuous flow measurement system with sensitive on-line ion analysis has been applied to study the initial dissolution behaviour of biocompatible glasses in Tris. Altogether 16 glasses with widely varying compositions were studied. The measurement system allowed for quantitative determination of the time-dependent rates of dissolution of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon and phosphorus during the first 10-15 min in contact with Tris solution. The dissolution rates of the different ions showed significant glass to glass variations, but all glasses studied showed one of four distinct dissolution patterns. The ion dissolution rates after an exposure of 1000 s, expressed as the normalized surface-specific mass loss rates, were compared with the in vitro and in vivo reactivity of the glasses as predicted by models in the literature. The results showed a clear correlation between the dissolution rates of the glasses in Tris and their reactivity as measured by other different methods. Consequently, the measured short-term dissolution patterns could be used to determine which glasses are suitable as bioactive, biodegradable, or inert biomaterials for medical devices. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DISSOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS WITH DIFFERENT CaO/MgO RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD USMAN HASHMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, powders of three different compositions, each having 34 SiO2-14.5 P2O5-1 CaF2-0.5 MgF (% wt and ratio of CaO/MgO varying from 11.5:1 to 1:11.5 were thoroughly mixed and melted under oxy-acetylene flame in a fire clay crucible that made the glass formation cheaper in time and cost. The melt of each composition was quenched in water to form three different glasses. Every glass was sintered at 950°C to form three glass ceramics named G1, G2 and G3 respectively. To study the dissolution behavior, each sample was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 days at room temperature. Thin film XRD analysis revealed that the samples with larger CaO/MgO ratio exhibited better bioactivity. pH of SBF increased efficiently in case of G1 whereas in case of G2 and G3, this increase was slower due to greater amount of MgO. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Si ions were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. EDS analysis showed the increase in P and Ca ions and presence of C in G1 after 5 days immersion and after 10 days, in case of G2 indicating the higher formation rate of hydroxycarbonate Apatite layer in G1 as compared to G2 due to greater CaO/MgO ratio whereas in G3 Mg-hydroxycarbonate apatite (Ca(Mg5(CO3(PO43(OH (heneuite layer was recognized after 20 days showing the least bioactivity due to very large amount of Mg and the least CaO/MgO ratio.

  2. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Russia is a potent producer of polishing powders made of rare earth material presented as an extensive and well developed base. Considering the reserves, the facilities predisposition and the polishing agent (cerium dioxide) content the chief mineral source is loparite, apatite and monazite. The production of rare earth polishing powders is based on specially developed continuous technological processes, corrosion-proof equipment, ensuring a high and stable production quality. A special attention is paid to the radiation safety of the powders. The initial material for the rare earth polishing powders based on loparite is the fusion cake of rare earth chlorides obtained at that mineral chlorination. The technology of the polishing powder production from the REE fusion cake includes the following stages: dissolution of the REE fusion cake chlorides; - thorough cleaning of the REE fusion cake chlorides from radioactive and non-rare-earth impurities; chemical precipitation of REE carbonates, obtaining middlings with proper material and granulometric composition, thermal treatment of precipitated carbonates followed with the operations of drying and roasting; classification of roasted oxides, obtaining end products - polishing powders. The production of fluorine-containing powders includes the stage of their fluorination after the stage of carbonate precipitation. The stabilizing doping can be introduced both into the middlings during one of the technological process of powders manufacturing and into the end product. Rare earth polishing powders are manufactured in Russia by the Share Holding Company 'Chepetz Mechanical Plant' (ChMP Co.), the city of Glasov. The plant produces a number of polishing materials, such as; polishing powder Optinol, containing at least 50% by mass of cerium dioxide, used in the mass production of optical and other articles; polishing powder Optinol-10 with doping to improve the sedimentary and aggregate stability of the solid phase

  3. Dissolution of two NWCF calcines: Extent of dissolution and characterization of undissolved solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the dissolution characteristics of two NWCF calcine types. A two-way blended calcine made from 4 parts nonradioactive aluminum nitrate and one part WM-102 was studied to determine the extent of dissolution for aluminum-type calcines. A two-way blend of 3.5 parts fluorinel waste from WM-187 and 1 part sodium waste from WM-185 was used to determine the extent of dissolution for zirconium-type calcines. This study was necessary to develop suitable aqueous separation flowsheets for the partitioning of actinides and fission products from ICPP calcines and to determine the disposition of the resulting undissolved solids (UDS). The dissolution flowsheet developed by Herbst was used to dissolve these two NWCF calcine types. Results show that greater than 95 wt% of aluminum and zirconium calcine types were dissolved after a single batch contact with 5 M HNO 3 . A characterization of the UDS indicates that the weight percent of TRU elements in the UDS resulting from both calcine type dissolutions increases by approximately an order of magnitude from their concentrations prior to dissolution. Substantial activities of cesium and strontium are also present in the UDS resulting from the dissolution of both calcine types. Multiple TRU, Cs, and Sr analyses of both UDS types show that these solids are relatively homogeneous. From this study, it is estimated that between 63.5 and 635 cubic meters of UDS will be generated from the dissolution of 3800 M 3 of calcine. The significant actinide and fission product activities in these UDS will preclude their disposal as low-level waste. If the actinide and fission activity resulting from the UDS is the only considered source in the dissolved calcine solutions, an estimated 99.9 to 99.99 percent of the solids must be removed from this solution for it to meet non-TRU Class A low-level waste

  4. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  5. LARC powder prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  6. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  7. In vitro Dissolution Studies on Solid Dispersions of Mefenamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K R S Sambasiva; Nagabhushanam, M V; Chowdary, K P R

    2011-03-01

    Solid dispersions of mefanamic acid with a water-soluble polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidine and a super disintegrant, primojel were prepared by common solvent and solvent evaporation methods employing methanol as the solvent. The dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of the prepared solid dispersions were evaluated in comparison to the corresponding pure drug. Solid dispersions of mefenamic acid showed a marked enhancement in dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency. At 1:4 ratio of mefenamic acid-primojel a 2.61 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid was observed with solid dispersion. The solid dispersions in combined carriers gave much higher rates of dissolution than super disintegrants alone. Mefanamic acid-primojel-polyvinyl pyrrolidine (1:3.2:0.8) solid dispersion gave a 4.11 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid. Super disintegrants alone or in combination with polyvinyl pyrrolidine could be used to enhance the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid.

  8. Process for titanium powders spheroidization by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2010-01-01

    Spherical titanium (Ti) particles were obtained by the process of heating irregularly shaped Ti powders under the radio frequency induction plasma (RF induction plasma) condition. The effect of feed rate, various dispersion methods and Ti particle size on the spheroidization efficiency was studied. The efficiency of the spheroidization is evaluated through the measurements of the percentage of powder spheroidized based on the electron microscopic observations and the tap density measurement of the processed powder. During the short flight of the particles in the plasma flow, of the order of a few milliseconds, the individual titanium particles of the powder are heated and melt, forming a spherical liquid droplet which upon freezing gives rise to the formation of a perfectly dense spherical solid particle. So RF induction plasma is a promising method for the preparation of spherical titanium powders with high flow ability. (authors)

  9. Magnesite dissolution and precipitation rates at hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Magnesite (MgCO 3 ) is the stable anhydrous member of a series of Mg-carbonates with different degrees of hydration. Despite its relative scarcity in the natural environments, it constitutes an important mineral phase for the permanent sequestration of CO 2 as carbonate minerals. Experimental determination of magnesite precipitation and dissolution rates at conditions representative of the storage sites is therefore fundamental for the assessment of magnesite sequestration potential in basaltic and ultramafic rocks and the optimization of the techniques of CO 2 storage. Magnesite precipitation rates have been measured using mixed-flow and batch reactors as a function of temperature (100 ≤ T ≤ 200 deg. C), solution composition and CO 2 partial pressure (up to 30 bar). Rates were found to be independent of aqueous solution ionic strength at 0.1 M 3 2- activity at pH > 8. All rates obtained from mixed flow reactor experiments were found to be consistent with the model of Pokrovsky et al. (1999) where magnesite precipitation rates are proportional to the concentration of the >MgOH 2 + surface species. The study of magnesite crystallization using hydrothermal atomic force microscopy (HAFM) demonstrated the consistency of the rates derived from microscopic measurements with those obtained from bulk experiments and showed that these rates are also consistent with a spiral growth mechanism. According to AFM observations this mechanism controls magnesite growth over a wide range of temperatures and saturation states (15≤ Ω ≤200 for 80 ≤T 2 to accelerate the rate of the overall carbonation process, avoiding the inhibiting effect of carbonate ions on magnesite precipitation and increasing the rates of Mg-silicate dissolution via acidification of reacting solutions. Determination of magnesite dissolution rates by mixed flow reactor at 150 and 200 deg. C and at neutral to alkaline conditions allowed us to improve and extend to high temperatures the surface

  10. Radiochemical procedure for the determination of plutonium isotopes in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Silva, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium in powdered milk is proposed. The procedure involves sample dissolution (by HNO 3 and HClO 4 ), separation by ionic-exchange resin, electrodeposition and alpha-spectroscopy. In order to determine the chemical recovery, 242 Pu was employed as a tracer. A reference material (Marine Sediment IAEA 135) was analyzed to validate such procedure, and to show its reliability. Afterwards, some powdered milk, produced for international trade, was analyzed and chemical recovery was found to be around 95%. (author)

  11. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fransisco

    AM. Alternative powders can be made by blending or re-spheroidizing HDH and CPTi powders. Machine modifications were performed to allow the testing and manufacturing with these low cost alternative powders. A comparison was made between alternative powders and gas atomized powders. Powders were compared in terms of morphology and at the microstructural level. Flowability of different powder blends was also measured. Finally, a comparison of parts fabricated from the multiple powder blends and gas atomized powder was made. It has been demonstrated that powder blending can produce fully dense parts in the Arcam system by utilizing the double melt technique or HIPing the built pars. The double melt technique increased the density of the sample part and modified the microstructure into finer martensitic grains. The HIP process can make a part fully dense regardless of what percentage of HDH powder blending is used. The HIP process yielded the same microstructure, regardless of the grain structure it started with. This research allows for the reduction of costs using titanium powders in the EBM system, but can also be implemented with more costly elements and alloys using other metal AM technologies. This includes niobium, tantalum, and nickel-based superalloys for use in various industries.

  12. Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L. For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L or in combination (1 mmol/L with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative.

