WorldWideScience

Sample records for potential future directions

  1. Future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  2. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  3. Epicardial fat and atrial fibrillation: current evidence, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher X; Ganesan, Anand N; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is increasingly recognized as a major modifiable determinant of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although body mass index and other clinical measures are useful indications of general adiposity, much recent interest has focused on epicardial fat, a distinct adipose tissue depot that can be readily assessed using non-invasive imaging techniques. A growing body of data from epidemiological and clinical studies has demonstrated that epicardial fat is consistently associated with the presence, severity, and recurrence of AF across a range of clinical settings. Evidence from basic science and translational studies has also suggested that arrhythmogenic mechanisms may involve adipocyte infiltration, pro-fibrotic, and pro-inflammatory paracrine effects, oxidative stress, and other pathways. Despite these advances, however, significant uncertainty exists and many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we review our present understanding of epicardial fat, including its classification and quantification, existing evidence implicating its role in AF, potential mechanisms, implications for clinicians, and future directions for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Towards an Immunophenotype of Schizophrenia: Progress, Potential Mechanisms, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Goldsmith, David R

    2017-01-01

    The evidence to date, coupled with advances in immunology and genetics has afforded the field an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the hypothesis that a subset of patients with schizophrenia may manifest an immunophenotype, toward new potential diagnostics and therapeutics to reduce risk, alleviate symptoms, and improve quality of life in both at-risk populations and patients with established schizophrenia. In this paper, we will first summarize the findings on immune dysfunction in schizophrenia, including (1) genetic, prenatal, and premorbid immune risk factors and (2) immune markers across the clinical course of the disorder, including cytokines; C-reactive protein; immune cells; antibodies, autoantibodies and comorbid autoimmune disorders; complement; oxidative stress; imaging of neuroinflammation; infections; and clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents and immunotherapy. We will then discuss a potential mechanistic framework toward increased understanding of a potential schizophrenia immunophenotype. We will then critically appraise the existing literature, and discuss suggestions for the future research agenda in this area that are needed to rigorously evaluate this hypothesis. PMID:27654215

  5. Future directions for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC

  6. Plant Virus–Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Mann, Krin S.; Johnson, Karyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition and transmission by an insect vector is central to the infection cycle of the majority of plant pathogenic viruses. Plant viruses can interact with their insect host in a variety of ways including both non-persistent and circulative transmission; in some cases, the latter involves virus replication in cells of the insect host. Replicating viruses can also elicit both innate and specific defense responses in the insect host. A consistent feature is that the interaction of the virus with its insect host/vector requires specific molecular interactions between virus and host, commonly via proteins. Understanding the interactions between plant viruses and their insect host can underpin approaches to protect plants from infection by interfering with virus uptake and transmission. Here, we provide a perspective focused on identifying novel approaches and research directions to facilitate control of plant viruses by better understanding and targeting virus–insect molecular interactions. We also draw parallels with molecular interactions in insect vectors of animal viruses, and consider technical advances for their control that may be more broadly applicable to plant virus vectors. PMID:27834855

  7. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  8. Exoplanet Biosignatures: Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Sara I.; Bains, William; Cronin, Leroy; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Danielache, Sebastian; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kacar, Betul; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Lenardic, Adrian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Moore, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Smith, Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    Exoplanet science promises a continued rapid accumulation of new observations in the near future, energizing a drive to understand and interpret the forthcoming wealth of data to identify signs of life beyond our Solar System. The large statistics of exoplanet samples, combined with the ambiguity of our understanding of universal properties of life and its signatures, necessitate a quantitative framework for biosignature assessment Here, we introduce a Bayesian framework for guiding future di...

  9. Accuracy of a Low-Cost Novel Computer-Vision Dynamic Movement Assessment: Potential Limitations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, M.; Giblin, S.; Meldrum, D.; Wetterling, F.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a preliminary validation of a low cost markerless motion capture system (CAPTURE) against an industry gold standard (Vicon). Measurements of knee valgus and flexion during the performance of a countermovement jump (CMJ) between CAPTURE and Vicon were compared. After correction algorithms were applied to the raw CAPTURE data acceptable levels of accuracy and precision were achieved. The knee flexion angle measured for three trials using Capture deviated by -3.8° ± 3° (left) and 1.7° ± 2.8° (right) compared to Vicon. The findings suggest that low-cost markerless motion capture has potential to provide an objective method for assessing lower limb jump and landing mechanics in an applied sports setting. Furthermore, the outcome of the study warrants the need for future research to examine more fully the potential implications of the use of low-cost markerless motion capture in the evaluation of dynamic movement for injury prevention.

  10. Potential Futures for Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Information is one of the most powerful tools available today. All advances in technology may be used, as David Sarnoff said, for the benefit or harm of society. Information can be used to shape the future by free people, or used to control people by less than benevolent governments, as has been demonstrated since the mid - 1930s, and with growing frequency over the past 50 years. What promised to once set people free and fuel an industrial revolution that might improve the standard of living over most of the world, has also been used to manipulate and enslave entire populations. The future of information is tied to the future of technologies that support the collection of data, processing those data into information and knowledge, and distribution. Technologies supporting the future of information must include technologies that help protect the integrity of data and information, and help to guarantee its discoverability and appropriate availability -- often to the whole of society. This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  11. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.

  12. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products. PMID:29649123

  13. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank

    2018-04-12

    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.

  14. The potential of unmanned aerial systems for sea turtle research and conservation: a review and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alan F.; Avens, Larisa; Ballorain, Katia; Bevan, Elizabeth; Broderick, Annette C.; Carthy, Raymond R.; Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Duclos, Gwénaël; Heithaus, Michael R.; Johnston, David W.; Mangel, Jeffrey C.; Paladino, Frank V.; Pendoley, Kellie; Reina, Richard D.; Robinson, Nathan J.; Ryan, Robert; Sykora-Bodie, Seth T.; Tilley, Dominic; Varela, Miguel R.; Whitman, Elizabeth R.; Whittock, Paul A.; Wibbels, Thane; Godley, Brendan J.

    2018-01-01

    The use of satellite systems and manned aircraft surveys for remote data collection has been shown to be transformative for sea turtle conservation and research by enabling the collection of data on turtles and their habitats over larger areas than can be achieved by surveys on foot or by boat. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are increasingly being adopted to gather data, at previously unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions in diverse geographic locations. This easily accessible, low-cost tool is improving existing research methods and enabling novel approaches in marine turtle ecology and conservation. Here we review the diverse ways in which incorporating inexpensive UAVs may reduce costs and field time while improving safety and data quality and quantity over existing methods for studies on turtle nesting, at-sea distribution and behaviour surveys, as well as expanding into new avenues such as surveillance against illegal take. Furthermore, we highlight the impact that high-quality aerial imagery captured by UAVs can have for public outreach and engagement. This technology does not come without challenges. We discuss the potential constraints of these systems within the ethical and legal frameworks which researchers must operate and the difficulties that can result with regard to storage and analysis of large amounts of imagery. We then suggest areas where technological development could further expand the utility of UAVs as data-gathering tools; for example, functioning as downloading nodes for data collected by sensors placed on turtles. Development of methods for the use of UAVs in sea turtle research will serve as case studies for use with other marine and terrestrial taxa.

  15. Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George (Editor); Moos, Warren; VanSteenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The 'Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy' conference was inspired by the accomplishments of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission. The FUSE mission was launched in June 1999 and spent over eight years exploring the far-ultraviolet universe, gathering over 64 million seconds of high-resolution spectral data on nearly 3000 astronomical targets. The goal of this conference was not only to celebrate the accomplishments of FUSE, but to look toward the future and understand the major scientific drivers for the ultraviolet capabilities of the next generation fo space observatories. Invited speakers presented discussions based on measurements made by FUSE and other ultraviolet instruments, assessed their connection with measurements made with other techniques and, where appropriate, discussed the implications of low-z measurements for high-z phenomena. In addition to the oral presentations, many participants presented poster papers. The breadth of these presentation made it clear that much good science is still in progress with FUSE data and that these result will continue to have relevance in many scientific areas.

