WorldWideScience

Sample records for potential protein toxicity

  1. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Protein Adducts: Potential Non-invasive Biomarkers of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Liver Toxicity and Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Lin, Ge; Beland, Frederick A; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2016-08-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are phytochemicals present in hundreds of plant species from different families widely distributed in many geographical regions around the world. PA-containing plants are probably the most common type of poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. There have been many large-scale human poisonings caused by the consumption of food contaminated with toxic PAs. PAs require metabolic activation to generate pyrrolic metabolites to exert their toxicity. In this study, we developed a novel method to quantify pyrrole-protein adducts present in the blood. This method involves the use of AgNO3 in acidic ethanol to cleave the thiol linkage of pyrrole-protein (DHP-protein) adducts, and the resulting 7,9-di-C2H5O-DHP is quantified by HPLC-ES-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring analysis in the presence of a known quantity of isotopically labeled 7,9-di-C2D5O-DHP internal standard. Using this method, we determined that diester-type PAs administered to rats produced higher levels of DHP-protein adducts than other types of PAs. The results suggest that DHP-protein adducts can potentially serve as minimally invasive biomarkers of PA exposure.

  2. Bioinformatics analysis to assess potential risks of allergenicity and toxicity of HRAP and PFLP proteins in genetically modified bananas resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O; Lu, Mei; Tripathi, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease threatens banana production and food security throughout East Africa. Natural resistance is lacking among common cultivars. Genetically modified (GM) bananas resistant to BXW disease were developed by inserting the hypersensitive response-assisting protein (Hrap) or/and the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene(s) from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). Several of these GM banana events showed 100% resistance to BXW disease under field conditions in Uganda. The current study evaluated the potential allergenicity and toxicity of the expressed proteins HRAP and PFLP based on evaluation of published information on the history of safe use of the natural source of the proteins as well as established bioinformatics sequence comparison methods to known allergens (www.AllergenOnline.org and NCBI Protein) and toxins (NCBI Protein). The results did not identify potential risks of allergy and toxicity to either HRAP or PFLP proteins expressed in the GM bananas that might suggest potential health risks to humans. We recognize that additional tests including stability of these proteins in pepsin assay, nutrient analysis and possibly an acute rodent toxicity assay may be required by national regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Transformation of toxic potential of Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot into protein source: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of animal largely depends on supplying of quality feed and proteinaceous supplement to the animals. Jatropha plant can grow in the barren lands, and are used as a source of biodiesel. Besides, the plant may act as a rich proteinaceous source. However, the antinutritional factors present in the seed and seed oil of the plant may hamper the availability and beneficial use of the plant. Curcin and phorbol esters are the major toxic compounds present in the plant; these toxic compounds cause to produce liver and kidney diseases. Detoxification of these toxic compounds by physical and chemical means converting to less toxic seed cake may serve the purpose of using this plant in future as a replacement of costly protein supplement for animals. Therefore, in modern world, it is recommended to utilize the protein source by neutralizing the antinutritional factors. This mini-review describes the updates on how J. curcas can be utilized as a supplementary source of protein for animals by decreasing its toxicity.

  4. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  5. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mei [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan [Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Yang, Zaixing [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  6. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  7. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  8. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    High-throughput screening is extensively applied for identification of drug targets and drug discovery and recently it found entry into toxicity testing. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs) are used widespread for quantification of protein markers. We reasoned that RPPAs also can be utilized...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si......RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...

  9. Toxicological relationships between proteins obtained from protein target predictions of large toxicity databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigsch, Florian; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of models for protein target prediction with large databases containing toxicological information for individual molecules allows the derivation of 'toxiclogical' profiles, i.e., to what extent are molecules of known toxicity predicted to interact with a set of protein targets. To predict protein targets of drug-like and toxic molecules, we built a computational multiclass model using the Winnow algorithm based on a dataset of protein targets derived from the MDL Drug Data Report. A 15-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation using 50% of each class for training, and the remaining 50% for testing, provided an assessment of the accuracy of that model. We retained the 3 top-ranking predictions and found that in 82% of all cases the correct target was predicted within these three predictions. The first prediction was the correct one in almost 70% of cases. A model built on the whole protein target dataset was then used to predict the protein targets for 150 000 molecules from the MDL Toxicity Database. We analysed the frequency of the predictions across the panel of protein targets for experimentally determined toxicity classes of all molecules. This allowed us to identify clusters of proteins related by their toxicological profiles, as well as toxicities that are related. Literature-based evidence is provided for some specific clusters to show the relevance of the relationships identified

  10. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. The functional range of heat shock proteins to combat environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Mahmood, Q.; Pervez, A.; Nasreen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all the organisms possess a system to cope with the harsh physiochemical factors of environment. Such a system is based on a group of stress genes, which show rapid responses in form of stress proteins, especially heat shock proteins, when cells are confronted with insult. Heat shock proteins are now known to express in response to variety of toxic and stress conditions including diseases. As a molecular chaperone, against cytotoxicity, these ensure the functional ability of cells by repairing the denatured proteins, cellular structures like cytoskeleton and centrosomes and processes dealing with protein synthesis are stabilized or repaired during a second stress in stress tolerant cells and organisms. In unstressed cells these play an imperative role in the synthesis and transport of normal proteins. Their role in certain diseases reveals their potential application in medical field. Certain Hsp are helpful in coping carcinogenicity caused environmental pollutants and have been suggested to have anti-apoptotic, anti stress and anti-allergic function. Their expression is tissue and species specific with respect to type, intensity and duration of a toxicant. These are developmentally regulated and help in process of differentiation and thus their abnormal regulation impairs the normal development. However, their role as bio marker in risk assessment of environmental pollution warrants further research. Due to broad functional range, therefore, present review is embracing the functional aspects of smaller and Hsp 70 families expressing in animals under toxic conditions. (author)

  12. How and why do toxic conformers of aberrant proteins accumulate during ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefson, Rebecca; Andersson, Rebecca; Nyström, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Ageing can be defined as a gradual decline in cellular and physical functions accompanied by an increased sensitivity to the environment and risk of death. The increased risk of mortality is causally connected to a gradual, intracellular accumulation of so-called ageing factors, of which damaged and aggregated proteins are believed to be one. Such aggregated proteins also contribute to several age-related neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, highlighting the importance of protein quality control (PQC) in ageing and its associated diseases. PQC consists of two interrelated systems: the temporal control system aimed at refolding, repairing, and/or removing aberrant proteins and their aggregates and the spatial control system aimed at harnessing the potential toxicity of aberrant proteins by sequestering them at specific cellular locations. The accumulation of toxic conformers of aberrant proteins during ageing is often declared to be a consequence of an incapacitated temporal PQC system-i.e. a gradual decline in the activity of chaperones and proteases. Here, we review the current knowledge on PQC in relation to ageing and highlight that the breakdown of both temporal and spatial PQC may contribute to ageing and thus comprise potential targets for therapeutic interventions of the ageing process. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. The protein corona protects against size- and dose-dependent toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Docter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the lung and skin, the gastrointestinal (GI tract is one of the main targets for accidental exposure or biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NP. Biological responses to NP, including nanotoxicology, are caused by the interaction of the NP with cellular membranes and/or cellular entry. Here, the physico-chemical characteristics of NP are widely discussed as critical determinants, albeit the exact mechanisms remain to be resolved. Moreover, proteins associate with NP in physiological fluids, forming the protein corona potentially transforming the biological identity of the particle and thus, adding an additional level of complexity for the bio–nano responses.Here, we employed amorphous silica nanoparticles (ASP and epithelial GI tract Caco-2 cells as a model to study the biological impact of particle size as well as of the protein corona. Caco-2 or mucus-producing HT-29 cells were exposed to thoroughly characterized, negatively charged ASP of different size in the absence or presence of proteins. Comprehensive experimental approaches, such as quantifying cellular metabolic activity, microscopic observation of cell morphology, and high-throughput cell analysis revealed a dose- and time-dependent toxicity primarily upon exposure with ASP30 (Ø = 30 nm. Albeit smaller (ASP20, Ø = 20 nm or larger particles (ASP100; Ø = 100 nm showed a similar zeta potential, they both displayed only low toxicity. Importantly, the adverse effects triggered by ASP30/ASP30L were significantly ameliorated upon formation of the protein corona, which we found was efficiently established on all ASP studied. As a potential explanation, corona formation reduced ASP30 cellular uptake, which was however not significantly affected by ASP surface charge in our model. Collectively, our study uncovers an impact of ASP size as well as of the protein corona on cellular toxicity, which might be relevant for processes at the nano–bio interface in general.

  14. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Smieško, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  15. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedani, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.vedani@unibas.ch [Biographics Laboratory 3R, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Dobler, Max [Biographics Laboratory 3R, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Smieško, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  16. Validating potential toxicity assays to assess petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in polar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Potential microbial activities are commonly used to assess soil toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and are assumed to be a surrogate for microbial activity within the soil ecosystem. However, this assumption needs to be evaluated for frozen soil, in which microbial activity is limited by liquid water (θ(liquid)). Influence of θ(liquid) on in situ toxicity was evaluated and compared to the toxicity endpoints of potential microbial activities using soil from an aged diesel fuel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica. To determine in situ toxicity, gross mineralization and nitrification rates were determined by the stable isotope dilution technique. Petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)), packed at bulk densities of 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 g cm(-3) to manipulate liquid water content, was incubated at -5°C for one, two, and three months. Although θ(liquid) did not have a significant effect on gross mineralization or nitrification, gross nitrification was sensitive to PHC contamination, with toxicity decreasing over time. In contrast, gross mineralization was not sensitive to PHC contamination. Toxic response of gross nitrification was comparable to potential nitrification activity (PNA) with similar EC25 (effective concentration causing a 25% effect in the test population) values determined by both measurement endpoints (400 mg kg(-1) for gross nitrification compared to 200 mg kg(-1) for PNA), indicating that potential microbial activity assays are good surrogates for in situ toxicity of PHC contamination in polar regions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Protein Nanoscaffolds for Delivering Toxic Inorganic Cargo to Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioloboc, Daniela

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs or prodrugs to tumors can minimize systemic toxicity and side effects. This study develops platforms for targeted delivery of two potentially less systemically toxic prodrugs by exploiting the native and/or bioinorganic properties of two ferritins, both of which function naturally as iron storage proteins. Two delivery approaches were investigated. The first system was designed to serve as either an enhancement or alternative to traditional photodynamic therapy by generating hydroxyl radical in addition to singlet oxygen as the toxic reactive oxygen species. This system used Escherichia coli bacterioferritin (Bfr) loaded with 2,500 irons and multiple zinc-porphyrin (ZnP) photosensitizers. Ferrous iron was released by photoreduction of ferric iron stored within the Bfr protein shell. Hydroxyl radicals were generated via the Fenton reaction between hydrogen peroxide and the released ferrous iron. The outer surface of the Bfr protein shell was coated with peptides that specifically bind to a receptor known to be overexpressed in many tumor cells and tumor vasculature. The iron-loaded peptide-ZnP-Bfr was endocytosed by melanoma cells, where it showed photo-triggered release of iron and light-dependent cytotoxicity. The second system, built around human heavy chain ferritin (HFn), was loaded with arsenate as a less toxic "prodrug" and designed to release arsenic in its toxic, therapeutically effective reduced form, arsenic trioxide (ATO). The Hfn shell was coated with peptides targeting receptors that are hyperexpressed in triple negative breast cancers. The arsenate/iron-loaded-Hfn was endocytosed by a breast cancer cell line and showed cytotoxicity equivalent to that of free ATO on an arsenic basis, whereas the "empty" or iron-only loaded Hfn showed no cytotoxicity. Although HFn has previously been used to deliver organic drugs and imaging agents, these new results demonstrate that both Bfr and HFn can be manipulated to function

  18. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shahani, Nazish

    2017-08-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  19. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  20. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  1. Bolevenine, a toxic protein from the Japanese toadstool Boletus venenatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Miyairi, Kazuo; Okuno, Toshikatsu; Konno, Katsuhiro; Uenishi, Jun'ichi; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya

    2007-03-01

    A toxic protein, called bolevenine, was isolated from the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus based on its lethal effects on mice. On SDS-PAGE, in either the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, this protein showed a single band of approximately 12 kDa. In contrast, based on gel filtration and MALDI-TOFMS, its relative molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 30 kDa and approximately 33 kDa, respectively, indicating that the protein consists of three identical subunits. This toxin exhibited its lethal activity following injection at 10mg/kg into mice. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined up to 18, and found to be similar to the previously reported bolesatine, a toxic compound isolated from Boletus satanas.

  2. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  3. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but compar......Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  4. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  5. The potential of protein-nanomaterial interaction for advanced drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiang; Mu, Huiling

    2016-03-10

    Nanomaterials, like nanoparticles, micelles, nano-sheets, nanotubes and quantum dots, have great potentials in biomedical fields. However, their delivery is highly limited by the formation of protein corona upon interaction with endogenous proteins. This new identity, instead of nanomaterial itself, would be the real substance the organs and cells firstly encounter. Consequently, the behavior of nanomaterials in vivo is uncontrollable and some undesired effects may occur, like rapid clearance from blood stream; risk of capillary blockage; loss of targeting capacity; and potential toxicity. Therefore, protein-nanomaterial interaction is a great challenge for nanomaterial systems and should be inhibited. However, this interaction can also be used to functionalize nanomaterials by forming a selected protein corona. Unlike other decoration using exogenous molecules, nanomaterials functionalized by selected protein corona using endogenous proteins would have greater promise for clinical use. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of protein-nanomaterial interaction. Importantly, a discussion about how to use such interaction is launched and some possible applications of such interaction for advanced drug delivery are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expression. This review focuses on Arabidopsis studies concerning: 1) the remediation of elemental pollutants; 2) the remediation of organic pollutants; and 3) the phytoremediation genome. Elemental pollutants include heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) that are immutable. The general goal of phytoremediation is to extract, detoxify, and hyperaccumulate elemental pollutants in above-ground plant tissues for later harvest. A few dozen Arabidopsis genes and proteins that play direct roles in the remediation of elemental pollutants are discussed. Organic pollutants include toxic chemicals such as benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, trinitrotoluene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Phytoremediation of organic pollutants is focused on their complete mineralization to harmless products, however, less is known about the potential of plants to act on complex organic chemicals. A preliminary survey of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that as many as 700 genes encode proteins that have the capacity to act directly on environmental pollutants or could be modified to do so. The potential of the phytoremediation proteome to be used to reduce human exposure to toxic pollutants appears to be enormous and untapped. PMID:22303204

  7. Effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and refeeding on fluorouracil toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamelli, R.L.; Foster, R.S. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Mice were used to study the effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and its reversal on granulocyte-macrophage production and fluorouracil's toxic effect on bone marrow. An in vitro quantitative clonal culture technique for bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) was used. Animals on a protein-free but otherwise complete diet for ten days had a significant contraction in total marrow cellularity and GM-CFC numbers paralleling the animal's weight loss. The acute toxic effect of fluorouracil on bone marrow was not increased in protein-deprived animals. On refeeding, there was a biphasic response in the degree of toxic effect on marrow. Animals refed for one day had significantly increased fluorouracil-related marrow abnormalities. However, animals refed for four days, when marrows were repleted, were partially protected from the drug's cytotoxic effects. The increased sensitivity in mice refed for one day was related to more GM-CFC in active DNA synthesis.

  8. Potential of extracellular microRNAs as biomarkers of acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi, E-mail: Xi.Yang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Salminen, William F., E-mail: Willie.Salminen@parexel.com [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: Qiang.Shi@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Greenhaw, James, E-mail: James.Greenhaw@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Gill, Pritmohinder S., E-mail: PSGill@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa, E-mail: SBhattacharyya2@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Beger, Richard D., E-mail: Richard.Beger@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mendrick, Donna L., E-mail: Donna.Mendrick@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mattes, William B., E-mail: William.Mattes@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Developing biomarkers for detecting acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity has been widely investigated. Recent studies of adults with APAP-induced liver injury have reported human serum microRNA-122 (miR-122) as a novel biomarker of APAP-induced liver injury. The goal of this study was to examine extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for APAP liver injury in children. Global levels of serum and urine miRNAs were examined in three pediatric subgroups: 1) healthy children (n = 10), 2) hospitalized children receiving therapeutic doses of APAP (n = 10) and 3) children hospitalized for APAP overdose (n = 8). Out of 147 miRNAs detected in the APAP overdose group, eight showed significantly increased median levels in serum (miR-122, -375, -423-5p, -30d-5p, -125b-5p, -4732-5p, -204-5p, and -574-3p), compared to the other groups. Analysis of urine samples from the same patients had significantly increased median levels of four miRNAs (miR-375, -940, -9-3p and -302a) compared to the other groups. Importantly, correlation of peak serum APAP protein adduct levels (an indicator of the oxidation of APAP to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-para-quinone imine) with peak miRNA levels showed that the highest correlation was observed for serum miR-122 (R = 0.94; p < 0.01) followed by miR-375 (R = 0.70; p = 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that miRNAs are increased in children with APAP toxicity and correlate with APAP protein adducts, suggesting a potential role as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. - Highlights: • Serum miR-122 and miR-375 levels were increased in children with APAP overdose. • Urine levels of miR-375 and miR-940 were increased in the APAP overdose group. • Peak serum miR-122 levels were correlated with peak serum APAP protein adducts.

  9. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  10. Protein profiling as early detection biomarkers for TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pereira, Paula; Diniz, Mário S; Moita, Liliana; Pinheiro, Teresa; Mendonça, Elsa; Paixão, Susana M; Picado, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch. The protein profile of individuals exposed to different concentrations showed that 2.8 and 5.6 mg/L TiO 2 -NP concentrations induced an over-expression of the majority of proteins, in particular proteins with molecular weight of ∼120, 85 and 15 kDa, while 11.2 mg/L TiO 2 -NP had an inhibitory effect on protein expression. The Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of these proteins consistently identified them as vitellogenin (Vtg)-like proteins, associated with enzymes involved in redox balance. These results indicate that Vtg-like proteins are up-regulated in D. magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs. Vitellogenesis is associated with the reproduction system, suggesting that TiO 2 -NP exposure can impair reproduction by affecting this process. The precise mode of action of TiO 2 -NPs is still unclear and the results from this study are a first attempt to identify specific proteins as potential markers of TiO 2 -NP toxicity in D. magna, providing useful information for future research.

  11. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Molecular and immunological characterization of gluten proteins isolated from oat cultivars that differ in toxicity for celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.

  13. The use of sugar and alcohol industry waste in the adsorption of potentially toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Oseas Silva; Mendonça, André Gustavo Ribeiro; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas; Silva, Amanda Paulina Bezerra; Costa, Silvanio Silverio Lopes; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Janaina Braga; Botero, Wander Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    One of the waste products of the industrial process of the sugar and alcohol agribusiness is filter cake (FC). This waste product has high levels of organic matter, mainly proteins and lipids, and is rich in calcium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. In this work we characterized samples of FC from sugar and alcohol industries located in sugarcane-producing regions in Brazil and assessed the adsorption of potentially toxic metals (Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III)) by this waste in mono- and multi-elemental systems, seeking to use FC as an adsorbent in contaminated environments. The characterization of FCs showed significant differences between the samples and the adsorption studies showed retention of over 90% of potentially toxic metals. In a competitive environment (multi-metallic solution), the FC was effective in adsorbing all metals except lead, but less effective compared to the mono-metallic solution. These results show the potential for use of this residue as an adsorbent in contaminated environments.

  14. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases

  15. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  16. Application of benchmark dose modeling to protein expression data in the development and analysis of mode of action/adverse outcome pathways for testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Meek, M E Bette; Yauk, Carole Lyn

    2014-11-01

    Reliable quantification of gene and protein expression has potential to contribute significantly to the characterization of hypothesized modes of action (MOA) or adverse outcome pathways for critical effects of toxicants. Quantitative analysis of gene expression by benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has been facilitated by the development of effective software tools. In contrast, protein expression is still generally quantified by a less robust effect level (no or lowest [adverse] effect levels) approach, which minimizes its potential utility in the consideration of dose-response and temporal concordance for key events in hypothesized MOAs. BMD modeling is applied here to toxicological data on testicular toxicity to investigate its potential utility in analyzing protein expression relevant to the proposed MOA to inform human health risk assessment. The results illustrate how the BMD analysis of protein expression in animal tissues in response to toxicant exposure: (1) complements other toxicity data, and (2) contributes to consideration of the empirical concordance of dose-response relationships, as part of the weight of evidence for hypothesized MOAs to facilitate consideration and application in regulatory risk assessment. Lack of BMD analysis in proteomics has likely limited its use for these purposes. This paper illustrates the added value of BMD modeling to support and strengthen hypothetical MOAs as a basis to facilitate the translation and uptake of the results of proteomic research into risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space.

  18. Persistence of detectable insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry) and toxicity after adsorption on contrasting soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, T.P.; Truong, L.V.; Binh, N.D.; Frutos, R.; Quiquampoix, H.; Staunton, S.

    2016-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry, or Bt, proteins are produced by the soil-endemic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis and some genetically modified crops. Their environmental fate depends on interactions with soil. Little is known about the toxicity of adsorbed proteins and the change in toxicity over time. We incubated Cry1Ac and Cry2A in contrasting soils subjected to different treatments to inhibit microbial activity. The toxin was chemically extracted and immunoassayed. Manduca sexta was the target insect for biotests. Extractable toxin decreased during incubation for up to four weeks. Toxicity of Cry1Ac was maintained in the adsorbed state, but lost after 2 weeks incubation at 25 °C. The decline in extractable protein and toxicity were much slower at 4 °C with no significant effect of soil sterilization. The major driving force for decline may be time-dependent fixation of adsorbed protein, leading to a decrease in the extraction yield in vitro, paralleled by decreasing solubilisation in the larval gut. - Graphical abstract: Biotest, presenting Cry-contaminated feed to Manduca sexta larvae in individual Perspex boxes. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cry protein is initially conserved after adsorption on soil. • Toxicity and extractability decline with time, more rapidly at 25 °C than 4 °C. • Similar dynamics of Cry1AC and Cry2A on soil with varying texture and organic C. • Sterilization of soil does not change Cry dynamics or temperature effect in soil. • Cry decline is determined by progressive fixation on soil not microbial breakdown. - Toxicity was initially maintained after adsorption on soil and both extractable Cry and toxicity declined rapidly, more slowly at low temperature, due to different fixation dynamics. Toxicity of Cry protein is initially conserved after adsorption on soil.

  19. Toxic potential of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jiří; Gupta, Ramesh C; Wu, Qing-hua; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-10-01

    This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.

  20. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenxing, Chi; Rutao, Liu; Zhang Hao, E-mail: Trutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K{sub 293K} = 7.09 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1} and K{sub 311K} = 3.31 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1}. The thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  1. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zhenxing; Liu Rutao; Zhang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K 293K = 7.09 x 10 4 L mol -1 and K 311K = 3.31 x 10 4 L mol -1 . The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔG o and ΔS o ) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  2. Small heat shock proteins protect against α-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Klucken, Jochen; Strathearn, Katherine E.; Liu Fang; Nguyen, Paul; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Bradley T.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2006-01-01

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). α-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are ∼2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by ∼80% in a culture model while αB-crystallin reduces toxicity by ∼20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model

  3. Screening of Potential Inhibitor against Coat Protein of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rituraj; Kumar, Sachin; Hallan, Vipin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed Coat protein (CP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), an important latent virus on Apple. Incidence of the virus is upto 60% in various apple cultivars, affecting yield losses of the order of 10-40% (depending upon the cultivar). CP plays an important role as the sole building block of the viral capsid. Homology approach was used to model 193 amino acid sequence of the coat protein. We used various servers such as ConSurf, TargetS, OSML, COACH, COFACTOR for the prediction of active site residues in coat protein. Virtual screening strategy was employed to search potential inhibitors for CP. Top twenty screened molecules considered for drugability, and toxicity analysis and one potential molecule was further analyzed by docking analysis. Here, we reported a potent molecule which could inhibit the formation of viron assembly by targeting the CP protein of virus.

  4. Potentials and limitations of hazard indices for the determination of risk potentials of disposed toxic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Hazard indices are often used for the determination of risk potentials arising from the geological disposal of toxic wastes. They are based on simplified models for the calculation of potential health effects caused by the wastes. The attractiveness of hazard indices lies in their simplicity which nevertheless results in reliable data on necessary isolation times and the most toxic nuclides of a waste. They also make possible comparisons of the potential risks of different wastes. After a discussion of the processes that control the behavior of toxic wastes in the environment after a failure of the geological barriers, a new hazard index is presented. Originally developed for nuclear wastes, it is the first which involves the joint consideration of the composition of a waste, the probability for transport of waste nuclides to man, their toxicity, and the time-dependent changes of the risk potentials which are caused by radioactive buildup and decay processes after the waste has entered the biosphere. The new hazard index makes possible the calculation of risk potentials at a given time of release and time period of concern thereafter. Sample calculations for different nuclear wastes show the importance of the model improvements on resulting time-dependent risk potentials. Applicability of the new hazard index to non-nuclear wastes is described. Potentials and limitations of comparative risk assessments using hazard indices are discussed. (author)

  5. [Research progress on potential liver toxic components in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ullah; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nazish Shahani

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, tox...

  7. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  8. Characterization and evolutionary analysis of tributyltin-binding protein and pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein genes in toxic and nontoxic pufferfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Lee, J M; Shiraishi, M; Komatsu, S; Miki, S; Shimasaki, Y; Mochioka, N; Kusakabe, T; Oshima, Y

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes has been long-standing problem in toxicology and evolutionary biology. Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein (PSTBP) is involved in the transport and accumulation of tetrodotoxin and is one of the most intriguing proteins related to the toxicity of pufferfishes. PSTBPs are fusion proteins consisting of two tandem repeated tributyltin-binding protein type 2 (TBT-bp2) domains. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes to understand the evolution of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes. Database searches and/or PCR-based cDNA cloning in nine pufferfish species (6 toxic and 3 nontoxic) revealed that all species possessed one or more TBT-bp2 genes, but PSTBP genes were found only in 5 toxic species belonging to genus Takifugu. These toxic Takifugu species possessed two or three copies of PSTBP genes. Phylogenetic analysis of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes suggested that PSTBPs evolved in the common ancestor of Takifugu species by repeated duplications and fusions of TBT-bp2 genes. In addition, a detailed comparison of Takifugu TBT-bp2 and PSTBP gene sequences detected a signature of positive selection under the pressure of gene conversion. The complicated evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes may reflect the diversity of toxicity in pufferfishes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NANT blocks acetaminophen toxicity and protein nitration in freshly isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudip; Melnyk, Stepan B; Krager, Kimberly J; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Letzig, Lynda G; James, Laura P; Hinson, Jack A

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitrotyrosine (3NT) in liver proteins of mice treated with hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) has been postulated to be causative in toxicity. Nitration is by a reactive nitrogen species formed from nitric oxide (NO). The source of the NO is unclear. iNOS knockout mice were previously found to be equally susceptible to APAP toxicity as wildtype mice and iNOS inhibitors did not decrease toxicity in mice or in hepatocytes. In this work we examined the potential role of nNOS in APAP toxicity in hepatocytes using the specific nNOS inhibitor NANT (10 µM)(N-[(4S)-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidinetris (trifluoroacetate)). Primary hepatocytes (1 million/ml) from male B6C3F1 mice were incubated with APAP (1mM). Cells were removed and assayed spectrofluorometrically for reactive nitrogen and oxygen species using diaminofluorescein (DAF) and Mitosox red, respectively. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release into media. Glutathione (GSH, GSSG), 3NT, GSNO, acetaminophen-cysteine adducts, NAD, and NADH were measured by HPLC. APAP significantly increased cytotoxicity at 1.5-3.0 h. The increase was blocked by NANT. NANT did not alter APAP mediated GSH depletion or acetaminophen-cysteine adducts in proteins which indicated that NANT did not inhibit metabolism. APAP significantly increased spectroflurometric evidence of reactive nitrogen and oxygen formation at 0.5 and 1.0 h, respectively, and increased 3NT and GSNO at 1.5-3.0 h. These increases were blocked by NANT. APAP dramatically increased NADH from 0.5-3.0 h and this increase was blocked by NANT. Also, APAP decreased the Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR), decreased ATP production, and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were all blocked by NANT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular mechanisms used by chaperones to reduce the toxicity of aberrant protein oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannini, Benedetta; Cascella, Roberta; Zampagni, Mariagioia; Van Waarde-Verhagen, Maria; Meehan, Sarah; Roodveldt, Cintia; Campioni, Silvia; Boninsegna, Matilde; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wilson, Mark R.; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Chaperones are the primary regulators of the proteostasis network and are known to facilitate protein folding, inhibit protein aggregation, and promote disaggregation and clearance of misfolded aggregates inside cells. We have tested the effects of five chaperones on the toxicity of misfolded

  11. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. GODSON

    the levels of PAHs and cPAHs in crude oil samples from Gokana area and using the data to determine the ... Exploration and production activities of petroleum in ... discharges of crude oil to the environment which ... equivalent concentration of cPAHs in the soil around ... in the crude oil and establish its potential toxicity risk.

  12. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Gidalevitz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  13. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  14. Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana G; Biaggio, Veronica S; Koumbadinga, Geremy A; Gómez, Nidia N; Shi, Chunhua; Ciocca, Daniel R; Batulan, Zarah; Fanelli, Mariel A; O'Brien, Edward R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 μM) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.

  15. A systems-level approach for investigating organophosphorus pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Wang, Jing; Ding, Yan; Liu, Baoyue; Xiao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The full understanding of the single and joint toxicity of a variety of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is still unavailable, because of the extreme complex mechanism of action. This study established a systems-level approach based on systems toxicology to investigate OP pesticide toxicity by incorporating ADME/T properties, protein prediction, and network and pathway analysis. The results showed that most OP pesticides are highly toxic according to the ADME/T parameters, and can interact with significant receptor proteins to cooperatively lead to various diseases by the established OP pesticide -protein and protein-disease networks. Furthermore, the studies that multiple OP pesticides potentially act on the same receptor proteins and/or the functionally diverse proteins explained that multiple OP pesticides could mutually enhance toxicological synergy or additive on a molecular/systematic level. To the end, the integrated pathways revealed the mechanism of toxicity of the interaction of OP pesticides and elucidated the pathogenesis induced by OP pesticides. This study demonstrates a systems-level approach for investigating OP pesticide toxicity that can be further applied to risk assessments of various toxins, which is of significant interest to food security and environmental protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO 2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD 5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  17. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  18. Toxic compound, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of protein isolated from detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-12-28

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  19. Dynamic development of the protein corona on silica nanoparticles: composition and role in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ninell P.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Wang, Wei; Foster, Carmen M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2013-06-01

    The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated over time. Native SiO2, amine (-NH2) and carboxy (-COO-) modified NP were examined following incubation in mammalian growth media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours. The protein corona transition from its early dynamic state to the later more stable corona was evaluated using mass spectrometry. The NP diameter was 22.4 +/- 2.2 nm measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Changes in hydrodynamic diameter and agglomeration kinetics were studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The initial surface chemistry of the NP played an important role in the development and final composition of the protein corona, impacting agglomeration kinetics and NP toxicity. Particle toxicity, indicated by changes in membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and tetrazolium reduction (MTT), respectively, in mouse alveolar macrophages (RAW264.7) and mouse lung epithelial cells (C10). SiO2-COO- NP had a slower agglomeration rate, formed smaller aggregates, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to SiO2 and SiO2-NH2. Composition of the protein corona for each of the three NP was unique, indicating a strong dependence of corona development on NP surface chemistry. This work underscores the need to understand all aspects of NP toxicity, particularly the influence of agglomeration on effective dose and particle size. Furthermore, the interplay between materials and local biological environment is emphasized and highlights the need to conduct toxicity profiling under physiologically relevant conditions that provide an appropriate estimation of material modifications that occur during exposure in natural environments.The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated

  20. Widespread genetic switches and toxicity resistance proteins for fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jenny L; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-01-13

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion.