  13. Application of Liquisolid Technology for Enhancing Solubility and Dissolution of Rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ram Kamble

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Rosuvastatin is a poorly water soluble drug and the rate of its oral absorption is often controlled by the dissolution rate in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence it is necessary to increase the solubility of the Rosuvastatin. Methods: Several liquisolid tablets formulations containing various drug concentrations in liquid medication (ranging from 15% to 25% w/w were prepared. The ratio of Avicel PH 102 (carrier to Aerosil 200 (coating powder material was kept 10, 20, 30. The prepared liquisolid systems were evaluated for their flow properties and possible drug-excipient interactions by Infrared spectra (IR analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X- ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Results: The liquisolid system showed acceptable flow properties. The IR and DSC studies demonstrated that there is no significant interaction between the drug and excipients. The XRPD analysis confirmed formation of a solid solution inside the compact matrix. The tabletting properties of the liquisolid compacts were within the acceptable limits. Liquisolid compacts demonstrated significantly higher drug release rates than those of conventional and marketed tablet due to increasing wetting properties and surface area of the drug. Conclusion: This study shows that liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of the dissolution rate of water insoluble drug.

  14. Dissolution and precipitation behavior of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe in biorelevant media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayali, Amani; Tavellin, Staffan; Velaga, Sitaram

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different formulations and processes on inducing and maintaining the supersaturation of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe (EZ) in two biorelevant media fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fasted-state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) at different temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) were investigated in this work. Ternary solid dispersions of EZ were prepared by adding polymer PVP-K30 and surfactant poloxamer 188 using melt-quenching and spray-drying methods. The resulting solid dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The dissolution of all the ternary solid dispersions was tested in vitro under non-sink conditions. All the prepared solid dispersions were amorphous in nature. In FaSSIF at 25 °C, the melt-quenched (MQ) solid dispersions of EZ were more soluble than the spray-dried (SD) solid dispersions and supersaturation was maintained. However, at 37 °C, rapid and variable precipitation behavior was observed for all the MQ and SD formulations. In FaSSGF, the melting method resulted in better solubility than the spray-drying method at both temperatures. Ternary solid dispersions show potential for improving solubility and supersaturation. However, powder dissolution experiments of these solid dispersions of EZ at 25 °C may not predict the supersaturation behavior at physiologically relevant temperatures.

  15. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution method which uses USP apparatus I (Basket) with rotating at 100 rpm, 900 ml of different dissolution medium, ultra violet spectroscopy for quantification was demonstrated to be robust, discriminating and transferable. Dissolution tests conditions were selected after it was demonstrated that the Metoprolol ...

  16. Investigation of dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian columbite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian columbite in hydrofluoric acid using the shrinking core model. ... Experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate is chemical reaction controlled, with reaction order of 0.57. Dissolution of over 90 % of the columbite was achieved in 5 h, using 20 M HF at 90 oC with 100 ...

  17. Solid dispersion of dutasteride using the solvent evaporation method: Approaches to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Sang-Eun; Jang, Woo Suk; Byeon, Jong Chan; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a dutasteride (DUT) solid dispersion (SD) using hydrophilic substances to enhance its dissolution (%) and oral bioavailability in rats. DUT-SD formulations were prepared with various co-polymers using a solvent evaporation method. The physical properties of DUT-SD formulations were confirmed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy. The toxicity and oral bioavailability of DUT-SD formulations were evaluated. Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000-succinate (TPGS) was chosen as the solubilizer; and methylene chloride, and Aerosil® 200 or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were chosen as the solvent and carrier, respectively, based on a solubility test and pre-dissolution study. The dissolution levels of DUT-SD formulations were 86.3 ± 2.3% (F15) and 95.1 ± 1.9% (F16) after 1 h, which were higher than those of the commercial product, i.e., Avodart® (75.8 ± 1.5%) in 0.1 N HCl containing 1% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The F16 formulation was found to be stable, after assessing its dissolution (%) and drug content (%) for 6 months. The DUT-SD formulations resulted in relative bioavailability (BA) values of 126.4% (F15) and 132.1% (F16), which were enhanced compared to that of Avodart®. Dissolution (%) and relative BA values were both increased by hydrogen interaction between TPGS and DUT. This study might contribute to a new formulation (powder) whose oral bioavailability is greater than that of Avodart® (soft capsule), which could facilitate to the use of the SD system during the production process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissolution, agglomerate morphology, and stability limits of protein-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew N; Allen, Andrew J; MacCuspie, Robert I; Hackley, Vincent A

    2014-09-30

    Little is understood regarding the impact that molecular coatings have on nanoparticle dissolution kinetics and agglomerate formation in a dilute nanoparticle dispersion. Dissolution and agglomeration processes compete in removing isolated nanoparticles from the dispersion, making quantitative time-dependent measurements of the mechanisms of nanoparticle loss particularly challenging. In this article, we present in situ ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) results, simultaneously quantifying dissolution, agglomeration, and stability limits of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. When the BSA corona is disrupted, we find that the loss of silver from the nanoparticle core is well matched by a second-order kinetic rate reaction, arising from the oxidative dissolution of silver. Dissolution and agglomeration are quantified, and morphological transitions throughout the process are qualified. By probing the BSA-AgNP suspension around its stability limits, we provide insight into the destabilization mechanism by which individual particles rapidly dissolve as a whole rather than undergo slow dissolution from the aqueous interface inward, once the BSA layer is breached. Because USAXS rapidly measures over the entire nanometer to micrometer size range during the dissolution process, many insights are also gained into the stabilization of NPs by protein and its ability to protect the labile metal core from the solution environment by prohibiting the diffusion of reactive species. This approach can be extended to a wide variety of coating molecules and reactive metal nanoparticle systems to carefully survey their stability limits, revealing the likely mechanisms of coating breakdown and ensuing reactions.

  19. In Silico Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Dissolution, Supersaturation, and Precipitation of Posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Bart; Pathak, Shriram M; Mitra, Amitava; Patel, Nikunjkumar; Liu, Bo; Patel, Sanjaykumar; Jamei, Masoud; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick; Turner, David B

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation of posaconazole, formulated as an acidified (pH 1.6) and neutral (pH 7.1) suspension. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation tool was applied to simulate GI and systemic concentration-time profiles of posaconazole, which were directly compared with intraluminal and systemic data measured in humans. The Advanced Dissolution Absorption and Metabolism (ADAM) model of the Simcyp Simulator correctly simulated incomplete gastric dissolution and saturated duodenal concentrations of posaconazole in the duodenal fluids following administration of the neutral suspension. In contrast, gastric dissolution was approximately 2-fold higher after administration of the acidified suspension, which resulted in supersaturated concentrations of posaconazole upon transfer to the upper small intestine. The precipitation kinetics of posaconazole were described by two precipitation rate constants, extracted by semimechanistic modeling of a two-stage medium change in vitro dissolution test. The 2-fold difference in exposure in the duodenal compartment for the two formulations corresponded with a 2-fold difference in systemic exposure. This study demonstrated for the first time predictive in silico simulations of GI dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation for a weakly basic compound in part informed by modeling of in vitro dissolution experiments and validated via clinical measurements in both GI fluids and plasma. Sensitivity analysis with the PBPK model indicated that the critical supersaturation ratio (CSR) and second precipitation rate constant (sPRC) are important parameters of the model. Due to the limitations of the two-stage medium change experiment the CSR was extracted directly from the clinical data. However, in vitro experiments with the BioGIT transfer system performed after completion of the in silico modeling provided an almost

  20. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of acyclovir cocrystals with improved dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giovanna; Maietta, Mariarosa; Maggi, Lauretta; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Ferrara, Chiara; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Marini, Amedeo

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir is a well-known antiviral agent. It can be administered in very high doses (from 200 to 1000 mg even three-four times daily). It has absorption problems mainly due to its poor solubility in water (about 0.2 g/100 mL at 25°C) and its oral bioavailability is approximately 15%-20% with a half-life of about 3 h. To improve acyclovir solubility and/or its dissolution properties, two cocrystals of this drug were successfully produced with glutaric acid (AGA1:1) and fumaric acid (AFA1:1) as conformers, using a cogrinding method. Their effective formation was investigated by a broad range of techniques: thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The water solubility of the AGA1:1 cocrystal was not improved in comparison to acyclovir, while AFA1:1 showed a slight increased solubility at equilibrium. The main difference was detected in terms of intrinsic dissolution rates (IDR). The IDR of the new phases were much faster compared with acyclovir, particularly at neutral pH. AFA1:1 showed the most rapid dissolution behavior in water; within 10 min, the drug was released completely, while just 60% of acyclovir was dissolved in 1 h. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Tingming, E-mail: futingming@gmail.com [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Guo Liwei; Le Kang; Wang Tianyao; Lu Jin [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20}) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  2. 20(S-Protopanaxadiol Phospholipid Complex: Process Optimization, Characterization, In Vitro Dissolution and Molecular Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiong Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 20(S-Protopanaxadiol (PPD, a bioactive compound extracted from ginseng, possesses cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiestrogenic, anticancer and anxiolytic effects. However, the clinical application of PPD is limited by its weak aqueous solubility. In this study, we optimized an efficient method of preparing its phospholipid complex (PPD-PLC using a central composite design and response surface analysis. The prepared PPD-PLC was characterized by differential scanning calorimetric, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses associated with molecular docking calculation. The equilibrium solubility of PPD-PLC in water and n-octanol increased 6.53- and 1.53-times, respectively. Afterwards, using PPD-PLC as the intermediate, the PPD-PLC-loaded dry suspension (PPD-PLC-SU was prepared with our previous method. In vitro evaluations were conducted on PPD-PLC and PPD-PLC-SU, including dissolution behaviors and stability properties under different conditions. Results of in vitro dissolution behavior revealed the improved dissolution extents and rates of PPD-PLC and PPD-PLC-SU (p < 0.05. Results of the formulation stability investigation also exposed the better stability of PPD-PLC-SU compared with free PPD. Therefore, phospholipid complex technology is a useful formulation strategy for BCS II drugs, as it could effectively improve their hydrophilicity and lipophilicity.

  3. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tingming; Guo Liwei; Le Kang; Wang Tianyao; Lu Jin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO 20 PO 70 EO 20 ) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N 2 adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  4. Physicochemical Properties and In Vitro Dissolution of Spiramycin Microparticles Using the Homogenate-Antisolvent Precipitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its low bioavailability and slow dissolution rate, the micronized spiramycin powder was thus prepared by the homogenate-antisolvent precipitation (HAP process. The optimum micronization conditions of the HAP process were found to be as follows: precipitation temperature of 4.6 °C, precipitation time of 10 min, spiramycin concentration of 20 mg/mL, dripping speed of the added solvent into the antisolvent of 44 mL/h, antisolvent (water to solvent (dimethyl sulfide (DMSO volume ratio of 7:1, and shear rate of 5000 rpm. With this HAP process, the mean particle size was 228.36 ± 3.99 nm. The micronized spiramycin was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatograph analyses. In comparison with the raw drug, the chemical structure of micronized spiramycin was not changed. The dissolution rate experiments showed that the dissolution rate of the spiramycin was significantly increased after micronization.