  16. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science

  17. Future directions in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Cancer treatment has evolved progressively over the years as a joint result of improvements in technology and better understanding of the biological responses of neoplastic and normal cells to cytotoxic agents. Although major therapeutic 'breakthroughs' are unlikely absent the discovery of exploitable fundamental differences between cancer cells and their normal homologs, further incremental improvements in cancer treatment results can confidently be expected as we apply existing knowledge better and take advantage of new research insights. Areas in which I can foresee significant improvements (in approximate chronological order) are as follows: better physical radiation dose distributions; more effective radiation and chemoradiation protocols based on radiobiological principles; more rational use of radiation adjuvants based on biologic criteria; use of novel targets and vectors for systemic radionuclide therapy; use of genetic markers of radiosensitivity to determine radiation dose tolerances; and use of radiation as a modulator of therapeutic gene expression. Radiation research has contributed greatly to the efficacy of radiation oncology as it is now practised but has even greater potential for the future

  18. Future directions for ADTT concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliekowski, C. [Scandatronix Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This presentation is the collection of viewgraphs used by the author to summarize the future for accelerator based systems for transmutation technologies. The author also emphasizes points which need short term effort to provide critical information necessary for modeling, and planning for future work. The author points out how the value of this technology varies depending upon the political and economic factors which are driving the necessity of dealing with radioactive materials. The issues of feasibility, safety, proliferation, cost, and public perception are also addressed.

  19. Women and development: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1995 the UN celebrated its 50th anniversary, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing was held. INSTRAW's acting director, Martha Duenas-Loza, gives her overview of INSTRAW's future role and identifies some major issues regarding the advancement of women. INSTRAW is mandated as a UN group to accomplish research on and training of women. Some initial findings are now becoming available. The delay was due to the attention given to pressing problems of health care, nutrition, and education. In the future the international community will not have the option of neglecting women's status issues, which currently are secondary concerns. Some urgent issues are identified as the impact of rapid population growth on the elderly in the world, particularly the majority of elderly women. Migration will have an increasing impact on economic and social infrastructures of all countries. Problems of the elderly must be addressed as individual components within development plans and programs. Other articles in this issue of "INSTRAW News" discuss the situation of elderly women and women migrants. New efforts focus on a new phase of research on women's access to credit. The research aim is to analyze the experiences of current credit mechanisms, to assess the impact on individuals and families, and to consider gender effects. A progress report is available in this issue on gender statistics and a valuation of unpaid work by women. A new module is available for training women in environmental management; a description of this module is available in this issue. The new model is based on prior modules on energy and water, but includes improvements. The future agenda reflects the complexity of problems and solutions today and in the future.

  20. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    .... This report reviews military and civilian models for evaluating telemedicine systems in order to determine future directions for Navy telemedicine research within the current funding environment...

  1. Future directions for positive body image research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Future directions for nursing administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, M A

    1984-03-01

    As the age of centralization wanes, nurse executives must look ahead. The author, noting a terrain obscured by the increasing complexity of nursing practice, points out the advantages of decentralizing decision making and of providing a distinctive nursing stamp to research and administration theory. Nurse executives, trained in management from early in their professional formation, can provide enlightened direction and flexible support for tomorrow's opportunities.

  3. MBR Technology: future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.; Temmink, B.G.; Remy, M.J.J.; Geilvoet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cutting down the operational costs of MBR technology will be the key driver for research. This article outlines some research areas and specific topics that potentially will contribute to lower costs. Special attention to these topics should be given the coming years. Long term research should focus

  4. Potential theory for directed networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation.

  5. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

  6. Future directions in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his analysis to quantify the priority of fusion R and D in the United States. The conclusion is that this priority has been essentially constant for 35 years with only two exceptions. He identifies four basic problems that must be solved. These problems are: to improve the scientific understanding of confinement concepts if we are going to have an energy source that can be utilized some day; to understand the physics of burning plasmas; to develop the materials for fusion use to realize the environmental potential of fusion; and to develop fusion nuclear technology. A response to these problems is given, based on the author's argument for international collaboration in fusion research

  7. Future directions of ecosystem science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    , and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  8. Object Detection: Current and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eVerschae

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Object detection is a key ability required by most computer and robot vision systems. The latest research on this area has been making great progress in many directions. In the current manuscript we give an overview of past research on object detection, outline the current main research directions, and discuss open problems and possible future directions.

  9. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  10. Direct reimbursement. The future for organized dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D P

    2001-10-01

    Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.

  11. Miscellaneous conditions and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; Richardson, M.L.; Helms, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The previous chapters have discussed basic principles and the types of musculoskeletal pathology that have been most extensively studied with magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. MR has also demonstrated significant potential in other areas, but experience is more limited. Despite this limited experience, the potential application of MR imaging in these areas is discussed in this paper

  12. The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Ciara; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the literature investigating the potential relationship between fruit and vegetables (FV) and psychological well-being. The rising prevalence of mental ill health is causing considerable societal burden. Inexpensive and effective strategies are therefore required to improve the psychological well-being of the population, and to reduce the negative impact of mental health problems. A growing body of literature suggests that dietary intake may have the potential to influence psychological well-being. For example, studies have suggested that particular dietary constituents, including vitamins and minerals, might be beneficial to psychological health. However, in order to better reflect normal dietary intake, health-based research has increasingly begun to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns, rather than individual nutrients. One food group that has received increasing attention with regard to psychological health is FV. This is probably a result of the strong evidence base, which exists in relation to their protective association with a number of chronic diseases, as well as the fact that they are a rich source of some of the nutrients which have been linked to psychological health. While some promising findings exist with regards to FV intake and psychological well-being, overall, results are inconsistent. Possible reasons for this, such as methodological issues related to study design and the measurement of psychological well-being and FV intake, are discussed within this review. Based on the predominantly observational nature of existing literature, the present paper concludes that future well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the relationship further.

  13. Novel robotic systems and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Don Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assistance is increasingly used in surgical practice. We performed a nonsystematic literature review using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google for robotic surgical systems and compiled information on their current status. We also used this information to predict future about the direction of robotic systems based on various robotic systems currently being developed. Currently, various modifications are being made in the consoles, robotic arms, cameras, handles and instruments, and other specific functions (haptic feedback and eye tracking that make up the robotic surgery system. In addition, research for automated surgery is actively being carried out. The development of future robots will be directed to decrease the number of incisions and improve precision. With the advent of artificial intelligence, a more practical form of robotic surgery system can be introduced and will ultimately lead to the development of automated robotic surgery system.

  14. Future directions for high-spin studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-11-01

    Some future directions for experimental high-spin studies are discussed, concentrating mainly on the region above I -- 30h, where the γ-ray spectra are currently unresolvable. The 4π NaI balls offer a means to exploit the temperature effects recently shown to exist in such spectra. Large arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors, on the other and, lead to higher effective resolution as it becomes possible to study triple and quadruple coincident events

  15. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated... and all-important tasks that include everything from pathogenesis to fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. An interesting question to be asked, therefore, is: has there been any realistic estimate of these bacteria on Earth? Now, for the first time, a...

  16. Future directions for positive body image research

    OpenAIRE

    Halliwell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for fu...