  1. Regulation of lead toxicity by heat shock protein 90 (daf-21) is affected by temperature in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Songbai; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhui; Guo, Tai L

    2014-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress resistance can be regulated by dauer formation (daf) genes. In the present study, regulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) toxicity by the 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90; daf-21) was investigated in both wild-type C. elegans and daf-21/Hsp90 mutants by focusing on the effects of varied temperatures below (15°C) or above (25 and 30°C) the presumptive optimum growth temperature (20°C). More acute toxicity of Pb, indicated by the 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50), was observed in wild-type adults than in the daf-21 mutant adults at 15, 20 and 25°C; however, the daf-21 mutant adults showed more sensitivity at 30°C. Enhanced Pb sensitivity (e.g., decrease LC50) in both types of C. elegans was observed with both increased and decreased temperatures when compared to that at 20°C. Additional examined endpoints included time course of toxicity at LC50s, pharyngeal pumping, reproduction, life span, and Hsp90 expression. Collective results showed that temperatures both above and below 20°C exacerbated Pb toxicity, and that the protein level of daf-21/Hsp90 was one of the most sensitive indicators of Pb toxicity in wild-type C. elegans, while pharyngeal pumping was more Pb sensitive in daf-21 mutants. Therefore, the expression of daf-21/Hsp90 has apparent utility for the prediction and assessment of Pb-induced toxicity in nematodes. Further, the stress responses related to Hsp90 expression in C. elegans may have considerable potential as sensitive biomarkers for the monitoring of environmental Pb contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein is toxic to cells lacking signal peptide peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-M.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a toxin secreted by activated human eosinophils. The properties of mature ECP have been well studied but those of the signal peptide of ECP (ECPsp) are not clear. In this study, several chimeric proteins containing N-terminal fusion of ECPsp were generated, and introduced into Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 to study the function of ECPsp. We found that expression of ECPsp chimeric proteins inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. pastoris but not A431 cells. Primary sequence analysis and in vitro transcription/translation of ECPsp have revealed that it is a potential substrate for human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), an intramembrane protease located in endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, knockdown of the hSPP mRNA expression in ECPsp-eGFP/A431 cells caused the growth inhibitory effect, whereas complementally expression of hSPP in P. pastoris system rescued the cell growth. Taken together, we have demonstrated that ECPsp is a toxic signal peptide, and expression of hSPP protects the cells from growth inhibition

  3. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  4. Cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes: evaluations of in vitro cytocompatibility with Schwann cells and in vivo toxicity to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gong, Wenrong; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Lin; Li, Daokun; Huselstein, Celine; Wang, Xiong; He, Xiaohua; Li, Yinping; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro cytocompatibility of cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes (CSM) with Schwann cells and in vivo toxicity to animals. A series of cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes (CSM) were prepared by blending, solution casting and coagulation process. The cytocompatibility of the CSM to Schwann cells were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and by direct cells culture of Schwann cells on the surfaces of the CSM, respectively. The in vivo toxicity of the CSM to animals were also evaluated by acute toxicity testing, skin sensitization testing, pyrogen testing and intracutaneous stimulation testing, respectively, according to the ISO 10993 standard. The MTT assay showed that the cell viability of Schwann cells cultured in extracts from the CSM was higher than that from the neat cellulose membrane without containing SPI component. The direct cells culture indicated that the Schwann cells could attach and grow well on the surface of the CSM and the incorporation of SPI into cellulose contributed to improvement of cell adhesion and proliferation. The evaluations of in vivo biological safety suggested that the CSM showed no acute toxicity, no skin sensitization and no intracutaneous stimulation to the experimental animals. The CSM had in vitro cytocompatibility with Schwann cells and biological safety to animals, suggesting potential for the applications as nerve conduit for the repair of nerve defect.

  5. The role of glomalin, a protein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in sequestering potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Wright, S.F.; Nichols, K.A

    2004-08-01

    Naturally occurring soil organic compounds stabilize potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cu, Cd, Pb, and Mn. The hypothesis of this work was that an insoluble glycoprotein, glomalin, produced in copious amounts on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) sequesters PTEs. Glomalin can be extracted from laboratory cultures of AMF and from soils. Three different experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 showed that glomalin extracted from two polluted soils contained 1.6-4.3 mg Cu, 0.02-0.08 mg Cd, and 0.62-1.12 mg Pb/g glomalin. Experiment 2 showed that glomalin from hyphae of an isolate of Gigaspora rosea sequestered up to 28 mg Cu/g in vitro. Experiment 3 tested in vivo differences in Cu sequestration by Cu-tolerant and non-tolerant isolates of Glomus mosseae colonizing sorghum. Plants were fed with nutrient solution containing 0.5, 10 or 20 {mu}M of Cu. Although no differences between isolates were detected, mean values for the 20 {mu}M Cu level were 1.6, 0.4, and 0.3 mg Cu/g for glomalin extracted from hyphae, from sand after removal of hyphae and from hyphae attached to roots, respectively. Glomalin should be considered for biostabilization leading to remediation of polluted soils. - Glomalin may be useful in remediation of toxic elements in soils.

  6. The role of glomalin, a protein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in sequestering potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Wright, S.F.; Nichols, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring soil organic compounds stabilize potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cu, Cd, Pb, and Mn. The hypothesis of this work was that an insoluble glycoprotein, glomalin, produced in copious amounts on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) sequesters PTEs. Glomalin can be extracted from laboratory cultures of AMF and from soils. Three different experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 showed that glomalin extracted from two polluted soils contained 1.6-4.3 mg Cu, 0.02-0.08 mg Cd, and 0.62-1.12 mg Pb/g glomalin. Experiment 2 showed that glomalin from hyphae of an isolate of Gigaspora rosea sequestered up to 28 mg Cu/g in vitro. Experiment 3 tested in vivo differences in Cu sequestration by Cu-tolerant and non-tolerant isolates of Glomus mosseae colonizing sorghum. Plants were fed with nutrient solution containing 0.5, 10 or 20 μM of Cu. Although no differences between isolates were detected, mean values for the 20 μM Cu level were 1.6, 0.4, and 0.3 mg Cu/g for glomalin extracted from hyphae, from sand after removal of hyphae and from hyphae attached to roots, respectively. Glomalin should be considered for biostabilization leading to remediation of polluted soils. - Glomalin may be useful in remediation of toxic elements in soils

  7. Cellular Immunity State of Protein-deficient Rats with the Toxic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the role of immunity mechanisms in the emergence and maintenance of inflammatory and destructive processes in the liver under toxic hepatitis and nutrient deficiency are topical. The aim of research – to study the quantitative content and functional activity of leukocytes under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis on the background of nutritional protein deficiency. The most pronounced changes in cell-mediated immunity are observed in protein-deficient animals with toxic hepatitis. The pronounced defects of both specific and non-specific cellular immunity were manifested by the leukocytosis, increase number of segmented neutrophils in blood serum against decrease their phagocytic index and phagocytic number, reduction of total lymphocyte number, and simultaneously lowering of T- and B-lymphocytes was established under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity on the background of protein deficiency. Installed changes indicate the defective formation of functional immunity state which can manifest by decrease the body’s ability to carry out the reaction of cellular and humoral immunity. Research results may be used for the rationale of therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the consequences of immunological status disturbances under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  8. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K.G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein

  9. A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Simon; Phung, Le T

    2005-12-01

    Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+ Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone CopZ and periplasmic silver binding protein SilE). Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. For example, Cd2+-efflux pumps of bacteria are either inner membrane P-type ATPases or three polypeptide RND chemiosmotic complexes consisting of an inner membrane pump, a periplasmic-bridging protein and an outer membrane channel. In addition to the best studied three-polypeptide chemiosmotic system, Czc (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2), others are known that efflux Ag+, Cu+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Resistance to inorganic mercury, Hg2+ (and to organomercurials, such as CH3Hg+ and phenylmercury) involve a series of metal-binding and membrane transport proteins as well as the enzymes mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase, which overall convert more toxic to less toxic forms. Arsenic resistance and metabolizing systems occur in three patterns, the widely-found ars operon that is present in most bacterial genomes and many plasmids, the more recently recognized arr genes for the periplasmic arsenate reductase that functions in anaerobic respiration as a terminal electron acceptor, and the aso genes for the periplasmic arsenite oxidase that functions as an initial electron donor in aerobic resistance to arsenite.

  10. Golgi Outpost Synthesis Impaired by Toxic Polyglutamine Proteins Contributes to Dendritic Pathology in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Geon Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite aberration is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show that nuclear polyglutamine (polyQ toxicity resulted in defective terminal dendrite elongation accompanied by a loss of Golgi outposts (GOPs and a decreased supply of plasma membrane (PM in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (da (C4 da neurons. mRNA sequencing revealed that genes downregulated by polyQ proteins included many secretory pathway-related genes, including COPII genes regulating GOP synthesis. Transcription factor enrichment analysis identified CREB3L1/CrebA, which regulates COPII gene expression. CrebA overexpression in C4 da neurons restores the dysregulation of COPII genes, GOP synthesis, and PM supply. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-PCR revealed that CrebA expression is regulated by CREB-binding protein (CBP, which is sequestered by polyQ proteins. Furthermore, co-overexpression of CrebA and Rac1 synergistically restores the polyQ-induced dendrite pathology. Collectively, our results suggest that GOPs impaired by polyQ proteins contribute to dendrite pathology through the CBP-CrebA-COPII pathway.

  11. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  12. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  14. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  15. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  16. Proteome Profiling of BEAS-2B Cells Treated with Titanium Dioxide Reveals Potential Toxicity of and Detoxification Pathways for Nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in nanomaterial-induced toxicities. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with nanomaterial-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify oxidative stress-responding toxicity pathways an...

  17. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in engineered nanomaterial induced cellular toxicity. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with the engineered nanomaterial mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify these toxicity ...

  18. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  19. Evaluation of the toxic potential of calcium carbide in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the toxic potential of calcium carbide (CaC2) was studied on the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). The third instar larvae were exposed to 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32×10(-3)g/ml of CaC2 in diet for 24h. The results reveal that the dose 2×10(-3)g/ml was not toxic but the remaining doses showed a dose dependent significant increase in the hsp70 expression, β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content), glutathione-S-transferase activity, expression of Caspase 3 and 9, apoptotic index and DNA damage (midgut cells). A significant reduction as compared to control group in total protein, glutathione content and acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis (ICPAES) reveals the presence of copper, iron, sodium, aluminium, manganese, calcium, nickel and mercury. The toxic effects of CaC2 in the present study may be attributed to the impurities present in it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of potentially toxic elements in urban soils of Bratislava; Distribucia potencialne toxickych prvkov v urbannych podach Bratislavy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahka, L.; Tatarkova, V.; Toth, R. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra geochemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Potentially toxic elements naturally occur in soils, but their contents are increased in urban environment due to anthropogenic activities. The main sources of urban soil contamination with potentially toxic elements are chemical, energetic, building and blowing industry, engineering, traffic and municipal waste incineration plants. Contaminated urban soils can pose significant risks to human health trough dust inhalation, soil ingestion, and dermal contact. The primary objectives of the present study were: to assess concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soils of nursery schools, to investigate relationships between potentially toxic elements and physicochemical properties of soils, to identify the main possible sources. (authors)

  1. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  2. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Katsuya; Tanaka, Toru; McNeil, Paul L

    2007-08-01

    Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  3. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Miyake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. CONCLUSIONS: Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  4. Evaluation of Biological Toxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots with Different Coating Reagents according to Protein Expression of Engineering Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from toxicity assessment of quantum dots (QDs can be used to establish guidelines for the application of QDs in bioimaging. This paper focused on the design of a novel method to evaluate the toxicity of CdTe QDs using engineering Escherichia coli as a model. The toxicity of mercaptoacetic acid (MPA, glutathione (GSH, and L-cysteine (Cys capped CdTe QDs was analyzed according to the heterologous protein expression in BL21/DE3, engineering Escherichia coli extensively used for protein expression. The results showed that the MPA-CdTe QDs had more serious toxicity than the other two kinds of CdTe QDs. The microscopic images and SEM micrographs further proved that both the proliferation and the protein expression of engineering Escherichia coli were inhibited after treatment with MPA-CdTe QDs. The proposed method is important to evaluate biological toxicity of both QDs and other nanoparticles.

  5. Probing nanomechanical interaction at the interface between biological membrane and potentially toxic chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chanoong; Park, Sohee; Park, Jinwoo; Ko, Jina; Lee, Dong Woog; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2018-04-12

    Various xenobiotics interact with biological membranes, and precise evaluations of the molecular interactions between them are essential to foresee the toxicity and bioavailability of existing or newly synthesized molecules. In this study, surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurement and Langmuir trough based tensiometry are performed to reveal nanomechanical interaction mechanisms between potential toxicants and biological membranes for ex vivo toxicity evaluation. As a toxicant, polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) was selected because PHMG containing humidifier disinfectant and Vodka caused lots of victims in both S. Korea and Russia, respectively, due to the lack of holistic toxicity evaluation of PHMG. Here, we measured strong attraction (Wad ∼4.2 mJ/m 2 ) between PHMG and head group of biological membranes while no detectable adhesion force between the head group and control molecules was measured. Moreover, significant changes in π-A isotherm of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers were measured upon PHMG adsorption. These results indicate PHMG strongly binds to hydrophilic group of lipid membranes and alters the structural and phase behavior of them. More importantly, complementary utilization of SFA and Langmuir trough techniques are found to be useful to predict the potential toxicity of a chemical by evaluating the molecular interaction with biological membranes, the primary protective barrier for living organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  7. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  8. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  9. Why are Functional Amyloids Non-Toxic in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Jackson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented. These include regulating the level of the amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, minimising the production of prefibrillar oligomers in amyloid assembly reactions, sequestrating amyloids within membrane bound organelles, controlling amyloid assembly by other molecules, and disassembling the fibrils under physiological conditions. Crucially, a better understanding of how toxicity is avoided in the production of functional amyloids may provide insights into the prevention of amyloid toxicity in amyloidoses.

  10. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  11. On the analysis of protein-protein interactions via knowledge-based potentials for the prediction of protein-protein docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Aloy, Patrick; Oliva, Baldo

    2011-01-01

    Development of effective methods to screen binary interactions obtained by rigid-body protein-protein docking is key for structure prediction of complexes and for elucidating physicochemical principles of protein-protein binding. We have derived empirical knowledge-based potential functions for s...... and with independence of the partner. This information is encoded at the residue level and could be easily incorporated in the initial grid scoring for Fast Fourier Transform rigid-body docking methods.......Development of effective methods to screen binary interactions obtained by rigid-body protein-protein docking is key for structure prediction of complexes and for elucidating physicochemical principles of protein-protein binding. We have derived empirical knowledge-based potential functions...... for selecting rigid-body docking poses. These potentials include the energetic component that provides the residues with a particular secondary structure and surface accessibility. These scoring functions have been tested on a state-of-art benchmark dataset and on a decoy dataset of permanent interactions. Our...

  12. Differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated with MeHg exposure: deepening into the molecular mechanisms of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Susana; Madrid, Yolanda; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Camara, Carmen [Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, Sonia [Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity and the way in which this molecule interacts with living organisms is a critical point since MeHg represents a well-known risk to ecosystems and human health. We used a quantitative proteomic approach based on stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture in combination with SDS-PAGE and nanoflow LC-ESI-LTQ for analyzing the differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated to MeHg exposure. Seventy-eight proteins were found de-regulated by more than 1.5-fold. We identified a number of proteins involved in different essential biological processes including apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular trafficking and energy production. Among these proteins, we found several molecules whose de-regulation has been already related to MeHg exposure, thus confirming the usefulness of our discovery approach, and new ones that helped to gain a deeper insight into the biomolecular mechanisms related to MeHg-induced toxicity. Overexpression of several HSPs and the proteasome 26S subunit itself showed the proteasome system as a molecular target of toxic MeHg. As for the interaction networks, the top ranked was the nucleic acid metabolism, where many of the identified de-regulated proteins are involved. (orig.)

  13. Toxic effect of visible light on Drosophila lifespan depending upon diet protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Zhu, Xiang; Gu, Yitian; Zhang, Chiqian; Huang, Jiahong; Qing, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the toxic effect of visible light on Drosophila lifespan in both sexes. The toxic effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on organisms is well known. However, the effects of illumination with visible light remain unclear. Here, we found that visible light could be toxic to Drosophila survival, depending on the protein content in diet. In addition, further analysis revealed significant interaction between light and sex, and showed that strong light shortened life span by causing opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. Our findings suggest that photoageing may be a general phenomenon, and support the theory of sexual antagonistic pleiotropy in aging intervention. The results caution that exposure to visible light could be hazardous to life span and suggest that identification of the underlying mechanism would allow better understanding of aging intervention.

  14. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  15. Disrupting self-assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic protein oligomers by "molecular tweezers" - from the test tube to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs - primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific "molecular tweezers" (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  16. Effect of Pre-Gamma Irradiation Induction of Metallothionein on potentially Radiation-Induced Toxic Heavy Metals Ions In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shamy, El.

    2004-01-01

    Metallothionein, which is a cystein-rich metal binding protein, can act as free radical scavenger and involved in resistance to heavy metal toxicity. The induction of synthesis has been shown to protect organs from the toxic effect of radiation. This study aimed to stud the effects of pre-irradiation induction of by heavy metal (Zinc sulfate) on potentially gamma radiation-induced toxic heavy metals ions in rate liver and kidney tissues. Forty eight albino rats were included in this study. They were divided into eight groups each of six animals. Two control groups injected with saline. Two Zinc sulfate-treated groups injected with zinc sulfate, two Irradiated groups exposed to a single dose level (7 Gy) of whole body gamma irradiation and two combined zinc sulfate and irradiation groups injected with zinc sulfate and exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (at dose 7 Gy). Animals of all groups were sacrificed 24 and 48 hours after last either zinc sulfate dose or irradiation. Samples of liver and kidney's tissues were subjected to the following investigations: Estimation of tissue heavy Metals (Zinc, Iron and Copper), and tissue (MT). After irradiation, liver and kidney MT were increased approximately 10-fold and 2-fold respectively after irradiation. Accumulation of zinc and iron in both liver and kidney tissues were detected, while accumulation of copper only in the liver tissues. The pre-irradiation treatment with zinc sulfate (Zn SO4) resulted in highly significant decrease in zinc, iron, and copper levels in both liver and kidney tissues in comparison with irradiation groups. Conclusion, it can be supposed that pre-irradiation injection of ZnSO 4 exerted protective effect against the potentially radiation-induced toxic heavy metals ions through MT induction

  17. Mobility and Attenuation Dynamics of Potentially Toxic Chemical Species at an Abandoned Copper Mine Tailings Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mugera Gitari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of disposed mine tailings abound in several regions of South Africa, as a consequence of unregulated, unsustainable long years of mining activities. Tailings dumps occupy a large volume of valuable land, and present a potential risk for aquatic systems, through leaching of potentially toxic chemical species. This paper reports on the evaluation of the geochemical processes controlling the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species within the tailings profile, and their potential risk with regard to surface and groundwater systems. Combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS techniques, show that the tailing profiles are uniform, weakly altered, and vary slightly with depth in both physical and geochemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition. Mineralogical analysis showed the following order of abundance: quartz > epidote > chlorite > muscovite > calcite > hematite within the tailings profiles. The neutralization of the dominant alumino-silicate minerals and the absence of sulfidic minerals, have produced medium alkaline pH conditions (7.97–8.37 at all depths and low concentrations of dissolved Cu (20.21–47.9 µg/L, Zn (0.88–1.80 µg/L, Pb (0.27–0.34 µg/L, and SO42− (15.71–55.94 mg/L in the tailings profile leachates. The relative percentage leach for the potentially toxic chemical species was low in the aqueous phase (Ni 0.081%, Cu 0.006%, and Zn 0.05%. This indicates that the transport load of potentially toxic chemical species from tailings to the aqueous phase is very low. The precipitation of secondary hematite has an important known ability to trap and attenuate the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species (Cu, Zn, and Pb by adsorption on the surface area. Geochemical modelling MINTEQA2 showed that the tailings leachates were below saturation regarding oxyhydroxide minerals, but oversaturated with Cu

  18. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Although fluoride is plentiful in the environment and is commonly used at high concentrations in oral hygiene products, little has been known about how biological systems overcome the toxic effects of this anion. We demonstrate that a protein called FEX in many fungi is essential for cell survival in the presence of high fluoride concentrations. The protein is required for the rapid expulsion of cytoplasmic fluoride, indicating that many eukaryotic species that carry FEX genes likely avoid fl...

  19. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits agglomeration and macrophage uptake of toxic amine modified nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Zofi; Kendall, Michaela; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Whitwell, Harry; Elgy, Christine; Ding, Ping; Mahajan, Sumeet; Morgan, Cliff; Griffiths, Mark; Clark, Howard; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The lung provides the main route for nanomaterial exposure. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important respiratory innate immune molecule with the ability to bind or opsonise pathogens to enhance phagocytic removal from the airways. We hypothesised that SP-A, like surfactant protein D, may interact with inhaled nanoparticulates, and that this interaction will be affected by nanoparticle (NP) surface characteristics. In this study, we characterise the interaction of SP-A with unmodified (U-PS) and amine-modified (A-PS) polystyrene particles of varying size and zeta potential using dynamic light scatter analysis. SP-A associated with both 100 nm U-PS and A-PS in a calcium-independent manner. SP-A induced significant calcium-dependent agglomeration of 100 nm U-PS NPs but resulted in calcium-independent inhibition of A-PS self agglomeration. SP-A enhanced uptake of 100 nm U-PS into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but in contrast inhibited A-PS uptake. Reduced association of A-PS particles in RAW264.7 cells following pre-incubation of SP-A was also observed with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with these findings, alveolar macrophages (AMs) from SP-A(-/-) mice were more efficient at uptake of 100 nm A-PS compared with wild type C57Bl/6 macrophages. No difference in uptake was observed with 500 nm U-PS or A-PS particles. Pre-incubation with SP-A resulted in a significant decrease in uptake of 100 nm A-PS in macrophages isolated from both groups of mice. In contrast, increased uptake by AMs of U-PS was observed after pre-incubation with SP-A. Thus we have demonstrated that SP-A promotes uptake of non-toxic U-PS particles but inhibits the clearance of potentially toxic A-PS particles by blocking uptake into macrophages.

  20. Methoxsalen-induced macular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Maitray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralen compounds such as methoxsalen are photosensitizer agents used in conjunction with ultraviolet A (UVA radiation exposure as photochemotherapy (Psoralens and ultraviolet-A therapy [PUVA therapy] for certain epidermal skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. Methoxsalen has been shown to be associated with premature cataract formation by forming adducts with lens proteins following oral administration and subsequent UVA exposure. Hence, the use of UV-filtering glasses is recommended during PUVA therapy sessions. Ocular tissues can be exposed to its photosensitizing effect with subsequent UV radiation exposure through sunlight if the patient was to be without protective eye glasses, potentially causing macular toxicity. Till date, there have been no reports in the literature of any posterior segment ocular toxicity arising from methoxsalen use. Here, we describe a case of a bilateral macular toxicity in a middle-aged male treated with methoxsalen for vitiligo.

  1. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  3. Nanoscale copper in the soil–plant system – toxicity and underlying potential mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A., E-mail: anjum@ua.pt [CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Adam, Vojtech [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda [CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Iqbal, Muhammad [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110062 (India); Lukatkin, Alexander S. [Department of Botany, Plant Physiology and Ecology, N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Bolshevistskaja Str., 68. Saransk 430005 (Russian Federation); Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies & Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoscale copper particles (nano-Cu) are used in many antimicrobial formulations and products for their antimicrobial activity. They may enter deliberately and/or accidentally into terrestrial environments including soils. Being the major ‘eco-receptors’ of nanoscale particles in the terrestrial ecosystem, soil–microbiota and plants (the soil–plant system) have been used as a model to dissect the potential impact of these particles on the environmental and human health. In the soil–plant system, the plant can be an indirect non-target organism of the soil-associated nano-Cu that may in turn affect plant-based products and their consumers. By all accounts, information pertaining to nano-Cu toxicity and the underlying potential mechanisms in the soil–plant system remains scanty, deficient and little discussed. Therefore, based on some recent reports from (bio)chemical, molecular and genetic studies of nano-Cu versus soil–plant system, this article: (i) overviews the status, chemistry and toxicity of nano-Cu in soil and plants, (ii) discusses critically the poorly understood potential mechanisms of nano-Cu toxicity and tolerance both in soil–microbiota and plants, and (iii) proposes future research directions. It appears from studies hitherto made that the uncontrolled generation and inefficient metabolism of reactive oxygen species through different reactions are the major factors underpinning the overall nano-Cu consequences in both the systems. However, it is not clear whether the nano-Cu or the ion released from it is the cause of the toxicity. We advocate to intensify the multi-approach studies focused at a complete characterization of the nano-Cu, its toxicity (during life cycles of the least-explored soil–microbiota and plants), and behavior in an environmentally relevant terrestrial exposure setting. Such studies may help to obtain a deeper insight into nano-Cu actions and address adequately the nano-Cu-associated safety concerns in the

  4. Nanoscale copper in the soil–plant system – toxicity and underlying potential mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Iqbal, Muhammad; Lukatkin, Alexander S.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale copper particles (nano-Cu) are used in many antimicrobial formulations and products for their antimicrobial activity. They may enter deliberately and/or accidentally into terrestrial environments including soils. Being the major ‘eco-receptors’ of nanoscale particles in the terrestrial ecosystem, soil–microbiota and plants (the soil–plant system) have been used as a model to dissect the potential impact of these particles on the environmental and human health. In the soil–plant system, the plant can be an indirect non-target organism of the soil-associated nano-Cu that may in turn affect plant-based products and their consumers. By all accounts, information pertaining to nano-Cu toxicity and the underlying potential mechanisms in the soil–plant system remains scanty, deficient and little discussed. Therefore, based on some recent reports from (bio)chemical, molecular and genetic studies of nano-Cu versus soil–plant system, this article: (i) overviews the status, chemistry and toxicity of nano-Cu in soil and plants, (ii) discusses critically the poorly understood potential mechanisms of nano-Cu toxicity and tolerance both in soil–microbiota and plants, and (iii) proposes future research directions. It appears from studies hitherto made that the uncontrolled generation and inefficient metabolism of reactive oxygen species through different reactions are the major factors underpinning the overall nano-Cu consequences in both the systems. However, it is not clear whether the nano-Cu or the ion released from it is the cause of the toxicity. We advocate to intensify the multi-approach studies focused at a complete characterization of the nano-Cu, its toxicity (during life cycles of the least-explored soil–microbiota and plants), and behavior in an environmentally relevant terrestrial exposure setting. Such studies may help to obtain a deeper insight into nano-Cu actions and address adequately the nano-Cu-associated safety concerns in the

  5. Arsenic: A Review of the Element's Toxicity, Plant Interactions, and Potential Methods of Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2015-08-19

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element with a long history of toxicity. Sites of contamination are found worldwide as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The broad scope of arsenic toxicity to humans and its unique interaction with the environment have led to extensive research into its physicochemical properties and toxic behavior in biological systems. The purpose of this review is to compile the results of recent studies concerning the metalloid and consider the chemical and physical properties of arsenic in the broad context of human toxicity and phytoremediation. Areas of focus include arsenic's mechanisms of human toxicity, interaction with plant systems, potential methods of remediation, and protocols for the determination of metals in experimentation. This assessment of the literature indicates that controlling contamination of water sources and plants through effective remediation and management is essential to successfully addressing the problems of arsenic toxicity and contamination.

  6. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available John Wong, Bruce E Magun, Lisa J Wood School of Nursing, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials and those of heavy metals (from paint are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7 may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. Keywords: cigarette, mycotoxin, trichothecene, ricin, inflammasome, macrophage, inhibitors

  7. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  8. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  9. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, M.G.; Ka'aihue, L.

    2001-01-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  10. "The fairer the better?" Use of potentially toxic skin bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darj, Elisabeth; Infanti, Jennifer J; Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Okumu, Jecinta

    2015-12-01

    Skin bleaching is a widespread phenomenon in spite of their potentially toxic health effects. This study aimed to determine if such products are used in Sweden in particular by pregnant women, furthermore to explore immigrant women's view skin bleaching. 455 pregnant women completed a questionnaire, which were statistically analysed. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with immigrant women, content analysis was used to assess the data. Skin bleaching products were used by 2.6% of pregnant women, significantlly more by women born in non-European countries. Motivating factors were associated with the concept of beauty together with social and economic advantages. The women had low awareness of the potential health risks of the products. Regulations on the trade of skin bleaching products have not effectively reduced the availability of the products in Sweden nor the popularity of skin bleaching. There is need for further research especially among pregnant women and possible effects on newborns. Products should be tested for toxicity. Public health information should be developed and health care providers educated and aware of this practice, due to their potential negative health implications.

  11. Protein aggregation in bacteria: the thin boundary between functionality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Natalia G; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Van Eldere, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins have a negative impact on all living organisms. In recent years, aggregation has been studied in detail due to its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and type II diabetes--all associated with accumulation of amyloid fibrils. This research highlighted the central importance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis for short, defined as the cellular state in which the proteome is both stable and functional. It implicates an equilibrium between synthesis, folding, trafficking, aggregation, disaggregation and degradation. In accordance with the eukaryotic systems, it has been documented that protein aggregation also reduces fitness of bacterial cells, but although our understanding of the cellular protein quality control systems is perhaps most detailed in bacteria, the use of bacterial proteostasis as a drug target remains little explored. Here we describe protein aggregation as a normal physiological process and its role in bacterial virulence and we shed light on how bacteria defend themselves against the toxic threat of aggregates. We review the impact of aggregates on bacterial viability and look at the ways that bacteria use to maintain a balance between aggregation and functionality. The proteostasis in bacteria can be interrupted via overexpression of proteins, certain antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, as well as antimicrobial peptides--all leading to loss of cell viability. Therefore intracellular protein aggregation and disruption of proteostatic balance in bacteria open up another strategy that should be explored towards the discovery of new antimicrobials.

  12. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  13. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  14. Potential carcinogenicity predicted by computational toxicity evaluation of thiophosphate pesticides using QSTR/QSCarciAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Alina-Maria; Ilia, Gheorghe

    2017-07-01

    This study presents in silico prediction of toxic activities and carcinogenicity, represented by the potential carcinogenicity DSSTox/DBS, based on vector regression with a new Kernel activity, and correlating the predicted toxicity values through a QSAR model, namely: QSTR/QSCarciAR (quantitative structure toxicity relationship/quantitative structure carcinogenicity-activity relationship) described by 2D, 3D descriptors and biological descriptors. The results showed a connection between carcinogenicity (compared to the structure of a compound) and toxicity, as a basis for future studies on this subject, but each prediction is based on structurally similar compounds and the reactivation of the substructures of these compounds.

  15. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. — Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: ► We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public-supply wells. ► A screening

  16. Elemental Composition of Two Rice Cultivars under Potentially Toxic an Aquept and Aquent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesola Olutayo OLALEYE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron toxicity is a major nutrient disorder affecting rice production of wetland rice in the irrigated and rainfed ecosystem in West Africa sub-region. Little attention has been paid to evaluating nutrient contents of rice cultivars grown on such soils and their relationship to the iron toxicity scores, grain yield and dry matter yields. A pot experiment was conducted on two potentially Fe-toxic soils (Aeric Fluvaquent and Aeric Tropaquept. The experiment was a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment with three replicates in arranged in a randomized fashion. The factors were two soil types, two rice cultivars (ITA 212 and tolerant (Suakoko 8 and four Fe 2+ levels (control, 1000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1. The result showed that for both susceptible cultivar (ITA 212 and the relatively tolerant (Suakoko 8 cultivar, little or no differences were observed in their elemental composition with regards to micro and macro-nutrients. For the susceptible cultivar, results showed that none of the tissue nutrients significantly relates to iron toxicity scores (ITS, grain yield and dry matter yield on both soil types. However, for the tolerant cultivar, ITS was observed to be significantly related to tissue K and P contents on the two soil types respectively. Tissue Ca and Mg were observed to be significantly related to the dry matter yield (DMY on Aeric Tropquept. It could be concluded that for these rice cultivars grown on two potentially Fe-toxic soils, different tissue nutrients may trigger the manifestation of bronzing or yellowing symptoms of rice cultivars.

  17. Potential Use of Chemoprotectants against the Toxic Effects of Cyanotoxins: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

    2017-05-23

    Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN. Among chemoprotectants, antioxidant compounds are the most extensively studied, probably because it is well known that oxidative stress is one of the toxic mechanisms common to both toxins. In this group, vitamin E seems to have the strongest protectant effect for both cyanotoxins. Transport inhibitors have also been studied in the case of MCs, as CYN cellular uptake is not yet fully elucidated. Further research is needed because systematic studies are lacking. Moreover, more realistic exposure scenarios, including cyanotoxin mixtures and the concomitant use of chemoprotectants, should be considered.