  5. In-vitro dissolution rate and molecular docking studies of cabergoline drug with β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga priya, Arumugam; Balakrishnan, Suganya bharathi; Veerakanellore, Giri Babu; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2018-05-01

    The physicochemical properties and dissolution profile of cabergoline drug (CAB) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complex were investigated by the UV spectroscopy. The inclusion complex has used to calculate the stability constant and gives the stoichiometry molar ratio is 1:1 between CAB and β-CD. The phase solubility diagram and the aqueous solubility of CAB (60%) was found to be enhanced by β-CD. In addition, the phase solubility profile of CAB with β-CD was classified as AL-type. Binary systems of CAB with β-CD were prepared by Physical mixture, Kneading and solvent evaporation methods. The solid-state properties of the inclusion complex were characterized by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry, Powder X-ray diffractometric patterns and Scanning electron microscopic techniques. Theoretically, β-CD and CAB inclusion complex obtained by molecular docking studies, it is in good correlation with the results obtained through experimental methods using the Schrödinger software program. In-vitro dissolution profiles of the inclusion complexes were carried out and obvious increase in dissolution rate was observed when compared with pure CAB drug and the complexes.

  6. The effect of superdisintegrants on the properties and dissolution profiles of liquisolid tablets containing rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr

    2017-03-01

    The preparation of liquisolid systems (LSS) represents a promising method for enhancing a dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The release of the drug from LSS tablets is affected by many factors, including the disintegration time. The evaluation of differences among LSS containing varying amounts and types of commercially used superdisintegrants (Kollidon® CL-F, Vivasol® and Explotab®). LSS were prepared by spraying rosuvastatin solution onto Neusilin® US2 and further processing into tablets. Varying amounts of superdisintegrants were used and the differences among LSS were evaluated. The multiple scatter plot method was used to visualize the relationships within the obtained data. All disintegrants do not showed negative effect on the flow properties of powder blends. The type and concentration of superdisintegrant had an impact on the disintegration time and dissolution profiles of tablets. Tablets with Explotab® showed the longest disintegration time and the smallest amount of released drug. Fastest disintegration and dissolution rate were observed in tablets containing Kollidon® CL-F (≥2.5% w/w). Also tablets with Vivasol® (2.5-4.0% w/w) showed fast disintegration and complete drug release. Kollidon® CL-F and Vivasol® in concentration ≥2.5% are suitable superdisintegrants for LSS with enhanced release of drug.

  7. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution enhancement of loratadine by solid dispersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Suresh; Jadav, Subash; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Jukanti, Raju; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the dissolution rate of loratadine using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) solid dispersions (SDs). The solubility behavior of loratadine in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000 and polyethylene glycol 6000 in water showed linear increase with increasing concentrations of PEG, indicating A L type solubility diagrams. SDs of loratadine with PEG 6000 were prepared at 1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 5, 1 : 7 and 1 : 9 ratios by the solvent evaporation method. Solid dispersions were characterized for drug content, dissolution behavior and for physicochemical characteristics. The dissolution rate of loratadine was enhanced rapidly with increasing concentrations of PEG 6000 in SDs. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies showed the stability of loratadine and the absence of a well-defined loratadine - PEG 6000 interaction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) studies revealed the amorphous state of loratadine in SDs of loratadine with PEG 6000 which was further confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The flow properties of the blend, physical characteristics and disintegration time of the tablets formulated indicated that PEG 6000 SD can be used to formulate fast release loratadine tablets

  8. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution enhancement of loratadine by solid dispersion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandari, Suresh; Jadav, Subash; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Jukanti, Raju; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy [St. Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal (India)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the dissolution rate of loratadine using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) solid dispersions (SDs). The solubility behavior of loratadine in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000 and polyethylene glycol 6000 in water showed linear increase with increasing concentrations of PEG, indicating A{sub L} type solubility diagrams. SDs of loratadine with PEG 6000 were prepared at 1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 5, 1 : 7 and 1 : 9 ratios by the solvent evaporation method. Solid dispersions were characterized for drug content, dissolution behavior and for physicochemical characteristics. The dissolution rate of loratadine was enhanced rapidly with increasing concentrations of PEG 6000 in SDs. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies showed the stability of loratadine and the absence of a well-defined loratadine - PEG 6000 interaction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) studies revealed the amorphous state of loratadine in SDs of loratadine with PEG 6000 which was further confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The flow properties of the blend, physical characteristics and disintegration time of the tablets formulated indicated that PEG 6000 SD can be used to formulate fast release loratadine tablets.

  9. A novel hot-melt extrusion formulation of albendazole for increasing dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; McBurney, Roy T; Halbert, Gavin W

    2016-02-29

    The main aim of the research focused on the production of hot-melt extrusion (HME) formulations with increased dissolution properties of albendazole (ABZ). Therefore, HME was applied as a continuous manufacturing technique to produce amorphous solid dispersions of the poorly water soluble drug ABZ combined with the polymer matrix polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP K12. HME formulations of ABZ-PVP K12 comprised a drug content of 1%, 5% and 10% w/w. The main analytical characterisation techniques used were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution profile studies. The application of SEM, XRPD and DSC evidenced drug physical transformation from crystalline to amorphous state and therefore, the achievement of an amorphous solid dispersion. The introduction of a novel technique, μ-CT, to characterise the internal structure of these materials revealed key information regarding materials distribution and void content. Dissolution profile studies evidenced a high increase in drug release profile compared to pure ABZ. These promising results can lead to a great enhancement of the oral bioavailability of ABZ dosage forms. Therefore, HME is a potential continuous manufacturing technique to overcome ABZ poor solubility properties and lead to a significant increase in the therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the role of re-adsorption of dissolved Hg{sup 2+} during cinnabar dissolution using isotope tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Li, Yanbin [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Guangliang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Yang, Guidi [College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Yin, Yongguang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gu, Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Cai, Yong, E-mail: cai@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Develop a new method to study Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar. • Both isotope dilution and tracer techniques were adopted. • The presence of O{sub 2} can significantly enhance the dissolution of cinnabar. • Prove the necessity of including re-adsorption in estimating cinnabar dissolution. - Abstract: Cinnabar dissolution is an important factor controlling mercury (Hg) cycling. Recent studies have suggested the co-occurrence of re-adsorption of the released Hg during the course of cinnabar dissolution. However, there is a lack of feasible techniques that can quantitatively assess the amount of Hg re-adsorbed on cinnabar when investigating cinnabar dissolution. In this study, a new method, based on isotope tracing and dilution techniques, was developed to study the role of Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar dissolution. The developed method includes two key components: (1) accurate measurement of both released and spiked Hg in aqueous phase and (2) estimation of re-adsorbed Hg on cinnabar surface via the reduction in spiked {sup 202}Hg{sup 2+}. By adopting the developed method, it was found that the released Hg for trials purged with oxygen could reach several hundred μg L{sup −1}, while no significant cinnabar dissolution was detected under anaerobic condition. Cinnabar dissolution rate when considering Hg re-adsorption was approximately 2 times the value calculated solely with the Hg detected in the aqueous phase. These results suggest that ignoring the Hg re-adsorption process can significantly underestimate the importance of cinnabar dissolution, highlighting the necessity of applying the developed method in future cinnabar dissolution studies.

  11. The effect of fuel chemistry on UO{sub 2} dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.casella@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-25, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hanson, Brady, E-mail: brady.hanson@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-27, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Miller, William [University of Missouri Research Reactor, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The dissolution rate of both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and used nuclear fuel has been studied by numerous countries as part of the performance assessment of proposed geologic repositories. In the scenario of waste package failure and groundwater contact with the fuel, the effects of variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water and fuel chemistry on the dissolution rates of the fuel are necessary to provide a quantitative estimate of the potential release over geologic time frames. The primary objective of this research was to determine the influence these parameters, with primary focus on the fuel chemistry, have on the dissolution rate of unirradiated UO{sub 2} under oxidizing repository conditions and compare them to the rates predicted by current dissolution models. Both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} doped with varying concentrations of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to simulate used fuel composition after long time periods when radiolysis has minor contributions to dissolution, were examined. In general, a rise in temperature increased the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} and had a larger effect on pure UO{sub 2} than on those doped with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Oxygen dependence was observed in the UO{sub 2} samples with no dopant and increased as the temperature rose; in the doped fuels less dependence was observed. The addition of gadolinia into the UO{sub 2} matrix resulted in a significant decrease in the dissolution rate. The matrix stabilization effect resulting from the dopant proved even more beneficial in lowering the dissolution rate at higher temperatures and dissolved O{sub 2} concentrations in the leachate where the rates would typically be elevated. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2} dissolution rates were measured for a matrix of repository relevant conditions. • Dopants in the UO{sub 2} matrix lowered the dissolution rate. • Reduction in rates by dopants were increased at elevated temperature and O{sub 2} levels. • UO{sub 2} may be overly

  12. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  13. Study of dissolution process and its modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mathematical concepts and language aiming to describe and represent the interactions and dynamics of a system is known as a mathematical model. Mathematical modelling finds a huge number of successful applications in a vast amount of science, social and engineering fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, computer sciences, artificial intelligence, bioengineering, finance, economy and others. In this research, we aim to propose a mathematical model that predicts the dissolution of a solid material immersed in a fluid. The developed model can be used to evaluate the rate of mass transfer and the mass transfer coefficient. Further research is expected to be carried out to use the model as a base to develop useful models for the pharmaceutical industry to gain information about the dissolution of medicaments in the body stream and this could play a key role in formulation of medicaments.

  14. HYDRATION PROCESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT PASTE WITH RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER AND SILICA SAND POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete powder (RCP mostly consisting of cement paste could be reused as partial cement replacement. The aim of this paper is to compare hydration and mechanical properties of RCP and two types of silica sand powder (SSP. Comparison of those materials combined with cement can highlight the binder properties of recycled concrete powder. Using of two types of SSP also show an influence of their fines on hydration process and mechanical properties. Particle size analysis and calorimetric measurement were carried out and mechanical properties such as bulk density, dynamic Young’s modulus and compression strength were examine. Calorimetric measurement proves the presence of exposed non-hydrated particles in RCP that can react again. However lower density of old cement paste in RCP overweight the mentioned potential of RCP and mechanical properties are decreasing compared with reference cement paste and cement paste SSP.