  17. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  18. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lukarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, learning analytics (LA has attracted a great deal of attention in technology-enhanced learning (TEL research as practitioners, institutions, and researchers are increasingly seeing the potential that LA has to shape the future TEL landscape. Generally, LA deals with the development of methods that harness educational data sets to support the learning process. This paper provides a foundation for future research in LA. It provides a systematic overview on this emerging field and its key concepts through a reference model for LA based on four dimensions, namely data, environments, context (what?, stakeholders (who?, objectives (why?, and methods (how?. It further identifies various challenges and research opportunities in the area of LA in relation to each dimension.

  19. HIV vaccines: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, Sam; Collins, Chris

    2002-07-01

    Volume seven of the Review will mark the tenth anniversary of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network with a series of articles that describe past developments and future directions in several areas of policy and law related to HIV/AIDS. The following article is the first of these, discussing current challenges and future directions in the development of and access to HIV vaccines. It argues that governments are under public health, ethical, and legal obligations to develop and provide access to HIV vaccines. It further explains what is required for governments to fulfill their obligations: additional commitment and resources for HIV vaccine development in the context of increased global research and development regarding diseases of the poor; increased support and advocacy for partnerships to develop HIV vaccines; enhanced regulatory capacity in every country to review, approve, and monitor HIV vaccines; and assurance of global supply of, procurement of, delivery of, and access to vaccines in the context of efforts to increase global access to public health measures and technologies.

  20. Future directions conventional oil supply, Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.R.; Hayward, J.

    1997-01-01

    The history of the Canadian oil industry was briefly sketched and the future outlook for crude oil and natural gas liquids in western Canada was forecast. The historical review encompassed some of the significant events in history of the Canadian oil industry, including the Leduc discovery in 1947, the Swan Hills discovery in 1957, the start of commercial production from the Athabasca oil sands in 1967, the discovery of the Hibernia oilfield offshore Newfoundland in 1979, and the onset of the use of horizontal production wells in western Canada in 1987. The resource base, supply costs, and the technology that is being developed to reduce costs and to improve recovery, were reviewed. Future oil prices were predicted, taking into account the costs associated with technological developments. It was suggested that the character of the industry is undergoing a change from an industry dominated by conventional supply to a mixed industry with increasing volume of heavy oil, primary bitumen, synthetic oil and frontier supply replacing 'conventional' light crude oil. Projections into the future are subject to uncertainty both on the supply as well as on the demand side. The potential impact of technology can significantly affect demand, and technological developments can yield additional supplies which exceed current expectations. 10 figs

  1. A primer on potential impacts, management priorities, and future directions for Elodea spp. in high latitude systems: learning from the Alaskan experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Sethi, Suresh A; Larsen, Sabrina J; Rich, Cecil F

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species introductions in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are growing as climate change manifests and human activity increases in high latitudes. The aquatic plants of the genus Elodea are potential invaders to Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems circumpolar and at least one species is already established in Alaska, USA. To illustrate the problems of preventing, eradicating, containing, and mitigating aquatic, invasive plants in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems, we review the invasion dynamics of Elodea and provide recommendations for research and management efforts in Alaska. Foremost, we conclude the remoteness of Arctic and Subarctic systems such as Alaska is no longer a protective attribute against invasions, as transportation pathways now reach throughout these regions. Rather, high costs of operating in remote Arctic and Subarctic systems hinders detection of infestations and limits eradication or mitigation, emphasizing management priorities of prevention and containment of aquatic plant invaders in Alaska and other Arctic and Subarctic systems.

  2. Brainstem tumors: Current management and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Recinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising in the brainstem comprise 10-20% of all pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors and account for a small percentage in adults. The prognosis for these tumors was considered uniformly poor prior to the era of modern neuroimaging and the location was fraught with disaster being considered a ′no man′s land′ for neurosurgeons. Following the introduction of advanced imaging modalities and neurophysiological monitoring, striking progress has occurred in the management of these lesions. Brainstem tumors are presently classified based on their anatomic location, focality, and histopathology. This article reviews the current classification of brainstem tumors, current management options, and future directions in the treatment for these rare tumors.

  3. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  4. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

    2000-01-01

    The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

  5. Future directions in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses future directions for the ICF program. At this time there is still uncertainty on a number of key issues necessary to decide on what type of a National Ignition Facility should be constructed. Mechanisms are in place to answer these questions. The author offers his opinions of where the program is likely to proceed. Technology wise indications are that direct drive heating has the best chance of reaching ignition and high gain. This has the advantage of making all three major user programs happy, namely weapons physics, weapons effects, and electrical energy. The demand for and price of energy in the country will have a major impact on the way the program is developed. From the laser fusion side the most promising drivers at present seem to be KrF lasers, and a major concern for these systems is whether the peak to valley nonuniformities can be reduced to the 1 to 2% level when delivered to the target in order to avoid driving instabilities

  6. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  7. Future directions of multiple behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly; Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R

    2017-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases (i.e., chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and obesity) result in 36 million deaths each year. Individuals' habitual participation in a single health-risk behaviors substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality (e.g., tobacco use, daily fast food intake, etc.); however, more concerning is the impact of typically co-occurring or clustering of multiple health-risk behaviors. This burden can be minimized through successful cessation of health-risk behaviors and adoption of healthy behaviors; namely healthy lifestyle adoption or multiple health behavior change (MHBC). MHBC is a developing field and future research recommendations are provided to advance MHBC research. A valid measure of MHBC (i.e., lifestyle) is warranted to provide the needed basis for MHBC investigations and evaluations. MHBC is thought to occur through shared co-variation of underlying motivating mechanisms, but how these relationships influence behavior remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between behaviors and the related motivating mechanisms (and potential cross-relationship of influences) is needed. Future research should also aim to improve lifestyles through understanding how to change multiple health behaviors. Finally, MHBC research should target the development of sustainable interventions which result in lasting effects (e.g., capacity, systems, policy and environmental changes), with dissemination considered during development. Focusing MHBC research in these areas will increase our understanding and maximize the impact on the health of populations.

  8. Teledermatology. Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, J D

    2001-01-01

    Teledermatology is becoming an increasingly common means of delivering dermatologic healthcare worldwide and will almost certainly play a greater role in the future. The type of technology used distinguishes the 2 modes of teledermatology consultation. The store and forward technique uses still digital images generated by a digital camera. Consultations of this type are considered asynchronous since the images are obtained, sent, and reviewed at different times. In contrast, real-time interactive consultations are synchronous. Patients and clinicians interact in real-time through an audio-video communication link. Each modality has its advantages and disadvantages, and studies appear in the literature that assess both technologies. Although diagnostic reliability (precision) assessments for teledermatology are subject to limitations, existing information indicates that both store and forward and real-time interactive technology result in reliable diagnostic outcomes when compared with clinic-based evaluations. Less information regarding diagnostic accuracy is available; however, one evaluation that used store and forward technology found comparable diagnostic accuracy between teledermatology consultations and clinic-based examinations. Currently, little information is available regarding cost effectiveness and patient outcomes. Existing evidence, while inconclusive, suggests that teledermatology may be more costly than traditional clinic-based care, especially when using real-time interactive technology. Teledermatology has been shown to have utility as a triage mechanism for determining the urgency or need for a clinic-based consultation. Overall, patients appear to accept teledermatology and are satisfied with it as a means of obtaining healthcare. Clinicians have also generally reported positive experiences with teledermatology. Future studies that focus on cost effectiveness, patient outcomes, and patient and clinician satisfaction will help further define the

  9. Geospatial Brokering - Challenges and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    An important feature of many brokers is to facilitate straightforward human access to scientific data while maintaining programmatic access to it for system solutions. Standards-based protocols are critical for this, and there are a number of protocols to choose from. In this discussion, we will present a web application solution that leverages certain protocols - e.g., OGC CSW, REST, and OpenSearch - to provide programmatic as well as human access to geospatial resources. We will also discuss managing resources to reduce duplication yet increase discoverability, federated search solutions, and architectures that combine human-friendly interfaces with powerful underlying data management. The changing requirements witnessed in brokering solutions over time, our recent experience participating in the EarthCube brokering hack-a-thon, and evolving interoperability standards provide insight to future technological and philosophical directions planned for geospatial broker solutions. There has been much change over the past decade, but with the unprecedented data collaboration of recent years, in many ways the challenges and opportunities are just beginning.