  18. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  19. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  20. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  1. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  2. SMOG-CHAMBER TOXICOLOGY BETTER ESTIMATES THE TRUE TOXIC POTENTIAL OF ATMOSPHERIC MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemistry of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) have been studied for many years, yet little is known about how these chemicals, once interacted with urban atmospheres, affect healthy and susceptible individuals. The toxic potential of these very reactive compounds once they int...

  3. Protein degradation and protection against misfolded or damaged proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate mechanism that cells use to ensure the quality of intracellular proteins is the selective destruction of misfolded or damaged polypeptides. In eukaryotic cells, the large ATP-dependent proteolytic machine, the 26S proteasome, prevents the accumulation of non-functional, potentially toxic proteins. This process is of particular importance in protecting cells against harsh conditions (for example, heat shock or oxidative stress) and in a variety of diseases (for example, cystic fibrosis and the major neurodegenerative diseases). A full understanding of the pathogenesis of the protein-folding diseases will require greater knowledge of how misfolded proteins are recognized and selectively degraded.

  4. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to acute boron deficiency and toxicity reveals effects on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Mishra, Sasmita; Heckathorn, Scott A; Frantz, Jonathan M; Krause, Charles

    2014-02-15

    Boron (B) stress (deficiency and toxicity) is common in plants, but as the functions of this essential micronutrient are incompletely understood, so too are the effects of B stress. To investigate mechanisms underlying B stress, we examined protein profiles in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under normal B (30 μM), compared to plants transferred for 60 and 84 h (i.e., before and after initial visible symptoms) in deficient (0 μM) or toxic (3 mM) levels of B. B-responsive polypeptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, following 2D gel electrophoresis, and 1D gels and immunoblotting were used to confirm the B-responsiveness of some of these proteins. Fourteen B-responsive proteins were identified, including: 9 chloroplast proteins, 6 proteins of photosynthetic/carbohydrate metabolism (rubisco activase, OEC23, photosystem I reaction center subunit II-1, ATPase δ-subunit, glycolate oxidase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), 6 stress proteins, and 3 proteins involved in protein synthesis (note that the 14 proteins may fall into multiple categories). Most (8) of the B-responsive proteins decreased under both B deficiency and toxicity; only 3 increased with B stress. Boron stress decreased, or had no effect on, 3 of 4 oxidative stress proteins examined, and did not affect total protein. Hence, our results indicate relatively early specific effects of B stress on chloroplasts and protein synthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing coarse grained-and atom based-potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Dror

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein docking is a challenging computational problem in functional genomics, particularly when one or both proteins undergo conformational change(s upon binding. The major challenge is to define a scoring function soft enough to tolerate these changes and specific enough to distinguish between near-native and "misdocked" conformations. Results Using a linear programming (LP technique, we developed two types of potentials: (i Side chain-based and (ii Heavy atom-based. To achieve this we considered a set of 161 transient complexes and generated a large set of putative docked structures (decoys, based on a shape complementarity criterion, for each complex. The demand on the potentials was to yield, for the native (correctly docked structure, a potential energy lower than those of any of the non-native (misdocked structures. We show that the heavy atom-based potentials were able to comply with this requirement but not the side chain-based one. Thus, despite the smaller number of parameters, the capability of heavy atom-based potentials to discriminate between native and "misdocked" conformations is improved relative to those of the side chain-based potentials. The performance of the atom-based potentials was evaluated by a jackknife test on a set of 50 complexes taken from the Zdock2.3 decoys set. Conclusions Our results show that, using the LP approach, we were able to train our potentials using a dataset of transient complexes only the newly developed potentials outperform three other known potentials in this test.

  6. Identifying Toxic Impacts of Metals Potentially Released during Deep-Sea Mining—A Synthesis of the Challenges to Quantifying Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hauton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In January 2017, the International Seabed Authority released a discussion paper on the development of Environmental Regulations for deep-sea mining (DSM within the Area Beyond National Jurisdiction (the “Area”. With the release of this paper, the prospect for commercial mining in the Area within the next decade has become very real. Moreover, within nations' Exclusive Economic Zones, the exploitation of deep-sea mineral ore resources could take place on very much shorter time scales and, indeed, may have already started. However, potentially toxic metal mixtures may be released at sea during different stages of the mining process and in different physical phases (dissolved or particulate. As toxicants, metals can disrupt organism physiology and performance, and therefore may impact whole populations, leading to ecosystem scale effects. A challenge to the prediction of toxicity is that deep-sea ore deposits include complex mixtures of minerals, including potentially toxic metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead, as well as rare earth elements. Whereas the individual toxicity of some of these dissolved metals has been established in laboratory studies, the complex and variable mineral composition of seabed resources makes the a priori prediction of the toxic risk of DSM extremely challenging. Furthermore, although extensive data quantify the toxicity of metals in solution in shallow-water organisms, these may not be representative of the toxicity in deep-sea organisms, which may differ biochemically and physiologically and which will experience those toxicants under conditions of low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and potentially altered pH. In this synthesis, we present a summation of recent advances in our understanding of the potential toxic impacts of metal exposure to deep-sea meio- to megafauna at low temperature and high pressure, and consider the limitation of deriving lethal limits based on the paradigm of exposure to

  7. Cytosolic PrP Can Participate in Prion-Mediated Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M.; Zhang, Chang; Arndt, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are characterized by a conformational change in the normal host protein PrPC. While the majority of mature PrPC is tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, topological variants of this protein can arise during its biosynthesis. Here we have generated Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic ovine PrP in order to investigate its toxic potential in flies in the absence or presence of exogenous ovine prions. While cytosolic ovine PrP expressed in Drosophila was predominantly detergent insoluble and showed resistance to low concentrations of proteinase K, it was not overtly detrimental to the flies. However, Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic PrP expression exposed to classical or atypical scrapie prion inocula showed a faster decrease in locomotor activity than similar flies exposed to scrapie-free material. The susceptibility to classical scrapie inocula could be assessed in Drosophila transgenic for panneuronal expression of cytosolic PrP, whereas susceptibility to atypical scrapie required ubiquitous PrP expression. Significantly, the toxic phenotype induced by ovine scrapie in cytosolic PrP transgenic Drosophila was transmissible to recipient PrP transgenic flies. These data show that while cytosolic PrP expression does not adversely affect Drosophila, this topological PrP variant can participate in the generation of transmissible scrapie-induced toxicity. These observations also show that PrP transgenic Drosophila are susceptible to classical and atypical scrapie prion strains and highlight the utility of this invertebrate host as a model of mammalian prion disease. IMPORTANCE During prion diseases, the host protein PrPC converts into an abnormal conformer, PrPSc, a process coupled to the generation of transmissible prions and neurotoxicity. While PrPC is principally a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, the role of topological variants, such as cytosolic PrP, in prion-mediated toxicity and

  8. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  9. MicroRNA hsa-miR-29b potentiates etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells via down-regulation of Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollinerová, S; Dostál, Z; Modrianský, M

    2017-04-01

    Etoposide is commonly used as a monotherapy or in combination with other drugs for cancer treatments. In order to increase the drug efficacy, ceaseless search for novel combinations of drugs and supporting molecules is under way. MiRNAs are natural candidates for facilitating drug effect in various cell types. We used several systems to evaluate the effect of miR-29 family on etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells. We show that miR-29b significantly increases etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells. Because Mcl-1 protein has been recognized as a miR-29 family target, we evaluated downregulation of Mcl-1 protein splicing variant expression induced by miR-29 precursors and confirmed a key role of Mcl-1 protein in enhancing etoposide toxicity. Despite downregulation of Mcl-1 by all three miR-29 family members, only miR-29b significantly enhanced etoposide toxicity. We hypothesized that this difference may be linked to the change in Mcl-1L/Mcl-1S ratio induced by miR-29b. We hypothesized that the change could be due to miR-29b nuclear shuttling. Using specifically modified miR-29b sequences with enhanced cytosolic and nuclear localization we show that there is a difference, albeit statistically non-significant. In conclusion, we show that miR-29b has the synergistic effect with etoposide treatment in the HeLa cells and that this effect is linked to Mcl-1 protein expression and nuclear shuttling of miR-29b. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human protein...

  11. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  12. Investigation of the potential influence of production treatment chemicals on produced water toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, E.R.; Gala, W.R.; Henry, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Production treatment chemicals represent a diverse collection of chemical classes, added at various points from the wellhead to the final flotation cell, to prevent operational upsets and enhance the separation of oil from water. Information in the literature indicates that while many treatment chemicals are thought to partition into oil and not into the produced water, there are cases where a sufficiently water soluble treatment chemical is added at high enough concentrations to suggest that the treatment chemical may add to the aquatic toxicity of the produced water. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of production treatment chemicals on the toxicity of produced waters using the US EPA Seven-day Mysidopsis bahia Survival, Growth and Fecundity Test. Samples of produced water were collected and tested for toxicity from three platforms under normal operating conditions, followed by repeated sampling and testing after a 72-hour period in which treatment chemical usage was discontinued, to the degree possible. Significant reductions in produced water toxicity were observed for two of the three platforms tested following either cessation of treatment chemical usage, or by comparing the toxicity of samples collected upstream and downstream of the point of treatment chemical addition

  13. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  14. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  15. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  16. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  18. Toxic Effects of Fungicides (Penconazole and Triadimenol) on Growth and Protein Amount of Scenedesmus acutus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agirman, N.; Bedil, B.; Kendirlioglu, G.; Cetin, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effects of penconazole and triadimenol to protein amount and growth of the microalgae Scenedesmus acutus were investigated. The culture of S. acutus was exposed to dissimilar concentrations of penconazole and triadimenol (1, 3, 6, 10 and 15 meu g/L) in the climate chamber at 23 ± 1 degree C and 16:8 photoperiod. Cell numbers and growth rates in liquid cultures of S. acutus were calculated for a period of four days. The results indicated toxic effects of penconazole and triadimenol on growth and protein amount of S. acutus. The protein amount and cell number of S. acutus in cultures treated with penconazole and triadimenol were rapidly decreasing at second day. (author)

  19. An assessment of the potential toxicity of runoff from an urban roadscape during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waara, Sylvia; Färm, Carina

    2008-05-01

    The potential negative impact of urban storm water on aquatic freshwater ecosystems has been demonstrated in various studies with different types of biological methods. There are a number of factors that influence the amount and bioavailability of contaminants in storm water even if it is derived from an area with a fairly homogenous land use such as a roadscape where a variation in toxicity during rain events might be expected. There are only a few previous investigations on the toxicity of highway runoff and they have not explored these issues extensively. The main objective of this study is therefore to characterize the potential toxicity of highway runoff during several rain events before it enters a detention pond in Västerås, Sweden, using laboratory bioassays with test organisms representing various functional groups in an aquatic ecosystem. The results are to be used for developing a monitoring program, including biological methods. The storm water was sampled before the entrance to a detention pond, which receives run-off from a highway with approximately 20,000 vehicles a day. The drainage area, including the roadscape and vegetated areas, is 4.3 ha in size. Samples for toxicity tests were taken with an automatic sampler or manually during storm events. In total, the potential toxicity of 65 samples representing 15 different storm events was determined. The toxicity was assessed with 4 different test organisms; Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox comparison test, Daphnia magna using Daphtoxkit-F agna, Thamnocephalus platyurus using the ThamnotoxkitF and Lemna minor, duckweed using SS 028313. Of the 65 samples, 58 samples were tested with DaphniatoxkitF agna, 57 samples with the Microtox comparison test, 48 samples with ThamnotoxkitF and 20 samples with Lemna minor, duckweed. None of the storm water samples were toxic. No toxicity was detected with the Lemna minor test, but in 5 of the 23 samples tested in comparison to the control a growth stimulation of

  20. Pulmonary heat shock protein expression after exposure to a metabolically activated Clara cell toxicant: relationship to protein adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kurt J.; Cruikshank, Michael K.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock proteins/stress proteins (Hsps) participate in regulation of protein synthesis and degradation and serve as general cytoprotectants, yet their role in lethal Clara cell injury is not clear. To define the pattern of Hsp expression in acute lethal Clara cell injury, mice were treated with the Clara cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA), and patterns of expression compared to electrophilic protein adduction and previously established organellar degradation and gluathione (GSH) depletion. In sites of lethal injury (distal bronchiole), prior to organellar degradation (1 h post-NA), protein adduction is detectable and ubiquitin, Hsp 25, Hsp 72, and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) are increased. Maximal Hsp expression, protein adduction, and GSH depletion occur simultaneous (by 2-3 h) with early organelle disruption. Hsp expression is higher later (6-24 h), only in exfoliating cells. In airway sites (proximal bronchiole) with nonlethal Clara cell injury elevation of Hsp 25, 72, and HO-1 expression follows significant GSH depletion (greater than 50% 2 h post-NA). This data build upon our previous studies and we conclude that (1) in lethal (terminal bronchiole) and nonlethal (proximal bronchiole) Clara cell injury, Hsp induction is associated with the loss of GSH and increased protein adduction, and (2) in these same sites, organelle disruption is not a prerequisite for Hsp induction

  1. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  2. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  3. UV-visible degradation of boscalid--structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Kinani, Aziz; Rifai, Ahmad; Souissi, Yasmine; Clavaguera, Carine; Bourcier, Sophie; Jaber, Farouk; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2014-05-30

    Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MS(n) ) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg(-1). With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound, all photoproducts may

  4. UV-visible degradation of boscalid- structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.; Jaber, F.; Lassalle, Y.; Kinani, A.; Souissi, Y.; Clavaguera, C.; Bourcier, S.; Bouchonnet, St.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. METHODS: Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. RESULTS: Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg1. CONCLUSIONS: With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound

  5. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha press cake and leaves are the potential sources of protein. Jatropha proteins can be extracted from Jatropha seed press cake or leaves, with or without detoxification to remove the toxic phorbol esters...

  6. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of nanogold conjugated snake venom protein toxin GNP-NKCT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nanoparticles has created interest among the biomedical scientists. Nanoparticle conjugation aims to target drug delivery, increase drug efficacy and imaging for better diagnosis. Toxicity profile of the nanoconjugated molecules has not been studied well. In this communication, the toxicity profile of snake venom cytotoxin (NKCT1, an antileukemic protein toxin, was evaluated after its conjugation with gold nanoparticle (GNP-NKCT1. Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 was done with NaBH4 reduction method. The conjugated product GNP-NKCT1 was found less toxic than NKCT1 on isolated rat lymphocyte, mice peritoneal macrophage, in culture, which was evident from the MTT/Trypan blue assay. Peritoneal mast cell degranulation was in the order of NKCT1 > GNP-NKCT1. The in vitro cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity were increased in case of NKCT1 than GNP-NKCT1. On isolated kidney tissue, NKCT1 released significant amount of ALP and γ-GT than GNP-NKCT1. Gold nanoconjugation with NKCT1 also reduced the lethal activity in mice. In vivo acute/sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice showed significant increase in molecular markers due to NKCT1 treatment, which was reduced by gold nanoconjugation. Histopathology study showed decreased toxic effect of NKCT1 in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation significantly decreased the toxicity profile of NKCT1. Further studies are in progress to establish the molecular mechanism of GNP induced toxicity reduction.

  7. Star Polymers Reduce Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Toxicity via Accelerated Amyloid Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Emily H; Lai, May; Ge, Xinwei; Stanley, William J; Wang, Bo; Wang, Miaoyi; Kakinen, Aleksandr; Sani, Marc-Antonie; Whittaker, Michael R; Gurzov, Esteban N; Ding, Feng; Quinn, John F; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun

    2017-12-11

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is a ubiquitous phenomenon across the spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders and type 2 diabetes. A common strategy against amyloidogenesis is to minimize the populations of toxic oligomers and protofibrils by inhibiting protein aggregation with small molecules or nanoparticles. However, melanin synthesis in nature is realized by accelerated protein fibrillation to circumvent accumulation of toxic intermediates. Accordingly, we designed and demonstrated the use of star-shaped poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) nanostructures for promoting aggregation while ameliorating the toxicity of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), the peptide involved in glycemic control and the pathology of type 2 diabetes. The binding of PHEA elevated the β-sheet content in IAPP aggregates while rendering a new morphology of "stelliform" amyloids originating from the polymers. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the PHEA arms served as rodlike scaffolds for IAPP binding and subsequently accelerated IAPP aggregation by increased local peptide concentration. The tertiary structure of the star nanoparticles was found to be essential for driving the specific interactions required to impel the accelerated IAPP aggregation. This study sheds new light on the structure-toxicity relationship of IAPP and points to the potential of exploiting star polymers as a new class of therapeutic agents against amyloidogenesis.

  8. Peculiarities of the free radical processes in rat liver mitochondria under toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rate of superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, the level of oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins in the liver of rats with toxic hepatitis was investigated on the background of alimentary protein deficiency. We did not find significant increases of the intensity of free radical processes in liver mitochondria of rats maintained on the protein-deficient ration. The most significant intensification of free radical processes in liver mitochondria is observed under the conditions of toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of alimentary protein deprivation. Under these conditions the aggravation of all studied forms of reactive oxygen species generation was observed in liver mitochondria. The generation rates were increased as follows: O2 – by 1.7 times, Н2О2 – by 1.5 times, •ОН – practically double on the background of accumulation of oxidized mitochondria-derived proteins. The established changes in thiol groups’ redox status of respiratory chain proteins insoluble in 0.05 M sodium-phosphate buffer (pH 11.5, and changes of their carbonyl derivatives content may be considered as one of the regulatory factors of mitochondrial energy-generating function.

  9. Essential multimeric enzymes in kinetoplastid parasites: A host of potentially druggable protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Leah M; Johnson, Meredith G; Gavenonis, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by kinetoplastid parasites of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania are an urgent public health crisis in the developing world. These closely related species possess a number of multimeric enzymes in highly conserved pathways involved in vital functions, such as redox homeostasis and nucleotide synthesis. Computational alanine scanning of these protein-protein interfaces has revealed a host of potentially ligandable sites on several established and emerging anti-parasitic drug targets. Analysis of interfaces with multiple clustered hotspots has suggested several potentially inhibitable protein-protein interactions that may have been overlooked by previous large-scale analyses focusing solely on secondary structure. These protein-protein interactions provide a promising lead for the development of new peptide and macrocycle inhibitors of these enzymes.

  10. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  11. Protein alkylation, transcriptional responses and cytochrome c release during acrolein toxicity in A549 cells: influence of nucleophilic culture media constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Colin A; Burcham, Philip C

    2008-06-01

    Acrolein is a toxic combustion product that elicits apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death depending on the conditions under which exposure occurs. As a strong electrophile, side-reactions with nucleophilic media constituents seem likely to accompany study of its toxicity in vitro, but these reactions are poorly characterized. We have thus examined the effect of media composition on the toxicity of acrolein in A549 cells. Cells were exposed to acrolein in either Dulbecco's buffered saline (DBS) or F12 supplemented with various concentrations of fetal bovine serum. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay, while heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cytoplasmic cytochrome c were measured as respective markers of transcriptional response and apoptosis. Protein damage was evaluated using the protein carbonyl assay. Compared to F12 media (with or without serum), maximal cell death as evaluated using the MTT assay, as well as adduction of intracellular proteins, occurred when cells were exposed to acrolein in DBS. In contrast, cytochrome c release was maximal in cells exposed to acrolein in serum-containing F12, conditions which inhibited protein modification and overt cell death. These findings highlight the need for careful attention to experimental conditions when conducting in vitro toxicological studies of reactive substances.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of acrolein toxicity: relevance to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Akshata; Ghare, Smita; Lamoreau, Bryan; Mohammad, Mohammad; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2015-02-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and its potential as a serious environmental health threat is beginning to be recognized. Humans are exposed to acrolein per oral (food and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and biocide use) and dermal routes, in addition to endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation). Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. This review addresses our current understanding of each pathogenic mechanism of acrolein toxicity, with emphasis on the known and anticipated contribution to clinical disease, and potential therapies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  14. Seeking a Mechanism for the Toxicity of Oligomeric α-Synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel L. Roberts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a number of neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD, α‑synuclein is aberrantly folded, forming abnormal oligomers, and amyloid fibrils within nerve cells. Strong evidence exists for the toxicity of increased production and aggregation of α-synuclein in vivo. The toxicity of α-synuclein is popularly attributed to the formation of “toxic oligomers”: a heterogenous and poorly characterized group of conformers that may share common molecular features. This review presents the available evidence on the properties of α-synuclein oligomers and the potential molecular mechanisms of their cellular disruption. Toxic α-synuclein oligomers may impact cells in a number of ways, including the disruption of membranes, mitochondrial depolarization, cytoskeleton changes, impairment of protein clearance pathways, and enhanced oxidative stress. We also examine the relationship between α-synuclein toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils, in the light of recent studies that paint a more complex picture of α-synuclein toxicity. Finally, methods of studying and manipulating oligomers within cells are described.

  15. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  17. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline; Billon, Gabriel; Ouddane, Baghdad; Boughriet, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. → Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. → Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. → Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? → Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water quality data recommended

  18. SERCA plays a crucial role in the toxicity of a betulinic acid derivative with potential antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Denise; Wildner, Andreia C; Silveira, Thayse F; Silva, Gloria N S; Santos, Francine Dos; da Silva, Elenilson F; do Canto, Vanessa P; Visioli, Fernanda; Gosmann, Grace; Bergold, Ana M; Zimmer, Aline R; Netz, Paulo A; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2018-05-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant infectious diseases that affect poor populations in tropical areas throughout the world. Plants have been shown to be a good source for the development of new antimalarial chemotherapeutic agents, as shown for the discovery of quinine and artemisinin derivatives. Our research group has been working with semisynthetic triterpene derivatives that show potential antimalarial activity toward different strains of Plasmodium falciparum by specifically modulating calcium pathways in the parasite. Promising results were obtained for nanomolar concentrations of the semisynthetic betulinic acid derivative LAFIS13 against the P. falciparum 3D7 strain in vitro, with a selectivity index of 18 compared to a mammalian cell line. Continuing these studies, we present here in vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluations of this compound, followed by docking studies with PfATP6, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca +2 -ATPase (SERCA) protein. LAFIS13 showed an LD 50 between 300 and 50 mg/kg, and the acute administration of 50 mg/kg (i.p.) had no negative effects on hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Based on the results of the in vitro assays, LAFIS13 not exerted significant effects on coagulation parameters of human peripheral blood, but a hemolytic activity was verified at higher concentrations. According to the molecular docking study, the PfATP6 protein may be a target for LAFIS13, which corroborates its previously reported modulatory effects on calcium homeostasis in the parasite. Notably, LAFIS13 showed a higher selectivity for the mammalian SERCA protein than for PfATP6, thus impairing the selectivity between parasite and host. In summary, the direct interaction with calcium pumps and the hemolytic potential of the compound proved to be plausible mechanism of LAFIS13 toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Sterculia foetida L. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and HeLa cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2014-01-01

    A one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (Ag-PL NPs) (core–shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild Indian Almond tree, Sterculia foetida (L.) (Sterculiaceae). The reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of NPs. The amount of NPs synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. TEM studies exhibited controlled dispersity of spherical shaped NPs with an average size of 6.9 ± 0.2 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed ‘fcc’ phase and crystallinity of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the protein–lipid (PL) bilayer that appears as a shell around the Ag core particles. The thermal stability of the Ag-PL NPs was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further analysis was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where the spectra provided evidence for the presence of proteins and lipid moieties ((2n-octylcycloprop-1-enyl)-octanoic acid (I)), and their role in synthesis and stabilization of Ag NPs. This is the first report of plant seed assisted synthesis of PL conjugated Ag NPs. These formed Ag-PL NPs showed potential mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These Ag-PL NPs can also act as promising agents in cancer therapy. They exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and a promising toxicity was observed in a dose dependent manner. Toxicity studies were further supported by the cellular DNA fragmentation in the Ag-PL NPs treated HeLa cells. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of protein-lipid conjugated Ag NPs using S. foetida L. seed extract. • S. foetida seed extract acted as good reducing and stabilizing agent for Ag NPs. • XPS and

  20. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Sterculia foetida L. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and HeLa cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Rani, Pathipati Usha, E-mail: usharani65@yahoo.com

    2014-06-01

    A one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (Ag-PL NPs) (core–shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild Indian Almond tree, Sterculia foetida (L.) (Sterculiaceae). The reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of NPs. The amount of NPs synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. TEM studies exhibited controlled dispersity of spherical shaped NPs with an average size of 6.9 ± 0.2 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed ‘fcc’ phase and crystallinity of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the protein–lipid (PL) bilayer that appears as a shell around the Ag core particles. The thermal stability of the Ag-PL NPs was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further analysis was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where the spectra provided evidence for the presence of proteins and lipid moieties ((2n-octylcycloprop-1-enyl)-octanoic acid (I)), and their role in synthesis and stabilization of Ag NPs. This is the first report of plant seed assisted synthesis of PL conjugated Ag NPs. These formed Ag-PL NPs showed potential mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These Ag-PL NPs can also act as promising agents in cancer therapy. They exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and a promising toxicity was observed in a dose dependent manner. Toxicity studies were further supported by the cellular DNA fragmentation in the Ag-PL NPs treated HeLa cells. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of protein-lipid conjugated Ag NPs using S. foetida L. seed extract. • S. foetida seed extract acted as good reducing and stabilizing agent for Ag NPs. • XPS and

  1. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C or FUS (S57Δ or R521H that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  2. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  3. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Qvit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase and TRACK (Trypanosoma receptor for activated C-kinase. We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase, may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. Keywords: Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, Peptide, LACK, TRACK, Scaffold protein

  4. Protein corona: a new approach for nanomedicine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen VH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Van Hong Nguyen, Beom-Jin Lee Department of Pharmacy, Bioavailability Control Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: After administration of nanoparticle (NP into biological fluids, an NP–protein complex is formed, which represents the “true identity” of NP in our body. Hence, protein–NP interaction should be carefully investigated to predict and control the fate of NPs or drug-loaded NPs, including systemic circulation, biodistribution, and bioavailability. In this review, we mainly focus on the formation of protein corona and its potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences such as prediction modeling based on NP-adsorbed proteins, usage of active proteins for modifying NP to achieve toxicity reduction, circulation time enhancement, and targeting effect. Validated correlative models for NP biological responses mainly based on protein corona fingerprints of NPs are more highly accurate than the models solely set up from NP properties. Based on these models, effectiveness as well as the toxicity of NPs can be predicted without in vivo tests, while novel cell receptors could be identified from prominent proteins which play important key roles in the models. The ungoverned protein adsorption onto NPs may have generally negative effects such as rapid clearance from the bloodstream, hindrance of targeting capacity, and induction of toxicity. In contrast, controlling protein adsorption by modifying NPs with diverse functional proteins or tailoring appropriate NPs which favor selective endogenous peptides and proteins will bring promising therapeutic benefits in drug delivery and targeted cancer treatment. Keywords: protein-nanoparticle interaction, protein corona, exchange of adsorbed protein, toxicity reduction, predictive modeling, targeting drug delivery

  5. Development of entomotoxic molecules as control agents: illustration of some protein potential uses and limits of lectins (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide use of pesticide has dramatically increased during the last two decades, which are known to cause a lot of problems to both environment and human health. Due to the harmful effects of insecticide on environment, human health, non target organism, water pollution and increasing insect resistance, recent efforts have been made to reduce broad spectrum of toxicant added to the environment. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. Currently, the use of entomotoxic proteins has been increased because of the growing need to obtain better food quality and to protect the environment. Bt toxins derived from bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt the main commercial genetically modified organism (GMO, or entomotoxic product were successfully used against a range of insect orders such as Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. In recent years, several investigations were focused on other entomotoxic potential, including products based on some defense proteins present in plants. Among them some classes of proteins such as digestive enzyme inhibitors and lectins showed greater potential for exploitation in transgenic-based pest control strategies. Currently, some lectins from plant and fungal origin were successfully used against a wide range of important insect pests.

  6. Microplastic potentiates triclosan toxicity to the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Nielsen, Anne; Khan, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co-exposure......Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co......-exposures of MP and HOC are mixtures of hazardous agents, which can be addressed from a mixture toxicity perspective. In this study, mixture effects of polyethylene microbeads (MP) and triclosan (TCS) (a commonly used antibacterial agent in cosmetics) were assessed on the marine copepod Acartia tonsa. Data...... indicated that MP potentiate the toxicity of TCS, illustrating the importance of understanding the mixture interaction between plastics and HOC when addressing the environmental importance of the vector effect....

  7. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinyong; Huang Heqing; Bao Xiaodong; Lin Qingmei; Cai Zongwei

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  8. Formation of toxic peptides in irradiated rats and binding thereof with blood serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomatin, V.V.; Efimenko, G.P.; Lifshits, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-body γ-irradiation of rats with a dose of 9.0 Gy caused a 1.5-fold and a 5-fold increase in excretion of bas peptides (molecular mass of 500-2000) in urea on the 2nd and 5th postirradiation days, respectively. These peptides possessed toxic activity and ability to form complexes with macroglobulins, immunoglobulins, and blood serum albumins, in particular. Irradiation decreased binding ability of serum proteins, and preliminary washing thereof by ultrafiltration increased it

  9. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO2 on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi; Tao Ran; Yang Xiangliang; Gao Zhonghong

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO 2 products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO 2 - . It was found that anatase TiO 2 and Degussa P25 TiO 2 showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO 2 -photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO 2 to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process

  10. Toxic effects of {sup 56}Fe ion radiation on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Song, Jing’e [Hospital of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gan, Lu; Zhou, Xin; Di, Cuixia; Liu, Yang; Mao, Aihong; Zhao, Qiuyue; Wang, Yupei [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Wuwei Institute of Medical Sciences, Wuwei 733000 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Iron ion radiation induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • The mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes displayed more sensitivity than the developmental toxicity. • Iron ion radiation induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos potentially due to DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. - Abstract: All living organisms and ecosystems are permanently exposed to ionizing radiation. Of all the types of ionizing radiation, heavy ions such as {sup 56}Fe have the potential to cause the most severe biological effects. We therefore examined the effects and potential mechanisms of iron ion irradiation on the induction of developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 4 h post-fertilization (hpf) were divided into five groups: a control group; and four groups irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 Gy radiation, respectively. Mortality and teratogenesis were significantly increased, and spontaneous movement, heart rate, and swimming distance were decreased in the irradiated groups, accompanied by increased apoptosis. mRNA levels of genes involved in the apoptotic pathway, including p53, bax, bcl-2, and caspase-3, were significantly affected by radiation exposure. Moreover, protein expression levels of P53 and Bcl-2 changed in accordance with the corresponding mRNA expression levels. In addition, we detected the protein expression levels of γ-H2AX, which is a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, and found that γ-H2AX protein levels were significantly increased in the irradiated groups. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of the mechanisms of iron ion radiation-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis, potentially involving the induction of DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. The findings of this study may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish.

  11. Development and Preliminary Assessment of Hemoperfusion Cartridge with Tannic Acid for Toxic Proteins' Precipitation: An In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Miwa Hanai Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP is one of the extracorporeal removal techniques that are used to remove toxins from the body. CHP generally is considered the preferred method for extracorporeal extraction of several toxins—toxins that are adsorbed by activated charcoal. Assessments of the tannic acid's protective effects on ophidian poisoning are associated with the toxic proteins' precipitation by tannic acid. The challenge in treating a snakebite lies in removing the injected poison with minimal damage to blood constituent proteins. An alternative is CHP, and this investigation proposed to develop a column for hemoperfuser cartridge, combining charcoal granules trapped between layers of polymeric material conjugated to tannic acid, using an in vitro model scaled to the Wistar rat, which can be tested in an animal model. The cartridge was evaluated using the 22 full factorial design, in duplicate, as a method to study the effects of granulated-charcoal size and tannic acid concentration on the hematologic profile (platelet and leukocyte counts and biochemical profile (total serum protein and albumin dosages of sheep blood. The results demonstrate that charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge: (1 decreases the serum in sheep blood volume, as consequence, (2 increases the serum proteins' concentration, and (iii exerts slight influence on albumin. The inclusion of tannic acid in hemoperfuser column precipitates some of serum proteins and albumin, decreasing their concentrations in the plasma serum. In conclusion, based on these effects we can suggest the use of 0.02 g tannic acid concentration and 8–20 mesh granulated charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge for precipitating toxic proteins from snake venoms.