  15. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  16. Saltcake Dissolution FY 2000 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory tests were completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford saltcake waste from single-shell waste tanks 241-TX- 113, 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 (henceforth referred to as TX-113, BY-102, BY-106, A-101, and S-102, respectively). This work was funded by the Tanks Focus Area (EM-50) under Technical Task Plan Number RL0-8-WT-41, ''PHMC Pretreatment--Saltcake Dissolution''. The tests performed on saltcake from tank TX-113 were similar in scope to those completed in previous years on waste from tanks BY-102, BY-106, B-106, A-101, and S-102 (Herting 1998, 1999). In addition to the ''standard'' dissolution tests, new types of tests were performed this year related to feed stability and radionuclide distribution. The River Protection Project (RPP) is tasked with retrieving waste from double-shell and single-shell tanks to provide feed for vitrification. The RPP organization needs chemical and physical data to evaluate technologies for retrieving the waste. Little significant laboratory testing has been done to evaluate in-tank dissolution parameters for the various types of saltcake wastes that exist in single-shell tanks. A computer modeling program known as the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), produced by OLI Systems, Inc of Morris Plains, New Jersey, is being used by the RPP organization to predict solubilities during dilution and retrieval of all tank waste types. Data from this task are provided to ESP users to support evaluation, refinement, and validation of the ESP model

  17. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  18. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubley, Nicholas T.; Brockman, John D.; Robertson, J. David; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO

    2017-01-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH_4HF_2 or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  19. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Nicholas T. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brockman, John D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Robertson, J. David [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  20. Relationships with former stepgrandparents after remarriage dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Caroline; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2018-03-01

    Increases in stepfamily formation and longevity suggest that more children have stepgrandparent relationships than ever before. Because remarriages end in divorce more often than first marriages, many children experience the involuntary dissolution of stepgrandparent ties. Little is known about stepgrandparent relationships in general, and even less is known about how these relationships are affected by remarriage dissolution. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, the purpose of this study was to understand how stepgrandchildren make sense of their relationships with former stepgrandparents. We explored their perceptions of why relationships were or were not maintained and the impact of continued or dissolved ties on their personal well-being. Former stepgrandchildren (N = 29) aged 18 to 37 were interviewed about their former stepgrandparents. The quality and continuity of these relationships were contingent on stepgrandchildren's relationships with former stepparents, biological parents' relationships with former stepgrandparents, and efforts by former stepgrandparents to remain involved. Losing ties with former stepgrandparents was upsetting, especially when relationships with biological grandparents were not close. Individuals who maintained relationships with former stepgrandparents benefitted from continued access to valuable resources (e.g., positive role models, additional sources of love and support). Our findings have important implications for clinicians' and researchers' understanding of the effects of remarriage dissolution on children as well as the intergenerational efforts that may be critical for preserving meaningful stepfamily ties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  2. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  3. Some aspects of UO{sub 2} powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, P; Asnani, C K; Prabhakar Rao, L; Kartha, R M; Pillai, P K.M. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India)

    1994-06-01

    UO{sub 2} powder is being produced in a chemical plant from enriched UF{sub 6} and supplied to the pelletizing plant. Small quantities of scrap UO{sub 2} received back from the pelletizing plant are also recycled in the chemical plant to produce UO{sub 2} powder. The powder should be of a consistently high quality so as to finally yield high density sintered pellets with minimum rejection. The final yield of acceptable finished pellets depends on the quality of the powder in the chemical plant as well as the quality of pressing in the pelletizing plant. In this paper, some examples of measures adopted for achieving good quality powder production are presented. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Toward an in vivo dissolution methodology: a comparison of phosphate and bicarbonate buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jennifer J; McNamara, Daniel P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the difference between the pharmaceutical phosphate buffers and the gastrointestinal bicarbonates in dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin, to illustrate the dependence of buffer differential on biopharmaceutical properties of BCS II weak acids, and to recommend phosphate buffers equivalent to bicarbonates. The intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin were experimentally measured using a rotating disk method at 37 degrees C in USP SIF/FaSSIF and various concentrations of bicarbonates. Theoretical models including an improved reaction plane model and a film model were applied to estimate the surrogate phosphate buffers equivalent to the bicarbonates. Experimental results show that the intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin in USP and FaSSIF phosphate buffers are 1.5-3.0 times that in the 15 mM bicarbonates. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the buffer differential is largely dependent on the drug pK(a) and second on solubility, and weakly dependent on the drug diffusivity. Further, in accordance with the drug pK(a), solubility and diffusivity, a simple phosphate surrogate was proposed to match an average bicarbonate value (15 mM) of the upper gastrointestinal region. Specifically, phosphate buffers of 13-15 mM and 3-4 mM were recommended for ketoprofen and indomethacin, respectively. For both ketoprofen and indomethacin, the intrinsic dissolution using the phosphate surrogate buffers closely approximated the 15 mM bicarbonate buffer. This work demonstrates the substantial difference between pharmaceutical phosphates and physiological bicarbonates in determining the drug intrinsic dissolution rates of BCS II weak acids, such as ketoprofen and indomethacin. Surrogate phosphates were recommended in order to closely reflect the in vivo dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin in gastrointestinal bicarbonates, which has significant implications for defining buffer systems for

  5. Food powders flowability characterization: theory, methods, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of food powders flowability is required for predicting powder flow from hoppers in small-scale systems such as vending machines or at the industrial scale from storage silos or bins dispensing into powder mixing systems or packaging machines. This review covers conventional and new methods used to measure flowability in food powders. The method developed by Jenike (1964) for determining hopper outlet diameter and hopper angle has become a standard for the design of bins and is regarded as a standard method to characterize flowability. Moreover, there are a number of shear cells that can be used to determine failure properties defined by Jenike's theory. Other classic methods (compression, angle of repose) and nonconventional methods (Hall flowmeter, Johanson Indicizer, Hosokawa powder tester, tensile strength tester, powder rheometer), used mainly for the characterization of food powder cohesiveness, are described. The effect of some factors preventing flow, such as water content, temperature, time consolidation, particle composition and size distribution, is summarized for the characterization of specific food powders with conventional and other methods. Whereas time-consuming standard methods established for hopper design provide flow properties, there is yet little comparative evidence demonstrating that other rapid methods may provide similar flow prediction.

  6. Tadalafil inclusion in microporous silica as effective dissolution enhancer: optimization of loading procedure and molecular state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Motawaa, Adel M; Samaha, Magda W

    2011-05-01

    Tadalafil is an efficient drug used to treat erectile dysfunction characterized by poor water solubility, which has a negative influence on its bioavailability. Utilization of microporous silica represents an effective and facile technology to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Our strategy involved directly introducing tadalafil as guest molecule into microporous silica as host material by incipient wetness impregnation method. To optimize tadalafil inclusion, response surface methodology (RSM) using 3(3) factorial design was utilized. Furthermore, to investigate the molecular state of tadalafil, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermal gravimetrical analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were carried out. The results obtained pointed out that the quantity of microporous silica was the predominant factor that increased the loading efficiency. For the optimized formula, the loading efficiency was 42.50 wt %. Adsorption-desorption experiments indicated that tadalafil has been introduced into the micropores. Powder XRD and differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that tadalafil is arranged in amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution rate of tadalafil from the microporous silica was faster than that of free drug. Amorphous tadalafil occluded in microporous silica did not crystallize over 3 months. These findings contributed in opening a new strategy concerning the utilization of porous silica for the dissolution rate enhancement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  8. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  9. A method for phenomenological and chemical kinetics study of autocatalytic reactive dissolution by optical microscopy. The case of uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes, as the stabilization rates of the chemical elements determine the process performance and hold-up. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physico-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric acid media in the Purex process, which separates the reusable materials and the final wastes of the spent nuclear fuels. It has been documented that the attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites, which leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks leads to the solid cleavage. It is shown here that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the process of the complete cleavage of the solid, and occurs with no disturbing phenomena, like gas bubbling. This fact has motivated the measurement of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. By further discriminating between external resistance and chemical reaction, the “true” chemical kinetics of the reaction have been measured, and the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction confirmed. Based on these results, the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws have also been evaluated.

  10. A method for phenomenological and chemical kinetics study of autocatalytic reactive dissolution by optical microscopy. The case of uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Philippe; Magnaldo, Alastair; Godard, Jérémy; Schaer, Éric

    2018-03-01

    Dissolution is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes, as the stabilization rates of the chemical elements determine the process performance and hold-up. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physico-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric acid media in the Purex process, which separates the reusable materials and the final wastes of the spent nuclear fuels. It has been documented that the attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites, which leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks leads to the solid cleavage. It is shown here that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the process of the complete cleavage of the solid, and occurs with no disturbing phenomena, like gas bubbling. This fact has motivated the measurement of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. By further discriminating between external resistance and chemical reaction, the "true" chemical kinetics of the reaction have been measured, and the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction confirmed. Based on these results, the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws have also been evaluated.

  11. Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with uranium zirconium oxide solid solution - Zirconium hinders oxidative uranium dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuta; Takano, Masahide; Watanabe, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    We studied oxidative dissolution of uranium and zirconium oxide [(U,Zr)O2] in aqueous H2O2 solution to estimate (U,Zr)O2 stability to interfacial reactions with H2O2. Studies on the interfacial reactions are essential for anticipating how a (U,Zr)O2-based molten fuel may chemically degrade after a severe accident. The fuel's high radioactivity induces water radiolysis and continuous H2O2 generation. Subsequent reaction of the fuel with H2O2 may oxidize the fuel surface and facilitate U dissolution. We conducted our experiments with (U,Zr)O2 powder (comprising Zr:U mole ratios of 25:75, 40:60, and 50:50) and quantitated the H2O2 reaction via dissolved U and H2O2 concentrations. Although (U,Zr)O2 reacted more quickly than UO2, the dissolution yield relative to H2O2 consumption was far less for (U,Zr)O2 compared to that of UO2. The reaction kinetics indicates that most of the H2O2 catalytically decomposed to O2 at the surface of (U,Zr)O2. We confirmed the H2O2 catalytic decomposition via O2 production (quantitative stoichiometric agreement). In addition, post-reaction Raman scattering spectra of the undissolved (U,Zr)O2 showed no additional peaks (indicating a lack of secondary phase formation). The (U,Zr)O2 matrix is much more stable than UO2 against H2O2-induced oxidative dissolution. Our findings will improve understanding on the molten fuels and provide an insight into decommissioning activities after a severe accident.