  10. Cogan's syndrome: present and future directions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Grainne

    2009-08-01

    Cogan\\'s syndrome, typified by the combination of interstitial keratitis and immune-mediated sensorineural hearing loss, is a rare condition, and commonly associated with a diagnostic delay. Using a standard search protocol, we review the literature to date, focusing on a number of key areas pertaining to diagnosis, presentation and treatment. Using a case illustration of atypical disease which led to fulminant aortic regurgitation, we highlight the need for continued and collaborative research in order to identify negative prognostic factors and thus tailor therapeutic regimens. Atypical Cogan\\'s syndrome is more commonly associated with systemic manifestations than typical disease, and may be refractory to immunosuppressive treatment. We discuss the application of laboratory (e.g antibodies targeting inner ear antigens) and radiological (PET-CT) aids to disease confirmation and detection of sub-clinical vascular inflammation. As illustrated by the included case description, some patients remain refractory to intense immunosuppression and delineation of adverse prognostic factors which may direct treatment, perhaps including the use of PET-CT, will contribute in the future to improving patient outcomes.

  11. Virtual Inertia: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Tamrakar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern power system is progressing from a synchronous machine-based system towards an inverter-dominated system, with large-scale penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs like wind and photovoltaics. RES units today represent a major share of the generation, and the traditional approach of integrating them as grid following units can lead to frequency instability. Many researchers have pointed towards using inverters with virtual inertia control algorithms so that they appear as synchronous generators to the grid, maintaining and enhancing system stability. This paper presents a literature review of the current state-of-the-art of virtual inertia implementation techniques, and explores potential research directions and challenges. The major virtual inertia topologies are compared and classified. Through literature review and simulations of some selected topologies it has been shown that similar inertial response can be achieved by relating the parameters of these topologies through time constants and inertia constants, although the exact frequency dynamics may vary slightly. The suitability of a topology depends on system control architecture and desired level of detail in replication of the dynamics of synchronous generators. A discussion on the challenges and research directions points out several research needs, especially for systems level integration of virtual inertia systems.

  12. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander X., E-mail: axgray@temple.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects.

  13. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Alexander X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects

  14. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    that has the data product description. Even though the development and maintenance of DOI landing pages would be the responsibility of the DAACs, ESDIS in consultation with the data providers is currently developing the landing page guidelines that specifies the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique process and system currently implemented by ESDIS for registering DOIs. In addition, the paper will summarize some of the early implementation shortcomings and how they were addressed, as well as the future directions of the ESDIS DOI system/process.

  15. Potential future waste-to-energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Guziana, Bozena; Song, Han; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Szpadt, Ryszard; Vasilic, Dejan; Ahrens, Thorsten; Anne, Olga; Lõõnik, Jaan

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia. The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge ...

  16. Safety test facilities - status, needs, future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, G.; Cogne, F.

    1979-08-01

    A survey is given of the in-pile programs which are presently or in the near future being performed in the DeBeNe-area and in France. Only those in-pile programs are considered which are dealing with severe accidents that might lead to disruption of major parts of the core. By comparing the needs with the goals of the present programs points are identified which are not sufficiently well covered up till now. The future procedure is described: the existing facilities will be used to the largest possible extent. Whenever it is necessary, upgrading and improvement will be foreseen. Studies of a Test Facility allowing the transient testing of large pin bundles should be continued. The construction of such a facility in Europe in the near future however seems premature

  17. Future directions of small research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    In prognosticating future perspectives, it is important to realize that the current number of small reactors throughout the world is not overly large and will undoubtedly decrease or at best remain constant in future generations. To survive and remain productive, small reactor facilities must concentrate on work that is unique and that cannot be performed as well by other instruments. Wherever possible, these facilities should develop some form of collaboration with universities and medical center investigators. Future development will continue and will flourish in neutron activation analysis and its applications for a diversity of fields. Fundamental research such as hot atom chemistry will continue to use neutrons from small research reactors. Finally, training of power reactor operators can be an important source of revenue for the small facility in addition to performing an important service to the nuclear power industry

  18. Heavy-ion fusion: Future promise and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous several papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work that has taken place as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, accelerator systems, beam transport, reactor and balance-of-plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. The result of this study has been to, within the limits of our 1986 imagination and creativity, define the ''most attractive'' future heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant at some time in the future (beyond the year 2020 in this case). The project has specifically avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for a relative comparison among design options. The authors describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point

  19. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  20. Wilderness biology and conservation: future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed F. Noss

    2000-01-01

    The new conservation movement—uniting scientists and activists—seeks to relook at the role of protected land. The result is a redefining of terms, the encompassing of the concept of ecosystems, incorporating both scientific and nonscientific approaches to conservation, and reconsidering management. This philosophical essay speculates on the future of wilderness and...

  1. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  2. Neutron sources: Present practice and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.; Smith, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The present capability and future potential of accelerator-based monoenergetic and white neutron sources are outlined in the context of fundamental and applied neutron-nuclear research. The neutron energy range extends from thermal to 500 MeV, and the time domain from steady-state to pico-second pulsed sources. Accelerator technology is summarized, including the production of intense light-ion, heavy-ion and electron beams. Target capabilities are discussed with attention to neutron-producing efficiency and power-handling capabilities. The status of underlying neutron-producing reactions is summarized. The present and future use of neutron sources in: fundamental neutron-nuclear research, nuclear data acquisition, materials damage studies, engineering tests, and biomedical applications are discussed. Emphasis is given to current status, near-term advances well within current technology, and to long-range projections. 90 refs., 4 figs

  3. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  4. Coronary CT: clinical indications and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Cesar H.; Serpa, Bruna S.; Kay, Fernando U.; Szarf, Gilberto; Passos, Rodrigo B.; Neto, Roberto S.; Chate, Rodigo C.; Funar, Marcelo B.; Cury, Roberto C.

    2011-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has started its implementation in cardiology with calcium quantification of coronary plaques in the study without contrast, using the calcium score, demonstrating an important independent predictor of future cardiac events. The examination with intravenous contrast, coronary angiography, appeared later as a noninvasive method for evaluation of anatomy and obstructive coronary disease, characterizing the degree of stenosis and the presence of non calcified atherosclerotic plaques, assessing not only the lumen, but also the vessel wall. With the advent of new machines with more detectors and higher temporal resolution has been a reduction in radiation dose and the possibility of new applications. (author)

  5. ETF design activities: status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of the device to follow TFTR has been evolving over the past six years. The most recent design activities have been directed to the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) concept. In order to address the design of the ETF a centralized laboratory/industry design team was established and hosted at ORNL. This Design Center began ETF Preconceptual design in October, 1979. The ETF design effort has been judged to be sound. However, the ETF mission has been judged to be overly ambitious. It has been recommended that the device to follow TFTR be dedicated to the investigation of engineering feasibility and that device has been designated the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The ETF design activities provide a basis for developing the FED design. This will be accomplished under the direction of the newly formed FED Technical Management Board