  12. Bioaccumulation of potentially toxic trace elements in benthic organisms of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, Alessandra Pereira; Petti, Mônica Angélica Varella; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Theophilo, Carolina Yume Sawamura; Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Toxic metals were released in the 2012 fire in the Brazilian base at Admiralty Bay. • Potentially toxic metals were measured in eight Antarctic benthos species. • The bioaccumulation of As, Cd and Pb was verified in the studied species. • The biomagnification of Cd is suggested for the studied Antarctic food web. - Abstract: Data about the concentration, accumulation and transfer of potentially toxic elements in Antarctic marine food webs are essential for understanding the impacts of these elements, and for monitoring the pollution contribution of scientific stations, mainly in Admiralty Bay due to the 2012 fire in the Brazilian scientific station. Accordingly, the concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was measured in eight benthic species collected in the 2005/2006 austral summer and the relationship between concentration and trophic position (indicated by δ 15 N values) was tested. A wide variation in metal content was observed depending on the species and the element. In the studied trophic positions, it was observed bioaccumulation for As, Cd and Pb, which are toxic elements with no biological function. In addition, Cd showed a positive relationship between concentration and trophic level suggesting the possible biomagnification of this element

  13. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  14. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  15. Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate-Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Gomez, Alex F; Castell-Perez, M Elena

    2015-06-01

    The high cost and potential toxicity of biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) has increased the interest in natural and modified biopolymers as bioactive carriers. This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate-modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and α-lactalbumin (α-L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen samples. The Guggenheim-Andersen-de Boer model indicated that native waxy corn had significantly (P whey proteins had higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. On the other hand, depolymerized waxy starches at 7%-OSA modification had a "melted" appearance when exposed to environments with high relative humidity (above 70%) after 10 days at 23 °C. The use of depolymerized and OSA-modified polysaccharides blended with proteins created more stable blends of biopolymers. Hence, this biopolymer would be suitable for materials exposed to high humidity environments in food applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guitao; Chen Zhenlou; Xu Shiyuan; Zhang Ju; Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan; Teng Jiyan

    2008-01-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai

  17. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Guitao [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Chen Zhenlou [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: gt_shi@163.com; Xu Shiyuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Ju [School of Environment and Planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Teng Jiyan [Shanghai Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai 202183 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai.

  18. Speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schollbach, K.; Alam, Q.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) is the main residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which can have some applications in construction materials, but is mostly landfilled in many countries. The main problem is the high concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), particularly in the fine

  19. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection.

  20. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  1. An integrative view of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities: molecular mechanisms, current treatment challenges and potential protective measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J.; Peppone, Luke J.; de Graaf, Inge A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is currently one of the most widely-used chemotherapeutic agents against various malignancies. Its clinical application is limited, however, by inherent renal and cardiac toxicities and other side effects, of which the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. Experimental studies show cisplatin generates reactive oxygen species, which impair the cell’s antioxidant defense system, causing oxidative stress and potentiating injury, thereby culminating in kidney and heart failure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities may allow clinicians to prevent or treat this problem better and may also provide a model for investigating drug-induced organ toxicity in general. This review discusses some of the major molecular mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities including disruption of ionic homeostasis and energy status of the cell leading to cell injury and cell death. We highlight clinical manifestations of both toxicities as well as (novel)biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We also present some current treatment challenges and propose potential protective strategies with novel pharmacological compounds that might mitigate or prevent these toxicities, which include the use of hydrogen sulfide. PMID:27717837

  2. Potential roles for uncoupling proteins in HIV lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David; Pace, Craig

    2004-07-01

    The 'HIV lipodystrophy syndrome' consists of several distinct components, including lipoatrophy (pathological subcutaneous fat loss), lipohypertrophy (abdominal/visceral adiposity), and metabolic complications including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Lipoatrophy appears to represent an adipose tissue-specific form of mitochondrial toxicity associated strongly with stavudine NRTI therapy, whilst the 'metabolic syndrome' phenotype is associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy. In this context, the role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in modulating resting energy expenditure in response to elevated fatty acid flux associated with the 'metabolic syndrome' is supported by clinical data as well as findings of elevated adipose tissue UCP expression. The role of UCPs in this syndrome therefore exemplifies the multifactorial nature of these antiretroviral therapy complications.

  3. Toxicity of diuron in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Marjo; Loikkanen, Jarkko; Naarala, Jonne; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    Diuron is a substituted phenylurea used as a herbicide to control broadleaf and grass weeds and as a biocidal antifouling agent. Diuron is carcinogenic in rat urinary bladder and toxic to the reproductive system of oysters, sea urchins and lizards. The few studies carried out in human cells do not include the genotoxicity of diuron. We have investigated the toxicity of diuron in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was statistically significantly increased in both cell lines but only at the highest 200 μM concentration. Diuron clearly reduced the viability of BeWo, but not MCF-7 cells. The relative cell number was decreased in both cell lines indicative of inhibition of cell proliferation. In the Comet assay, diuron increased DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 but not in BeWo cells. The expressions of p53 protein, a marker for cell stress, and p21 protein, a transcriptional target of p53, were increased, but only in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that diuron is cytotoxic and potentially genotoxic in a tissue-specific manner and that ROS play a role in its toxicity. Thus, exposure to diuron may exert harmful effects on fetal development and damage human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos toward zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Shulin, E-mail: shulin@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Zhisheng [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Wenjing; Bao, Lingling [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Chao, E-mail: chaoxu@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 210021 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pyraclofos has significant enantioselective aquatic toxicities to zebrafish. • Pyraclofos induces time- and concentration-dependent developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity. • The mRNA level of IL-1β gene was significantly up-regulated by pyraclofos. • Pyraclofos binds potently to IL-1β, potentially affecting IL-1β-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction. • Our in vitro and in silico studies help to understand the molecular basis for aquatic toxicity of pyraclofos. - Abstract: Pyraclofos, a relatively new organophosphorus pesticide, has shown potential ecotoxicities, however, its aquatic toxicity, especially enantioselective aquatic toxicity, remains largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent vertebrate aquatic model, the enantioselective differences in the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos were evaluated. Following 96-h exposure, pyraclofos enantiomers exhibited acute toxicity and showed lethal concentration 50 of 2.23 and 3.99 mg/L for (R)-Pyraclofos and (S)-Pyraclofos, respectively. Exposure to pyraclofos caused time- and concentration-dependent malformations such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked bodies and hatching during the embryonic development, with markedly higher percentages of malformation at higher concentrations. The concentration-dependent immunotoxicity to zebrafish embryo exposed to low level pyraclofos was induced with significant up-regulation of mRNA levels of immune-related interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene. (R)-Pyraclofos was consistently more toxic than (S)-Pyraclofos for the acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that at the atomic level, (R)-Pyraclofos binds more potently to IL-1β protein than (S)-Pyraclofos. This enantioselective binding is mainly contributed by the distinct binding mode of pyraclofos enantiomers and their electrostatic interactions with IL-1β, which potentially

  5. Enantioselective developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos toward zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Wenjing; Bao, Lingling; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyraclofos has significant enantioselective aquatic toxicities to zebrafish. • Pyraclofos induces time- and concentration-dependent developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity. • The mRNA level of IL-1β gene was significantly up-regulated by pyraclofos. • Pyraclofos binds potently to IL-1β, potentially affecting IL-1β-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction. • Our in vitro and in silico studies help to understand the molecular basis for aquatic toxicity of pyraclofos. - Abstract: Pyraclofos, a relatively new organophosphorus pesticide, has shown potential ecotoxicities, however, its aquatic toxicity, especially enantioselective aquatic toxicity, remains largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent vertebrate aquatic model, the enantioselective differences in the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos were evaluated. Following 96-h exposure, pyraclofos enantiomers exhibited acute toxicity and showed lethal concentration 50 of 2.23 and 3.99 mg/L for (R)-Pyraclofos and (S)-Pyraclofos, respectively. Exposure to pyraclofos caused time- and concentration-dependent malformations such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked bodies and hatching during the embryonic development, with markedly higher percentages of malformation at higher concentrations. The concentration-dependent immunotoxicity to zebrafish embryo exposed to low level pyraclofos was induced with significant up-regulation of mRNA levels of immune-related interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene. (R)-Pyraclofos was consistently more toxic than (S)-Pyraclofos for the acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that at the atomic level, (R)-Pyraclofos binds more potently to IL-1β protein than (S)-Pyraclofos. This enantioselective binding is mainly contributed by the distinct binding mode of pyraclofos enantiomers and their electrostatic interactions with IL-1β, which potentially

  6. Heat shock protein 90 in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodina Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone with important roles in regulating pathogenic transformation. In addition to its well-characterized functions in malignancy, recent evidence from several laboratories suggests a role for Hsp90 in maintaining the functional stability of neuronal proteins of aberrant capacity, whether mutated or over-activated, allowing and sustaining the accumulation of toxic aggregates. In addition, Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1, the master regulator of the heat shock response, mechanism that cells use for protection when exposed to conditions of stress. These biological functions therefore propose Hsp90 inhibition as a dual therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative diseases. First, by suppressing aberrant neuronal activity, Hsp90 inhibitors may ameliorate protein aggregation and its associated toxicity. Second, by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity. This mini-review will summarize our current knowledge on Hsp90 in neurodegeneration and will focus on the potential beneficial application of Hsp90 inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  8. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  9. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  10. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed.

  11. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarró, Eduard; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita; Itarte, Emilio; Meseguer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  12. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  13. Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace organic compounds associated with human activity are now ubiquitous in the environment. As the population becomes more urbanised and the use of pesticides and person care products continues to increase, urban waterways are likely to receive higher loads of trace organic contaminants with unknown ecological consequences. To establish the extent of trace organic contamination in urban runoff, concentrations of emerging chemicals of concern were determined in sediments from 99 urban wetlands in and around Melbourne, Australia between February and April, 2015. As a preliminary estimation of potential risks to aquatic biota, we compared measured concentrations with thresholds for acute and chronic toxicity, and modelled toxic units as a function of demographic and land use trends. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was common and widespread, and frequently occurred at concentrations likely to cause toxicity to aquatic life. Personal care products DEET and triclosan were common and widely distributed, while the herbicides diuron and prometryn, and the fungicides pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin occurred less frequently. Toxic unit modelling using random forests found complex and unexpected associations between urban land uses and trace organic concentrations. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were identified as emerging compounds of concern, particularly bifenthrin. In contrast with previous surveys, the highest bifenthrin concentrations were associated with lower housing and population density, implicating low-density residential land use in bifenthrin contamination. We discuss the implications for pesticide regulation and urban wetland management in a global context.

  14. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol

  16. Evaluation of the Possible Sources and Controlling Factors of Toxic Metals/Metalloids in the Florida Everglades and Their Potential Risk of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Duan, Zhiwei; Liu, Guangliang; Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Daniel; Cai, Yong

    2015-08-18

    The Florida Everglades is an environmentally sensitive wetland ecosystem with a number of threatened and endangered fauna species susceptible to the deterioration of water quality. Several potential toxic metal sources exist in the Everglades, including farming, atmospheric deposition, and human activities in urban areas, causing concerns of potential metal exposure risks. However, little is known about the pollution status of toxic metals/metalloids of potential concern, except for Hg. In this study, eight toxic metals/metalloids (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Hg) in Everglades soils were investigated in both dry and wet seasons. Pb, Cr, As, Cu, Cd, and Ni were identified to be above Florida SQGs (sediment quality guidelines) at a number of sampling sites, particularly Pb, which had a level of potential risk to organisms similar to that of Hg. In addition, a method was developed for quantitative source identification and controlling factor elucidation of toxic metals/metalloids by introducing an index, enrichment factor (EF), in the conventional multiple regression analysis. EFs represent the effects of anthropogenic sources on metals/metalloids in soils. Multiple regression analysis showed that Cr and Ni were mainly controlled by anthropogenic loading, whereas soil characteristics, in particular natural organic matter (NOM), played a more important role for Hg, As, Cd, and Zn. NOM may control the distribution of these toxic metals/metalloids by affecting their mobility in soils. For Cu and Pb, the effects of EFs and environmental factors are comparable, suggesting combined effects of loading and soil characteristics. This study is the first comprehensive research with a vast amount of sampling sites on the distribution and potential risks of toxic metals/metalloids in the Everglades. The finding suggests that in addition to Hg other metals/metalloids could also potentially be an environmental problem in this wetland ecosystem.

  17. A Therapeutic Potential for Marine Skeletal Proteins in Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Milthorpe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A vital ingredient for engineering bone tissue, in the culture dish, is the use of recombinant matrix and growth proteins to help accelerate the growth of cultivated tissues into clinically acceptable quantities. The skeletal organic matrices of calcifying marine invertebrates are an untouched potential source of such growth inducing proteins. They have the advantage of being ready-made and retain the native state of the original protein. Striking evidence shows that skeleton building bone morphogenic protein-2/4 (BMP and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β exist within various marine invertebrates such as, corals. Best practice mariculture and the latest innovations in long-term marine invertebrate cell cultivation can be implemented to ensure that these proteins are produced sustainably and supplied continuously. This also guarantees that coral reef habitats are not damaged during the collection of specimens. Potential proteins for bone repair, either extracted from the skeleton or derived from cultivated tissues, can be identified, evaluated and retrieved using chromatography, cell assays and proteomic methods. Due to the current evidence for bone matrix protein analogues in marine invertebrates, together with the methods established for their production and retrieval there is a genuine prospect that they can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use.

  18. A Therapeutic Potential for Marine Skeletal Proteins in Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Padula, Matthew P.; Santos, Jerran; Chou, Joshua; Milthorpe, Bruce; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2013-01-01

    A vital ingredient for engineering bone tissue, in the culture dish, is the use of recombinant matrix and growth proteins to help accelerate the growth of cultivated tissues into clinically acceptable quantities. The skeletal organic matrices of calcifying marine invertebrates are an untouched potential source of such growth inducing proteins. They have the advantage of being ready-made and retain the native state of the original protein. Striking evidence shows that skeleton building bone morphogenic protein-2/4 (BMP) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) exist within various marine invertebrates such as, corals. Best practice mariculture and the latest innovations in long-term marine invertebrate cell cultivation can be implemented to ensure that these proteins are produced sustainably and supplied continuously. This also guarantees that coral reef habitats are not damaged during the collection of specimens. Potential proteins for bone repair, either extracted from the skeleton or derived from cultivated tissues, can be identified, evaluated and retrieved using chromatography, cell assays and proteomic methods. Due to the current evidence for bone matrix protein analogues in marine invertebrates, together with the methods established for their production and retrieval there is a genuine prospect that they can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use. PMID:23574983

  19. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  20. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  1. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  2. Potentiation of Sodium Metabisulfite Toxicity by Propylene Glycol in Both in Vitro and in Vivo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM and propylene glycol (PG are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced. Solutions of 1, 5, and 20% SM, each with 1% PG solution, were prepared, and the whole body of rats was exposed to aerosols of the mixture for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 1 (exposure group or 7 days (recovery group after termination of the exposure. The actual concentration of SM in the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups was 3.91 ± 1.26, 35.73 ± 6.01, and 80.98 ± 5.47 mg/m3, respectively, and the actual concentration of PG in each group was 6.47 ± 1.25, 8.68 ± 0.6, and 8.84 ± 1.77 mg/m3. The repeated exposure to SM and PG caused specific clinical signs including nasal sound, sneeze, and eye irritation which were not found in SM single exposure. In addition, the body weight of treatment group rats decreased compared to that of the control group rats in a time-dependent manner. The total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF increased. Histopathological analysis of the lungs, liver, and nasal cavity was performed. Adverse effects were observed in the nasal cavity, with squamous cell metaplasia identified in the front of the nasal cavity in all high-exposure groups, which completely recovered 7 days after exposure was terminated. Whereas inhalation of SM for 2 weeks only reduced

  3. Surma eye cosmetic in Afghanistan: a potential source of lead toxicity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, J R; Stoff, B K

    2018-02-01

    Surma is a traditional eye cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan, as well as in many other countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a potential source of lead toxicity in children, which can lead to permanent damage to multiple organ systems. To our knowledge, assessment for lead in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. We determined the quantitative lead content of a convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan. Analysis revealed that 70% of surma samples contained high levels of lead (range 35-83%). The remaining samples contained low levels of lead (range 0.04-0.17%). The majority of surma samples contained very high levels of lead, a troubling finding that could potentially correlate with lead toxicity in Afghan children. Making available lead-free surma alternatives and providing health education, for both healthcare professionals and the general population, in locations where surma use is prevalent and for those involved in care of refugees and immigrants from Afghanistan, may be strategies to prevent lead poisoning in children. What is Known: • Surma is a traditional cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan as well as in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. • Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a source of lead toxicity in children. What is New: • Assessment for lead content in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. • In this convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan, 70% contained very high levels of lead.

  4. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  5. Quantitative analysis of potentially toxic metals in alginates for dental use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Alginate is one the materials most employed in practice to make dental impressions. Substances like zinc, cadmium and lead silicate, which are included in several alginate brands with the aim of improving their physical, chemical and mechanical properties, are a source of serious concern as regards their toxicity. The most serious chronic effect of oral exposure to cadmium is renal toxicity. Assimilation of lead has deleterious effects on the gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, central and peripheral nervous systems, kidneys, immune system, and reproductive system. Chronic oral exposures to zinc have resulted in hypochromic and microcyte anemia in some individuals. The aim of the present study was to measure the cadmium, lead and zinc contents of seven brands of alginate for dental use on sale in Brazil. The samples were weighed and placed in the Teflon cups of a closedsystem microwave oven. Aqua regia (4mL concentrated HCl:HNO3, 3:1 v/v and hydrofluoric acid (2mL concentrated HF were added to the samples, which were then subjected to heating. The samples were then cooled to room temperature and diluted to 25 mL in deionized water in a volumetric glass flask. The samples were diluted in duplicate and analyzed against a reagent blank. The analyses were performed in an atomic absorption flame spectrophotometer. Neither lead nor cadmium was detected. Zinc contents ranged from 0.001% to 1.36% by weight. The alginates exhibited low contents of the metals under study and gave no cause for concern regarding toxicity; even so, it is advisable to monitor potentially toxic materials continually and to analyze their plasmatic levels in the professionals working with them. Keywords: Cadmium, lead, zinc, alginates, intoxication, irreversible hydrocolloid.

  6. Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Tats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.

  7. Downward Movement of Potentially Toxic Elements in Biosolids Amended Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Irene Torri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentially toxic elements (PTEs in soils are mainly associated with the solid phase, bound to the surface of solid components, or precipitated as minerals. For most PTEs, only a small portion is dissolved in the soil solution. However, there is an interest in following the fate of mobile PTEs in the environment, for a growing amount of evidence indicates that downward movement of PTEs may occur in biosolids amended soils, leading to groundwater contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that control the release of these elements after land application of biosolids, in order to overcome problems related to downward movement of PTEs in the soil profile.

  8. Assessment of metal leachability and toxicity from sediment potentially stored on land

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, A; Tarnawski, M; Michalec, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity and metal leachability from three dredged bottom sediments potentially stored on land. Washing out was conducted at a sediment dry mass to water mass ratio of 1:10. The method relies on washing out pollutants from the examined sample using water with third degree of purity in static/quasi-dynamic conditions. The investigations comprised three 27-h washing out cycles, including leaching in static conditions (19 h) and shaking (8 h). Bottom sedim...

  9. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  10. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  11. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (−LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. PMID:25452551

  12. Recombinant protein truncation strategy for inducing bactericidal antibodies to the macrophage infectivity potentiator protein of Neisseria meningitidis and circumventing potential cross-reactivity with human FK506-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-02-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (-LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Biofabrication of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle from Ochradenus baccatus Leaves: Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Activity, Protein Binding Studies, and In Vivo Toxicity and Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser A. Al-Shabib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are complex aggregation of cells that are embedded in EPS matrix. These microcolonies are highly resistant to drugs and are associated with various diseases. Biofilms have greatly affected the food safety by causing severe losses due to food contamination and spoilage. Therefore, novel antibiofilm agents are needed. This study investigates the antibiofilm and protein binding activity of zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs synthesized from leaf extract of Ochradenus baccatus. Standard physical techniques, including UV-visible spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, were used to characterize the synthesized OB-ZnNPs. Synthesized OB-ZnNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibition in human and food-borne pathogens (Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Listeria monocytogenes at subinhibitory concentrations. OB-ZnNPs significantly reduced the virulence factors like violacein, prodigiosin, and alginate and impaired swarming migration and EPS production. OB-ZnNPs demonstrated efficient binding with HSA protein and no change in their structure or stability was observed. In addition, in vivo toxicity evaluation confirmed that OB-ZnNPs possessed no serious toxic effect even at higher doses. Moreover, they were found to have excellent antioxidant properties that can be employed in the fields of food safety and medicine. Hence, it is envisaged that the OB-ZnNPs can be used as potential nanomaterials to combat drug resistant bacterial infections and prevent contamination/spoilage of food.

  14. Small Scaffolds, Big Potential: Developing Miniature Proteins as Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Justin M

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical Research Miniature proteins are a class of oligopeptide characterized by their short sequence lengths and ability to adopt well-folded, three-dimensional structures. Because of their biomimetic nature and synthetic tractability, miniature proteins have been used to study a range of biochemical processes including fast protein folding, signal transduction, catalysis and molecular transport. Recently, miniature proteins have been gaining traction as potential therapeutic agents because their small size and ability to fold into defined tertiary structures facilitates their development as protein-based drugs. This research overview discusses emerging developments involving the use of miniature proteins as scaffolds to design novel therapeutics for the treatment and study of human disease. Specifically, this review will explore strategies to: (i) stabilize miniature protein tertiary structure; (ii) optimize biomolecular recognition by grafting functional epitopes onto miniature protein scaffolds; and (iii) enhance cytosolic delivery of miniature proteins through the use of cationic motifs that facilitate endosomal escape. These objectives are discussed not only to address challenges in developing effective miniature protein-based drugs, but also to highlight the tremendous potential miniature proteins hold for combating and understanding human disease. Drug Dev Res 78 : 268-282, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  16. C9orf72 poly GA RAN-translated protein plays a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via aggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Baskaran, Pranetha; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Chen, Han-Jou; Nishimura, Agnes L; Smith, Bradley N; Troakes, Claire; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Stepto, Alan; Petrucelli, Leonard; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Guthrie, Sarah; Shaw, Christopher E

    2017-12-15

    An intronic GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion inC9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of G4C2 RNA can result in five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR: poly GA, poly GP, poly GR, poly PA, and poly PR), which aggregate into neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in affected patients, however their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. We show that among the DPR proteins, expression of poly GA in a cell culture model activates programmed cell death and TDP-43 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Dual expression of poly GA together with other DPRs revealed that poly GP and poly PA are sequestered by poly GA, whereas poly GR and poly PR are rarely co-localised with poly GA. Dual expression of poly GA and poly PA ameliorated poly GA toxicity by inhibiting poly GA aggregation both in vitro and in vivo in the chick embryonic spinal cord. Expression of alternative codon-derived DPRs in chick embryonic spinal cord confirmed in vitro data, revealing that each of the dipeptides caused toxicity, with poly GA being the most toxic. Further, in vivo expression of G4C2 repeats of varying length caused apoptotic cell death, but failed to generate DPRs. Together, these data demonstrate that C9-related toxicity can be mediated by either RNA or DPRs. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that poly GA is a key mediator of cytotoxicity and that cross-talk between DPR proteins likely modifies their pathogenic status in C9ALS/FTD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Safety assessment of the calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, expressed by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel L; Tetteh, Afua O; Goodman, Richard E; Underwood, Mark Y

    2014-07-01

    Calcium-binding proteins are ubiquitous modulators of cellular activity and function. Cells possess numerous calcium-binding proteins that regulate calcium concentration in the cytosol by buffering excess free calcium ion. Disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis are at the heart of many age-related conditions making these proteins targets for therapeutic intervention. A calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, has shown potential utility in a broad spectrum of applications for human health and well-being. Large-scale recombinant production of the protein has been successful; enabling further research and development and commercialization efforts. Previous work reported a 90-day subchronic toxicity test that demonstrated this protein has no toxicity by oral exposure in Sprague-Dawley rodents. The current study assesses the allergenic potential of the purified protein using bioinformatic analysis and simulated gastric digestion. The results from the bioinformatics searches with the apoaequorin sequence show the protein is not a known allergen and not likely to cross-react with known allergens. Apoaequorin is easily digested by pepsin, a characteristic commonly exhibited by many non-allergenic dietary proteins. From these data, there is no added concern of safety due to unusual stability of the protein by ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrathin Graphene-Protein Supercapacitors for Miniaturized Bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Islam M; Pattammattel, Ajith; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Pande, Paritosh; El-Kady, Maher F; Bishop, Gregory W; Novak, Marc; Kaner, Richard B; Basu, Ashis K; Kumar, Challa V; Rusling, James F

    2017-09-06

    Nearly all implantable bioelectronics are powered by bulky batteries which limit device miniaturization and lifespan. Moreover, batteries contain toxic materials and electrolytes that can be dangerous if leakage occurs. Herein, an approach to fabricate implantable protein-based bioelectrochemical capacitors (bECs) employing new nanocomposite heterostructures in which 2D reduced graphene oxide sheets are interlayered with chemically modified mammalian proteins, while utilizing biological fluids as electrolytes is described. This protein-modified reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite material shows no toxicity to mouse embryo fibroblasts and COS-7 cell cultures at a high concentration of 1600 μg mL -1 which is 160 times higher than those used in bECs, unlike the unmodified graphene oxide which caused toxic cell damage even at low doses of 10 μg mL -1 . The bEC devices are 1 μm thick, fully flexible, and have high energy density comparable to that of lithium thin film batteries. COS-7 cell culture is not affected by long-term exposure to encapsulated bECs over 4 d of continuous charge/discharge cycles. These bECs are unique, protein-based devices, use serum as electrolyte, and have the potential to power a new generation of long-life, miniaturized implantable devices.

  19. Control of aliphatic halogenated DBP precursors with multiple drinking water treatment processes: Formation potential and integrated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated. The results showed that the multiple drinking water treatment processes had superior performance in removing organic/inorganic precursors and reducing the formation of a range of halogenated DBPs. Therein, ozonation significantly removed bromide and iodide, and thus reduced the formation of brominated and iodinated DBPs. The removal of organic carbon and nitrogen precursors by the conventional treatment processes was substantially improved by O 3 -BAC advanced treatment, and thus prevented the formation of chlorinated C-DBPs and N-DBPs. However, BAC filtration leads to the increased formation of brominated C-DBPs and N-DBPs due to the increase of bromide/DOC and bromide/DON. After the whole multiple treatment processes, the rank order for integrated toxic risk values caused by these halogenated DBPs was haloacetonitriles (HANs)≫haloacetamides (HAMs)>haloacetic acids (HAAs)>trihalomethanes (THMs)>halonitromethanes (HNMs)≫I-DBPs (I-HAMs and I-THMs). I-DBPs failed to cause high integrated toxic risk because of their very low FPs. The significant higher integrated toxic risk value caused by HANs than other halogenated DBPs cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Assessing protein oxidation by inorganic nanoparticles with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the nanotechnology industry is leading to increased production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs). This has given rise to concerns about the potential adverse and toxic effects to biological system and the environment. An important mechanism of NP toxicity is oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or via direct oxidation of biomolecules. In this study, a protein oxidation assay was developed as an indicator of biomolecule oxidation by NPs. The oxidation of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the protein carbonyl derivatives formed from protein oxidation. The results showed that some NPs such as Cu(0), CuO, Mn(2)O(3), and Fe(0) caused oxidation of BSA; whereas, many of the other NPs tested were not reactive or very slowly reactive with BSA. The mechanisms involved in the oxidation of BSA protein by the reactive NPs could be attributed to the combined effects of ROS-dependent and direct protein oxidation mechanisms. The ELISA assay is a promising method for the assessment of protein oxidation by NPs, which can provide insights on NP toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biosorption: An Interplay between Marine Algae and Potentially Toxic Elements-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Sosa-Hernández, Juan Eduardo; Raza, Ali; Nabeel, Faran; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-02-19

    In recent decades, environmental pollution has emerged as a core issue, around the globe, rendering it of fundamental concern to eco-toxicologists, environmental biologists, eco-chemists, pathologists, and researchers from other fields. The dissolution of polluting agents is a leading cause of environmental pollution of all key spheres including the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, among others. The widespread occurrence of various pollutants including toxic heavy metals and other emerging hazardous contaminants is a serious concern. With increasing scientific knowledge, socioeconomic awareness, human health problems, and ecological apprehensions, people are more concerned about adverse health outcomes. Against this background, several removal methods have been proposed and implemented with the aim of addressing environmental pollution and sustainable and eco-friendly development. Among them, the biosorption of pollutants using naturally inspired sources, e.g., marine algae, has considerable advantages. In the past few years, marine algae have been extensively studied due to their natural origin, overall cost-effective ratio, and effectiveness against a broader pollutant range; thus, they are considered a potential alternative to the conventional methods used for environmental decontamination. Herein, an effort has been made to highlight the importance of marine algae as naturally inspired biosorbents and their role in biosorption. Biosorption mechanisms and factors affecting biosorption activities are also discussed in this review. The utilization of marine algae as a biosorbent for the removal of numerous potentially toxic elements has also been reviewed.

  2. Biosorption: An Interplay between Marine Algae and Potentially Toxic Elements—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Raza, Ali; Nabeel, Faran

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, environmental pollution has emerged as a core issue, around the globe, rendering it of fundamental concern to eco-toxicologists, environmental biologists, eco-chemists, pathologists, and researchers from other fields. The dissolution of polluting agents is a leading cause of environmental pollution of all key spheres including the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, among others. The widespread occurrence of various pollutants including toxic heavy metals and other emerging hazardous contaminants is a serious concern. With increasing scientific knowledge, socioeconomic awareness, human health problems, and ecological apprehensions, people are more concerned about adverse health outcomes. Against this background, several removal methods have been proposed and implemented with the aim of addressing environmental pollution and sustainable and eco-friendly development. Among them, the biosorption of pollutants using naturally inspired sources, e.g., marine algae, has considerable advantages. In the past few years, marine algae have been extensively studied due to their natural origin, overall cost-effective ratio, and effectiveness against a broader pollutant range; thus, they are considered a potential alternative to the conventional methods used for environmental decontamination. Herein, an effort has been made to highlight the importance of marine algae as naturally inspired biosorbents and their role in biosorption. Biosorption mechanisms and factors affecting biosorption activities are also discussed in this review. The utilization of marine algae as a biosorbent for the removal of numerous potentially toxic elements has also been reviewed. PMID:29463058

  3. Biosorption: An Interplay between Marine Algae and Potentially Toxic Elements—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, environmental pollution has emerged as a core issue, around the globe, rendering it of fundamental concern to eco-toxicologists, environmental biologists, eco-chemists, pathologists, and researchers from other fields. The dissolution of polluting agents is a leading cause of environmental pollution of all key spheres including the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, among others. The widespread occurrence of various pollutants including toxic heavy metals and other emerging hazardous contaminants is a serious concern. With increasing scientific knowledge, socioeconomic awareness, human health problems, and ecological apprehensions, people are more concerned about adverse health outcomes. Against this background, several removal methods have been proposed and implemented with the aim of addressing environmental pollution and sustainable and eco-friendly development. Among them, the biosorption of pollutants using naturally inspired sources, e.g., marine algae, has considerable advantages. In the past few years, marine algae have been extensively studied due to their natural origin, overall cost-effective ratio, and effectiveness against a broader pollutant range; thus, they are considered a potential alternative to the conventional methods used for environmental decontamination. Herein, an effort has been made to highlight the importance of marine algae as naturally inspired biosorbents and their role in biosorption. Biosorption mechanisms and factors affecting biosorption activities are also discussed in this review. The utilization of marine algae as a biosorbent for the removal of numerous potentially toxic elements has also been reviewed.

  4. Specific Proteins in Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: New Potential Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Orduña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have been isolated from water, soil, air, food, protozoa, plants, animals, and humans. Although most NTM are saprophytes, approximately one-third of NTM have been associated with human diseases. In this study, we did a comparative proteomic analysis among five NTM strains isolated from several sources. There were different numbers of protein spots from M. gordonae (1,264, M. nonchromogenicum type I (894, M. nonchromogenicum type II (935, M. peregrinum (806, and M. scrofulaceum/Mycobacterium mantenii (1,486 strains, respectively. We identified 141 proteins common to all strains and specific proteins to each NTM strain. A total of 23 proteins were selected for its identification. Two of the common proteins identified (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR and diguanylate cyclase did not align with M. tuberculosis complex protein sequences, which suggest that these proteins are found only in the NTM strains. Some of the proteins identified as common to all strains can be used as markers of NTM exposure and for the development of new diagnostic tools. Additionally, the specific proteins to NTM strains identified may represent potential candidates for the diagnosis of diseases caused by these mycobacteria.