  12. Carbonate dissolution rates in high salinity brines: Implications for post-Noachian chemical weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Parnell, S. R.; McGraw, L. E.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2018-06-01

    A diverse suite of carbonate minerals including calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) have been observed on the martian surface and in meteorites. Terrestrial carbonates usually form via aqueous processes and often record information about the environment in which they formed, including chemical and textural biosignatures. In addition, terrestrial carbonates are often found in association with evaporite deposits on Earth. Similar high salinity environments and processes were likely active on Mars and some areas may contain active high salinity brines today. In this study, we directly compare calcite and magnesite dissolution in ultrapure water, dilute sulfate and chloride solutions, as well as near-saturated sulfate and chloride brines with known activity of water (aH2O) to determine how dissolution rates vary with mineralogy and aH2O, as well as aqueous cation and anion chemistry to better understand how high salinity fluids may have altered carbonate deposits on Mars. We measured both calcite and magnesite initial dissolution rates at 298 K and near neutral pH (6-8) in unbuffered solutions containing ultrapure water (18 MΩ cm-1 UPW; aH2O = 1), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1; aH2O = 1) and near-saturated Na2SO4 (2.5 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1) and near-saturated NaCl (5.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.75). Calcite dissolution rates were also measured in dilute and near-saturated MgSO4 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 2.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92, respectively) and MgCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 3 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.73, respectively), while magnesite dissolution rates were measured in dilute and near-saturated CaCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 9 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.35). Initial calcite dissolution rates were fastest in near-saturated MgCl2 brine, while magnesite dissolution rates were fastest in dilute (0.1 mol kg-1) NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. Calcite dissolution rates in near-saturated Na2SO4 were similar to those observed in the dilute solutions (-8.00 ± 0

  13. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N., E-mail: jesper.knijnenburg@alumni.ethz.ch; Hilty, Florentine M. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland); Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [ETH Zurich, Particle Technology Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Zimmermann, Michael B. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO{sub 3} made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO{sub 3} and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO{sub 3}, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO{sub 3}) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO{sub 3} nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  14. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO3) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO3, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca2P2O7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO3) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H3PO4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  15. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO 3 ) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO 3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO 3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO 3 , with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO 3 ) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H 3 PO 4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO 3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of azithromycin binary solid dispersions using various polyethylene glycols for the improvement of the drug solubility and dissolution rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adeli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Azithromycin is a water-insoluble drug, with a very low bioavailability. In order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate, and consequently increase the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs (such as azithromycin, various techniques can be applied. One of such techniques is "solid dispersion". This technique is frequently used to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble compounds. Owing to its low solubility and dissolution rate, azithromycin does not have a suitable bioavailability. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of azithromycin by preparing its solid dispersion, using different Polyethylene glycols (PEG. Preparations of solid dispersions and physical mixtures of azithromycin were made using PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and 20000 in various ratios, based on the solvent evaporation method. From the studied drug release profile, it was discovered that the dissolution rate of the physical mixture, as the well as the solid dispersions, were higher than those of the drug alone. There was no chemical incompatibility between the drug and polymer from the observed Infrared (IR spectra. Drug-polymer interactions were also investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD and Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM. In conclusion, the dissolution rate and solubility of azithromycin were found to improve significantly, using hydrophilic carriers, especially PEG 6000.

  17. Investigating the effect of moisture protection on solid-state stability and dissolution of fenofibrate and ketoconazole solid dispersions using PXRD, HSDSC and Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Parijat; Lau, Grace; Ng, Wai Kiong; Widjaja, Effendi; Schreyer, Martin; Hanefeld, Andrea; Fischbach, Matthias; Saal, Christoph; Maio, Mario; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-09-01

    Enhanced dissolution of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in amorphous solid dispersions often diminishes during storage due to moisture-induced re-crystallization. This study aims to investigate the influence of moisture protection on solid-state stability and dissolution profiles of melt-extruded fenofibrate (FF) and ketoconazole (KC) solid dispersions. Samples were kept in open, closed and Activ-vials(®) to control the moisture uptake under accelerated conditions. During 13-week storage, changes in API crystallinity were quantified using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) (Rietveld analysis) and high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (HSDSC) and compared with any change in dissolution profiles. Trace crystallinity was observed by Raman microscopy, which otherwise was undetected by PXRD and HSDSC. Results showed that while moisture protection was ineffective in preventing the re-crystallization of amorphous FF, KC remained X-ray amorphous despite 5% moisture uptake. Regardless of the degree of crystallinity increase in FF, the enhanced dissolution properties were similarly diminished. Moisture uptake above 10% in KC samples also led to re-crystallization and significant decrease in dissolution rates. In conclusion, eliminating moisture sorption may not be sufficient in ensuring the stability of solid dispersions. Analytical quantification of API crystallinity is crucial in detecting subtle increase in crystallinity that can diminish the enhanced dissolution properties of solid dispersions.

  18. Antisolvent precipitation technique: A very promising approach to crystallize curcumin in presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidon for solubility and dissolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ashofteh, Mohammad; Homayouni, Alireza; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Nokhodchi, Ali; Garekani, Hadi Afrasiabi

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin with a vast number of pharmacological activities is a poorly water soluble drug which its oral bioavailability is profoundly limited by its dissolution or solubility in GI tract. Curcumin could be a good anticancer drug if its solubility could be increased. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to increase the dissolution rate of curcumin by employing antisolvent crystallization technique and to investigate the effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) as colloidal particles in crystallization medium on resultant particles. Curcumin was crystalized in the presence of different amounts of PVP by antisolvent crystallization method and their physical mixtures were prepared for comparison purposes. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The solubility and dissolution of the treated and untreated curcumin were also determined. Antisolvent crystallization of curcumin led to the formation of particles with no definite geometric shape. It was interesting to note that the DSC and XRPD studies indicated the formation of a new polymorph and less crystallinity for particles crystallized in the absence of PVP. However, the crystallized curcumin in the presence of PVP was completely amorphous. All crystalized curcumin samples showed much higher dissolution rate compared to untreated curcumin. The amount of curcumin dissolved within 10 for treated curcumin in the presence of PVP (1:1 curcumin:PVP) was 7 times higher than untreated curcumin and this enhancement in the dissolution for curcumin samples crystallized in the absence of PVP was around 5 times. Overall' the results of this study showed that antisolvent crystallization method in the absence or presence of small amounts of PVP is very efficient in increasing the dissolution rate of curcumin to achieve better efficiency for curcumin. Copyright © 2016

  19. Modelling of the UO2 dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater solutions. Dissolution experiments carried out under oxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J.; Ollila, K.

    2001-02-01

    The analytical data generated during the last three years within the 4th framework program of the European Community at VTT Chemical Technology concerning UO 2 dissolution under oxidising conditions have been modelled in the present work. The modelling work has been addressed to perform a kinetic study of the dissolution data generated by Ollila (1999) under oxidising conditions by using unirradiated uranium dioxide as solid sample. The average of the normalised UO 2 dissolution rates determined by using the initial dissolution data generated in all the experimental tests is (6.06 ± 3.64)* 10 -7 mol m -2 d -1 . This dissolution rate agrees with most of the dissolution rates reported in the literature under similar experimental conditions. The results obtained in this modelling exercise show that the same bicarbonate promoted oxidative dissolution processes operate for uranium dioxide, as a chemical analogue of the spent fuel matrix, independently of the composition of the aqueous solution used. (orig.)

  20. Dissolution of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} doped with {sup 233}U under reducing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, K. [VTT Processes (Finland); Oversby, V.M. [VMO Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine an upper limit to the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} under reducing conditions appropriate to those in a geologic repository for spent fuel disposal in Finland and Sweden. Test duration ranged from 52 to 140 days. The total amount of U recovered in each test was converted into a dissolution rate per year for the sample. The dissolution rate was then used to calculate an expected lifetime for the samples under the test conditions. The dissolution rate did not depend on the length of the testing period. Rather, the dissolution rate appeared to decrease as the samples were exposed to sequential testing periods. This indicates that the results are still influenced by transient effects such as high-energy surface sites, which implies that the dissolution rates measured are upper limits. The sample lifetimes calculated from the last two testing periods, which had a total of 269 days, ranged from 7 to 10 million years. There was no indication of an effect of alpha radiolysis on the dissolution rate results for samples with doping levels of 0, 5, and 10% {sup 233}U.

  1. Fabrication of Spherical AlSi10Mg Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Spherical AlSi10Mg powders were prepared by radio frequency plasma spheroidization from commercial AlSi10Mg powders. The fabrication process parameters and powder characteristics were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, laser particle size analyzer, powder rheometer, and UV/visible/infrared spectrophotometer were used for analyses and measurements of micrographs, phases, granulometric parameters, flowability, and laser absorption properties of the powders, respectively. The results show that the obtained spherical powders exhibit good sphericity, smooth surfaces, favorable dispersity, and excellent fluidity under appropriate feeding rate and flow rate of carrier gas. Further, acicular microstructures of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders are composed of α-Al, Si, and a small amount of Mg2Si phase. In addition, laser absorption values of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders increase obviously compared with raw material, and different spectra have obvious absorption peaks at a wavelength of about 826 nm.

  2. Preparation and pattern recognition of metallic Ni ultrafine powders by electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.J.; Zhang, H.T.; Wu, X.W.; Wang, Z.L.; Jia, Q.L.; Jia, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    Using hydrazine hydrate as reductant, metallic Ni ultrafine powders were prepared from NiSO 4 aqueous solution by electroless plating method. The factors including concentration of NiSO 4 , bathing temperature, ratio of hydrazine hydrate to NiSO 4 , the pH of the solution, etc., on influence of the yield and average particle size of metallic Ni ultrafine powders were studied in detail. X-ray powders diffraction patterns show that the nickel powders are cubic crystallite. The average crystalline size of the ultrafine nickel powders is about 30 nm. The dielectric and magnetic loss of ultrafine Ni powders-paraffin wax composites were measured by the rectangle waveguide method in the range 8.2-12.4 GHz. The factors for Ni ultrafine powders preparation are optimized by computer pattern recognition program based on principal component analysis, the optimum factors regions with higher yield of metallic Ni ultrafine powders are indicated by this way

  3. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  4. Developing Characterization Procedures for Qualifying both Novel Selective Laser Sintering Polymer Powders and Recycled Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive technique which is showing great promise over conventional manufacturing techniques. SLS requires certain key material properties for a polymer powder to be successfully processed into an end-use part, and therefore limited selection of materials are available. Furthermore, there has been evidence of a powder’s quality deteriorating following each SLS processing cycle. The current investigation serves to build a path forward in identifying new SLS powder materials by developing characterization procedures for identifying key material properties as well as for detecting changes in a powder’s quality. Thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and bulk density measurements were investigated.

  5. An electrochemical investigation on the dissolution of bilayered porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Jinfu; Ling, Zhiyuan; Li, Yi; Hu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulse polarization was introduced to investigate the dissolution of PAA. • Electric field within the bilayers was estimated. • The formation of the barrier layer involves mainly solid-state processes. • The structure should be the determining factor in the dissolution of the bilayers. - Abstract: Anodic alumina attracts much research interest in many disciplines for its versatility. Meanwhile, some aspects regarding its growth are still not well-understood, such as the formation and properties of its bilayer structure. In this paper, along with capacitance measurement, pulse polarization is introduced to study the dissolution of bilayered porous anodic alumina (PAA). Combined with electron microscope observation, the electric field in the outer layer is estimated to be slightly higher than that in the inner layer. By comparing with (oxy-)hydroxide layers, the electric field distribution within barrier layer of PAA confirms that the bilayers are compact and are formed mainly by solid-state ionic migration. The changes of dissolution rates after annealing and application of electric pulses suggest that structure may be a determining factor for the dissolution behaviors of the bilayers.