  6. Design Creativity: Future Directions for Integrated Visualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steven Goulding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC sectors are facing unprecedented challenges, not just with increased complexity of projects per se, but design-related integration. This requires stakeholders to radically re-think their existing business models (and thinking that underpins them, but also the technological challenges and skills required to deliver these projects. Whilst opponents will no doubt cite that this is nothing new as the sector as a whole has always had to respond to change; the counter to this is that design ‘creativity’ is now much more dependent on integration from day one. Given this, collaborative processes embedded in Building Information Modelling (BIM models have been proffered as a panacea solution to embrace this change and deliver streamlined integration. The veracity of design teams’ “project data” is increasingly becoming paramount - not only for the coordination of design, processes, engineering services, fabrication, construction, and maintenance; but more importantly, facilitate ‘true’ project integration and interchange – the actualisation of which will require firm consensus and commitment. This Special Issue envisions some of these issues, challenges and opportunities (from a future landscape perspective, by highlighting a raft of concomitant factors, which include: technological challenges, design visualisation and integration, future digital tools, new and anticipated operating environments, and training requirements needed to deliver these aspirations. A fundamental part of this Special Issue’s ‘call’ was to capture best practice in order to demonstrate how design, visualisation and delivery processes (and technologies affect the finished product viz: design outcome, design procedures, production methodologies and construction implementation. In this respect, the use of virtual environments are now particularly effective at supporting the design and delivery processes. In

  7. Safety of nuclear installations: Future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Workshop presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Environmental impact of fossil fuel energy technologies (5 papers), Future needs for nuclear power (7 papers), Safety objectives (10 papers), Safety aspects of the next generation of current-type nuclear power plants (8 papers), Safety aspects of new designs and concepts for nuclear power plants (6 papers), Special safety issues: Safety aspects of new designs and concepts for nuclear power plants (5 papers), Safety aspects of new designs and processes for the nuclear fuel cycle (5 papers), Closing panel (3 papers), 12 poster presentations and a Summary of the Workshop. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  9. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  11. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Hunting electroweakinos at future hadron colliders and direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortona, Giovanni Grilli di [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Trieste,via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    We analyse the mass reach for electroweakinos at future hadron colliders and their interplay with direct detection experiments. Motivated by the LHC data, we focus on split supersymmetry models with different electroweakino spectra. We find for example that a 100 TeV collider may explore Winos up to ∼7 TeV in low scale gauge mediation models or thermal Wino dark matter around 3 TeV in models of anomaly mediation with long-lived Winos. We show moreover how collider searches and direct detection experiments have the potential to cover large part of the parameter space even in scenarios where the lightest neutralino does not contribute to the whole dark matter relic density.

  13. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity pharmacotherapy: current perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Monika

    2013-02-01

    The rising tide of obesity and its related disorders is one of the most pressing health concerns worldwide, yet existing medicines to combat the problem are disappointingly limited in number and effectiveness. Recent advances in mechanistic insights into the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight have revealed an expanding list of molecular targets for novel, rationally designed antiobesity pharmaceutical agents. Antiobesity drugs act via any of four mechanisms: 1) decreasing energy intake, 2) increasing energy expenditure or modulating lipid metabolism, 3) modulating fat stores or adipocyte differentiation, and 4) mimicking caloric restriction. Various novel drug candidates and targets directed against obesity are currently being explored. A few of them are also in the later phases of clinical trials. This review discusses the development of novel antiobesity drugs based on current understanding of energy homeostasis.

  15. Future directions in nuclear data publication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Chu, S.Y.F.; Ekstroem, L.P.; Nordberg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Rapid advances in computer based technologies provide enormous opportunities and great challenges to the way nuclear data is disseminated. Simple text databases and linear, command driven software are giving way to more complex, indexed databases and object-oriented, menu-driven applications. The Internet will clearly dominate dissemination of nuclear data in for foreseeable future, and CD-ROM technology (or similar high-density media) will replace hard-copy publication. The Isotopes Project has released Version 1.0 of VuENSDF, a versatile, 32-bit, C ++ , Internet enabled application for disseminating nuclear data. VuENSDF can automatically retrieve data over Internet; display decay scheme drawings, level tables, and references; and perform limited database searching of nuclear bands, transition coincidences, and reference authors. Version 2.0 of VuENSDF is being developed and will offer more complete database searches, plotting, and data entry utilities. The Isotopes Project has established a series of home pages on the WWW to provide data for various topics of nuclear physics. The group has also published a CD-ROM version of the Table of Isotopes using Adobe Acrobat software. Updated, Internet versions of the Table of Isotopes are planned. (author)

  16. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  17. Future directions in electronic image handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, H U

    1993-08-01

    After a relatively slow start compared with the United States and Japan, several projects are now being established in Europe that are aimed at the development of prototype systems for medical image processing and management. Frequently, this includes aspects of multimedia communication, as well as legal, ethical, and economic issues. Consideration is also often given to systems security, reliability, and data protection. All these projects are based on the application of modern computer and communication technologies. The following interesting conclusions can be drawn from these preliminary activities: 1. PACS and IMAC systems should not be regarded as products or devices, but as a means to improve the infrastructure in a given medical care environment. Sometimes this activity is also referred to as knowledge business. Individual components of these systems, for example image acquisition devices, networks, storage facilities, and medical workstations, should be provided with standard interfaces allowing a modular build-up and an easy adaptation to the specific conditions of clinical departments. 2. Digital luminescence radiography will further establish itself as a method for image acquisition and increasingly will replace analog radiologic methods. Consequently, digital processing, archiving, and communication will be a necessity for optimal patient care. 3. New network technologies and magnetic-optical storage media offer the possibility of an improved cost-effectiveness for communication and storage. They should therefore be considered an important factor in future economic considerations regarding health care services. 4. The practice of modern medicine is based on team-work; good communication among the parties concerned is a critical factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Qualitative research in rehabilitation science: opportunities, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Moll, Sandra E; Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Jindal, Pranay; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Packham, Tara L; Lim, Chun Y

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative research has had a significant impact within rehabilitation science over time. During the past 20 years the number of qualitative studies published per year in Disability and Rehabilitation has markedly increased (from 1 to 54). In addition, during this period there have been significant changes in how qualitative research is conceptualized, conducted, and utilized to advance the field of rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon the progress of qualitative research within rehabilitation to date, to explicate current opportunities and challenges, and to suggest future directions to continue to strengthen the contribution of qualitative research in this field. Relevant literature searches were conducted in electronic data bases and reference lists. Pertinent literature was examined to identify current opportunities and challenges for qualitative research use in rehabilitation and to identify future directions. Six key areas of opportunity and challenge were identified: (a) paradigm shifts, (b) advancements in methodology, (c) emerging technology, (d) advances in quality evaluation, (e) increasing popularity of mixed methods approaches, and (f) evolving approaches to knowledge translation. Two important future directions for rehabilitation are posited: (1) advanced training in qualitative methods and (2) engaging qualitative communities of research. Qualitative research is well established in rehabilitation and has an important place in the continued growth of this field. Ongoing development of qualitative researchers and methods are essential. Implications for Rehabilitation Qualitative research has the potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing some of the most pervasive concerns in the field such as practitioner-client interaction, the subjective and lived experience of disability, and clinical reasoning and decision making. This will serve to better inform those providing rehabilitation services thereby benefiting

  19. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  20. Sarcoma Immunotherapy: Past Approaches and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, S. P.; Tap, W. D.; Schwartz, G. K.; Carvajal, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomas are heterogeneous malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin characterized by more than 100 distinct subtypes. Unfortunately, 25–50% of patients treated with initial curative intent will develop metastatic disease. In the metastatic setting, chemotherapy rarely leads to complete and durable responses; therefore, there is a dire need for more effective therapies. Exploring immunotherapeutic strategies may be warranted. In the past, agents that stimulate the immune system such as interferon and interleukin-2 have been explored and there has been evidence of some clinical activity in selected patients. In addition, many cancer vaccines have been explored with suggestion of benefit in some patients. Building on the advancements made in other solid tumors as well as a better understanding of cancer immunology provides hope for the development of new and exciting therapies in the treatment of sarcoma. There remains promise with immunologic checkpoint blockade antibodies. Further, building on the success of autologous cell transfer in hematologic malignancies, designing chimeric antigen receptors that target antigens that are over-expressed in sarcoma provides a great deal of optimism. Exploring these avenues has the potential to make immunotherapy a real therapeutic option in this orphan disease. PMID:24778572

  1. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi eSugumaran Menon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to ionizing radiation disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ and tissue specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic ionizing radiation. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure.