  5. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  6. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M. [Division of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Volz, David C., E-mail: volz@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Triphenyl phosphate-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos is enhanced in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate uptake or metabolism within zebrafish embryos is not altered in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate decreases expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 in zebrafish embryos. • Triphenyl phosphate inhibits retinoic acid-induced activation of human retinoic acid receptors. - Abstract: Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite – were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may

  7. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells.

  8. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  9. Assessment of potential adjuvanticity of Cry proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh S; Barnett, Brian; Doerrer, Nancy G; Glenn, Kevin; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hunst, Penny; Kough, John; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott; Papineni, Sabitha; Poulsen, Lars K; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste; Tao, Ai-Lin; van Ree, Ronald; Ward, Jason; Bowman, Christal C

    2016-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have achieved success in the marketplace and their benefits extend beyond the overall increase in harvest yields to include lowered use of insecticides and decreased carbon dioxide emissions. The most widely grown GM crops contain gene/s for targeted insect protection, herbicide tolerance, or both. Plant expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) insecticidal proteins have been the primary way to impart insect resistance in GM crops. Although deemed safe by regulatory agencies globally, previous studies have been the basis for discussions around the potential immuno-adjuvant effects of Cry proteins. These studies had limitations in study design. The studies used animal models with extremely high doses of Cry proteins, which when given using the ig route were co-administered with an adjuvant. Although the presumption exists that Cry proteins may have immunostimulatory activity and therefore an adjuvanticity risk, the evidence shows that Cry proteins are expressed at very low levels in GM crops and are unlikely to function as adjuvants. This conclusion is based on critical review of the published literature on the effects of immunomodulation by Cry proteins, the history of safe use of Cry proteins in foods, safety of the Bt donor organisms, and pre-market weight-of-evidence-based safety assessments for GM crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Mario D.; Moreno-Fernandez, Ana Maria; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Miguel, Manuel de; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Oropesa-Avila, Manuel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Angeles; Navas, Placido; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q 10 and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q 10 , decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q 10 and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity

  12. Addressing Geographic Variability in the Comparative Toxicity Potential of Copper and Nickel in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool...... findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals....

  13. Potential renal toxicity bio-markers indicating radiation injury after 177Lu-octreotate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, J.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Westberg, E.; Toernqvist, M.; Svedborn, L.; Barregaerd, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The kidneys are one of the most exposed non-tumor tissues and regarded as one of the main dose-limiting organs in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). [ 177 Lu-DOTA0, Tyr3]-octreotate ( 177 Lu-octreotate) has shown promising results in the treatment of somatostatin receptor over-expressing neuroendocrine tumors, but optimization is still needed. The ability to give each patient as much 177 Lu-octreotate as possible without inducing nephrotoxicity is necessary for an efficient treatment. However, due to large inter-individual differences in uptake and retention in the kidneys, there is a need for efficient methods that can indicate renal injury early. A possible way is to identify bio-markers for high risk of radiation nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using urinary retinol binding protein (RBP), and blood valinhydantoin (VH) as bio-markers of nephrotoxicity on adult mice after 177 Lu-octreotate treatment. BALB/c nude mice (n=6/group) were i.v. injected with 60 MBq or 120 MBq of 177 Lu-octreotate. The control group was mock treated with saline. Spot urine samples were collected before injection, and 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after injection. Analysis of RBP4 and creatinine was performed using Mouse RBP4 ELISA kit and Creatinine kit from R/D Systems, respectively. Erythrocytes were separated from whole blood samples collected 90 days after injection, and analysed for VH by LC-MS/MS. The ratio between VH and a volumetric standard was calculated. The RBP/creatinine level increased with time in both groups given 177 Lu-octreotate, with earlier and higher response for the 120 MBq group. No clear change in VH level between the different groups was observed. The results show that RBP may be a promising new bio-marker for radiation induced kidney toxicity. The presently used method based on VH was not sensitive enough to be used as kidney toxicity marker. Further studies on mice are ongoing to

  14. Distribution and transfer of potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus from the indigenous zinc smelting area, northwest region of Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yishu; Chen, Jun; Wei, Huairui; Li, Shibin; Jin, Tao; Yang, Ruidong

    2018-05-15

    We collected samples (i.e., the aerial parts and roots of Juncus effusus and their growth media) in the indigenous zinc smelting area in the northwest region of Guizhou Province, China, and we measured and analyzed potentially toxic metal(loid)s (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb and zinc, Zn) in these samples. The results include the following: First, there is a high concentration of one or more potentially toxic metal(loid)s in the slag and surrounding soil in the research area. This situation might be caused by metal(loid) damage or contamination due to the circumstances. Additionally, Juncus effusus in the indigenous zinc smelting area are contaminated by some potentially toxic metal(loid)s; since they are used for Chinese medical materials, it is especially significant that their As, Cd and Pb concentrations are greater than their limited standard values. Finally, both the bioconcentration factors and transfer factors for most potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus are less than 1 in the study area. Therefore, we suggest that Juncus effusus could be used for phytostabilization or as a pioneer plant for phytoremediation of potentially toxic metal(loid)s because it has a tolerance and exclusion mechanism for these metal(loid)s in the research district. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  16. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  17. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  18. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.

  19. Depth Profiling (ICP-MS Study of Toxic Metal Buildup in Concrete Matrices: Potential Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential of concrete material to accumulate toxic trace elements using ablative laser technology (ICP-MS. Concrete existing in offshore structures submerged in seawater acts as a sink for hazardous metals, which could be gradually released into the ocean creating pollution and anoxic conditions for marine life. Ablative laser technology is a valuable tool for depth profiling concrete to evaluate the distribution of toxic metals and locate internal areas where such metals accumulate. Upon rapid degradation of concrete these “hotspots” could be suddenly released, thus posing a distinct threat to aquatic life. Our work simulated offshore drilling conditions by immersing concrete blocks in seawater and investigating accumulated toxic trace metals (As, Be, Cd, Hg, Os, Pb in cored samples by laser ablation. The experimental results showed distinct inhomogeneity in metal distribution. The data suggest that conditions within the concrete structure are favorable for random metal accumulation at certain points. The exact mechanism for this behavior is not clear at this stage and has considerable scope for extended research including modeling and remedial studies.

  20. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Assay Predicts Developmental Toxicity Potential of ToxCast Chemicals (ACT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide initiatives to screen for toxicity potential among the thousands of chemicals currently in use require inexpensive and high-throughput in vitro models to meet their goals. The devTOX quickPredict platform is an in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-based assay used to as...

  1. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration.

  2. The putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 inhibits methylmercury-associated animal toxicity and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDuyn, Natalia; Nass, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative motor disorder worldwide, and results in the progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Gene-environment interactions are believed to play a significant role in the vast majority of PD cases, yet the toxicants and the associated genes involved in the neuropathology are largely ill-defined. Recent epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that methylmercury (MeHg) may be an environmental toxicant that contributes to the development of PD. Here, we report that a gene coding for the putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans modulates whole animal and DA neuron sensitivity to MeHg. In this study, we demonstrate that genetic knockdown of MRP-7 results in a twofold increase in Hg levels and a dramatic increase in stress response proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and mitochondria, as well as an increase in MeHg-associated animal death. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of MeHg induces MRP-7 gene expression, while exposures in MRP-7 genetic knockdown animals results in a loss of DA neuron integrity without affecting whole animal viability. Furthermore, transgenic animals expressing a fluorescent reporter behind the endogenous MRP-7 promoter indicate that the transporter is expressed in DA neurons. These studies show for the first time that a multidrug resistance protein is expressed in DA neurons, and its expression inhibits MeHg-associated DA neuron pathology. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Nicholas B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln11]-amyloid β-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will

  4. PEPSI-Dock: a detailed data-driven protein-protein interaction potential accelerated by polar Fourier correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Emilie; Ritchie, David W; Popov, Petr; Grudinin, Sergei

    2016-09-01

    Docking prediction algorithms aim to find the native conformation of a complex of proteins from knowledge of their unbound structures. They rely on a combination of sampling and scoring methods, adapted to different scales. Polynomial Expansion of Protein Structures and Interactions for Docking (PEPSI-Dock) improves the accuracy of the first stage of the docking pipeline, which will sharpen up the final predictions. Indeed, PEPSI-Dock benefits from the precision of a very detailed data-driven model of the binding free energy used with a global and exhaustive rigid-body search space. As well as being accurate, our computations are among the fastest by virtue of the sparse representation of the pre-computed potentials and FFT-accelerated sampling techniques. Overall, this is the first demonstration of a FFT-accelerated docking method coupled with an arbitrary-shaped distance-dependent interaction potential. First, we present a novel learning process to compute data-driven distant-dependent pairwise potentials, adapted from our previous method used for rescoring of putative protein-protein binding poses. The potential coefficients are learned by combining machine-learning techniques with physically interpretable descriptors. Then, we describe the integration of the deduced potentials into a FFT-accelerated spherical sampling provided by the Hex library. Overall, on a training set of 163 heterodimers, PEPSI-Dock achieves a success rate of 91% mid-quality predictions in the top-10 solutions. On a subset of the protein docking benchmark v5, it achieves 44.4% mid-quality predictions in the top-10 solutions when starting from bound structures and 20.5% when starting from unbound structures. The method runs in 5-15 min on a modern laptop and can easily be extended to other types of interactions. https://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/PEPSI-Dock sergei.grudinin@inria.fr. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  5. A question about the potential cardiac toxicity of escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-04-01

    Previous reviews have focused on the potential cardiac toxicity of the racemic drug citalopram (Celexa(®)). Evaluating the safety of escitalopram (Lexapro(®)) is an important issue to consider, since it is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. Escitalopram has a small effect on the QTc interval. A prolonged QTc was seen in 2% to 14% of escitalopram overdose cases, without serious cardiac sequelae. The QTc prolongation effect of citalopram in beagle dogs has been attributed to the minor metabolite racemic didemethylcitalopram (DDCT). Whether the escitalopram minor metabolite S-DDCT has this effect is not known. Concentrations of S-DDCT are lower than DDCT, but for a broad range of doses of escitalopram and citalopram, the S-DDCT and DDCT concentrations are well below the QTc prolonging concentrations reported in dogs. There is no strong evidence from human and animal studies that the cardiac safety of escitalopram is significantly superior to that of citalopram. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expr...

  7. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S

    2008-01-01

    . In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris......The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...... activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (e...

  8. Minor snake venom proteins: Structure, function and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Cologna, Camila Takeno; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Anjolette, Fernando Antonio Pino; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Wiezel, Gisele Adriano; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro-Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Shibao, Priscila Yumi Tanaka; Ferreira, Isabela Gobbo; de Oliveira, Isadora Sousa; Cardoso, Iara Aimê; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2017-04-01

    Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as research and biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The most abundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored, even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies on the impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation. The advent of more sensitive techniques in the last few years allowed the discovery of new venom components and the in-depth study of some already known minor proteins. This review summarizes information regarding some structural and functional aspects of low abundant snake venom proteins classes, such as growth factors, hyaluronidases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, nucleases and nucleotidases, cobra venom factors, vespryns, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, among others. Some potential applications of these molecules are discussed herein in order to encourage researchers to explore the full venom repertoire and to discover new molecules or applications for the already known venom components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  10. Nitrotyrosine formation in splenic toxicity of aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Firoze; Wu Xiaohong; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Splenic toxicity of aniline is characterized by vascular congestion, hyperplasia, fibrosis and development of a variety of sarcomas in rats. However, the mechanisms of this selective splenic toxicity are not well understood. Previously we showed that aniline exposure causes oxidative damage to spleen. To further explore the oxidative mechanisms of aniline toxicity, we evaluated the contributions of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidant that converts the tyrosine residues of proteins to nitrotyrosine (NT). Therefore, aim of this study was to establish the role of nitric oxide through the formation and localization of NT in the spleen of rats exposed to aniline. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given 1 mmol/kg per day aniline hydrochloride in water by gavage for 7 days, while the controls received water only. Immunohistochemical analysis for NT showed an intense staining in the red pulp areas of spleen from aniline-treated rats, localized in macrophages and sinusoidal cells. Occasionally mild NT immunostaining was also evident in the white pulp. Western blot analyses of the post-nuclear fraction of the spleens showed major nitrated proteins with molecular weights of 49, 30 and 18 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also showed increased expression in the red pulp of the spleens from aniline-treated rats; the cellular localization was similar to nitrated proteins. These studies suggest that oxidative stress in aniline toxicity also includes aberration in nitric oxide production leading to nitration of proteins. Functional consequences of such nitration will further elucidate the contribution of nitric oxide to the splenic toxicity of aniline

  11. Acclimation-induced changes in toxicity and induction of metallothionein-like proteins in the fathead minnow following sublethal exposure to cobalt, silver, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Increases in tolerance and resistance to metal toxicity by aquatic organisms have been linked to elevated levels of low-molecular-weight metal-binding proteins (e.g., metallothioneins). Acclimation-induced changes in toxic response and the concentration of metallothionein-like proteins (MTP) were studied in laboratory populations of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, following sublethal exposure to Co, Ag, and Zn. Following 7 and 14 days of sublethal exposure, tolerance and resistance, as measured by acute toxicity values, were altered in a dose dependent fashion. Acute toxicity values returned to control levels after 21 days of continuous exposure. Tolerance and resistance of Co- and Zn-acclimated animals were depressed after a 7-day post-acclimation period in control water. Tolerance and resistance of Ag-acclimated animals were temporarily enhanced after 7 days post-acclimation and returned to control levels after 14 days. Accumulation of Co, Ag, and Zn measured as wholebody residues appeared to be regulated in 4 of 6 exposure regimes with residues reaching stable levels after 7 to 14 days of exposure. MTP was induced by exposure to 1.8 mg Zn/L and 0.01 mg Ag/L, however, no sustained (i.e., post 21 days) tolerance or resistance were observed at these dose levels indicating that these two biological responses may not be directly related

  12. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing...... and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets...

  13. Protein thermostability prediction within homologous families using temperature-dependent statistical potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pucci

    Full Text Available The ability to rationally modify targeted physical and biological features of a protein of interest holds promise in numerous academic and industrial applications and paves the way towards de novo protein design. In particular, bioprocesses that utilize the remarkable properties of enzymes would often benefit from mutants that remain active at temperatures that are either higher or lower than the physiological temperature, while maintaining the biological activity. Many in silico methods have been developed in recent years for predicting the thermodynamic stability of mutant proteins, but very few have focused on thermostability. To bridge this gap, we developed an algorithm for predicting the best descriptor of thermostability, namely the melting temperature Tm, from the protein's sequence and structure. Our method is applicable when the Tm of proteins homologous to the target protein are known. It is based on the design of several temperature-dependent statistical potentials, derived from datasets consisting of either mesostable or thermostable proteins. Linear combinations of these potentials have been shown to yield an estimation of the protein folding free energies at low and high temperatures, and the difference of these energies, a prediction of the melting temperature. This particular construction, that distinguishes between the interactions that contribute more than others to the stability at high temperatures and those that are more stabilizing at low T, gives better performances compared to the standard approach based on T-independent potentials which predict the thermal resistance from the thermodynamic stability. Our method has been tested on 45 proteins of known Tm that belong to 11 homologous families. The standard deviation between experimental and predicted Tm's is equal to 13.6°C in cross validation, and decreases to 8.3°C if the 6 worst predicted proteins are excluded. Possible extensions of our approach are discussed.

  14. Mechanism of the pharmacokinetic interaction between methotrexate and benzimidazoles: potential role for breast cancer resistance protein in clinical drug-drug interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, Pauline; Zelcer, Noam; Pluim, Dick; Sönmezer, Ozgür; Tibben, Matthijs M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.; van Tellingen, Olaf; Borst, Piet; Schellens, Jan H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The antifolate drug methotrexate (MTX) is transported by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein1-4 (MRP1-4; ABCC1-4). In cancer patients, coadministration of benzimidazoles and MTX can result in profound MTX-induced toxicity coinciding with an

  15. Computational prediction of protein-protein interactions in Leishmania predicted proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M Rezende

    Full Text Available The Trypanosomatids parasites Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum are important human pathogens. Despite of years of study and genome availability, effective vaccine has not been developed yet, and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Therefore, it is clear just interdisciplinary integrated studies will have success in trying to search new targets for developing of vaccines and drugs. An essential part of this rationale is related to protein-protein interaction network (PPI study which can provide a better understanding of complex protein interactions in biological system. Thus, we modeled PPIs for Trypanosomatids through computational methods using sequence comparison against public database of protein or domain interaction for interaction prediction (Interolog Mapping and developed a dedicated combined system score to address the predictions robustness. The confidence evaluation of network prediction approach was addressed using gold standard positive and negative datasets and the AUC value obtained was 0.94. As result, 39,420, 43,531 and 45,235 interactions were predicted for L. braziliensis, L. major and L. infantum respectively. For each predicted network the top 20 proteins were ranked by MCC topological index. In addition, information related with immunological potential, degree of protein sequence conservation among orthologs and degree of identity compared to proteins of potential parasite hosts was integrated. This information integration provides a better understanding and usefulness of the predicted networks that can be valuable to select new potential biological targets for drug and vaccine development. Network modularity which is a key when one is interested in destabilizing the PPIs for drug or vaccine purposes along with multiple alignments of the predicted PPIs were performed revealing patterns associated with protein turnover. In addition, around 50% of hypothetical protein present in the networks

  16. Machine learning can differentiate venom toxins from other proteins having non-toxic physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Gacesa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascribing function to sequence in the absence of biological data is an ongoing challenge in bioinformatics. Differentiating the toxins of venomous animals from homologues having other physiological functions is particularly problematic as there are no universally accepted methods by which to attribute toxin function using sequence data alone. Bioinformatics tools that do exist are difficult to implement for researchers with little bioinformatics training. Here we announce a machine learning tool called ‘ToxClassifier’ that enables simple and consistent discrimination of toxins from non-toxin sequences with >99% accuracy and compare it to commonly used toxin annotation methods. ‘ToxClassifer’ also reports the best-hit annotation allowing placement of a toxin into the most appropriate toxin protein family, or relates it to a non-toxic protein having the closest homology, giving enhanced curation of existing biological databases and new venomics projects. ‘ToxClassifier’ is available for free, either to download (https://github.com/rgacesa/ToxClassifier or to use on a web-based server (http://bioserv7.bioinfo.pbf.hr/ToxClassifier/.

  17. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  18. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Potentially Toxic Cyanobacteria in the Riverine Region of a Temperate Estuarine System Altered by Weirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Martha Malazarte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of weirs on fish and other biological communities have garnered considerable study, whereas the effects of weirs on community composition of toxic cyanobacteria have not yet been well documented. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in species composition and the abundance of potentially toxic cyanobacteria were investigated in the riverine regions of the temperate Youngsan River estuary, where two weirs have recently been constructed. Four stations were sampled 0.5 m below the surface monthly along the channel of the upper river from May 2014 to April 2015 to explore cyanobacterial composition and abundance, while physicochemical and biological parameters were measured to elucidate possible mechanisms controlling these dynamics. Two stations were located upstream at free-flowing sites, and the other stations were located downstream at impounded sites near the weirs. Twenty-eight cyanobacterial species were identified, seven of which were potentially toxic: Microcystis sp., M. aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae, Dolichospermum sp., Aphanocapsa sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Phormidium sp. Microcystis sp. was the most abundant in June 2014 at the lowest station near the weir. Meanwhile, Phormidium sp. occurred at low abundance throughout the study period, except during the winter months, when its abundance was elevated. The interactive forward selection method highlighted dissolved inorganic nitrogen and zooplankton abundance as explanatory variables for this observed variation, but their effects on cyanobacterial growth are unclear. However, temperature was the major determinant for the temporal variation in cyanobacterial populations. Cluster analysis showed that the downstream stations near the weirs had a high similarity of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Significantly higher abundance, especially of Microcystis sp., was also recorded at the impounded sites suggesting that the presence of weirs might affect variations in toxic

  20. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  1. 1997 Toxic Hazards Research Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    evaluate the potential for CF 3I to produce reproductive toxicity and to provide additional information on the effect of CF 3I exposure on the...questions raised on the effects of CF 3I exposure following the recently completed acute and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies (Dodd et al., 1997a...individuals from potential toxic consequences resulting from exposure to combustion products of advanced composite materials (ACM), this laboratory has

  2. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  3. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  5. First record of potentially toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960, from Peruvian coastal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Baylón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the first record of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960 from the Peruvian littoral. Alexandrium minutum produced the algae bloom in March 2006 and February 2009, in the Callao bay. Its identification was carried out by a morpho-taxonomic examination, detailing their plates with light and epifluorescence microscopy, moreover its quantification was realized in sedimentation chambers. This is the first report of A. minutum for Southeast Pacific. The characteristics in size, shape and thecal morphology were similarly to original descriptions of this species.

  6. The potential of protein-nanomaterial interaction for advanced drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Qiang; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, like nanoparticles, micelles, nano-sheets, nanotubes and quantum dots, have great potentials in biomedical fields. However, their delivery is highly limited by the formation of protein corona upon interaction with endogenous proteins. This new identity, instead of nanomaterial itself...... of such interaction for advanced drug delivery are presented........ Therefore, protein-nanomaterial interaction is a great challenge for nanomaterial systems and should be inhibited. However, this interaction can also be used to functionalize nanomaterials by forming a selected protein corona. Unlike other decoration using exogenous molecules, nanomaterials functionalized...

  7. Autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Stephan T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of the potential risks associated with the manufacture, use, and disposal of nanoscale materials, and their mechanisms of toxicity, is important for the continued advancement of nanotechnology. Currently, the most widely accepted paradigms of nanomaterial toxicity are oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. This review will highlight the significance of autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity. Most endocytic routes of nanomaterial cell uptake converge upon the lysosome, making the lysosomal compartment the most common intracellular site of nanoparticle sequestration and degradation. In addition to the endo-lysosomal pathway, recent evidence suggests that some nanomaterials can also induce autophagy. Among the many physiological functions, the lysosome, by way of the autophagy (macroautophagy pathway, degrades intracellular pathogens, and damaged organelles and proteins. Thus, autophagy induction by nanoparticles may be an attempt to degrade what is perceived by the cell as foreign or aberrant. While the autophagy and endo-lysosomal pathways have the potential to influence the disposition of nanomaterials, there is also a growing body of literature suggesting that biopersistent nanomaterials can, in turn, negatively impact these pathways. Indeed, there is ample evidence that biopersistent nanomaterials can cause autophagy and lysosomal dysfunctions resulting in toxicological consequences.

  8. OpenVirtualToxLab--a platform for generating and exchanging in silico toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Hu, Zhenquan; Smieško, Martin

    2015-01-22

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential--endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity--of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of currently 16 proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The toxic potential of a compound--its ability to trigger adverse effects--is derived from its computed binding affinities toward these very proteins: the computationally demanding simulations are executed in client-server model on a Linux cluster of the University of Basel. The graphical-user interface supports all computer platforms, allows building and uploading molecular structures, inspecting and downloading the results and, most important, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. Access to the VirtualToxLab is available free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  10. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shan-Mei Wang,1,* Xian He,2,* Nan Li,1,* Feng Yu,3 Yang Hu,1 Liu-Sheng Wang,1 Peng Zhang,4 Yu-Kui Du,1 Shan-Shan Du,1 Zhao-Fang Yin,1 Ya-Ru Wei,1 Xavier Mulet,5 Greg Coia,6 Dong Weng,1 Jian-Hua He,3 Min Wu,7 Hui-Ping Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 2School of Medicine, Suzhou University, SuZhou, 3Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Department of Chest Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 5CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, 6CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 7Department of Basic Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high

  11. Potentially Toxic Elements and Health Risk Assessment in Farmland Systems around High-Concentrated Arsenic Coal Mining in Xingren, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-ju Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs via contamination of the food chain has attracted widespread concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of PTEs in environment and human body (fingernail, hair, and blood of people living in agricultural soil near arsenic coal mining areas in Xingren County (Guizhou, southwest China. 89 crop samples which included vegetables, rice, maize, and coix seed and their corresponding soils and 17 local surface water and biological tissue samples (41 × 3 in near arsenic coal mining areas were collected, and the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential health hazards of PTEs in soils growing crops. Results showed that 4 toxic elements, Cd, Cu, As, and Cr, were found to have different degrees of contamination in soils in the studied area. The total concentration of toxic elements (As, Cr, Cu, and Pb in fingernail, hair, and blood samples were 90.50, 69.31, and 6.90 mg·kg−1, respectively. Fingernail samples from females were more likely to show exposure to trace metals compared to males. As the age of the subject increased, the concentration of As also increased in all three biological samples. The risk assessment for the mean hazard index value from the consumption of local food crops was 14.81, indicating that consumers may experience adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects. The estimated mean total cancer risk value of was 5.3 × 10−3, which was approximately 10 to 1000 times higher than the acceptable range of 10−6–10−4, indicating serious carcinogenic risks for local people consuming crops from the area. This study provides evidence that local residents in this study area may be at a high risk of disease caused from toxic element exposure.

  12. Ecotoxicological survey of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI proteins as new potential high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gesuele, Renato; Lofrano, Giusy; Carpentieri, Andrea; Picone, Delia; Guida, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are widespread. They are routinely introduced into commonly consumed food such as diet sodas, cereals, and sugar-free desserts. Recent data revealed the presence in considerable quantities of some of these artificial sweeteners in water samples qualifying them as a class of potential new emerging contaminants. This study aimed at evaluating the ecotoxicity profile of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, two engineered products derived from the natural protein monellin, employing representative test organism such as Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity effects on Salmonella typhimurium (strain TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli (strain WP2 pkM101) were evaluated. No genotoxicity effects were detected, whereas slight mutagenicity was highlighted by TA98 S. typhimurium. Ecotoxicity results evidenced effects approximately up to 14 and 20% with microalgae at 500 mg/L of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, in that order. Macrophytes and crustaceans showed no significant effects. No median effective concentrations were determined. Overall, MNEI and Y65R-MNEI can be classified as not acutely toxic for the environment.

  13. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  14. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  15. Toxicity identification evaluations of produced-water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Costa, H.J.; Brown, J.S.; Ward, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on 14 produced-water (PW) samples of various salinities from inland and offshore oil- and gas-production facilities operated by different companies in Wyoming, Texas, California, and Louisiana (USA) to evaluate the efficacy of TIE procedures in determining potential toxicants in PW effluents. The research involved acute (24- and 48-h) freshwater and marine toxicity tests on whole PW and PW fractions generated by standard US Environmental Protection Agency and PW-specific fractionation schemes. Factors influencing PW TIEs were investigated, such as the effect of salinity in selecting fractionation manipulations, the effect of toxicity test replication (i.e., reproducibility) in distinguishing changes in toxicities between whole PW and its fractions, and the suitability of different test species in PW TIEs. The results obtained and lessons learned from conducting these PW TIEs are presented in this article. Components, or fractions, contributing to toxicity differed for each PW with no specific fraction being consistently toxic. For most PW samples, toxicity attributed to any one fraction represented only part of the toxicity of the whole sample. However, no more than two fraction types were identified as potential toxicants in any sample. Potential toxicants identified during this study, besides salinity, included acidic and basic organic compound class fractions, particulates removed by filtration at pH 11, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, material removed by pH change, and volatile compounds

  16. Effect of nutritional state on Hsp60 levels in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C E; Baumgartner, T A; Newman, J W; Wolfe, M F; Tjeerdema, R S

    2002-11-13

    The nutritional state of an organism can affect the results of toxicity testing. Here we exemplified this fact by examining the effect of nutritional deprivation on heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) production in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following exposure to two proven inducers of hsp60, a water-accommodated fraction of crude oil (WAF) and a dispersed oil preparation (DO). Both DO and WAF exposures of unfed rotifers resulted in significantly greater hsp60 levels than that of fed DO and WAF exposed rotifers at 8 h: 870 and 3100% of control, respectively. Results clearly demonstrate that a poor nutritional state potentiates stress protein induction upon exposure to water-soluble petroleum products. It is therefore critical to define the organismal nutritional status when reporting toxic responses. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Toxic potential of the emerging contaminant nicotine to the aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Floro, António Miguel; Palma, Patrícia

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine is a "life-style compound" widely consumed by human populations and, consequently, often found in surface waters. This fact presents a concern for possible effects in the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential lethal and sublethal toxicity of nicotine in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Daphnia magna). The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to concentrations of nicotine in a range of 0.5-1000 μg/L. Results showed that nicotine, at tested concentration, was not acutely toxic to V. fischeri and T. platyurus. On the contrary, this substance exhibited toxicity to P. subcapitata and Daphnia magna. Thus, concentrations of nicotine of 100 and 200 μg/L promoted an inhibition in the growth of P. subcapitata. In addition, a concentration of 100 μg/L nicotine acted on the reproduction of the crustacean D. magna, by decreasing the number of juveniles produced by female. On the other hand, the results showed that concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μg/L induced the production of daphnids male offspring, which may indicate that nicotine is a weak juvenoid compound of the D. magna endocrine system. Furthermore, the result showed that concentrations tested of this chemical have the capacity to revert the effect of fenoxycarb, a strong juvenoid chemical insecticide. The results of the study revealed that nicotine can induce several changes in some of the most important key groups of the aquatic compartment, which can compromise, in a short time, the balance of aquatic ecosystem. Finally, a preliminary environmental risk assessment of this stimulant was performed from the highest measured concentration in surface water and the no observable effect concentration value in the most sensitive species, i.e., D. magna. This process revealed that nicotine can produce an important risk to aquatic organisms.

  18. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity in Animal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MC are potent hepatotoxins produced by the cyanobacteria of the genera Planktothrix, Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Nostoc and Anabaena. These cyclic heptapeptides have strong affinity to serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs thereby acting as an inhibitor of this group of enzymes. Through this interaction a cascade of events responsible for the MC cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in animal cells may take place. Moreover MC induces oxidative stress in animal cells and together with the inhibition of PPs, this pathway is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of MC toxicity. In recent years new insights on the key enzymes involved in the signal-transduction and toxicity have been reported demonstrating the complexity of the interaction of these toxins with animal cells. Key proteins involved in MC up-take, biotransformation and excretion have been identified, demonstrating the ability of aquatic animals to metabolize and excrete the toxin. MC have shown to interact with the mitochondria. The consequences are the dysfunction of the organelle, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell apoptosis. MC activity leads to the differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and protein kinases involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation and tumor promotion activity. This activity may result from the direct inhibition of the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. This review aims to summarize the increasing data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MC toxicity in animal systems, reporting for direct MC interacting proteins and key enzymes in the process of toxicity biotransformation/excretion of these cyclic peptides.

  20. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2014-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  2. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  3. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to

  4. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of

  5. [HMGA proteins and their genes as a potential neoplastic biomarkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerczak, Ewa; Balcerczak, Mariusz; Mirowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    HMGA proteins and their genes are described in this article. HMGA proteins reveal ability to bind DNA in AT-rich regions, which are characteristic for gene promoter sequences. This interaction lead to gene silencing or their overexpression. In normal tissue HMGA proteins level is low or even undetectable. During embriogenesis their level is increasing. High HMGA proteins level is characteristic for tumor phenotype of spontaneous and experimental malignant neoplasms. High HMGA proteins expression correlate with bad prognostic factors and with metastases formation. HMGA genes expression can be used as a marker of tumor progression. Present studies connected with tumor gene therapy based on HMGA proteins sythesis inhibition by the use of viral vectors containing gene encoding these proteins in antisence orientation, as well as a new potential anticancer drugs acting as crosslinkers between DNA and HMGA proteins suggest their usefulness as a targets in cancer therapy.