  6. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin

    2016-10-20

    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  7. Dissolution of spherical cap CO2 bubbles attached to flat surfaces in air-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Pablo; Parrales, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Bubbles attached to flat surfaces immersed in quiescent liquid environments often display a spherical cap (SC) shape. Their dissolution is a phenomenon commonly observed experimentally. Modelling these bubbles as fully spherical may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the bubble dissolution rate. We develop a theoretical model for the diffusion-driven dissolution or growth of such multi-component SC gas bubbles under constant pressure and temperature conditions. Provided the contact angle of the bubble with the surface is large, the concentration gradients in the liquid may be approximated as spherically symmetric. The area available for mass transfer depends on the instantaneous bubble contact angle, whose dynamics is computed from the adhesion hysteresis model [Hong et al., Langmuir, vol. 27, 6890-6896 (2011)]. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the dissolution of SC CO2 bubbles immersed in air-saturated water support the validity of our model. We verify that contact line pinning slows down the dissolution rate, and the fact that any bubble immersed in a saturated gas-liquid solution eventually attains a final equilibrium size. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grant DPI2011-28356-C03-0.

  8. Formation mechanisms of the powder porosity generated in the neighborhood of the shear plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, K.; Kuramitsu, K.; Hoshikawa, H.; Mori, H.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the sophisticated technology on the process of powder feeding, packing, mixing, and compacting, by which homogeneous powder products can be manufactured in fine ceramics and electronics industries, is being established. And, in order to develop the technology, it is necessary to make clear the formation mechanism of powder porosity in the neighborhood of shear plane generated in the powder bed. However, this has not yet been sufficiently elucidated. In this paper, a single-plane shear tester which can simultaneously measure three quantities of stress, strain, and the powder porosity in the neighborhood of shear plane, was devised by using an X-ray radiograph system, and these three quantities were systematically measured under various shearing conditions. Next, a formation model of the powder porosity in the neighborhood of shear plane, composed of powder yield locus, critical state line, and Mohr stress semi, was experimentally checked by the three measured quantities mentioned above

  9. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; WindischJr., Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bovaird, Chase C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate relationships between structure and rates of dissolution of silicate glasses in aqueous media, sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O xB2O3 (3 x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. Results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. The Q3 fractionwas found to increase with increasing Na2O content, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, this contributed to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity, and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. Results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  11. Reexamining the Dissolution of Spent Fuel: A Comparison of Different Methods for Calculating Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Brady D.; Stout, Ray B.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution rates for spent fuel have typically been reported in terms of a rate normalized to the surface area of the specimen. Recent evidence has shown that neither the geometric surface area nor that measured with BET accurately predicts the effective surface area of spent fuel. Dissolution rates calculated from results obtained by flowthrough tests were reexamined comparing the cumulative releases and surface area normalized rates. While initial surface area is important for comparison of different rates, it appears that normalizing to the surface area introduces unnecessary uncertainty compared to using cumulative or fractional release rates. Discrepancies in past data analyses are mitigated using this alternative method

  12. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  13. Studies on the dissolution of antimony doped ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Sanjukta, A.; Pandey, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Ramanathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) present in the PHT (primary heat transport) pump seals and bearings of PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is released during operation of the reactor and gets deposited on the in-core zircaloy surfaces. Neutron flux in the reactor core activates this Sb to 122 Sb (t 1/2 2.6 days) and 124 Sb (t 1/2 60 days). Release of this Sb (radioactive antimony) and its deposition on out of core surfaces occurs due to oxygen ingress in the system during shutdown periods and off normal conditions. Sb deposition on the magnetite bearing carbon steel surface of the PHT system results in increase of radiation fields. The consequence of this is low apparent decontamination factors observed after system decontamination. Once Sb is deposited on bare carbon steel (CS) surface or magnetite bearing carbon steel surface it is not amenable for removal by normal reductive decontamination process. It has to decay by its own half-life or has to be removed by oxidative dissolution. To understand the role of antimony and its removal on the ion exchange column, antimony doped ferrites were prepared and their dissolution in CNA (citric acid, NTA, Ascorbic acid; 1.4+1.4+1.7 mM) formulation was studied. The time taken for the dissolution of antimony-doped ferrites was found to increase with increasing Sb content in the ferrite. The point of zero charge (pzc) value of Sb substituted magnetite was determined to understand its adsorption on carbon steel surfaces of the PHT system. The pzc values for Fe 3 O 4 and Sb 2 O 3 , with H + / OH - as only potential determining ions in the aqueous medium, were 6.5 and 1.7 respectively. While, pzc of magnetite in typical decontamination formulations was below 3. The pzc for aqueous suspension of antimony-substituted magnetite (sintered at 1173 K) was 4.4. On the other hand, in CEA (citric acid, EDTA, Ascorbic acid) formulation up to a pH of 1.5, surface charge on the antimony-substituted magnetite was negative. Hence, even at this low pH, pzc

  14. Dissolution rate enhancement of piroxicam by ordered mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Vikas Anand; Choudhury, Pratim Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Micronized piroxicam was mixed with lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol and sodium chloride to produce ordered mixture in a glass vial by manual hand shaking method. The effect of excipients, surfactant, superdisintegrant, drug concentration and carrier particle size on dissolution rate was investigated. Dissolution rate studies of the prepared ordered mixtures revealed that all water soluble excipients increased the dissolution rate of piroxicam when compared to the dissolution rate of piroxicam or its suspension. Ordered mixture formulation PLF4, consisting of lactose as water soluble excipient, SSG (8% w/s) and SLS (1% w/w), released piroxcam at a very fast rate so much so that about 90% of the composition had passed into solution within 2 min. The order of the dissolution rate enhancement for ordered mixtures of various water soluble excipients was: lactose > mannitol > maltitol > sorbitol > sodium chloride. Carrier granules of size 355-710 µm were most effective in increasing the dissolution rate of drug from ordered mixtures. Decreasing the carrier particle size reduced drug dissolution from ordered mixtures. The dissolution rate of ordered mixtures consisting of 1-5% w/w piroxicam was superior to dissolution rate of piroxicam suspension. The dissolution data fitting and the resulting regression parameters indicated Hixson Crowell, cube root law, as the best fit to drug release data of ordered mixtures.

  15. INAA of RM IAEA-155 whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lixin; Tian Weizhi

    1993-01-01

    An IAEA biological RM IAEA-155 whey powder was analysed for phosphorus, as well as other 24 elements by INAA. The Bremsstrahlung photons produced by 32 P is measured by a HpGe spectrometer. The interferences involved in P determination were comprehensively studied and this method was also applied to the determinations of P in several established biological NBS SRMs and proved to be reliable for a wide range of P contents in biological samples

  16. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  17. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  18. Kinetic study of the thorium phosphate - diphosphate dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacheux, N.; Thomas, A.C.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Aupiais, J. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, DASE, Service Radioanalyses Chimie Environnement, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    The thorium phosphate-diphosphate Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} (TPD) structure allows the replacement of large amounts of thorium by tetravalent actinides leading to the formation of solid solutions. This compound was obtained in powdered or sintered form after pressing at room temperature at 300-800 MPa then heating at 1250 deg. C for 10-30 hours. The resistance of this material to aqueous corrosion was determined by varying several parameters such as surface, leaching flow, acidity or temperature. It was thus possible to independently determine the influence of each parameter on the leaching rate provided that the saturation of the solution was not obtained. In acidic media, the partial order related to [H{sub 3}O{sup +}] was found to be in the 0.31-0.35 range while, in basic media, the partial order related to [OH{sup -}] was almost the same (0.45). The activation energy (42 kJ/mol) was determined between 4 deg. C and 120 deg. C. Moreover, the addition of phosphate in the leachate slightly increased the TPD dissolution rate. When the saturation of the solution is reached, a gelatinous precipitate controls the thorium and phosphate concentrations. The complete characterization of this solid led to the proposed general formula Th{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}). n H{sub 2}O which conventional solubility product (at I = 0 M) is very low: K{sup *}{sub S,0} 10{sup -66.6{+-}}{sup 1.2} even in very acidic media. (authors)

  19. Disentangling the effects of polymer coatings on silver nanoparticle agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity to determine mechanisms of nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, Justin M.; Halter, Melissa D.; Cleveland, Danielle; Long, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently coated with a variety of polymers, which may affect various interdependent mechanisms of toxicity or antimicrobial action, including agglomeration and dissolution rates. Here, we systematically measure how citrate, dextran, 5 and 20 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings affect AgNP agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity. In addition, to disentangle the coatings’ effects on agglomeration from their other effects, we produce multiple stable agglomerate sizes of several of the coated ∼23 nm AgNPs ranging from singly-dispersed to mean agglomerate sizes of several hundred nanometers. These dispersions allow us to independently study the effects of agglomeration and polymer coating on dissolution rate and hemolytic toxicity. We find that both hemolytic toxicity and dissolution rate are highest for the 5 kDa PEG coating, and toxicity and dissolution rate decrease significantly with increasing agglomerate size independent of coating. This correlation between toxicity and dissolution rate suggests that both polymer coating and agglomeration may affect hemolytic toxicity largely through their effects on dissolution. Because both the AgNP dissolution rate and hemolysis decrease only moderately compared to the large increases in agglomerate size, AgNPs’ hemolytic toxicity may be caused by their large surface area and consequently high dissolution rate, rather than from other size-specific effects. At the silver concentrations used in this work, silver dissolved from AgNPs is expected to be primarily in the form of AgCl NPs, which are therefore more likely than Ag + ions to be the primary drivers of hemolytic toxicity. In addition, all AgNPs we tested are much more toxic to horse red blood cells than sheep red blood cells, highlighting the complexity of toxic responses and the need to test toxicity in multiple biological systems.

  20. Disentangling the effects of polymer coatings on silver nanoparticle agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity to determine mechanisms of nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Justin M.; Halter, Melissa D.; Cleveland, Danielle; Long, Stephen E.

    2012-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently coated with a variety of polymers, which may affect various interdependent mechanisms of toxicity or antimicrobial action, including agglomeration and dissolution rates. Here, we systematically measure how citrate, dextran, 5 and 20 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings affect AgNP agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity. In addition, to disentangle the coatings' effects on agglomeration from their other effects, we produce multiple stable agglomerate sizes of several of the coated 23 nm AgNPs ranging from singly-dispersed to mean agglomerate sizes of several hundred nanometers. These dispersions allow us to independently study the effects of agglomeration and polymer coating on dissolution rate and hemolytic toxicity. We find that both hemolytic toxicity and dissolution rate are highest for the 5 kDa PEG coating, and toxicity and dissolution rate decrease significantly with increasing agglomerate size independent of coating. This correlation between toxicity and dissolution rate suggests that both polymer coating and agglomeration may affect hemolytic toxicity largely through their effects on dissolution. Because both the AgNP dissolution rate and hemolysis decrease only moderately compared to the large increases in agglomerate size, AgNPs' hemolytic toxicity may be caused by their large surface area and consequently high dissolution rate, rather than from other size-specific effects. At the silver concentrations used in this work, silver dissolved from AgNPs is expected to be primarily in the form of AgCl NPs, which are therefore more likely than Ag+ ions to be the primary drivers of hemolytic toxicity. In addition, all AgNPs we tested are much more toxic to horse red blood cells than sheep red blood cells, highlighting the complexity of toxic responses and the need to test toxicity in multiple biological systems.