  2. The Future Potential of Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelita Skaržauskienė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To define the Internet of things and to analyze it as a background for the internet of services.Design/methodology/approach: The article discusses potential possibilities and problematic issues concerning the Internet of things (IoT and Internet of services (IoS. The debates concerning IoT and its possible application fields have continued for more than ten years. The technological background is there and the fields of application are broad. However, there is still a lack of understanding about the possible benefits that technology could give to various bodies if applied correctly. This article is based on comparison and analysis of scientific articles, research papers and case studies related to the potential for IoT and its implementation in IoS.Theoretical findings: IoT is a logical evolutionary step for the internet. Despite the technological background, the concept of objects which are aware of their surroundings, allow to manipulate them by defining different rule patterns and ensuring interaction possibilities with other objects or human beings. The necessity for web-based services is increasing along with the technological gadgets which support them. Applying things, which are connected in a network, could revolutionize many industry and service sectors and create new service provision and administration methods based on information technology. However, there are many problematic issues and research challenges related to the IoT. Few of the most significant are related to standardization of technology, legal regulation and ethical aspects concerning the IoT technology.Research limitations/implications: The IoT is a popular trend promoted by the business sector and governmental bodies. There are few comprehensive studies and projects which talk about the benefits that business and society could gain from the IoT. There is a lot less information about the possible risk and problematic aspects, and a lack of agreements between the

  3. Rib fracture repair: indications, technical issues, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Raminder; Diaz, Jose J; Trunkey, Donald D; Mayberry, John C

    2009-01-01

    Rib fracture repair has been performed at selected centers around the world for more than 50 years; however, the operative indications have not been established and are considered controversial. The outcome of a strictly nonoperative approach may not be optimal. Potential indications for rib fracture repair include flail chest, painful, movable rib fractures refractory to conventional pain management, chest wall deformity/defect, rib fracture nonunion, and during thoracotomy for other traumatic indication. Rib fracture repair is technically challenging secondary to the human rib's relatively thin cortex and its tendency to fracture obliquely. Nonetheless, several effective repair systems have been developed. Future directions for progress on this important surgical problem include the development of minimally invasive techniques and the conduct of multicenter, randomized trials.

  4. Toolboxes for cyanobacteria: Recent advances and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Shubin; Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2018-05-03

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are important primary producers and model organisms for studying photosynthesis and elements cycling on earth. Due to the ability to absorb sunlight and utilize carbon dioxide, cyanobacteria have also been proposed as renewable chassis for carbon-neutral "microbial cell factories". Recent progresses on cyanobacterial synthetic biology have led to the successful production of more than two dozen of fuels and fine chemicals directly from CO 2 , demonstrating their potential for scale-up application in the future. However, compared with popular heterotrophic chassis like Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where abundant genetic tools are available for manipulations at levels from single gene, pathway to whole genome, limited genetic tools are accessible to cyanobacteria. Consequently, this significant technical hurdle restricts both the basic biological researches and further development and application of these renewable systems. Though still lagging the heterotrophic chassis, the vital roles of genetic tools in tuning of gene expression, carbon flux re-direction as well as genome-wide manipulations have been increasingly recognized in cyanobacteria. In recent years, significant progresses on developing and introducing new and efficient genetic tools have been made for cyanobacteria, including promoters, riboswitches, ribosome binding site engineering, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) systems, small RNA regulatory tools and genome-scale modeling strategies. In this review, we critically summarize recent advances on development and applications as well as technical limitations and future directions of the genetic tools in cyanobacteria. In addition, toolboxes feasible for using in large-scale cultivation are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Future directions in international financial integration research - A crowdsourced perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, B.M.; Vigne, S.A.; Ballester, L.; Barbopoulos, L.; Brzeszczynski, J.; Carchano, O.; Dimic, N.; Fernandez, V.; Gogolin, F.; González-Urteaga, A.; Goodell, J.W.; Helbing, P.; Ichev, R.; Kearney, F.; Laing, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the result of a crowdsourced effort to surface perspectives on the present and future direction of international finance. The authors are researchers in financial economics who attended the INFINITI 2017 conference in the University of Valencia in June 2017 and who participated in the crowdsourcing via the Overleaf platform. This paper highlights the actual state of scientific knowledge in a multitude of fields in finance and proposes different directions for future research.

  6. The Future Potential of Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelita Skaržauskienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To define the Internet of things and to analyze it as a background for the internet of services. Design/methodology/approach: The article discusses potential possibilities and problematic issues concerning the Internet of things (IoT and Internet of services (IoS. The debates concerning IoT and its possible application fields have continued for more than ten years. The technological background is there and the fields of application are broad. However, there is still a lack of understanding about the possible benefits that technology could give to various bodies if applied correctly. This article is based on comparison and analysis of scientific articles, research papers and case studies related to the potential for IoT and its implementation in IoS. Theoretical findings: IoT is a logical evolutionary step for the internet. Despite the technological background, the concept of objects which are aware of their surroundings, allow to manipulate them by defining different rule patterns and ensuring interaction possibilities with other objects or human beings. The necessity for web-based services is increasing along with the technological gadgets which support them. Applying things, which are connected in a network, could revolutionize many industry and service sectors and create new service provision and administration methods based on information technology. However, there are many problematic issues and research challenges related to the IoT. Few of the most significant are related to standardization of technology, legal regulation and ethical aspects concerning the IoT technology. Research limitations/implications: The IoT is a popular trend promoted by the business sector and governmental bodies. There are few comprehensive studies and projects which talk about the benefits that business and society could gain from the IoT. There is a lot less information about the possible risk and problematic aspects, and a lack of agreements between

  7. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  8. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nigel; Armishaw, Malcolm; Cooper, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  9. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  10. Improving CANDU annunciation - Current R and D and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.; Feher, M.P.; Davey, E.C.; Guo, K.Q.; Bhuiyan, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Annunciation is used to ensure that control room staff are promptly alerted to important changes in plant conditions that may impact on safety and production goals. We are carrying out research and development to improve CANDU annunciation, in partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations. The main goal is to solve the ''information overload'' problem that occurs during major plant upsets, while providing operators with annunciation information needed to prevent, mitigate, and accommodate plant disturbances. To data, a set of annunciation concepts has been developed based on operational needs in a complex supervisory control environment. A prototype annunciation system has been developed and demonstrated with Point Lepreau Generating Station operations staff. Preliminary evaluations show that the system has the potential to solve many of the current problems associated with upset management. Further evaluation of this system is planned for 1994/95. This paper summarizes the project, including the current status, lessons learned to data, future directions of the research, and implementation by plants. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Estimating the cost of blood: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Theusinger, Oliver M; Spahn, Donat R

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the costs associated with blood products requires sophisticated knowledge about transfusion medicine and is attracting the attention of clinical and administrative healthcare sectors worldwide. To improve outcomes, blood usage must be optimized and expenditures controlled so that resources may be channeled toward other diagnostic, therapeutic, and technological initiatives. Estimating blood costs, however, is a complex undertaking, surpassing simple supply versus demand economics. Shrinking donor availability and application of a precautionary principle to minimize transfusion risks are factors that continue to drive the cost of blood products upward. Recognizing that historical accounting attempts to determine blood costs have varied in scope, perspective, and methodology, new approaches have been initiated to identify all potential cost elements related to blood and blood product administration. Activities are also under way to tie these elements together in a comprehensive and practical model that will be applicable to all single-donor blood products without regard to practice type (e.g., academic, private, multi- or single-center clinic). These initiatives, their rationale, importance, and future directions are described.