  6. POTENTIAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ULTRAFINE PARTICLE TOXIC EFFECTS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA JOVIĆ-STOŠIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggested the association of the particulate matter ambient air pollution and the increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The size of particles has great influence on their toxicity, because it determines the site in the respiratory tract where they deposit. The most well established theory explaining the mechanisms behind the increased toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP, < 0.1 µm is that it has to do with the increased surface area and/or the combination with the increased number of particles. Biological effects of UFP are also determined by their shape and chemical composition, so it is not possible to estimate their toxicity in a general way. General hypothesis suggested that exposure to inhaled particles induces pulmonary alveolar inflammation as a basic pathophysiological event, triggering release of various proinflammatory cytokines. Chronic inflammation is a very important underlying mechanism in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. UFP can freely move through the circulation, but their effects on the secondary organs are not known yet, so more studies on recognizing toxicological endpoints of UFP are needed. Determination of UFP toxicity and the estimation of their internal and biologically active dose are necessary for the evidence based conclusions connecting air pollution by UFP and human diseases.

  7. Clinical Potential of Hyperbaric Pressure-Treated Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolomini, André F.; Kubow, Stan; Lands, Larry C.

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) from cow’s milk is a rich source of essential and branched chain amino acids. Whey protein isolates (WPI) has been demonstrated to support muscle accretion, antioxidant activity, and immune modulation. However, whey is not readily digestible due to its tight conformational structure. Treatment of WPI with hyperbaric pressure results in protein unfolding. This enhances protein digestion, and results in an altered spectrum of released peptides, and greater release of essential and branched chain amino acids. Pressurized whey protein isolates (pWPI), through a series of cell culture, animal models and clinical studies, have been demonstrated to enhance muscle accretion, reduce inflammation, improve immunity, and decrease fatigue. It is also conceivable that pWPI would be more accessible to digestive enzymes, which would allow for a more rapid proteolysis of the proteins and an increased or altered release of small bioactive peptides. The altered profile of peptides released from WP digestion could thus play a role in the modulation of the immune response and tissue glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The research to date presents potentially interesting applications for the development of new functional foods based on hyperbaric treatment of WPI to produce products with more potent nutritional and nutraceutical properties. PMID:27417773

  8. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  9. Evaluation of potential toxicity from mercury in ayurvedic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Suresh; Maral, Anand; Mukherjee, Archana; Patankar, A.V.; Sarma, H.D.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2003-01-01

    Kajjali - which is a defined combination of purified elemental mercury and sulphur is used in Ayurvedic prescriptions. Kajjali is claimed to accelerate the therapeutic effects of various medicinal components. The exact role of Kajjali in this process is not as yet ascertained. Ayurveda literature claims that toxic effects of mercury are neutralised in the presence of sulphur. Mercury is known for its toxicity especially with respect to the nervous system and the amount of mercury used in the preparation of Kajjali is quite high. Hence, to study the pharmaco-kinetics of the preparation, bio-distribution studies using 203 Hg as a tracer in Kajjali were carried out in Wistar rats. (author)

  10. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  11. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  12. Insulin Signaling in Bupivacaine-induced Cardiac Toxicity: Sensitization during Recovery and Potentiation by Lipid Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettiplace, Michael R.; Kowal, Katarzyna; Ripper, Richard; Young, Alexandria; Lis, Kinga; Rubinstein, Israel; Bonini, Marcelo; Minshall, Richard; Weinberg, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of local anesthetics on regulation of glucose homeostasis by protein kinase B (Akt) and 5’-Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is unclear but important because of the implications for both local anesthetic toxicity and its reversal by intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received 10mg/kg bupivacaine over 20 seconds followed by nothing or 10mL/kg ILE (or ILE without bupivacaine). At key time points, heart and kidney were excised. Glycogen content and phosphorylation levels of Akt, p70s6k, s6, IRS1, GSK-3β, AMPK, ACC, TSC2 were quantified. Three animals received Wortmannin to irreversibily inhibit phosphoinositide-3-kinase (Pi3k) signaling. Isolated heart studies were conducted with bupivacaine and LY294002—a reversible Pi3K inhibitor. Results Bupivacaine cardiotoxicity rapidly de-phosphorylated Akt at S473 to 63 ± 5% of baseline and phosphorylated AMPK to 151 ± 19%. AMPK activation inhibited targets downstream of mTORC1 via TSC2. Feedback dephosphorylation of IRS1 to 31 ± 8% of baseline sensitized Akt signaling in hearts resulting in hyper-phosphorylation of Akt at T308 and GSK-3β to 390 ± 64% and 293 ± 50% of baseline respectively. Glycogen accumulated to 142 ± 7% of baseline. Irreversible inhibition of Pi3k upstream of Akt exacerbated bupivacaine cardiotoxicity, while pretreating with a reversible inhibitor delayed onset of toxicity. ILE rapidly phosphorylated Akt at S473 and T308 to 150 ± 23% and 167 ± 10% of baseline, respectively but did not interfere with AMPK or targets of mTORC1. Conclusion Glucose handling by Akt and AMPK is integral to recovery from bupivacaine cardiotoxicity and modulation of these pathways by ILE contributes to lipid resuscitation. PMID:26646023

  13. A pairwise residue contact area-based mean force potential for discrimination of native protein structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshk Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering energy function to detect a correct protein fold from incorrect ones is very important for protein structure prediction and protein folding. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are certainly the most popular type of interaction function for protein threading. They are derived from statistical analyses of interacting groups in experimentally determined protein structures. These potentials are developed at the atom or the amino acid level. Based on orientation dependent contact area, a new type of knowledge-based mean force potential has been developed. Results We developed a new approach to calculate a knowledge-based potential of mean-force, using pairwise residue contact area. To test the performance of our approach, we performed it on several decoy sets to measure its ability to discriminate native structure from decoys. This potential has been able to distinguish native structures from the decoys in the most cases. Further, the calculated Z-scores were quite high for all protein datasets. Conclusions This knowledge-based potential of mean force can be used in protein structure prediction, fold recognition, comparative modelling and molecular recognition. The program is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/surfield

  14. Acute toxicity of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes: A biochemical, histopathologic and proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2017-09-25

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  16. Ginkgolide A contributes to the potentiation of acetaminophen toxicity by Ginkgo biloba extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, Ganesh; Chen, Jie; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2006-01-01

    The present cell culture study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract pretreatment on acetaminophen toxicity and assessed the role of ginkgolide A and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in hepatocytes isolated from adult male Long-Evans rats provided ad libitum with a standard diet. Acetaminophen (7.5-25 mM for 24 h) conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. G. biloba extract alone increased LDH leakage in hepatocytes at concentrations ≥ 75 μg/ml and ≥ 750 μg/ml after a 72 h and 24 h treatment period, respectively. G. biloba extract (25 or 50 μg/ml once every 24 h for 72 h) potentiated LDH leakage by acetaminophen (10 mM for 24 h; added at 48 h after initiation of extract pretreatment). The effect was confirmed by a decrease in [ 14 C]-leucine incorporation. At the level present in a modulating concentration (50 μg/ml) of the extract, ginkgolide A (0.55 μg/ml), which increased CYP3A23 mRNA levels and CYP3A-mediated enzyme activity, accounted for part but not all of the potentiating effect of the extract on acetaminophen toxicity. This occurred as a result of CYP3A induction by ginkgolide A because triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), a specific inhibitor of CYP3A catalytic activity, completely blocked the effect of ginkgolide A. Ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside did not alter the extent of LDH leakage by acetaminophen. In summary, G. biloba pretreatment potentiated acetaminophen toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes and ginkgolide A contributed to this novel effect of the extract by inducing CYP3A

  17. Calculation of the redox potential of the protein azurin and some mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, M; Swart, M; Snijders, JG; Berendsen, HJC; Mark, AE; Oostenbrink, C; van Gunsteren, WF; Canters, GW

    Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a small 128-residue, copper-containing protein. Its redox potential can be modified by mutating the protein. Free-energy calculations based on classical molecular-dynamics simulations of the protein and from mutants in aqueous solution at different pH values

  18. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi SJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Jin Choi,1 Jin-Ho Choy2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, 2Center for Intelligent Nano Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle–protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, biokinetics, distribution, excretion, fate, interaction

  20. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of polycystic ovary syndrome potential drug targets based on pathobiological similarity in the protein-protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hao; He, Yuehan; Li, Wan; Wei, Wenqing; Li, Yiran; Xie, Ruiqiang; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Binbin; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinological disorders in reproductive aged women. PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are closely linked in multiple levels and possess high pathobiological similarity. Here, we put forward a new computational approach based on the pathobiological similarity to identify PCOS potential drug target modules (PPDT-Modules) and PCOS potential drug targets in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). From the systems level and biologi...

  2. Acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity induced by selective p38alpha map kinase and map kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) inhibitors in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dale L; O'Neil, Shawn P; Devraj, Rajesh V; Portanova, Joseph P; Gilles, Richard W; Gross, Cindy J; Curtiss, Sandra W; Komocsar, Wendy J; Garner, Debra S; Happa, Fernando A; Kraus, Lori J; Nikula, Kristen J; Monahan, Joseph B; Selness, Shaun R; Galluppi, Gerald R; Shevlin, Kimberly M; Kramer, Jeffrey A; Walker, John K; Messing, Dean M; Anderson, David R; Mourey, Robert J; Whiteley, Laurence O; Daniels, John S; Yang, Jerry Z; Rowlands, Philip C; Alden, Carl L; Davis, John W; Sagartz, John E

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to moderately selective p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in the Beagle dog results in an acute toxicity consisting of mild clinical signs (decreased activity, diarrhea, and fever), lymphoid necrosis and depletion in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, and linear colonic and cecal mucosal hemorrhages. Lymphocyte apoptosis and necrosis in the GALT is the earliest and most prominent histopathologic change observed, followed temporally by neutrophilic infiltration and acute inflammation of the lymph nodes and spleen and multifocal mucosal epithelial necrosis and linear hemorrhages in the colon and cecum. These effects are not observed in the mouse, rat, or cynomolgus monkey. To further characterize the acute toxicity in the dog, a series of in vivo, in vitro, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted to determine the relationship between the lymphoid and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and p38 MAPK inhibition. Results of these studies demonstrate a direct correlation between p38alpha MAPK inhibition and the acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity in the dog. Similar effects were observed following exposure to inhibitors of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), further implicating the role of p38alpha MAPK signaling pathway inhibition in these effects. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that p38alpha MAPK inhibition results in acute lymphoid and GI toxicity in the dog and is unique among the species evaluated in these studies.

  3. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content, metallothionein (MT content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (p<0.05. Clear toxic effects of DEHP on E. fetida have been generally recognized by means of the disturbance of antioxidant enzyme activity/content and critical proteins, cell membrane and organelle disorder and DNA damage estimated by length of tail, tail DNA ratio, and tail moment parameters. A concentration of DEHP of 3 mg kg-1 may be recommended as a precaution against the potential risk of PAEs in soils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms.

  4. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  5. An investigation of boron-toxicity in leaves of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance using comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-06-18

    Limited data are available on boron (B)-toxicity-responsive proteins in plants. We first applied 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the effects of B-toxicity on leaf protein profiles in B-tolerant Citrus sinensis and B-intolerant Citrus grandis seedlings, and identified 27 (20) protein species with increased abundances and 23 (25) protein species with decreased abundances from the former (latter). Generally speaking, B-toxicity increased the abundances of protein species involved in antioxidation and detoxification, proteolysis, cell transport, and decreased the abundances of protein species involved in protein biosynthesis in the two citrus species. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might include following several aspects: (a) protein species related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism in C. sinensis leaves were more adaptive to B-toxicity than in C. grandis ones, which was responsible for the higher photosynthesis and for the better maintenance of energy homeostasis in the former; and (b) the increased requirement for detoxification of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxic compounds due to decreased photosynthesis was less in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. B-toxicity-responsive protein species involved in coenzyme biosynthesis differed between the two species, which might also contribute to the higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis. B-toxicity occurs in many regions all over the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions due to the raising of B-rich water tables with high B accumulated in topsoil. In China, B-toxicity often occurs in some citrus orchards. However, the mechanisms of citrus B-tolerance are still not fully understood. Here, we first used 2-DE to identify some new B-toxicity-responsive-proteins involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Our results showed that proteins involved in photosynthesis and energy metabolism

  6. Novel Aflatoxin Derivatives and Protein Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Niessner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, a group of structurally related mycotoxins, are well known for their toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. Aflatoxin derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for diverse analytical applications. This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel aflatoxin derivatives, purification by preparative HPLC and characterisation by ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR. Novel aflatoxin bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared and characterised by UV absorption and MALDI-MS. These aflatoxin protein conjugates are potentially interesting as immunogens for the generation of aflatoxin selective antibodies with novel specificities.

  7. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Qi; Huang, Shan; Su, Wei; Li, Peiyuan; Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF 5 using a TAM air microcalorimeter. ► QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner. ► The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was investigated. ► QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF 5 . - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF 5 (T. thermophila BF 5 ) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd 2+ , which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF 5 growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  8. Paraquat: model for oxidant-initiated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bus, J.S.; Gibson, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    Paraquat, a quaternary ammonium bipyridyl herbicide, produces degenerative lesions in the lung after systemic administration to man and animals. The pulmonary toxicity of paraquat resembles in several ways the toxicity of several other lung toxins, including oxygen, nitrofurantoin and bleomycin. Although a definitive mechanism of toxicity of parquat has not been delineated, a cyclic single electron reduction/oxidation of the parent molecule is a critical mechanistic event. The redox cycling of paraquat has two potentially important consequences relevant to the development of toxicity: generation of activated oxygen (e.g., superoxide anion, hydrogen perioxide, hydroxyl radical) which is highly reactive to cellular macromolecules; and/or oxidation of reducing equivalents (e.g., NADPH, reduced glutathione) necessary for normal cell function. Paraquat-induced pulmonary toxicity, therefore, is a potentially useful model for evaluation of oxidant mechanisms of toxicity. Furthermore, characterization of the consequences of intracellular redox cycling of xenobiotics will no doubt provide basic information regarding the role of this phenomena in the development of chemical toxicity. 105 references, 2 figures.

  9. Leucaena toxicity: a new perspective on the most widely used forage tree legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Halliday

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena is a high quality ruminant feed, vitally important for livestock production in the tropics, despite the presence of mimosine in the leaves. This toxic non-protein amino acid has the potential to limit productivity and adversely affect the health of animals. In the 1980s, the ruminal bacterium Synergistes jonesii was discovered and subsequently distributed in Australia as an oral inoculum to overcome these toxic effects. However, in recent times, a number of factors, including: surveys of the status of toxicity worldwide; improved understanding of the chemistry and mode of action of the toxins; new techniques for molecular sequencing; and concerns about the efficacy of the in vitro inoculum; have cast doubt on some past understanding of leucaena toxicity and provide new insights into the geographical spread of S. jonesii. There is also confusion and ignorance regarding the occurrence and significance of toxicity in many countries worldwide. Ongoing research into the taxonomy and ecology of the Synergistetes phylum, improved methods of inoculation, and improved management solutions, along with aware-ness-raising extension activities, are vital for the future success of leucaena feeding systems.

  10. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  11. The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP⁺-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Neife Aparecida Guinaim; Martins, Nádia Maria; Sisti, Flávia Malvestio; Fernandes, Laís Silva; Ferreira, Rafaela Scalco; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Santos, Antônio Cardozo

    2015-12-25

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Its neuroprotection has been mainly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant events; however, other mechanisms might be involved. We investigated the involvement of neuritogenesis, NGF receptors (trkA), NGF, and neuronal proteins in the mechanism of neuroprotection of CBD against MPP(+) toxicity in PC12 cells. CBD increased cell viability, differentiation, and the expression of axonal (GAP-43) and synaptic (synaptophysin and synapsin I) proteins. Its neuritogenic effect was not dependent or additive to NGF, but it was inhibited by K252a (trkA inhibitor). CBD did not increase the expression of NGF, but protected against its decrease induced by MPP(+), probably by an indirect mechanism. We also evaluated the neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells, which do not express trkA receptors. CBD did not induce neuritogenesis in this cellular model, which supports the involvement of trkA receptors. This is the first study to report the involvement of neuronal proteins and trkA in the neuroprotection of CBD. Our findings suggest that CBD has a neurorestorative potential independent of NGF that might contribute to its neuroprotection against MPP(+), a neurotoxin relevant to Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  13. On the retinal toxicity of intraocular glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriglia, Alicia; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2010-12-15

    Corticosteroids are hormones involved in many physiological responses such as stress, immune modulation, protein catabolism and water homeostasis. The subfamily of glucocorticoids is used systemically in the treatment of inflammatory diseases or allergic reactions. In the eye, glucocorticoides are used to treat macular edema, inflammation and neovascularization. The most commonly used glucocorticoid is triamcinolone acetonide (TA). The pharmaceutical formulation of TA is not adapted for intravitreal administration but has been selected by ophthalmologists because its very low intraocular solubility provides sustained effect. Visual benefits of intraocular TA do not clearly correlate with morpho-anatomical improvements, suggesting potential toxicity. We therefore studied, non-common, but deleterious effects of glucocorticoids on the retina. We found that the intravitreal administration of TA is beneficial in the treatment of neovascularization because it triggers cell death of endothelial cells of neovessels by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, this treatment is toxic for the retina because it induces a non-apoptotic, caspase-independent cell death related to paraptosis, mostly in the retinal pigmented epithelium cells and the Müller cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential allergenicity research of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Dai, Yunqing; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-07-01

    With the development of genetically modified crops, there has been a growing interest in available approaches to assess the potential allergenicity of novel gene products. We were not sure whether Cry1C could induce allergy. We examined the protein with three other proteins to determine the potential allergenicity of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice. Female Brown Norway (BN) rats received 0.1 mg peanut agglutinin (PNA), 1mg potato acid phosphatase (PAP), 1mg ovalbumin (OVA) or 5 mg purified Cry1C protein dissolved in 1 mL water by daily gavage for 42 days to test potential allergenicity. Ten days after the last gavage, rats were orally challenged with antigens, and physiologic and immunologic responses were studied. In contrast to sensitization with PNA, PAP and OVA Cry1C protein did not induce antigen-specific IgG2a in BN rats. Cytokine expression, serum IgE and histamine levels and the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the blood of Cry1C group rats were comparable to the control group rats, which were treated with water alone. As Cry1C did not show any allergenicity, we make the following conclusion that the protein could be safety used in rice or other plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  16. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzen, Emily P. [Department of Environmental Studies, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62091 (United States); Belden, Jason B. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Science West, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu

    2009-01-15

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States.

  17. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzen, Emily P.; Lydy, Michael J.; Belden, Jason B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States

  18. Identification of membrane-associated proteins with pathogenic potential expressed by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis grown in animal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Bastos, Bruno Lopes; Vilas-Boas, Priscilla Carolinne Bagano; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Costa-Silva, Marcos; de Sá, Maria da Conceição Aquino; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Moura-Costa, Lília Ferreira; Azevedo, Vasco; Meyer, Roberto

    2018-01-25

    Previous works defining antigens that might be used as vaccine targets against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of sheep and goat caseous lymphadenitis, have focused on secreted proteins produced in a chemically defined culture media. Considering that such antigens might not reflect the repertoire of proteins expressed during infection conditions, this experiment aimed to investigate the membrane-associated proteins with pathogenic potential expressed by C. pseudotuberculosis grown directly in animal serum. Its membrane-associated proteins have been extracted using an organic solvent enrichment methodology, followed by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis for protein identification and classification. The results revealed 22 membrane-associated proteins characterized as potentially pathogenic. An interaction network analysis indicated that the four potentially pathogenic proteins ciuA, fagA, OppA4 and OppCD were biologically connected within two distinct network pathways, which were both associated with the ABC Transporters KEGG pathway. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenesis might be associated with the transport and uptake of nutrients; other seven identified potentially pathogenic membrane proteins also suggest that pathogenesis might involve events of bacterial resistance and adhesion. The proteins herein reported potentially reflect part of the protein repertoire expressed during real infection conditions and might be tested as vaccine antigens.

  19. Role of uptake of [14C]valine into protein in the development of tolerance to diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Dettbarn, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily treated with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) (0.5 mg/kg, sc) for 14 days. Maximum signs of anticholinesterase toxicity were observed during Days 4 and 5 comparable to those seen 10-15 min following a single sublethal dosage (1.5 mg DFP/kg, sc). Signs disappeared after Days 6-7 of exposure and rats became apparently normal during the remainder of the treatment period. Significant hypothermia was seen following the second to fifth doses with maximum effect after the fifth injection. Subsequent injections of DFP did not cause any reduction in temperature. Incorporation of [ 14 C]valine was measured 24 hr after the 5th and 14th injections of DFP, at a time when body temperature had recovered to control values. The rate of in vivo incorporation of [ 14 C]valine was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after a subcutaneous injection of L-[1- 14 C]valine at a dose of 5 microCi/mmol/100 g body wt. After five injections the rate of L-[1- 14 C]valine uptake into the free amino acid pool and the incorporation into the protein bound pool was significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced in discrete brain regions, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles. At the end of the 14-day treatment, protein synthesis in all the skeletal muscles tested had recovered completely (p greater than 0.01) to the values of nontreated control animals. In brain, liver, and kidney, however, no recovery was seen during this period. The recovery of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle may be one of the mechanisms that lead to tolerance development during prolonged administration of subacute concentrations of DFP

  20. Congo red and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Petrea; Anisimov, Sergey V; Popovic, Natalija

    2007-01-01

    Congo red is a commonly used histological dye for amyloid detection. The specificity of this staining results from Congo red's affinity for binding to fibril proteins enriched in beta-sheet conformation. Unexpectedly, recent investigations indicate that the dye also possesses the capacity to interfere with processes of protein misfolding and aggregation, stabilizing native protein monomers or partially folded intermediates, while reducing concentration of more toxic protein oligomers. Inhibitory effects of Congo red upon amyloid toxicity may also range from blockade of channel formation and interference with glycosaminoglycans binding or immune functions, to the modulation of gene expression. Particularly, Congo red exhibits ameliorative effect in models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases. Another interesting application of Congo red analogues is the development of imaging probes. Based on their small molecular size and penetrability through blood-brain barrier, Congo red congeners can be used for both antemortem and in vivo visualization and quantification of brain amyloids. Therefore, understanding mechanisms involved in dye-amyloidal fibril binding and inhibition of aggregation will provide instructive guides for the design of future compounds, potentially useful for monitoring and treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Potential of antioxidant and toxicity of some medical plants used by sub-ethnic communities of Bahau in East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohim, P.; Arung, E. T.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to assay the potential antioxidant and toxicity of several plants from Bahau, a sub-ethnic in East Kalimantan in regard to their utilization as traditional medicines. This research includes phytochemical analysis, DPPH radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity as well as toxicity assay using Artemiasalina shrimp larvae. The results of the extraction showed the highest yield was 2,91% obtained from avung tanaq (Ficus uncinata), while the lowest is 1.14% obtained from tevoqsalah (Saccharum sp.) species. The result of phytochemicals showed that all plants contain alkaloid and carbohydrate. While carotenoids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids were absence in all plant extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity test showed that the lowest IC50 value of kayog kue (Dictamnus albus) by 23.96 μg/mL. The superoxide radical scavenging activity assay showed IC50 values of all extract samples were >100 μg/mL. The toxicity assay showed that LC50 values of all samples of extract tested were >1000 μg/mL. The present research suggested good potential activity of some plants from Bahau ethnic and further research oriented to wide uses of the plants as herbal products is needed.

  2. [Investigation of potential toxic factors for fleece-flower root: from perspective of processing methods evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He-Rong; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Song, Hai-Bo; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of reports on fleece-flower root-caused liver damages has drawn wide attention of both at home and abroad, however, there were rare literature on toxicology of fleece-flower root in ancient Chinese medicine. But why there are so many reports on toxicology of fleece-flower root now compared with the ancient literature? As a typical tonic medicine, the clinical utility of fleece-flower root was largely limited by its standardization and reliability of processing methods in ancient Chinese medicine. The ancient processing methods of fleece-flower root emphasized nine times of steaming and nine times of drying, while the modern processes have been simplified into one time of steaming. Whether the differences between ancient and modern processing methods are the potential cause of the increased events of fleece-flower root-caused liver damages. We will make deep analysis and provide new clues and perspectives for the research on its toxicity. This article, therefore, would discuss the affecting factors and key problems in toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root on the basis of sorting out the processing methods of fleece-flower root in ancient medical books and modern standards, in order to provide the reference for establishing specification for toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. High-throughput sequencing reveals microbial communities in drinking water treatment sludge from six geographically distributed plants, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Ma, Chunxia; Wang, Yuting; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2018-04-10

    The microbial community structures of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) generated for raw water (RW) from different locations and with different source types - including river water, lake water and reservoir water -were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Because the unit operations in the six DWTPs were similar, community composition in fresh sludge may be determined by microbial community in the corresponding RW. Although Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the dominant phyla among the six DWTS samples, no single phylum exhibited similar abundance across all the samples, owing to differences in total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, Al, Fe, and chloride in RW. Three genera of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Planktothrix, Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis), and four potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus, Prevotella copri and Rickettsia) were found in sludge samples. Because proliferation of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and Rickettsia in RW was mainly affected by nutrients, while growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella copri in RW may be influenced by Fe, control of nutrients and Fe in RW is essential to decrease toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens in DWTS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of snakehead fish protein that’s potential as antihyperglikemik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindytia Prastari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead fish has been sources that have high protein content and can be used as antioxidant and anti-diabetes. To increase the level of protein content and amino acid in snakehead fish, the treatment of hydrolysis and fermentation were chosen in this study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of snakehead fish protein and its potential as antihyperglycemic. Three samples were used in this study, i.e., hydrolysate, fermented and non-fermented isolates. The experimental design used was completely randomized design. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT (α = 5%.  The current study reported that the hydrolysate had higherprotein content 90.43%, as compared to the fermented and non-fermented isolates were 84.43% and 78.69%, respectively. At a concentration of 10.000 ppm, hydrolysate showed highest inhibition activity (74%, as compared to fermented isolate inhibited 59% and none-fermentation isolate inhibited 56%. Hydrolysate also had higher amino acid content than fermented and non-fermented isolates of 51.15, 44.34, and 32.00 %w/w, respectively. Hydrolysate had the lowest molecular weight (<10 kDa, while fermented and non-fermented isolates were <10 kDa. This probably due to the hydrolysis process using an enzyme was capable to break the peptide fractions of snakehead fish protein. Hence, it increased the levels of protein, amino acids, there by protein hydrolysate had high inhibitory potential than fermented and non-fermented isolates.

  5. Chimeras taking shape: Potential functions of proteins encoded by chimeric RNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Lacroix, Vincent; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Levin, Yishai; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Prilusky, Jaime; del Pozo, Angela; Tress, Michael; Johnson, Rory; Guigo, Roderic; Valencia, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs comprise exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins that alter cellular phenotypes. To date, numerous putative chimeric transcripts have been identified among the ESTs isolated from several organisms and using high throughput RNA sequencing. The few corresponding protein products that have been characterized mostly result from chromosomal translocations and are associated with cancer. Here, we systematically establish that some of the putative chimeric transcripts are genuinely expressed in human cells. Using high throughput RNA sequencing, mass spectrometry experimental data, and functional annotation, we studied 7424 putative human chimeric RNAs. We confirmed the expression of 175 chimeric RNAs in 16 human tissues, with an abundance varying from 0.06 to 17 RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads). We show that these chimeric RNAs are significantly more tissue-specific than non-chimeric transcripts. Moreover, we present evidence that chimeras tend to incorporate highly expressed genes. Despite the low expression level of most chimeric RNAs, we show that 12 novel chimeras are translated into proteins detectable in multiple shotgun mass spectrometry experiments. Furthermore, we confirm the expression of three novel chimeric proteins using targeted mass spectrometry. Finally, based on our functional annotation of exon organization and preserved domains, we discuss the potential features of chimeric proteins with illustrative examples and suggest that chimeras significantly exploit signal peptides and transmembrane domains, which can alter the cellular localization of cognate proteins. Taken together, these findings establish that some chimeric RNAs are translated into potentially functional proteins in humans. PMID:22588898

  6. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  7. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts with arsenic and other potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    The response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbionts to arsenic, and arsenic interactions with phosphorus and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils from a former arsenic mine, the Devon Great Consols, were investigated. The objective was to determine whether AM associations ameliorate arsenic toxicity in Plantago lanceolata and Agrostis capillaris, plants commonly found at abandoned mines. An exploratory investigation indicated the richness in biodiversity of AMF that colonised plants growing at the site. Arsenic was found at high concentrations and was strongly associated with copper and iron. P. lanceolata was always colonised by AMF, while colonisation of A. capillaris was variable. There was no evidence in the field of soil pH or PTEs influencing AMF colonisation and spore density. There was no strong correlation between arsenic content in plant and available arsenic, obtained through various extraction methods. Spore germination and infectivity in the mine soils were strongly influenced by the AMF genotype and to a lesser extent by the soil environment. P. lanceolata and A. capillaris root growth was inhibited at arsenic concentrations of ≥50 μg g -1 in agar. Bioavailability experiments using mine soils and Terra-Green TM (calcined attapulgite) spiked with sodium arsenate gave no evidence that AMF-colonised plants translocated less arsenic to the shoots. Plants accumulated more arsenic in their roots than in their shoots, whether they were colonised by AMF or not. The A. capillaris genotype used in the present study translocated less of both arsenic and phosphorus to its shoots than P. lanceolata. High available phosphorus in Terra-Green TM protected plants against arsenic toxicity, at -1 As. There was evidence for inhibition by arsenic in AMF colonisation of roots. For quantifying AMF extra radical hyphae contribution to arsenic transportation from growth medium to plant using a compartmented pot system, the use of low phosphorus medium and a longer

  8. Rethink potential risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2018-09-01

    Studies have showed the increasing environmental and public health risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining, which have become even worse as fracking is becoming a dominant approach in current natural gas extraction. However, governments and communities often overlook the serious air pollutants from oil and gas mining, which are often quantified lower than the significant levels of adverse health effects. Therefore, we are facing a challenging dilemma: how could we clearly understand the potential risks of air toxics from natural gas and oil mining. This short study aims at the design and application of simple and robust methods to enhance and improve current understanding of the becoming worse toxic air emissions from natural gas and oil mining as fracking is becoming the major approach. Two simple ratios, the min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average, are designed and applied to each type of air pollutants in a natural gas and oil mining region. The two ratios directly indicate how significantly high a type of air pollutant could be due to natural gas and oil mining by comparing it to the national average records, although it may not reach the significant risks of adverse health effects according to current risk screening methods. The min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average ratios can be used as a direct and powerful method to describe the significance of air pollution by comparing it to the national average. The two ratios are easy to use for governments, stakeholders, and the public to pay enough attention on the air pollutants from natural gas and oil mining. The two ratios can also be thematically mapped at sampled sites for spatial monitoring, but spatial mitigation and analysis of environmental and health risks need other measurements of environmental and demographic characteristics across a natural gas and oil mining area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Villaverde, Antonio; Aris, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  10. In vitro toxicities of experimental jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, K T; Frazier, J M

    2001-07-02

    One research emphasis within the Department of Defense has been to seek the replacement of operational compounds with alternatives that pose less potential risk to human and ecological systems. Alternatives to glycol ethers, such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (M-DE), were investigated for use as jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents (FSIIs). This group of chemicals includes three derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (M-1, M-2, and M-3) and a 1,3-dioxane (M-27). In addition, M-DE was evaluated as a reference compound. Our approach was to implement an in vitro test battery based on primary rat hepatocyte cultures to perform initial toxicity evaluations. Hepatocytes were exposed to experimental chemicals (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM dosages) for periods up to 24 h. Samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, MTT dye reduction activity, glutathione level, and rate of protein synthesis as indicators of toxicity. Of the compounds tested, M-1, especially at the 10-mM dose, appeared to be more potent than the other chemicals, as measured by these toxicity assays. M-DE, the current FSII, elicited little response in the toxicity assays. Although some variations in toxicity were observed at the 10-mM dose, the in vitro toxicities of the chemicals tested (except for M-1) were not considerably greater than that of M-DE.