  1. Disentangling the effects of polymer coatings on silver nanoparticle agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity to determine mechanisms of nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, Justin M., E-mail: jzook@nist.gov; Halter, Melissa D.; Cleveland, Danielle; Long, Stephen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently coated with a variety of polymers, which may affect various interdependent mechanisms of toxicity or antimicrobial action, including agglomeration and dissolution rates. Here, we systematically measure how citrate, dextran, 5 and 20 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings affect AgNP agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity. In addition, to disentangle the coatings' effects on agglomeration from their other effects, we produce multiple stable agglomerate sizes of several of the coated {approx}23 nm AgNPs ranging from singly-dispersed to mean agglomerate sizes of several hundred nanometers. These dispersions allow us to independently study the effects of agglomeration and polymer coating on dissolution rate and hemolytic toxicity. We find that both hemolytic toxicity and dissolution rate are highest for the 5 kDa PEG coating, and toxicity and dissolution rate decrease significantly with increasing agglomerate size independent of coating. This correlation between toxicity and dissolution rate suggests that both polymer coating and agglomeration may affect hemolytic toxicity largely through their effects on dissolution. Because both the AgNP dissolution rate and hemolysis decrease only moderately compared to the large increases in agglomerate size, AgNPs' hemolytic toxicity may be caused by their large surface area and consequently high dissolution rate, rather than from other size-specific effects. At the silver concentrations used in this work, silver dissolved from AgNPs is expected to be primarily in the form of AgCl NPs, which are therefore more likely than Ag{sup +} ions to be the primary drivers of hemolytic toxicity. In addition, all AgNPs we tested are much more toxic to horse red blood cells than sheep red blood cells, highlighting the complexity of toxic responses and the need to test toxicity in multiple biological systems.

  2. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  3. Uranothorite solid solutions: From synthesis to dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, Dan-Tiberiu

    2012-01-01

    USiO 4 coffinite appears as one of the potential phases formed in the back-end of the alteration of spent fuel, in reducing storage conditions. A study aiming to assess the thermodynamic data associated with coffinite through an approach based on the preparation of Th 1-x U x SiO 4 uranothorite solid solutions was then developed during this work. First, the preparation of uranothorite samples was successfully undertaken in hydrothermal conditions. However, the poly-phased samples systematically formed for x ≥ 0,2 underlined the kinetic hindering linked with the preparation of uranium-enriched samples, including coffinite end-member. Nevertheless, the characterization of the various samples led to confirm the formation of an ideal solid solution and allowed the constitution of a spectroscopic database. The purification of the samples was then performed by the means of different protocols based on physical (dispersion-centrifugation) or chemical (selective dissolution of secondary phases) methods. This latter led to a complete of the impurities (Th 1-y U y O 2 mixed oxide and amorphous silica) through successive washing steps in acid then basic media. Finally, dissolution experiments were undertaken on uranothorite samples (0 ≤ xexp. ≤ 0,5) and allowed pointing out the influence of composition, pH and temperature on the normalized dissolution rate of the compounds. Also, the associated thermodynamic data, such as activation energy, indicate that the reaction is controlled by surface reactions. Once the equilibrium is reached, the analogous solubility constants were determined for each composition studied, then allowing the extrapolation to coffinite value. It was then finally possible to conclude on the inversion of coffinitisation reaction with temperature. (author) [fr

  4. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  5. Ceramic UO2 powder production at Cameco Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the various aspects of ceramic grade UO 2 powder production at Cameco Corporation's Port Hope conversion facility. It discusses the significant safety systems, production processes and plant monitoring and control systems. It also provides an insight into how various support groups such as Quality Assurance, Analytical Services, and Technology Development contribute to the consistent production of high quality UO 2 powder. The ability of Cameco to identify, measure and control the physical and chemical properties of ceramic grade UO 2 has resulted in the production of uniform quality powder that has consistently met customer requirements. (author)

  6. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  7. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  8. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  9. Dissolution rate of alpha-doped UO2 in natural groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, Kaija; Myllykylä, Emmi; Tanhua-Tyrkkö, Merja; Lavonen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine whether the presence of trace elements in natural groundwaters affects the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide in the presence of alpha radiation that causes radiolysis of water. The study is a part of the project Reducing Uncertainty in Performance Prediction (REDUPP) under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The project aims to reduce uncertainties related to the extrapolation of the results of laboratory experiments to the conditions expected under geologic disposal. Thus far, synthetic groundwater has been normally used in the experiments. The synthetic groundwaters used do not contain all of the chemical elements that occur in natural groundwaters. Three natural groundwaters were chosen for the dissolution experiments with 0%, 5%, and 10% 233 U-doped UO 2 samples. These include a brackish groundwater, a saline groundwater and a low ionic strength groundwater. At the time of writing this paper, the dissolution experiments have been finished in the first groundwater, which was a moderately saline, brackish groundwater. The groundwater samples for the experiments were taken from a borehole in the Olkiluoto site in Finland. The measurements for dissolution rates were conducted under reducing conditions established using metallic iron in solution and an argon atmosphere in the glove box. The isotope dilution method was used to decrease uncertainties due to precipitation and sorption effects. The resulting dissolution rates in OL-KR6 natural groundwater were generally somewhat higher than the rates measured previously in synthetic groundwaters under similar redox conditions. No clear effect of alpha radiolysis could be seen for tests with lower SA/V, while those for higher SA/V indicated that the dissolution rate was higher for the 10% 233 U-doped UO 2 , suggesting the effect of alpha radiolysis under these conditions

  10. Mechanistic analysis of solute transport in an in vitro physiological two-phase dissolution apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Shi, Yi; Ping, Haili; Gao, Ping; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2012-10-01

    In vitro dissolution methodologies that adequately capture the oral bioperformance of solid dosage forms are critical tools needed to aid formulation development. Such methodologies must encompass important physiological parameters and be designed with drug properties in mind. Two-phase dissolution apparatuses, which contain an aqueous phase in which the drug dissolves (representing the dissolution/solubility component) and an organic phase into which the drug partitions (representing the absorption component), have the potential to provide meaningful predictions of in vivo oral bioperformance for some BCS II, and possibly some BCS IV drug products. Before such an apparatus can be evaluated properly, it is important to understand the kinetics of drug substance partitioning from the aqueous to the organic medium. A mass transport analysis was performed of the kinetics of partitioning of drug substance solutions from the aqueous to the organic phase of a two-phase dissolution apparatus. Major assumptions include pseudo-steady-state conditions, a dilute aqueous solution and diffusion-controlled transport. Input parameters can be measured or estimated a priori. This paper presents the theory and derivation of our analysis, compares it with a recent kinetic approach, and demonstrates its effectiveness in predicting in vitro partitioning profiles of three BCS II weak acids in four different in vitro two-phase dissolution apparatuses. Very importantly, the paper discusses how a two-phase apparatus can be scaled to reflect in vivo absorption kinetics and for which drug substances the two-phase dissolution systems may be appropriate tools for measuring oral bioperformance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Real time monitoring of powder blend bulk density for coupled feed-forward/feed-back control of a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2015-11-10

    The pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, where precise and accurate control of the end product quality is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the drug products. For such control, the process and raw materials variability ideally need to be fed-forward in real time into an automatic control system so that a proactive action can be taken before it can affect the end product quality. Variations in raw material properties (e.g., particle size), feeder hopper level, amount of lubrication, milling and blending action, applied shear in different processing stages can affect the blend density significantly and thereby tablet weight, hardness and dissolution. Therefore, real time monitoring of powder bulk density variability and its incorporation into the automatic control system so that its effect can be mitigated proactively and efficiently is highly desired. However, real time monitoring of powder bulk density is still a challenging task because of different level of complexities. In this work, powder bulk density which has a significant effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA's) has been monitored in real time in a pilot-plant facility, using a NIR sensor. The sensitivity of the powder bulk density on critical process parameters (CPP's) and CQA's has been analyzed and thereby feed-forward controller has been designed. The measured signal can be used for feed-forward control so that the corrective actions on the density variations can be taken before they can influence the product quality. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system demonstrates improved control performance and improvements in the final product quality in the presence of process and raw material variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  13. Novel ultra-cryo milling and co-grinding technique in liquid nitrogen to produce dissolution-enhanced nanoparticles for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shohei; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    A novel ultra-cryo milling micronization technique for pharmaceutical powders using liquid nitrogen (LN2 milling) was used to grind phenytoin, a poorly water-soluble drug, to improve its dissolution rate. LN2 milling produced particles that were much finer and more uniform in size and shape than particles produced by jet milling. However, the dissolution rate of LN2-milled phenytoin was the same as that of unground phenytoin due to agglomeration of the submicron particles. To overcome this, phenytoin was co-ground with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The dissolution rate of co-ground phenytoin was much higher than that of original phenytoin, single-ground phenytoin, a physical mixture of phenytoin and PVP, or jet-milled phenytoin. X-Ray diffraction showed that the crystalline state of mixtures co-ground by LN2 milling remained unchanged. The equivalent improvement in dissolution, whether phenytoin was co-ground or separately ground and then mixed with PVP, suggested that even when co-ground, the grinding of PVP and phenytoin occurs essentially independently. Mixing original PVP with ground phenytoin provided a slight improvement in dissolution, indicating that the particle size of PVP is important for improving dissolution. When mixed with ground phenytoin, PVP ground by LN2 milling aided the wettability and dispersion of phenytoin, enhancing utilization of the large surface area of ground phenytoin. Co-grinding phenytoin with other excipients such as Eudragit L100, hypromellose, hypromellose acetate-succinate, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose also improved the dissolution profile, indicating an ultra-cryo milling and co-grinding technique in liquid nitrogen has a broad applicability of the dissolution enhancement of phenytoin.