  12. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  13. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  14. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  15. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  16. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  17. Future Directions in Research on Mathematics-Related Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics education research has placed great emphasis on teacher identity, examining both pre- and in-service teachers, and within these cohorts, specialised mathematics teachers and non-specialists such as elementary teachers. Extensive research has already been done; hence, this paper discusses possible future directions for research on…

  18. Potential Dimension Yields From Direct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    As the price of timber increases and environmental leigslation limits harvestable log volumes, the process of converting logs directly into dimension parts needs further exploration. Direct processing converts logs directly into rough green dimension parts without the intermediate steps of lumber manufacturing, grading, trading, shipping and drying. A major attraction...

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. Cord Blood Banking for Potential Future Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T; Lubin, Bertram H; Cairo, Mitchell S; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2017-11-01

    This policy statement is intended to provide information to guide pediatricians, obstetricians, and other medical specialists and health care providers in responding to parents' questions about cord blood donation and banking as well as the types (public versus private) and quality of cord blood banks. Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with some fatal diseases. Cord blood transplantation offers another method of definitive therapy for infants, children, and adults with certain hematologic malignancies, hemoglobinopathies, severe forms of T-lymphocyte and other immunodeficiencies, and metabolic diseases. The development of universal screening for severe immunodeficiency assay in a growing number of states is likely to increase the number of cord blood transplants. Both public and private cord blood banks worldwide hold hundreds of thousands of cord blood units designated for the treatment of fatal or debilitating illnesses. The procurement, characterization, and cryopreservation of cord blood is free for families who choose public banking. However, the family cost for private banking is significant and not covered by insurance, and the unit may never be used. Quality-assessment reviews by several national and international accrediting bodies show private cord blood banks to be underused for treatment, less regulated for quality control, and more expensive for the family than public cord blood banks. There is an unquestionable need to study the use of cord blood banking to make new and important alternative means of reconstituting the hematopoietic blood system in patients with malignancies and blood disorders and possibly regenerating tissue systems in the future. Recommendations regarding appropriate ethical and operational standards (including informed consent policies, financial disclosures, and conflict-of-interest policies) are provided for physicians, institutions, and organizations that

  1. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  2. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  3. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  4. Palaeohydrogeological modelling for potential future repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to consider the future behaviour of a groundwater system over time scales of relevance to repository safety assessment, it is necessary to develop an understanding of how the groundwater system has changed over time. This can be done through studying the palaeohydrogeology of the groundwater system. The EQUIP project (Evidence from Quaternary Infills for Palaeohydrogeology) set out to develop and evaluate methodologies for obtaining palaeohydrogeological information from fracture infill minerals formed under past groundwater conditions. EQUIP was a collaborative project funded jointly by the European Commission and, in the UK, by the Environment Agency and UK Nirex Limited. The project also involved partners in Finland, France, Spain and Sweden. The fracture infill material chosen for this investigation was calcite, because its reactions in low temperature groundwater environments are fairly well understood and it is fairly ubiquitous in both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. In addition, geochemical modelling suggests that plausible time scales for growth of individual calcite crystals are in the range 10 to 10,000 years, so they may accumulate a record of groundwater evolution over periods of significant climate change. The project was based on four sites, having different climate histories and geological conditions, at which drillcore samples of the deep crystalline rocks, accompanied by hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for the current groundwater conditions, were already available. The principal study sites were Olkiluoto in Finland, Aspo/Laxemar in Sweden, Sellafield in the UK and Vienne in France. The results of the study focus on the morphology and bulk compositions of calcite, compositional zoning of calcite crystals and compositions of fluid inclusions. There are systematic variations in bulk compositions with depth and also in discrete compositional fluctuations (or zones) in individual calcite crystals. These are inferred to reflect

  5. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the

  6. Munchausen by internet: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Andy; Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-08-22

    also suggest directions for future research.

  7. Neutron spectrometry for reactor applications: status, limitations, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1975-08-01

    The ability of ''state-of-the-art'' reactor neutron spectrometry to provide definitive environmental results required for high fluence radiation damage experiments is reviewed. A formal definition of the neutron component is presented as well as general considerations which accrue from both this definition and the existence of the mixed radiation field generally encountered in reactors. A description of four selected methods of reactor neutron spectrometry is included, namely Proton Recoil (PR) methods, Time-Of-Flight (TOF) methods, the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H coincidence method, and Multiple Foil Activation (MFA) methods. These selected methods are compared. Future requirements and directions for reactor neutron spectrometry are discussed. In particular, the needs of future CTR research are stressed and the He 4 - recoil proportional counter spectroscopy method is advanced as a means of meeting these future requirements. 50 references. (auth)

  8. The Philippine historical earthquakecatalog: its development, current stateand future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, M. L. P.; Bautista, B. C.

    2004-01-01

    This report will trace the development of the historical earthquake catalog of the Philippines, assess its present state and recommend future research directions. The current Philippine historical earthquake catalog is culled from various catalogs, both global and local, that were developed since the first Philippine catalog by Perrey was published in 1860. While early global catalogs gave simple mention of earthquakes in the Philippines, more focused earthquake catalogs about the Philippines...

  9. Future directions and emerging techniques for ISOL systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Bunker, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and future promise of ISOL systems are discussed, with emphasis on newly conceived experimental capabilities and interests. In addition to studies of nuclear structure using traditional or new on-line approaches, such as on-line nuclear orientation, the possibilities for studies with accelerated radioactive beams that have direct application to basic problems in materials science and astrophysics as well as to nuclear theory are pointed out. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Critical issues and future directions in sintering science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, R.J.; Tuan, W.H.; Xue, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of available powders and the emphasis on direct microstructural observation have continued to improve the value of sintering studies for the processing of ceramics. Future concerns will relate to mechanisms for the correction of microstructural inhomogeneity so that pressureless processing of composites can be reliably achieved and to more systematic exploitation of dopants (sintering additives). These themes are illustrated using examples from the processing of alumina composites and doped barium titanate compositions

  11. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  12. Preschool life skills: Recent advancements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Luczynski, Kevin C

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of the initial PLS study. For each area, we suggest directions for future research. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Present status and future prospects for direct drive laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    If one assumes that the best short wavelength laser will have an efficiency of 5--7%, and if one assumes that reasonable cost electricity requires that the product of laser efficiency and pellet gain be greater than 10--15, then pellet grains for laser fusion must be at least 150--300. The only laser fusion concept with any potential for energy applications then seems to be directly driven targets with moderately thin shells and 1/4 micron KrF laser light. This direct drive concept has potential pellet energy gains of 200--300

  14. Developmental Programming: State-of-the-Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F.; Gilmore, L. Anne; Dunger, David B.; Heijmans, Bas T.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ling, Charlotte; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Ozanne, Susan E.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Szyf, Moshe; Waterland, Robert A.; Redman, Leanne M.; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective On December 8–9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current scientific advances in animal models, population-based cohort studies and human clinical trials, (ii) the state-of-the-science of epigenetic-based research, and (iii) considerations for future studies. Results The overarching goal was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of the scientific field, to identify research gaps and opportunities for future research in order to identify and understand the mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of health and disease. Conclusions Identifying the mechanisms which cause or contribute to developmental programming of future generations will be invaluable to the scientific and medical community. The ability to intervene during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal life to promote lifelong health is the ultimate goal. Considerations for future research including the use of animal models, the study design in human cohorts with considerations about the timing of the intrauterine exposure and the resulting tissue specific epigenetic signature were extensively discussed and are presented in this meeting summary. PMID:27037645