  11. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  12. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang, E-mail: chan91@yeah.net [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jun, E-mail: chenjun@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Xuezhen, E-mail: xuezhen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Ping, E-mail: xieping@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  13. Molecular toxicity of triclosan and carbamazepine to green algae Chlorococcum sp.: A single cell view using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaying; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Xia; An, Chunjiang; Yao, Yao; Weger, Harold; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiujuan

    2017-07-01

    Although pharmaceuticals and personal care products have been used and introduced into the environment in large quantities, little information on potential ecological risks is currently available considering their effects on living organisms. We verified the feasibility of using synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy to explore in vivo toxic effects on single living Chlorococcum sp. cells. The study provided important information to achieve a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of triclosan and carbamazepine on living algae Chlorococcum sp.. Triclosan and carbamazepine had distinctive toxic effects on unicellular living algae. Most strikingly, triclosan had more dramatic toxic effects on biochemical components than carbamazepine. Triclosan can affect algae primarily by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and causing protein aggregation. The toxicity response was irreversible at higher concentration (100.000 μM), but attenuated at lower concentration (0.391 μM) as time extended. Carbamazepine can produce hydrophobic interactions to affect the phospholipid bilayer and work on specific proteins to disfunction the cell membrane. Carbamazepine-exposed cells developed a resistance while extending exposure time. This is the first demonstration from an ecological standpoint that SR-FTIR can provide an innovative approach to reveal the toxicity of emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cobalt toxicity in humans-A review of the potential sources and systemic health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Laura; Vinck, Bart; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Wuyts, Floris; Maes, Leen

    2017-07-15

    Cobalt (Co) and its compounds are widely distributed in nature and are part of numerous anthropogenic activities. Although cobalt has a biologically necessary role as metal constituent of vitamin B 12 , excessive exposure has been shown to induce various adverse health effects. This review provides an extended overview of the possible Co sources and related intake routes, the detection and quantification methods for Co intake and the interpretation thereof, and the reported health effects. The Co sources were allocated to four exposure settings: occupational, environmental, dietary and medical exposure. Oral intake of Co supplements and internal exposure through metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants deliver the highest systemic Co concentrations. The systemic health effects are characterized by a complex clinical syndrome, mainly including neurological (e.g. hearing and visual impairment), cardiovascular and endocrine deficits. Recently, a biokinetic model has been proposed to characterize the dose-response relationship and effects of chronic exposure. According to the model, health effects are unlikely to occur at blood Co concentrations under 300μg/l (100μg/l respecting a safety factor of 3) in healthy individuals, hematological and endocrine dysfunctions are the primary health endpoints, and chronic exposure to acceptable doses is not expected to pose considerable health hazards. However, toxic reactions at lower doses have been described in several cases of malfunctioning MoM hip implants, which may be explained by certain underlying pathologies that increase the individual susceptibility for Co-induced systemic toxicity. This may be associated with a decrease in Co bound to serum proteins and an increase in free ionic Co 2+ . As the latter is believed to be the primary toxic form, monitoring of the free fraction of Co 2+ might be advisable for future risk assessment. Furthermore, future research should focus on longitudinal studies in the clinical setting of Mo

  15. The Role of Extracellular Binding Proteins in the Cellular Uptake of Drugs: Impact on Quantitative In Vitro-to-In Vivo Extrapolations of Toxicity and Efficacy in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick; Burczynski, Frank J; Haddad, Sami

    2016-02-01

    A critical component in the development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models for estimating target organ dosimetry in pharmacology and toxicology studies is the understanding of the uptake kinetics and accumulation of drugs and chemicals at the cellular level. Therefore, predicting free drug concentrations in intracellular fluid will contribute to our understanding of concentrations at the site of action in cells in PBPK/PD research. Some investigators believe that uptake of drugs in cells is solely driven by the unbound fraction; conversely, others argue that the protein-bound fraction contributes a significant portion of the total amount delivered to cells. Accordingly, the current literature suggests the existence of a so-called albumin-mediated uptake mechanism(s) for the protein-bound fraction (i.e., extracellular protein-facilitated uptake mechanisms) at least in hepatocytes and cardiac myocytes; however, such mechanism(s) and cells from other organs deserve further exploration. Therefore, the main objective of this present study was to discuss further the implication of potential protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s) on drug distribution in cells under in vivo conditions. The interplay between the protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s) and the effects of a pH gradient, metabolism, transport, and permeation limitation potentially occurring in cells was also discussed, as this should violate the basic assumption on similar free drug concentration in cells and plasma. This was made because the published equations used to calculate drug concentrations in cells in a PBPK/PD model did not consider potential protein-facilitated uptake mechanism(s). Consequently, we corrected some published equations for calculating the free drug concentrations in cells compared with plasma in PBPK/PD modeling studies, and we proposed a refined strategy for potentially performing more accurate quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations

  16. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa Boiss. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Saadattalab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Umbelliferae is a popular medicinal plant, which is known mostly for therapeutic uses of its oleo-gum-resin (Barijeh in Persian. In the present study, the essential oil of F. gummosa roots was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of the essential oil (extracted by hydrodistillation method were analyzed using GC-MS. Antioxidant and toxicity properties of the oil were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test, respectively. Results: Forty-two compounds, representing 87.7% of total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis of the plant roots oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons (55.9%, mainly β-pinene (33.2%, β-phellandrene (8.0% and α-pinene (6.9%. In DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, the oil sample did not demonstrate any activity at the highest tested concentration (1.0 mg/mL. However, it was found very toxic in brine shrimp lethality test with LD50 value of 2.4 µg/mL. Conclusion: The results of this study introduced the F. gummosa roots oil as a source of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially β-pinene. Considering the high yield of essential oil extraction (12.1% v/w, these compounds may be involved in anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of F. gummosa root. Moreover, considerable toxicity of the root oil highlights it as an appropriate candidate for further mechanistic toxicological studies.

  17. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85747 (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs.

  18. Degradation study of pesticides by direct photolysis - Structural characterization and potential toxicity of photo products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides belong to the large family of organic pollutants. In general, they are intended to fight against crop pests. Distribution of pesticides in nature creates pollution in DIFFERENT compartments of the biosphere (water, soil and air) and can induce acute toxic effects on human beings of the terrestrial and aquatic living biomass. It is now shown that some pesticides are endocrine disruptors and are particularly carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in humans. Pesticides can undergo various processes of transformation in the natural life cycle (biodegradation, volatilization, solar radiation ...) or following applied in the sectors of natural water purification and treatment stations sewage treatment. The presence of degradation products of pesticides in our environment is even more alarming that their structures and potential toxicities generally unknown. Molecules belonging to two families of pesticides were selected for this study: herbicides, represented by metolachlor, and fungicides represented by procymidone, pyrimethanil and boscalid. The first part of the thesis focused on the development of an analytical strategy to characterize the structures of compounds from degradation by photolysis of pesticides. The second part focused on estimating the toxicity of degradation products using a test database in silico. Identification of degradation products was achieved through two complementary analysis techniques: the gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer ''multi-stage'' (GC-MSn) and liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The estimation of the toxicity of the degradation products was performed using the TEST program QSAR recently developed to try to predict the toxicity of molecules. The strategy of the structural elucidation of degradation products of pesticides studied is based on studying of the mechanisms of fragmentation of parent molecules of the degradation products. The molar mass of parent

  19. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Arul Prakash; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in the aerospace, automotive, and electronics industries because of their stability, enhanced metallic, and electrical properties. CNTs are also being investigated for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems and biosensors. However, the toxic potential of CNTs was reported in various cell lines and animal models. The toxicity depends on diverse properties of the CNTs, such as length, aspect ratio, surface area, degree of aggregation, purity, concentration, and dose. In addition, CNTs and/or associated contaminants were well known for oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and granuloma in lungs. The increased production of CNTs likely enhanced the possibility of its exposure in people. Studies on the toxicity of CNTs are mainly focused on the pulmonary effects after intratracheal administration, and only a few studies are reported about the toxicity of CNTs via other routes of exposure. So, it is essential to consider the chronic toxicity of CNTs before using them for various biomedical applications. This review focuses on the potential toxicities of CNTs.

  20. Evaluate the potential toxicity of quantum dots on bacterial metabolism by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcalorimeter was applied for the investigations of the toxic effects of QDs on bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the toxicity of these QDs may come from the toxic Cd{sup 2+} released. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate electrostatic interaction is the main force between bacteria and QDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of these QDs can be varied efficiently by modifying with different ligands. - Abstract: Herein, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-CdSe quantum dots (QDs), MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and cysteamine (CA)-CdSe/ZnS QDs on the growth of both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by microcalorimetry. Thermogenic curves of bacteria were recorded and bioeffects of QDs on bacteria were investigated. The results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs inhibited the E. coli growth but stimulated the S. aureus growth with dose-dependent type. The inhibition or stimulation efficiency of QDs on E. coli or S. aureus growth all decreased dramatically after UV irradiation, which was due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}. In addition, MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and CA-CdSe/ZnS QDs affected the growth of E. coli and S. aureus differently. MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs could not affect the growth of bacteria, while CA-CdSe/ZnS QDs inhibited the bacterial growth dramatically, which resulted from the negative charge on the surface of these bacteria.

  1. Protein Tunnels: The Case of Urease Accessory Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Gioia, Dario; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-05-09

    Transition metals are both essential micronutrients and limited in environmental availability. The Ni(II)-dependent urease protein, the most efficient enzyme known to date, is a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Ni(II) insertion in the urease active site is performed through the action of three essential accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. The crystal structure of the UreD-UreF-UreG complex from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HpUreDFG) revealed the presence of tunnels that cross the entire length of both UreF and UreD, potentially able to deliver Ni(II) ions from UreG to apo-urease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations performed on the HpUreDFG complex in explicit solvent and at physiological ionic conditions demonstrate the stability of these protein tunnels in solution and provide insights on the trafficking of water molecules inside the tunnels. The presence of different alternative routes across the identified tunnels for Ni(II) ions, water molecules, and carbonate ions, all involved in urease activation, is highlighted here, and their potential role in the urease activation mechanism is discussed.

  2. Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Destainville, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (includ...

  3. Diuron exposure induces systemic and organ-specific toxicity following acute and sub-chronic exposure in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Martins, Priscila Raquel; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2011-05-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substitute urea herbicide widely used on agricultural crops with potential mutagenic, teratogenic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. Nonetheless, its toxic potential on the immune system needs a detailed assessment. Thus, in order to evaluate the adverse effect of this herbicide on lymphohematopoietic organs and macrophage activity, male Wistar rats were orally treated with Diuron at 125, 1250 and 2500 ppm for 14, 28 or 90 days. General signs of toxicity were observed in Diuron-treated groups (1250 and 2500 ppm), including reduced food intake and body weight gain, as well as higher relative weights for spleen, kidneys and liver (28 and 90-day toxicity studies) and elevated serum levels of ALT, albumin, total protein, creatinine and urea (28-day toxicity study). Diuron exposure caused a severe depletion of splenic white pulp compartments and cellularity, followed by a decreased number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and deposition of hemosiderin in red pulp. Despite alteration in macrophage spreading, the macrophagic activity was not significantly affected by the herbicide. Under these experimental conditions, the results suggest that Diuron exerts systemic and target-organ toxicity, mainly at higher concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of potential toxicity of a smokeless tobacco product (naswar) available on the Pakistani market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiullah; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Gul, Farah; Khuda, Fazli; Humayun, Muhammad; Khan, Hamayun

    2012-07-01

    'Naswar' is a smokeless tobacco product (STP) widely used in Pakistan. It has been correlated with oral and oesophageal cancer in recent clinical studies. The toxic effects associated with STPs have been associated with trace level contaminants present in these products. The toxin levels of Pakistani naswar are reported for the first time in this study. A total of 30 Pakistani brands of naswar were tested for a variety of toxic constituents and carcinogens such as cadmium, arsenic, lead and other carcinogenic metals, nitrite and nitrate, and nicotine and pH. The average values of all the toxins studied were well above their allowable limits, making the product a health risk for consumers. Calculated lifetime cancer risk from cadmium and lead was 1 lac (100,000) to 10 lac (1,000,000) times higher than the minimum 10E-4 (0.00001) to 10E-6 (0.000001), which is the 'target range' for potentially hazardous substances, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the level of arsenic was in the range of 0.15 to 14.04 μg/g, the average being 1.25 μg/g. The estimated average bioavailable concentration of arsenic is 0.125-0.25 μg/g, which is higher than the allowable standard of 0.01 μg/g. Similarly, the average minimum daily intake of chromium and nickel was 126.97 μg and 122.01 μg, as compared to allowable 30-35 μg and 35 μg, respectively; a 4-5 times higher exposure. However, beryllium was not detected in any of the brands studied. The pH was highly basic, averaging 8.56, which favours the formation of tobacco specific amines thus making the product potentially toxic. This study validates clinical studies correlating incidence of cancer with naswar use in Pakistan. This study shows that the production, packaging, sale and consumption of naswar should be regulated so as to protect the public from the health hazards associated with its consumption.

  5. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin; Lyu, Jianxin; Ding, Huangen

    2017-08-15

    While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions than they

  6. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  7. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  8. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  9. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christina C; Henderson, Thomas D; Stanker, Larry H; He, Xiaohua; Cheng, Luisa W

    2017-10-13

    Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT) assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin's toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin's ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain), we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin's ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain). Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  10. The Surface Reactivities of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Related Toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei

    After 20 years of extensive exploration, people are more and more convinced on the great potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the applications of many different areas. On the other hand, the properties and toxicities have also been closely watched for the safe utilization. In this dissertation I focus on the surface properties of SWCNTs and their related toxicities. In chapter 2, we revealed the generation of peroxyl radical by the unmodified SWCNT and the poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized SWCNT in aqueous solution with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator, 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H2DCF). According to the results, we identified peroxyl radical, ROO• as the major ROS in our system. Peroxyl radical could be produced from the adsorption of oxygen on the SWCNT surface. In chapter 3, we studied oxidation of several biologically relevant reducing agents in the presence of SWCNTs in aqueous solutions. H2DCF and several small antioxidants (vitamin C, Trolox, and cysteine), and a high-molecular-weight ROS scavenger (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) were selected as reductants. We revealed that the unmodified or carboxylated SWCNT played duplex roles by acting as both oxidants and catalysts in the reaction. In chapter 4, we confirmed that SWCNTs bind to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at a site proximate to the enzyme's activity center and participating in the ET process, enhancing the activity of (HRP) in the solution-based redox reaction. The capability of SWCNT in receiving electrons and the direct attachment of HRP to the surface of SWCNT strongly affected the enzyme activity due to the direct involvement of SWCNT in ET. In chapter 5, the toxicity of SWCNTs coated with different concentrations of BSA to a human fibroblast cell line was explored. The result indicates that the toxicity of SWCNTs decrease with the higher coating degree as assumed. Then we choose mitochondrion to study the interactions between

  11. Food plant toxicants and safety: risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.; Alexander, J.; Bouwmeister, P.J.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Ciere, S.; Gry, J.; Herrman, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Mortby, E.; Renwickn, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI

  12. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  13. Expression and Characterisation of Recombinant Rhodocyclus tenuis High Potential Iron-Sulphur Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Bjerg; Bennet, K.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2000-01-01

    The high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from Rhodocyclus tenuis strain 2761 has been overproduced in Escherichia coli from its structural gene, purified to apparent homogeneity, and then characterized by an array of methods. UV-visible spectra of the reduced and oxidized recombinant protein...

  14. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  15. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  16. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  17. A New Potential Cause in the Development of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Fibrin Glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present a potential cause for toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS. Materials and Methods: We report 4 cases of TASS that occurred following uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Results: The 4 cases were the first consecutive 2 cases of 2 different surgery days, 5 months apart. The most prominent sign of TASS was limbus-to-limbus corneal edema. Pain and/or intraocular pressure rise were also common. All surgical and presurgical procedures were checked after the first outbreak, whereas the second outbreak required further investigation. Fibrin glue remnants from preceding pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting were found to be the potential cause. Despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, corneal edema did not resolve in 2 patients who underwent keratoplasty. Conclusion: TASS is a sight-threatening condition which requires thorough investigation for prevention of new cases. All steps must be carefully revised. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 280-3

  18. Diversity and dynamics of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloom–forming freshwater cyanobacteria pose human and livestock health problems due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds. Some non-toxic cyanobacteria accumulate as buoyant surface dwelling scums and thick mats which affect the benthic fauna by degrading aquatic habitats and giving ...

  19. Exploring the potential of 3D Zernike descriptors and SVM for protein-protein interface prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daberdaku, Sebastian; Ferrari, Carlo

    2018-02-06

    The correct determination of protein-protein interaction interfaces is important for understanding disease mechanisms and for rational drug design. To date, several computational methods for the prediction of protein interfaces have been developed, but the interface prediction problem is still not fully understood. Experimental evidence suggests that the location of binding sites is imprinted in the protein structure, but there are major differences among the interfaces of the various protein types: the characterising properties can vary a lot depending on the interaction type and function. The selection of an optimal set of features characterising the protein interface and the development of an effective method to represent and capture the complex protein recognition patterns are of paramount importance for this task. In this work we investigate the potential of a novel local surface descriptor based on 3D Zernike moments for the interface prediction task. Descriptors invariant to roto-translations are extracted from circular patches of the protein surface enriched with physico-chemical properties from the HQI8 amino acid index set, and are used as samples for a binary classification problem. Support Vector Machines are used as a classifier to distinguish interface local surface patches from non-interface ones. The proposed method was validated on 16 classes of proteins extracted from the Protein-Protein Docking Benchmark 5.0 and compared to other state-of-the-art protein interface predictors (SPPIDER, PrISE and NPS-HomPPI). The 3D Zernike descriptors are able to capture the similarity among patterns of physico-chemical and biochemical properties mapped on the protein surface arising from the various spatial arrangements of the underlying residues, and their usage can be easily extended to other sets of amino acid properties. The results suggest that the choice of a proper set of features characterising the protein interface is crucial for the interface prediction

  20. Heat Shock Proteins: Pathogenic Role in Atherosclerosis and Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kilic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are a highly conserved group of proteins that are constitutively expressed and function as molecular chaperones, aiding in protein folding and preventing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. In the arterial wall, HSPs have a protective role under normal physiologic conditions. In disease states, however, HSPs expressed on the vascular endothelial cell surface can act as targets for detrimental autoimmunity due to their highly conserved sequences. Developing therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis based on HSPs is challenged by the need to balance such physiologic and pathologic roles of these proteins. This paper summarizes the role of HSPs in normal vascular wall processes as well as in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The potential implications of HSPs in clinical therapies for atherosclerosis are also discussed.

  1. Computer-assisted engineering of the synthetic pathway for biodegradation of a toxic persistent pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumbang, Nagendra Prasad; Dvorak, Pavel; Bendl, Jaroslav; Brezovsky, Jan; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2014-03-21

    Anthropogenic halogenated compounds were unknown to nature until the industrial revolution, and microorganisms have not had sufficient time to evolve enzymes for their degradation. The lack of efficient enzymes and natural pathways can be addressed through a combination of protein and metabolic engineering. We have assembled a synthetic route for conversion of the highly toxic and recalcitrant 1,2,3-trichloropropane to glycerol in Escherichia coli, and used it for a systematic study of pathway bottlenecks. Optimal ratios of enzymes for the maximal production of glycerol, and minimal toxicity of metabolites were predicted using a mathematical model. The strains containing the expected optimal ratios of enzymes were constructed and characterized for their viability and degradation efficiency. Excellent agreement between predicted and experimental data was observed. The validated model was used to quantitatively describe the kinetic limitations of currently available enzyme variants and predict improvements required for further pathway optimization. This highlights the potential of forward engineering of microorganisms for the degradation of toxic anthropogenic compounds.

  2. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  4. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  5. Assessment of oral toxicity and safety of pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), a potential chemopreventative agent, in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    lower levels is considered to be less likely to result in toxicity following 28 days of exposure. Sex-related differences were seen in rats. Male rats appeared to have greater sensitivity to nephrotoxicity, while female animals had a greater incidence of hepatoxicity and changes in hematological parameters evaluated, especially at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day, which correlated to the higher plasma drug levels in female rats. It appeared that dogs were generally more sensitive than rats to oral administration of PMCol. Further examination of the potential toxic effects of PMCol in longer term studies is required prior to understanding the full risks of PMCol administration as a chemopreventative agent.

  6. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  7. MICROORGANISMS: A MARVELOUS SOURCE OF SINGLE CELL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agam Nangul

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing global population living below the poverty line is driving the scientific community to search for non-conventional protein sources that can replace conventional expensive ones. Microbial proteins, or single-cell protein (SCP, represent a potential future nutrient source for human food and animal feed. These microbial proteins can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water and climate conditions. They can be produced from algae, fungi and bacteria the chief sources of SCP. It is convenient to use microorganisms for production of SCP as they grow rapidly and have high protein content. Industrially, they can be produced from algal biomass, yeast, fungi. There are several other ways of getting SCP as well. Despite numerous advantages of SCP, they have disadvantages and toxic effects too, especially related to mycotoxins and bacterial toxins.

  8. Potentials of mean force for protein structure prediction vindicated, formalized and generalized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hamelryck

    Full Text Available Understanding protein structure is of crucial importance in science, medicine and biotechnology. For about two decades, knowledge-based potentials based on pairwise distances--so-called "potentials of mean force" (PMFs--have been center stage in the prediction and design of protein structure and the simulation of protein folding. However, the validity, scope and limitations of these potentials are still vigorously debated and disputed, and the optimal choice of the reference state--a necessary component of these potentials--is an unsolved problem. PMFs are loosely justified by analogy to the reversible work theorem in statistical physics, or by a statistical argument based on a likelihood function. Both justifications are insightful but leave many questions unanswered. Here, we show for the first time that PMFs can be seen as approximations to quantities that do have a rigorous probabilistic justification: they naturally arise when probability distributions over different features of proteins need to be combined. We call these quantities "reference ratio distributions" deriving from the application of the "reference ratio method." This new view is not only of theoretical relevance but leads to many insights that are of direct practical use: the reference state is uniquely defined and does not require external physical insights; the approach can be generalized beyond pairwise distances to arbitrary features of protein structure; and it becomes clear for which purposes the use of these quantities is justified. We illustrate these insights with two applications, involving the radius of gyration and hydrogen bonding. In the latter case, we also show how the reference ratio method can be iteratively applied to sculpt an energy funnel. Our results considerably increase the understanding and scope of energy functions derived from known biomolecular structures.

  9. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Identification of polycystic ovary syndrome potential drug targets based on pathobiological similarity in the protein-protein interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Wei, Wenqing; Li, Yiran; Xie, Ruiqiang; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Binbin; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinological disorders in reproductive aged women. PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are closely linked in multiple levels and possess high pathobiological similarity. Here, we put forward a new computational approach based on the pathobiological similarity to identify PCOS potential drug target modules (PPDT-Modules) and PCOS potential drug targets in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). From the systems level and biological background, 1 PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets were identified, 21 of which were verified by literatures to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. 42 drugs targeting to 13 PCOS potential drug targets were investigated experimentally or clinically for PCOS. Evaluated by independent datasets, the whole PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets could not only reveal the drug response, but also distinguish the statuses between normal and disease. Our identified PPDT-Module and PCOS potential drug targets would shed light on the treatment of PCOS. And our approach would provide valuable insights to research on the pathogenesis and drug response of other diseases. PMID:27191267

  11. Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins via Extracellular Vesicles: Review and Potential Treatments for Parkinson's Disease, Glioma, and Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Balaj, Leonora; Lai, Charles P; Cerione, Richard A; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles present an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutic proteins. They intrinsically contain many proteins which can provide information to other cells. Advantages include reduced immune reactivity, especially if derived from the same host, stability in biologic fluids, and ability to target uptake. Those from mesenchymal stem cells appear to be intrinsically therapeutic, while those from cancer cells promote tumor progression. Therapeutic proteins can be loaded into vesicles by overexpression in the donor cell, with oligomerization and membrane sequences increasing their loading. Examples of protein delivery for therapeutic benefit in pre-clinical models include delivery of: catalase for Parkinson's disease to reduce oxidative stress and thus help neurons to survive; prodrug activating enzymes which can convert a prodrug which crosses the blood-brain barrier into a toxic chemotherapeutic drug for schwannomas and gliomas; and the apoptosis-inducing enzyme, caspase-1 under a Schwann cell specific promoter for schwannoma. This therapeutic delivery strategy is novel and being explored for a number of diseases.

  12. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  13. Identification of snake bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs)-simile sequences in rat brain--Potential BPP-like precursor protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeiro, Joana D'Arc; Neshich, Izabella P; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Lopes, Robson; Ianzer, Danielle; Assakura, Marina T; Neshich, Goran; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2015-08-01

    Bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) from the South American pit viper snake venom were the first natural inhibitors of the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) described. The pioneer characterization of the BPPs precursor from the snake venom glands by our group showed for the first time the presence of the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in this same viper precursor protein. The confirmation of the BPP/CNP expression in snake brain regions correlated with neuroendocrine functions stimulated us to pursue the physiological correlates of these vasoactive peptides in mammals. Notably, several snake toxins were shown to have endogenous physiological correlates in mammals. In the present work, we expressed in bacteria the BPPs domain of the snake venom gland precursor protein, and this purified recombinant protein was used to raise specific polyclonal anti-BPPs antibodies. The correspondent single protein band immune-recognized in adult rat brain cytosol was isolated by 2D-SDS/PAGE and/or HPLC, before characterization by MS fingerprint analysis, which identified this protein as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), a classically known enzyme with antioxidant activity and important roles in the blood pressure modulation. In silico analysis showed the exposition of the BPP-like peptide sequences on the surface of the 3D structure of rat SOD. These peptides were chemically synthesized to show the BPP-like biological activities in ex vivo and in vivo pharmacological bioassays. Taken together, our data suggest that SOD protein have the potential to be a source for putative BPP-like bioactive peptides, which once released may contribute to the blood pressure control in mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical potential-based amino acid similarity matrices for aligning distantly related protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Hock; Huang, He; Kihara, Daisuke

    2006-08-15

    Aligning distantly related protein sequences is a long-standing problem in bioinformatics, and a key for successful protein structure prediction. Its importance is increasing recently in the context of structural genomics projects because more and more experimentally solved structures are available as templates for protein structure modeling. Toward this end, recent structure prediction methods employ profile-profile alignments, and various ways of aligning two profiles have been developed. More fundamentally, a better amino acid similarity matrix can improve a profile itself; thereby resulting in more accurate profile-profile alignments. Here we have developed novel amino acid similarity matrices from knowledge-based amino acid contact potentials. Contact potentials are used because the contact propensity to the other amino acids would be one of the most conserved features of each position of a protein structure. The derived amino acid similarity matrices are tested on benchmark alignments at three different levels, namely, the family, the superfamily, and the fold level. Compared to BLOSUM45 and the other existing matrices, the contact potential-based matrices perform comparably in the family level alignments, but clearly outperform in the fold level alignments. The contact potential-based matrices perform even better when suboptimal alignments are considered. Comparing the matrices themselves with each other revealed that the contact potential-based matrices are very different from BLOSUM45 and the other matrices, indicating that they are located in a different basin in the amino acid similarity matrix space.

  15. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  16. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. Higher ... stored in small, capped plastic container at ... Acute Toxicity Studies: The limit test dose, ..... may be due to factors other than kidney problem ... Protein (total protein) in serum, urine.

  17. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl.) to larval Plutella xylostella (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, Hasan

    1983-01-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a γ-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC 50 's of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10 5 to 6.0 X 10 3 spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 μg cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC 50 4 spores/mL or 3.7 μg cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC 50 > 2.3 X 10 4 spores/mL or 1.0 μg cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain

  18. Large protein as a potential target for use in rabies diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Katz, I S; Dias, M H; Lima, I F; Chaves, L B; Ribeiro, O G; Scheffer, K C; Iwai, L K

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The rabies lyssavirus (RABV) genome encodes five structural proteins, multifunctional and significant for pathogenicity. The large protein (L) presents well-conserved genomic regions, which may be a good alternative to generate informative datasets for development of new methods for rabies diagnosis. This paper describes the development of a technique for the identification of L protein in several RABV strains from different hosts, demonstrating that MS-based proteomics is a potential method for antigen identification and a good alternative for rabies diagnosis.

  19. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Rahim Dad; Wang, Li; Hassine, Najla Ben; Cao, Jing; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Wu, Di; Huang, Chun-Jie; Rehman, Zia-Ur; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) in the sperm of water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  20. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Dad Brohi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1 in the sperm of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  1. Response of nitrogen metabolism to boron toxicity in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervilla, L M; Blasco, B; Ríos, J J; Rosales, M A; Rubio-Wilhelmi, M M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2009-09-01

    Boron (B) toxicity has become important in areas close to the Mediterranean Sea where intensive agriculture has been developed. The objective of this research was to study the effects of B toxicity (0.5 mM and 2.0 mM B) on nitrogen (N) assimilation of two tomato cultivars that are often used in these areas. Leaf biomass, relative leaf growth rate (RGR(L)), concentration of B, nitrate (NO(3) (-)), ammonium (NH(4) (+)), organic N, amino acids and soluble proteins, as well as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthase (GS), glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities were analysed in leaves. Boron toxicity significantly decreased leaf biomass, RGR(L), organic N, soluble proteins, and NR and NiR activities. The lowest NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+) concentration in leaves was recorded when plants were supplied with 2.0 mM B in the root medium. Total B, amino acids, activities of GS, GOGAT and GDH increased under B toxicity. Data from the present study prove that B toxicity causes inhibition of NO(3) (-) reduction and increases NH(4) (+) assimilation in tomato plants.

  2. Potential hepatic toxicity of buprofezin at sublethal concentrations: ROS-mediated conversion of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaotong; Ku, Tingting; Zhu, Na; Ning, Xia; Wei, Wei; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-12-15

    Buprofezin is known for its broad-spectrum action and environmental safety. The popularity of buprofezin has raised concerns about its potentially adverse effects on human health and risk to the environment. In this study, we first identified the liver as one of the major organs in which buprofezin accumulated, and we detected a severe oxidative stress response. Next, we demonstrated that sublethal concentrations of buprofezin promoted the conversion of energy metabolism from the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis. Importantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation partially accounted for the shunting of the energy metabolism through the buprofezin-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity. ROS directly perturbed the activities of several key TCA cycle enzymes, stimulated glycolysis, and indirectly disturbed the activity of the respiratory chain complex by altering mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These findings clarify the potential mechanisms of buprofezin toxicity and provide biomarkers for buprofezin-mediated hepatotoxicity at sublethal concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:26347061

  4. MyPMFs: a simple tool for creating statistical potentials to assess protein structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Guillaume; Hamelryck, Thomas; Chomilier, Jacques; Stratmann, Dirk

    2018-05-29

    Evaluating the model quality of protein structures that evolve in environments with particular physicochemical properties requires scoring functions that are adapted to their specific residue compositions and/or structural characteristics. Thus, computational methods developed for structures from the cytosol cannot work properly on membrane or secreted proteins. Here, we present MyPMFs, an easy-to-use tool that allows users to train statistical potentials of mean force (PMFs) on the protein structures of their choice, with all parameters being adjustable. We demonstrate its use by creating an accurate statistical potential for transmembrane protein domains. We also show its usefulness to study the influence of the physical environment on residue interactions within protein structures. Our open-source software is freely available for download at https://github.com/bibip-impmc/mypmfs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jai-Young; Choi, Jinhee

    2007-07-31

    In this study, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) toxicities to Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated using multiple toxic endpoints, such as mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression, focusing on the identification of chemical-induced gene expression as a sensitive biomarker for DEHP monitoring. The possible use of C. elegans as a sentinel organism in the monitoring of soil ecosystem health was also tested by conducting the experiment on the exposure of nematode to field soil. Twenty-four-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) data suggest that DEHP has a relatively high potential of acute toxicity to C. elegans. Decreases in body length and egg number per worm observed after 24h of DEHP exposure may induce long-term alteration in the growth and reproduction of the nematode population. Based on the result from the C. elegans genome array and indicated in the literatures, stress proteins, metallothionein, vitellogenin, xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, apoptosis-related proteins, and antioxidant enzyme genes were selected as stress-related genes and their expression in C. elegans by DEHP exposure was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Expression of heat shock protein (hsp)-16.1 and hsp-16.2 genes was decreased by DEHP exposure. Expression of cytochrome P450 (cyp) 35a2 and glutathione-S-transferease (gst)-4, phase I and phase II of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, was increased by DEHP exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. An increase in stress-related gene expressions occurred concomitantly with the deterioration on the physiological level, which suggests an increase in expression of those genes may not be considered as a homeostatic response but as a toxicity that might have physiological consequences. The experiment with the soil from the landfill site suggests that the potential of the C. elegans biomarker identified in laboratory conditions should be calibrated and validated for its use in situ.

  6. Potential synergy between two renal toxicants: DTPA and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Houpert, P.; Henge Napoli, M.H.; Paquet, F.; Muller, D.; Henge Napoli, M.H.; Metivier, H.