  14. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  15. Calorimetric determination of the δ hydride dissolution enthalpy in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abraham D.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the dissolution enthalpy, ΔH δ→α , of the δ hydride phase in the αZr matrix in Zircaloy-4 has been determined with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in two different ways: by means of a vant Hoff equation, measuring the terminal solubility temperature in dissolution, TSSd, and by direct measurement of the dissolution heat, Q δ→α , as the area between the base line and the calorimetric curve. The application of the DSC technique to the hydride dissolution heat measurements, a transformation which covers an extended temperature range, is completely original and requires a special treatment of the calorimetric curve. These measurements were done on samples, which practically cover the whole solubility range of hydrogen in αZr phase (80-640 ppm). The values obtained, 36.9 kJ/mol H and 39.3 kJ/mol H respectively, are self-consistent and in good agreement with the values of the more recent revisions, but reduces considerably the scatter of the literature data. (author)

  16. Modeling of the Dissolution Kinetics of Arbutus Wild Berries-Based Tablets as Evaluated by Electric Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas-Aksil, T.; Benamara, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lyophilized powder (LP) from Algerian arbutus wild berries (Arbutus unedo L.) was obtained. This present paper reports about the dissolution (releasing) properties of LP-based tablets, evaluated through the electric conductivity (EC) of distilled water which is employed as surrounding medium, at three different temperatures (291, 298 and 309 K). In addition to this, secondary physicochemical characteristics such as elementary analysis, color and compressibility were evaluated. Regarding the modeling of ionic transfer, among the three tested models, namely Peleg, Singh et al. and Singh and Kulshestha, the latter seems to be the most appropriate (R2 = 0.99), particularly in the case of compacted tablets under 2000 Pa. The temperature dependence of the dissolution process was also studied applying Arrhenius equation (R2>0.8) which allowed to deduce the activation energy, ranging from 18.7 to 21.4 kJ.mol -1 according to the model and compression force employed. (author)

  17. Diurnal variation in rates of calcification and carbonate sediment dissolution in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and circulation in Florida Bay (a shallow, subtropical estuary in south Florida) are highly dependent upon the development and evolution of carbonate mud banks distributed throughout the Bay. Predicting the effect of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on carbonate sedimentation requires an understanding of annual, seasonal, and daily variations in the biogenic and inorganic processes affecting carbonate sediment precipitation and dissolution. In this study, net calcification rates were measured over diurnal cycles on 27 d during summer and winter from 1999 to 2003 on mud banks and four representative substrate types located within basins between mud banks. Substrate types that were measured in basins include seagrass beds of sparse and intermediate density Thalassia sp., mud bottom, and hard bottom communities. Changes in total alkalinity were used as a proxy for calcification and dissolution. On 22 d (81%), diurnal variation in rates of net calcification was observed. The highest rates of net carbonate sediment production (or lowest rates of net dissolution) generally occurred during daylight hours and ranged from 2.900 to -0.410 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. The lowest rates of carbonate sediment production (or net sediment dissolution) occurred at night and ranged from 0.210 to -1.900 g CaCO3 m -2 night-1. During typical diurnal cycles, dissolution during the night consumed an average of 29% of sediment produced during the day on banks and 68% of sediment produced during the day in basins. Net sediment dissolution also occurred during daylight, but only when there was total cloud cover, high turbidity, or hypersalinity. Diurnal variation in calcification and dissolution in surface waters and surface sediments of Florida Bay is linked to cycling of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of long-term sediment accumulation rates from diurnal rates of carbonate sediment production measured in this study indicates an overall average

  18. Corrosion behaviour of powder metallurgical and cast Al-Zn-Mg base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameljuk, A.V.; Neikov, O.D.; Krajnikov, A.V.; Milman, Yu.V.; Thompson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg base alloys produced by powder metallurgy and casting has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation in 0.3% and 3% NaCl solutions. The influence of alloy production route on microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. An improvement in performance of powder metallurgy (PM) materials, compared with the cast alloy, was evident in solutions of low chloride concentration; less striking differences were revealed in high chloride concentration. Both powder metallurgy and cast alloys show two main types of precipitates, which were identified as Zn-Mg and Zr-Sc base intermetallic phases. The microstructure of the PM alloys is refined compared with the cast material, which assists understanding of the corrosion performance. The corrosion process commences with dissolution of the Zn-Mg base phases, with the relatively coarse phases present in the cast alloy showing ready development of corrosion

  19. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  20. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  1. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  2. Dissolution mechanisms of CO2 hydrate droplets in deep seawaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide dissolution at intermediate ocean depths was studied using physical and mass transfer models. Particle density and hydrate layer thickness were determined using existing field data. Pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous mass transfer models were proposed to study the dissolution process. Pseudo-homogeneous models do not seem to represent the dissolution process well. Although heterogeneous models interpret the physical behavior better, unresolved issues related to hydrate dissolution still remain. For example, solid hydrate forms on one side of the hydrate film while it dissolves on the other. Dissolution is a complex process that comprises at least two sequential steps. The global process is controlled by mass transfer inside the hydrate layer or by a dissolution reaction at the hydrate-water interface

  3. AMOC studies of positronium in fine MgO powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeyenberge, B. van; Dauwe, C.

    2001-01-01

    A first set of AMOC spectra on fine powdered MgO were measured at the Stuttgart relativistic positron beam facility. A special AMOC spectrometer was set up in order to determine the long lifetimes of ortho-positronium in the powder cavities. The spectra were taken on pellets of pressed powder in air and in an oxygen atmosphere to ensure ortho- to para-positronium conversion. An analysis of the data is made in the light of previous lifetime measurements on MgO. Here the lifetime spectrum was fitted with an age dependent lifetime describing the slow thermalisation of epithermal ortho-positronium between the powder grains. Based on the lifetime spectrum of the integrated AMOC spectra the data could not discriminate between a 5-component model and a model including slow positronium thermalisation. On the other hand, analysis of the age dependent line shape parameter shows better variances for a thermalisation model. (orig.)

  4. AMOC studies of positronium in fine MgO powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeyenberge, B. van; Dauwe, C. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Subatomic and Radiation Physics; Stoll, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A first set of AMOC spectra on fine powdered MgO were measured at the Stuttgart relativistic positron beam facility. A special AMOC spectrometer was set up in order to determine the long lifetimes of ortho-positronium in the powder cavities. The spectra were taken on pellets of pressed powder in air and in an oxygen atmosphere to ensure ortho- to para-positronium conversion. An analysis of the data is made in the light of previous lifetime measurements on MgO. Here the lifetime spectrum was fitted with an age dependent lifetime describing the slow thermalisation of epithermal ortho-positronium between the powder grains. Based on the lifetime spectrum of the integrated AMOC spectra the data could not discriminate between a 5-component model and a model including slow positronium thermalisation. On the other hand, analysis of the age dependent line shape parameter shows better variances for a thermalisation model. (orig.)

  5. Surface controlled dissolution rates of gypsum in aqueous solutions exhibit nonlinear dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Alexander A.; Vosbeck, Katrin; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The effective dissolution rates of gypsum are determined by mixed kinetics, where the rate constants of dissolution at the surface and the transport constant of molecular diffusion of dissolved material are similar. To obtain the surface reaction rate law it is necessary to know the transport constant. We have determined the surface rate law for monocrystalline selenite by using a rotating disc set-up, where the transport coefficients are well known. As a result, up to a calcium concentration of 0.6 · ceq, we find a nearly linear rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, where cs is the total calcium concentration at the surface and ceq the equilibrium concentration with respect to gypsum, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2, and ksl = 1.1 · 10 -4 mmol cm -2 s -1 ± 15%. We also employed batch-experiments for selenite, alabaster and gypsum rock samples. The result of these experiments were interpreted by using a transport constant determined by NaCl dissolution experiments under similar physical conditions. The batch experiments reveal a dissolution rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, ksl = 1.3 · 10 -4 mmol · cm -2 s -1, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2 for c ≤ 0.94 · ceq. Close to equilibrium a nonlinear rate law, Rs = ks2 (1- cs/ ceq) n2, is observed, where ks2 is in the order of 10 mmol · cm -2 s -1 and n2 ≈ 4.5. The experimentally observed gypsum dissolution rates from the batch experiments could be accurately fitted, with only minor variations of the surface reaction constant obtained from the rotating disk experiment and the transport coefficient from the NaCl dissolution batch experiment. Batch experiments on pure synthetic gypsum, reveal a linear rate law up to equilibrium. This indicates inhibition of dissolution in natural samples close to equilibrium, as is known also for calcite minerals.

  6. Use of acidifier and solubilizer in tadalafil solid dispersion to enhance the in vitro dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Jang, Woo Suk; Byeon, Jong Chan; Jeong, Hyeong Mo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to improve the solubility, in vitro dissolution, and oral bioavailability in rats of tadalafil (TDF) by using SD technique with a weak acid and a copolymer. TDF-SD was prepared via solvent evaporation, coupled with the incorporation of an acidifier and solubilizer. Tartaric acid enhanced the solubility of TDF over 5-fold in DW, and Soluplus ® enhanced the solubility of TDF over 8.7-fold and 19.2-fold compared to that of TDF (pure) in DW and pH 1.2 for 1h, respectively. The optimal formulation of TDF-SD3 was composed of TDF vs Tartaric acid vs Soluplus ® vs Aerosil=1:1:3:3. The in vitro dissolution rate of TDF-SD3 in DW, pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 buffer (51.5%, 53.3%, and 33.2%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the commercial product (Cialis ® ) powder (16.5%, 15.2%, and 14.8%, respectively). TDF was completely transformed to an amorphous form as shown in SEM, DSC and PXRD data. The stability of TDF-SD3 included drug contents and in vitro dissolution for 1 month were similar to those of Cialis ® , and the amorphous form of TDF-SD3 was well maintained for 6 months. The TDF-SD3 formulation improved the relative bioavailability (BA) and peak plasma concentration (C max ) compared to that of Cialis ® powder after oral administration in rats as 117.3% and 135.7%, respectively. From the results, we found that the acidifier increased the wettability of TDF, and the solubilizer improved solubility through hydrogen bonding with TDF, thereby increasing the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of TDF in TDF-SD3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different effects of silica added internal or external on in vitro dissolution of indomethacin hot-melt extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yulong; Yuan, Meng; Deng, Yueyang; Ke, Xue; Ci, Tianyuan

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect on the dissolution behavior when silica was added in different ways. The solid dispersion was prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) using indomethacin (IND) as a model drug and Kollidon VA64 as a carrier. In order to change the dissolution behavior, the silica was added during or after the HME respectively, to obtain the corresponding silica internal-added solid dispersion (InSD) and silica external-added solid dispersion (ExSD). According to the results, the internal-added silicon dioxide could reduce the dissolution rate from 66.91%/h to 24.12%/h and the water infiltration rate from 0.37mm/h to 0.16mm/h in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 6.8, so the formulation of InSD had a significant sustained release effect. But the infiltration rate of the ExSD was increased to 13.22mm/h when silica was added external, and the density of VA64 in the powder was decreased from 541.87mg/cm3 to 141.87mg/cm3, leading to a weak resistance to the external force, and the powder was easy to be dispersed after wetted by water so that the formulation of ExSD had a relatively higher dissolution rate. This phenomenon was more visible when the phosphate buffer solution was changed to pH 5.6 in which the API was more difficult to be dissolved. Accordingly, different addition ways of aerosil would change release behavior of the HME preparation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; McGill, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r > 0.974; all P < 0.001. The mean rate of release of copper, tin, and iron was 30.4 mg, 2.74 mg, and 0.38 mg per g tungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested

  9. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  10. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  11. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  12. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)