    2006-01-01

    At present, the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat an accidental contamination with plutonium and uranium oxide mixture (MOX) is administration of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate acid (DTPA) in order to accelerate plutonium excretion. As uranium and DTPA are both nephro-toxic compounds, the administration of DTPA after a contamination containing uranium could enhance the nephro-toxic effects of uranium. The aim of the present work was to study in vitro on a kidney proximal tubule cell line (LLC-PK 1 ) the cytotoxicity induced by increasing concentrations of uranium in presence of 3 different chemical forms of DTPA. The results showed that the DTPA used alone induced no cytotoxicity at the concentration used here (420 μM). However, this concentration of DTPA increased the cytotoxicity induced by uranium. This increase was maximal for uranium concentrations close to the lethal concentration for 50% of the cells and reached 37, 31 and 28% for anhydrous DTPA, Na 3 CaDTPA and Na 3 ZnDTPA, respectively. These results suggest that administration of DTPA could enhance the nephrotoxicity induced by uranium. (authors)

  7. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Andre LB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2

  8. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of 19-substituted geldanamycins with altered conformations and their binding to heat shock protein Hsp90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Russell R. A.; Chang, Chuan-Hsin; Xiong, Rui; Williams, Huw E. L.; Davis, Adrienne L.; Lewis, William; Dehn, Donna L.; Siegel, David; Roe, S. Mark; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Ross, David; Moody, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin and its derivatives are inhibitors of heat shock protein Hsp90, an emerging target for novel therapeutic agents both in cancer and in neurodegeneration. However, toxicity of these compounds to normal cells has been ascribed to reaction with thiol nucleophiles at the quinone 19-position. We reasoned that blocking this position would ameliorate toxicity, and that it might also enforce a favourable conformational switch of the trans-amide group into the cis-form required for protein binding. We report here an efficient synthesis of such 19-substituted compounds and realization of our hypotheses. Protein crystallography established that the new compounds bind to Hsp90 with, as expected, a cis-amide conformation. Studies on Hsp90 inhibition in cells demonstrated the molecular signature of Hsp90 inhibitors: decreases in client proteins with compensatory increases in other heat shock proteins in both human breast cancer and dopaminergic neural cells, demonstrating their potential for use in the therapy of cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23511419

  10. Engineered Nanoparticles as Potential Food Contaminants and Their Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaomo; Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as metallic or metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs), have gained much attention in recent years. Increasing use of ENPs in various areas may lead to the release of ENPs into the environment and cause the contamination of agricultural and food products by ENPs. In this study, we selected two important ENPs (zinc oxide [ZnO] and silver [Ag] NPs) as potential food contaminants and investigated their toxicity via an in vitro model using Caco-2 cells. The physical properties of ENPs and their effects on Caco-2 cells were characterized by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. Results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of cell viability was observed after a 24-h of exposure of Caco-2 cells to 3-, 6-, and 12-mM ZnO NPs or 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3-mM Ag NPs. The noticeable changes of cells include the alteration in cell shape, abnormal nuclear structure, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasmic deterioration. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, but not that of Ag NPs after exposure to simulated gastric fluid, significantly decreased. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO and Ag NPs penetrated the membrane of Caco-2 cells. EDS results also confirm the presence of NPs in the cytoplasm of the cells. This study demonstrates that ZnO and Ag NPs have cytotoxic effects and can inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Cytocompatible and water stable ultrafine protein fibers for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiuran

    This dissertation proposal focuses on the development of cytocompatible and water stable protein ultrafine fibers for tissue engineering. The protein-based ultrafine fibers have the potential to be used for biomedicine, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, similarity to natural extracellular matrix (ECM) in physical structure and chemical composition, and superior adsorption properties due to their high surface to volume ratio. However, the current technologies to produce the protein-based ultrafine fibers for biomedical applications still have several problems. For instance, the current electrospinning and phase separation technologies generate scaffolds composed of densely compacted ultrafine fibers, and cells can spread just on the surface of the fiber bulk, and hardly penetrate into the inner sections of scaffolds. Thus, these scaffolds can merely emulate the ECM as a two dimensional basement membrane, but are difficult to mimic the three dimensional ECM stroma. Moreover, the protein-based ultrafine fibers do not possess sufficient water stability and strength for biomedical applications, and need modifications such as crosslinking. However, current crosslinking methods are either high in toxicity or low in crosslinking efficiency. To solve the problems mentioned above, zein, collagen, and gelatin were selected as the raw materials to represent plant proteins, animal proteins, and denatured proteins in this dissertation. A benign solvent system was developed specifically for the fabrication of collagen ultrafine fibers. In addition, the gelatin scaffolds with a loose fibrous structure, high cell-accessibility and cell viability were produced by a novel ultralow concentration phase separation method aiming to simulate the structure of three dimensional (3D) ECM stroma. Non-toxic crosslinking methods using citric acid as the crosslinker were also developed for electrospun or phase separated scaffolds from these three proteins, and proved to be

  12. Modulatory effect of curcumin on ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes: Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pavlovic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic in pediatric clinical practice. Previous studies have demonstrated that ketamine induces neurotoxicity and has a modulatory effect on the cells of the immune system. Here, we evaluated the potential protective effect and underlying mechanisms of natural phenolic compound curcumin against ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes. Rat thymocytes were exposed to 100 µM ketamine alone or combined with increasing concentrations of curcumin (0.3, 1, and 3 μM for 24 hours. Cell viability was analyzed with CCK-8 assay kit. Apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide as well as Z-VAD-FMK and Z-LEHD-FMK inhibitors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential [MMP] were measured by flow cytometry. Colorimetric assay with DEVD-pNA substrate was used for assessing caspase-3 activity. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathway was tested with Wortmannin inhibitor. Ketamine induced toxicity in cells, increased the number of hypodiploid cells, caspase-3 activity and ROS production, and inhibited the MMP. Co-incubation of higher concentrations of curcumin (1 and 3 μM with ketamine markedly decreased cytotoxicity, apoptosis rate, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production in rat thymocytes, and increased the MMP. Application of Z-VAD-FMK (a pan caspase inhibitor or Z-LEHD-FMK (caspase-9 inhibitor with ketamine effectively attenuated the ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat thymocytes. Administration of Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor with curcumin and ketamine significantly decreased the protective effect of curcumin on rat thymocytes. Our results indicate that ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes mainly occurs through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway and that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of curcumin.

  13. Activity of the Respiratory Chain Enzymes of Blood Leucocytes’ Mitochondria Under the Conditions of Toxic Hepatitis Induced Against the Background Alimentary Deprivation of Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full functioning of the leucocytes’ energy supply system is one of the essential factors for the immune surveillance system effective work. The pivotal enzymes of the leucocytes’ energy biotransformation system are NADH-ubiquitin reductase, a marker of the Complex I of respiratory chain activity, and succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme of the Complex II of respiratory chain. The aim of research – to study the NADH-ubiquitin reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the blood leucocytes’ mitochondria under the conditions of toxic hepatitis induced against the background alimentary deprivation of protein. It is shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis a reduction of the NADH-ubiquitin reductase enzymatic activity is observed on the background activation of the succinate-dependent way of the mitochondrial oxidation. Conclusion was made that alimentary deprivation or protein is a factor, aggravating the misbalance of the energy biotransformation system in the leucocytes of rats with toxic hepatitis. Established activity changes of the leucocytes’ mitochondria respiratory chain key enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms, directed on the maintenance of leucocytes energy supply on a level, sufficient for their functioning. Research results may be used for the biochemical rationale of the therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the leucocytes’ energy metabolism disturbances consequences under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  14. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  15. Potential hazards of toxic metals found in toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Okolo, Kenneth Obinna; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze

    2016-01-01

    Toothpastes have multi-functional configurations as oral care products. They can however constitute a pos- sible source, amongst others, of toxic metal exposure in public health. Indeed, the public health impact of personal hygiene and consumer products is largely unknown. To determine the level of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel) in toothpastes available in Nigeria, (home produced and imported), and assess the potential risk to the people. The samples of toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria were tested. Using a market basket protocol thirty five different brands of toothpaste were used. Samples were digest by addition of 10 mL mixture of conc. nitric and hydrochloric acids (HCl:HNO(3), 3:1), followed by heating to dryness. 20 mL deionized water was added, stirred and filtered. The filtrate was made up in standard volumetric flask and lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt and nickel concentrations were determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry 205A. The daily intake of metals and target hazard quotient (THQ) were then calculated. Pepsodent and Flodent had the highest levels of lead at respectively 23.575 and 18.092 mg/kg while Colgate Herbal had the highest nickel of 18.535 mg/kg. The daily intake estimates of all imported toothpaste samples were below the stated upper limits (UL). All target hazard quotients were also found to be below one. Although the UL, THQ and daily intake rates were all normal, the high levels of lead in some of the tooth- pastes an important concern to public health suggesting that pre-marketing safety studies of toothpastes may be worthwhile for the regulatory authorities.

  16. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  17. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  18. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl. ) to larval Plutella xylostella (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, H. (Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malysia, Bangi, Selangor)

    1983-05-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a ..gamma..-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC/sub 50/'s of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10/sup 5/ to 6.0 X 10/sup 3/ spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC/sub 50/ < 8.1 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 3.7 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC/sub 50/ > 2.3 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 1.0 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain.

  19. Integrated Assessment of Diclofenac Biotransformation, Pharmacokinetics, and Omics-Based Toxicity in a Three-Dimensional Human Liver-Immunocompetent Coculture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ujjal; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Large, Emma; Young, Carissa L; Rivera-Burgos, Dinelia; Yu, Jiajie; Cirit, Murat; Hughes, David J; Wishnok, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    In vitro hepatocyte culture systems have inherent limitations in capturing known human drug toxicities that arise from complex immune responses. Therefore, we established and characterized a liver immunocompetent coculture model and evaluated diclofenac (DCF) metabolic profiles, in vitro-in vivo clearance correlations, toxicological responses, and acute phase responses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DCF biotransformation was assessed after 48 hours of culture, and the major phase I and II metabolites were similar to the in vivo DCF metabolism profile in humans. Further characterization of secreted bile acids in the medium revealed that a glycine-conjugated bile acid was a sensitive marker of dose-dependent toxicity in this three-dimensional liver microphysiological system. Protein markers were significantly elevated in the culture medium at high micromolar doses of DCF, which were also observed previously for acute drug-induced toxicity in humans. In this immunocompetent model, lipopolysaccharide treatment evoked an inflammatory response that resulted in a marked increase in the overall number of acute phase proteins. Kupffer cell-mediated cytokine release recapitulated an in vivo proinflammatory response exemplified by a cohort of 11 cytokines that were differentially regulated after lipopolysaccharide induction, including interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, tumor necrosis factor- α , RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β , and IL-5. In summary, our findings indicate that three-dimensional liver microphysiological systems may serve as preclinical investigational platforms from the perspective of the discovery of a set of clinically relevant biomarkers including potential reactive metabolites, endogenous bile acids, excreted proteins, and cytokines to predict early drug

  20. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Tam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea, Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin’s toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin’s ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain, we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin’s ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain. Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  1. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth; Ryu, Dojin; Jackson, Lauren; Riley, Ronald; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee

    2017-08-23

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity. A third bioassay showed that in contrast to fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ; formed from FB 1 during nixtamalization) did not cause neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn.

  2. Bioengineered protein-based nanocage for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Na Kyeong; Kim, In-San

    2016-11-15

    Nature, in its wonders, presents and assembles the most intricate and delicate protein structures and this remarkable phenomenon occurs in all kingdom and phyla of life. Of these proteins, cage-like multimeric proteins provide spatial control to biological processes and also compartmentalizes compounds that may be toxic or unstable and avoids their contact with the environment. Protein-based nanocages are of particular interest because of their potential applicability as drug delivery carriers and their perfect and complex symmetry and ideal physical properties, which have stimulated researchers to engineer, modify or mimic these qualities. This article reviews various existing types of protein-based nanocages that are used for therapeutic purposes, and outlines their drug-loading mechanisms and bioengineering strategies via genetic and chemical functionalization. Through a critical evaluation of recent advances in protein nanocage-based drug delivery in vitro and in vivo, an outlook for de novo and in silico nanocage design, and also protein-based nanocage preclinical and future clinical applications will be presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T.; Jehle, Johannes A.; Traunspurger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12–0.38 μmol L −1 ), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. -- Highlights: •Insecticidal Cry proteins dose-dependently inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. •Mixture toxicity was lower than expected from concentration-additive single effects. •Genes for MAPK-defense-pathway were up-regulated in presence of Cry protein mixture. •Knock-out strains deficient for Cry5B-receptors showed lower susceptibility to insecticidal Cry proteins. •Toxicity of insecticidal Cry-proteins on C. elegans occurred at concentrations far above expected field concentrations. -- Insecticidal Cry proteins expressed by genetically modified maize act on nematodes via a similar mode of action as nematicidal Cry proteins, however, at concentrations far above expected soil levels

  4. Nail toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Peter; Hain, Alice; Peereboom, Veta-Marie

    2009-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive literature review of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity, including clinical presentation, implicated drugs and approaches for prevention and management. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966-2008) databases was conducted using the terms (and variations of the terms) antineoplastic agents, nails, nail toxicity, onycholysis, and paronychia. Bibliographies from selected articles were reviewed for appropriate references. The retrieved literature was reviewed to include all articles relevant to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, incidence, prevention, and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity. Nail toxicity is a relatively uncommon adverse effect linked to a number of chemotherapeutic agents. Clinical presentation varies, depending on which nail structure is affected and the severity of the insult. Nail changes may involve all or some nails. Toxicity may be asymptomatic and limited to cosmetic concerns, however, more severe effects, involving pain and discomfort can occur. Taxanes and anthracyclines are the antineoplastic drug groups most commonly implicated. It is suggested that the administration schedule may influence the incidence of nail abnormalities, for example reported cases linked to the weekly administration of paclitaxel.Before instituting chemotherapy, patients should be educated regarding potential nail toxicities and strategies for prevention implemented. Management includes appropriate nail cutting, avoiding potential irritants, topical, or oral antimicrobials, and possibly cessation or dose reduction of the offending agent. Cryotherapy, through the application of frozen gloves or socks, has been beneficial in reducing docetaxel-induced nail toxicity and may be effective for other drugs.

  5. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue; Bruno, Maribel; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wallace, Kathleen; Andrews, Debora; Swank, Adam; Winnik, Witold; Ross, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses and protein response-based biochemical pathways represents a key mechanism through which nickel induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To identify protein responses and biochemical pathways that are critical to nickel-induced toxicity responses, we measured cytotoxicity and changes in expression and phosphorylation status of 14 critical biochemical pathway regulators in human BEAS-2B cells exposed to four concentrations of nickel using an integrated proteomic approach. A subset of the pathway regulators, including interleukin-6, and JNK, were found to be linearly correlated with cell viability, and may function as molecular determinants of cytotoxic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures. In addition, 128 differentially expressed proteins were identified by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analyses, and ingenuity signaling pathway analysis (IPA) identified putative nickel toxicity pathways. Some of the proteins and pathways identified have not previously been linked to nickel toxicity. Based on the consistent results obtained from both ELISA and 2-DE proteomic analysis, we propose a core signaling pathway regulating cytotoxic responses of human BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures, which integrates a small set of proteins involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, apoptosis, protein degradation, and stress responses including inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27626938

  6. Summary of safety evaluation toxicity studies of glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, E; Leist, K H; Mayer, D

    1990-05-01

    This article reviews the results of toxicity studies to evaluate the safety of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA) and its formulation (200 g/litre) in laboratory animals. The data show that GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced slight dermal toxicity and eye irritation. Testing for teratogenicity in rats and rabbits indicated no teratogenic potential, and numerous mutagenicity tests showed GLA to be non-genotoxic. Chronic toxicity testing in rats and dogs yielded no-observable-effect levels of 2 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Oncogenicity studies in rats and mice revealed no carcinogenic potential. On the basis of these toxicity data it is concluded that this herbicide is safe under conditions of recommended use.

  7. Ameliorating effects of extracellular polymeric substances excreted by Thalassiosira pseudonana on algal toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Saijin, E-mail: zhangs@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Jiang Yuelu, E-mail: jyuelu@gmail.com [Department of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Chen, Chi-Shuo, E-mail: chen.chishuo@gmail.com [School of Engineering, University of California - Merced, Merced, CA 95344 (United States); Creeley, Danielle [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Schwehr, Kathleen A., E-mail: schwerhk@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Quigg, Antonietta, E-mail: quigga@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chin, Wei-Chun, E-mail: wchin2@ucmerced.edu [School of Engineering, University of California - Merced, Merced, CA 95344 (United States); Santschi, Peter H., E-mail: santschi@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are engineered nanoparticles (ENs) that have found increasing applications and shown great potential in drug delivery, biological imaging and industrial products. Knowledge of their stability, fate and transport in the aquatic environment is still lacking, including details of how these nanomaterials interact with marine phytoplankton. Here, we examined the toxicity of functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs (amine- and carboxyl-) by exposing them for five days to Thalassiosira pseudonana (marine diatom) grown under different nutrient-conditions (enriched versus nitrogen-limited media). The released polysaccharides and proteins, the major components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were measured to assess their potential effects on the interactions between QDs and T. pseudonana. The partitioning of QDs was analyzed by monitoring the concentration of Cd in different size fractions of the cultures (i.e., filtrate, <0.22 {mu}m and permeate, <3 kDa). We found that the Cd release of QDs in the T. pseudonana culture was dependent on the nutrient conditions and nature of QDs' surface coating. Both amine- and carboxyl-functionalized QDs exhibited higher rates of Cd release in N-limited cultures than in nutrient enriched cultures. The results also showed that amine-functionalized QDs aggregate with minimal Cd release, independent of nutrient conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images confirmed that aggregates are composed of QDs and the culture matrix (EPS). In addition, both types of QDs showed limited toxicity to T. pseudonana. The increasing production of proteins induced by QDs suggests that extracellular proteins might be involved in the detoxification of QDs to T. pseudonana via the Cd release of QDs. Our results here demonstrated that EPS can play an ameliorating role in QD toxicity, fate and transport in the aquatic environment.

  8. Potentials of mean force for protein structure prediction vindicated, formalized and generalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelryck, Thomas; Borg, Mikael; Paluszewski, Martin

    2010-01-01

    and the simulation of protein folding. However, the validity, scope and limitations of these potentials are still vigorously debated and disputed, and the optimal choice of the reference state--a necessary component of these potentials--is an unsolved problem. PMFs are loosely justified by analogy to the reversible...

  9. Studies on Antifungal Potential, Primary Characterization and Mode of Action of a De Novo Cytoplasmic Protein (EAF) from Human Commensal Escherichia coli Against Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    A de novo protein named as EAF (Escherichia antifungal protein) from the cytoplasmic pool of an Escherichia coli strain (MTCC 1652), has been purified to homogeneity using anion exchange (Q-XL Sepharose) and cation exchange (SP-Sepharose) chromatography. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of purified protein against A. fumigatus (the major pathogenic species) were found to be comparable with standard drugs i.e. 3.90 µg/ml, 3.90 µg/ml and 1.25 µg/disc via microbroth dilution assay (MDA), percentage spore germination inhibition (PSGI) and disc diffusion assay (DDA) respectively. Toxicity results confirmed that it causes no haemolysis against human RBCs upto a concentration of 1000.0 µg/ml as compared to Amphotericin B (conventional antifungal drug) that causes hundred percent haemolysis at a concentration of 37.50 µg/ml only.The purified protein demonstrated a molecular mass of 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE which was further authenticated by MALDI-TOF. Proteomic and bioinformatics studies deciphered its significant homology (72 %) with chain A-D-ribose binding protein (cluster 2 sugar binding periplasmic proteins; sequence homologues of transcription regulatory proteins) from E. coli. Single dimensional page analysis of A. fumigatusproteins with due effect of EAF (at MIC50) revealed the inhibition of two major proteins; a heat shock protein 70-Hsp70 (68 kDa); having role in protein folding and functioning andphenylanalyl-t RNA synthetase PodG subunit protein (74 kDa); involved in growth polarity in fungi. Scanning electron microscopic studies depicted homologous results. We suggest that EAF most likely belongs to a new group of proteins with potent antifungal characteristics, negligible toxicity and targeting vital proteins of fungal metabolism.

  10. "Incorporating epigenetic data into the risk assessment process for the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury: strategies and challenges."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals poses a serious human health hazard based on ubiquitous environmental presence, the extent of exposure, and the toxicity and disease states associated with exposure. This global health issue warrants accurate and reliable models derived from the risk assessment process to predict disease risk in populations. There has been considerable interest recently in the impact of environmental toxicants such as toxic metals on the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications are somatically inherited alterations to an individual’s genome without a change in the DNA sequence, and include, but are not limited to, three commonly studied alterations: DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA expression. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating gene and thus protein expression, there is the potential for the integration of toxic metal-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In the present review, epigenetic alterations induced by five high priority toxic metals/metalloids are prioritized for analysis and their possible inclusion into the risk assessment process is discussed.

  11. Nanoparticles: Their potential toxicity, waste and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna; Golimowski, Jerzy; Urban, Pawel L.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review discusses specific issues related to handling of waste containing nanomaterials. The aims are (1) to highlight problems related to uncontrolled release of nanoparticles to the environment through waste disposal, and (2) to introduce the topics of nanowaste and nanotoxicology to the waste management community. Many nanoparticles used by industry contain heavy metals, thus toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles may become important environmental issues. Although bioavailability of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles can be lower than those present in soluble form, the toxicity resulting from their intrinsic nature (e.g. their size, shape or density) may be significant. An approach to the treatment of nanowaste requires understanding of all its properties - not only chemical, but also physical and biological. Progress in nanowaste management also requires studies of the environmental impact of the new materials. The authors believe Amara's law is applicable to the impact of nanotechnologies, and society might overestimate the short-term effects of these technologies, while underestimating the long-term effects. It is necessary to have basic information from companies about the level and nature of nanomaterials produced or emitted and about the expectation of the life cycle time of nanoproducts as a basis to estimate the level of nanowaste in the future. Without knowing how companies plan to use and store recycled and nonrecycled nanomaterials, development of regulations is difficult. Tagging of nanoproducts is proposed as a means to facilitate separation and recovery of nanomaterials.

  12. A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

  13. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (-/-) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potentially toxic metals in rivers upstream of Pantanal Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geizibel Campos de Magalhães

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuiabá (CBA and São Lourenço (SL rivers are considered strategic once they integrate regions, which are economically, socially and environmentally relevant for Brazil and the world. However, several activities developed in their watersheds may represent sources of metals and be a threat to the environmental quality. Thus, in this study we evaluated the spatial and temporal variability of potentially toxic metals in water and sediment and the relationship of their concentration with water quality parameters. Surface water samples were collected monthly in 15 points and bottom sediment in nine points distributed throughout both rivers from August 2012 to July 2013. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in water by inducted coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe, Mn, Pb and Cr had high concentrations in water and sediment but only Pb and Cr represent environmental risk. Fe and Mn were in higher concentrations in at the upper points of SL River and Cu and Pb in the urban area of both rivers. Temporally, the metal concentrations were associated with precipitation variation. The observed correlations amongst metal concentrations indicate common sources. Thus, the metals occurrence and concentrations in water and sediment of both rivers showed a natural contribution, as a reflex of soil type associated to the region's precipitation regimen as well as the anthropic contribution due to agricultural and cattle breeding activities, and disposal of untreated urban effluents.

  15. Potential hydrophobic protein markers of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese, Malay and Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Seng; Singh, Manjit; Gam, Lay-Harn

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of worldwide mortality in females. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of these, the Chinese had the most number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was used to identify protein profile changes in cancerous tissues compared with the normal tissues, the tissues were collected from patients of three different ethnicities, i.e. Chinese, Malay and Indian. Ten differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins were identified. We had evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarker for infiltrating ducal carcinoma (IDC) and the ethnic-specific expression of these proteins was also determined. The data showed that peroxiredoxin-2, heat shock protein 60, protein disulfide isomerase and calreticulin may serve as ethnic-related potential markers for either one or combination of Chinese, Malay and Indian cohorts as their expression levels were significantly high in the cancerous tissues compared to the normal tissues in the ethnic group tested.

  16. Polyglutamine toxicity in yeast induces metabolic alterations and mitochondrial defects

    KAUST Repository

    Papsdorf, Katharina

    2015-09-03

    Background Protein aggregation and its pathological effects are the major cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. In Huntington’s disease an elongated stretch of polyglutamines within the protein Huntingtin leads to increased aggregation propensity. This induces cellular defects, culminating in neuronal loss, but the connection between aggregation and toxicity remains to be established. Results To uncover cellular pathways relevant for intoxication we used genome-wide analyses in a yeast model system and identify fourteen genes that, if deleted, result in higher polyglutamine toxicity. Several of these genes, like UGO1, ATP15 and NFU1 encode mitochondrial proteins, implying that a challenged mitochondrial system may become dysfunctional during polyglutamine intoxication. We further employed microarrays to decipher the transcriptional response upon polyglutamine intoxication, which exposes an upregulation of genes involved in sulfur and iron metabolism and mitochondrial Fe-S cluster formation. Indeed, we find that in vivo iron concentrations are misbalanced and observe a reduction in the activity of the prominent Fe-S cluster containing protein aconitase. Like in other yeast strains with impaired mitochondria, non-fermentative growth is impossible after intoxication with the polyglutamine protein. NMR-based metabolic analyses reveal that mitochondrial metabolism is reduced, leading to accumulation of metabolic intermediates in polyglutamine-intoxicated cells. Conclusion These data show that damages to the mitochondrial system occur in polyglutamine intoxicated yeast cells and suggest an intricate connection between polyglutamine-induced toxicity, mitochondrial functionality and iron homeostasis in this model system.

  17. New Milk Protein-Derived Peptides with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: An Approach Based on Bioinformatic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, encrypted in milk protein sequences, were searched for with the use of bioinformatic tools. The major milk proteins were hydrolyzed in silico by 28 enzymes. The obtained peptides were characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight, isoelectric point, composition and number of amino acid residues, net charge at pH 7.0, aliphatic index, instability index, Boman index, and GRAVY index, and compared with those calculated for known 416 antimicrobial peptides including 59 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs from milk proteins listed in the BIOPEP database. A simple analysis of physico-chemical properties and the values of biological activity indicators were insufficient to select potentially antimicrobial peptides released in silico from milk proteins by proteolytic enzymes. The final selection was made based on the results of multidimensional statistical analysis such as support vector machines (SVM, random forest (RF, artificial neural networks (ANN and discriminant analysis (DA available in the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP database. Eleven new peptides with potential antimicrobial activity were selected from all peptides released during in silico proteolysis of milk proteins.

  18. Synthesis of a novel nanopesticide and its potential toxic effect on soil microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Chai, Hankuai; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Jingjing; Chandankere, Radhika; Masakorala, Kanaji

    2014-11-01

    A new nanopesticide, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles-Diuron (CM-β-CD-MNPs-Diuron), was synthesized from an inclusion complex of CM-β-CD-MNPs as host and diuron as guest molecules. The transmission electron microscopy revealed it had an average diameter of 25 nm which is more or less the same as that of MNPs (average diameter 23 nm). The CM-β-CD grafting was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, and the amount of CM-β-CD grafted on the surface of MNPs was determined to be 144.1 mg/g by thermogravimetry. The feasibility of using CM-β-CD-MNPs as a nanocarrier for loading diuron was verified by investigating the formation of inclusion complex. The complexation of CM-β-CD-MNPs with diuron followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In this work, the potential toxic effect of CM-β-CD-MNPs-Diuron on soil microbial was evaluated by microcalorimetry, urease enzyme and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The thermokinetic parameters were observed to decrease with increase in the loading of CM-β-CD-MNPs-Diuron in soil. The urease activity data showed that there was a significant effect ( p Diuron on the enzyme activity. The microcalorimetric analysis was in agreement with qPCR, confirming the toxic effect of this nanopesticide on microorganism in soil.

  19. A toxic imbalance of Hsp70s in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is caused by competition for cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Kathryn M; True, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are responsible for managing protein folding from translation through degradation. These crucial machines ensure that protein homeostasis is optimally maintained for cell health. However, 'too much of a good thing' can be deadly, and the excess of chaperones can be toxic under certain cellular conditions. For example, overexpression of Ssa1, a yeast Hsp70, is toxic to cells in folding-challenged states such as [PSI+]. We discovered that overexpression of the nucleotide exchange factor Sse1 can partially alleviate this toxicity. We further argue that the basis of the toxicity is related to the availability of Hsp70 cofactors, such as Hsp40 J-proteins and nucleotide exchange factors. Ultimately, our work informs future studies about functional chaperone balance and cautions against therapeutic chaperone modifications without a thorough examination of cofactor relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina N. Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.. Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal’s resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects.

  1. Monitoring the effects of toxic chemicals on protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with computer-assisted image and data analysis was used to monitor protein populations for both qualitative and quantitative changes induced by exposure to chemicals. For mutagenesis studies designed to screen for heritable mutations, a computer-assisted search of the optical density data from 2DE patterns was used to look for (a) new protein spots, (b) missing protein spots and/or (c) altered expression of normal protein spots. Using this approach, 320 mice were screened for mutations induced by treatment of sires with 150 mg/kg body weight of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and four different mutations were identified. Protein patterns from 105 offspring from untreated male mice (controls) and 369 offspring from irradiated male mice (3 Gy gamma) were also screened. No heritable mutations were found in those data sets, however. In addition, protein changes were observed in livers of animals exposed to the hepatocellular peroxisomal proliferation agents (and carcinogens) Wy-14,643 and DEHP. The de novo synthesis of a new protein by these agents was demonstrated and quantitated

  2. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    protein component, casein, soy, or whey protein, potentiates the intestinal growth response to GLP-2 in rats with PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia. Rats received PN and continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (100 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Six EN groups received PN+GLP-2 for days 1-3 and partial PN+GLP-2...... plus EN for days 4-7. EN was provided by ad libitum intake of a semielemental liquid diet with different protein sources: casein, hydrolyzed soy, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and hydrolyzed WPC+casein. Controls received PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced significantly greater jejunal sucrase activity...... whey protein, and not casein or soy, potentiated the ability of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia and further increase ileal villus height, crypt depth, and mucosa cellularity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein to induce greater mucosal surface area...

  3. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2016-06-14

    Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs), nanomaterial (NM) products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR), and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  4. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Bakand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs, nanomaterial (NM products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR, and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  5. Protein misfolding and obstructive lung disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has evolved a number of mechanisms to manage the accumulation of incorrectly folded proteins. This results in loss of function of these proteins, but occasionally, in conditions such as α-1 antitrpysin (A1AT) deficiency, the misfolded protein can acquire a toxic gain of function promoting exaggerated ER stress responses and inflammation. Mutations leading to deficiency in a second serine proteinase inhibitor, α-1 antichymotrpysin (ACT), can induce potentially similar consequences. A1AT and ACT deficiencies are associated with chronic obstructive lung disease. Until recently, it was thought that the lung diseases associated with these conditions were entirely due to loss of antiprotease protection in the lung (i.e., loss of function), whereas gain of function was the major cause of the liver disease associated with A1AT deficiency. This paradigm is being increasingly challenged because ER stress is being recognized in bronchial epithelial cells and inflammatory cells normally resident in the lung, giving rise to an inflammatory phenotype that adds to the proteolytic burden associated with these conditions. In this article, we describe the cellular mechanisms that are activated to cope with an increasing burden of misfolded proteins within the ER in A1AT and ACT deficiency, show how these events are linked to inflammation, and outline the therapeutic strategies that can potentially interfere with production of misfolded proteins.

  6. Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Xiaoshuai; Wang Huoyan; Zhou Jianmin; Ma Chengling; Du Changwen; Chen Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Soil pollution with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concerns. Selected PTEs and their accumulation and distribution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) collected from Changshu, east China, were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local population. The soils were primarily contaminated with Hg, followed by Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd of 46, 32, and 1 rice samples exceeded their national maximum allowable levels in foods, respectively. Spatial distributions of total Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in soils shared similar geographical trends. The risk assessment of PTEs through rice consumption suggests that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd in some rice samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, there was no target hazard quotient value of any individual element that was greater than 1, but hazard index values for adults and children were 1.726 and 1.523, respectively. - Industrial development has led to increased risk from potentially toxic elements in soils and rice.

  7. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increa