  15. Status and future of the direct sales market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuMaresq, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Three topics of interest concerning the direct purchase of natural gas, were discussed. The three topics were: (1) the Ontario market, past, present and future, along with an analysis of market segmentation, (2) Ontario local distribution companies (LDC) separation, or separating the merchant role from the distribution role, and (3) the status of direct purchase in Alberta. Changes in the natural gas market since deregulation in 1985, were also reviewed. It was noted that today, only a handful of agents, brokers and marketers of natural gas are vying for the market; customers are looking to purchase gas at a price lower than the LDC buy/sell price; and there is pressure for the LDCs to separate the merchant functions from the distribution functions in most of the provinces in Canada. The direct and long term impact of these developments will be to enhance competition among distributors

  16. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  19. Sustainable supply chain management: current debate and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silvestre

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a research brief on sustainable supply chain management and covers some of the key elements of literature’s past debate and trends for future directions. It highlights the growth of this research area and reinforces the importance of a full consideration of all three key dimensions of sustainability when managing sustainable supply chains, i.e., the financial, environmental and social dimensions. Therefore, supply chain decision makers need to unequivocally assess the impact of their decisions on the financial, environmental and social performances of their supply chains. This paper also argues that risks and opportunities are the key drivers for supply chain decision makers to adopt sustainability within their operations, and that barriers to sustainability adoption exist. This research highlights that, depending on the focus adopted, supply chains can evolve and shift from more traditional to more sustainable approaches over time. The paper concludes with some promising avenues for future investigation.

  20. Current approaches and future directions in the treatment of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobec SM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sophie M WorobecDepartment of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: This review surveys current treatments and future treatment trends in leprosy from a clinical perspective. The World Health Organization provides a multidrug treatment regimen that targets the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus which causes leprosy. Several investigational drugs are available for the treatment of drug-resistant M. leprae. Future directions in leprosy treatment will focus on: the molecular signaling mechanism M. leprae uses to avoid triggering an immune response; prospective studies of the side effects experienced during multiple-drug therapy; recognition of relapse rates post-completion of designated treatments; combating multidrug resistance; vaccine development; development of new diagnostic tests; and the implications of the recent discovery of a genetically distinct leprosy-causing bacillus, Mycobacterium lepromatosis.Keywords: epidemiology, leprosy, Hansen’s disease, multidrug resistance, multidrug therapy

  1. Nanotoxicity prediction using computational modelling - review and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Bhavna; Srivastava, Sumit

    2018-04-01

    Nanomaterials has stimulated various outlooks for future in a number of industries and scientific ventures. A number of applications such as cosmetics, medicines, and electronics are employing nanomaterials due to their various compelling properties. The unending growth of nanomaterials usage in our daily life has escalated the health and environmental risks. Early nanotoxicity recognition is a big challenge. Various researches are going on in the field of nanotoxicity, which comprised of several problems such as inadequacy of proper datasets, lack of appropriate rules and characterization of nanomaterials. Computational modelling would be beneficial asset for nanomaterials researchers because it can foresee the toxicity, rest on previous experimental data. In this study, we have reviewed sufficient work demonstrating a proper pathway to proceed with QSAR analysis of Nanomaterials for toxicity modelling. The paper aims at providing comprehensive insight of Nano QSAR, various theories, tools and approaches used, along with an outline for future research directions to work on.

  2. AL Qaeda, Trends in Terrorism and Future Potentialities: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses current trends in terrorism and future potentialities. It examines first the presumed state of al Qaeda today with particular reference to its likely agenda in a post-Iraq war world...

  3. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  4. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  5. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  6. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-12-12

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  7. Chemical compound-based direct reprogramming for future clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yukimasa; Harada, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Dai, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that a combination of chemical compounds enables direct reprogramming from one somatic cell type into another without the use of transgenes by regulating cellular signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generally requires virus vector-mediated expression of multiple transcription factors, which might disrupt genomic integrity and proper cell functions. The direct reprogramming is a promising alternative to rapidly prepare different cell types by bypassing the pluripotent state. Because the strategy also depends on forced expression of exogenous lineage-specific transcription factors, the direct reprogramming in a chemical compound-based manner is an ideal approach to further reduce the risk for tumorigenesis. So far, a number of reported research efforts have revealed that combinations of chemical compounds and cell-type specific medium transdifferentiate somatic cells into desired cell types including neuronal cells, glial cells, neural stem cells, brown adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, somatic progenitor cells, and pluripotent stem cells. These desired cells rapidly converted from patient-derived autologous fibroblasts can be applied for their own transplantation therapy to avoid immune rejection. However, complete chemical compound-induced conversions remain challenging particularly in adult human-derived fibroblasts compared with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This review summarizes up-to-date progress in each specific cell type and discusses prospects for future clinical application toward cell transplantation therapy. PMID:29739872

  8. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  9. Culture, mind, and the brain: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Uskul, Ayse K

    2011-01-01

    Current research on culture focuses on independence and interdependence and documents numerous East-West psychological differences, with an increasing emphasis placed on cognitive mediating mechanisms. Lost in this literature is a time-honored idea of culture as a collective process composed of cross-generationally transmitted values and associated behavioral patterns (i.e., practices). A new model of neuro-culture interaction proposed here addresses this conceptual gap by hypothesizing that the brain serves as a crucial site that accumulates effects of cultural experience, insofar as neural connectivity is likely modified through sustained engagement in cultural practices. Thus, culture is "embrained," and moreover, this process requires no cognitive mediation. The model is supported in a review of empirical evidence regarding (a) collective-level factors involved in both production and adoption of cultural values and practices and (b) neural changes that result from engagement in cultural practices. Future directions of research on culture, mind, and the brain are discussed.

  10. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sciences of geodesy I advances and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2010-01-01

    This series of reference books describes sciences of different elds in and around geodesy with independent chapters. Each chapter covers an individual eld and describes the history, theory, objective, technology, development, highlights of research and applications. In addition, problems as well as future directions are discussed. The subjects of this reference book include Absolute and Relative Gravimetry, Adaptively Robust Kalman Filters with Applications in Navigation, Airborne Gravity Field Determination, Analytic Orbit Theory, Deformation and Tectonics, Earth Rotation, Equivalence of GPS Algorithms and its Inference, Marine Geodesy, Satellite Laser Ranging, Superconducting Gravimetry and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry. These are individual subjects in and around geodesy and are for the rst time combined in a unique book which may be used for teaching or for learning basic principles of many subjects related to geodesy. The material is suitable to provide a general overview of geodetic sciences f...

  12. Reducing hospital readmission rates: current strategies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Sunil; Theobald, Cecelia N; Anctil, Beth; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2014-01-01

    New financial penalties for institutions with high readmission rates have intensified efforts to reduce rehospitalization. Several interventions that involve multiple components (e.g., patient needs assessment, medication reconciliation, patient education, arranging timely outpatient appointments, and providing telephone follow-up) have successfully reduced readmission rates for patients discharged to home. The effect of interventions on readmission rates is related to the number of components implemented; single-component interventions are unlikely to reduce readmissions significantly. For patients discharged to postacute care facilities, multicomponent interventions have reduced readmissions through enhanced communication, medication safety, advanced care planning, and enhanced training to manage medical conditions that commonly precipitate readmission. To help hospitals direct resources and services to patients with greater likelihood of readmission, risk-stratification methods are available. Future work should better define the roles of home-based services, information technology, mental health care, caregiver support, community partnerships, and new transitional care personnel.

  13. Pediatric neurology training in Canada: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif

    2012-05-01

    Child neurology training in Canada has changed considerably over time, with increasing requirements for standardized teaching of the fundamentals of child neurology and the CanMEDS competencies. We sought to determine the current status of child neurology training in Canada as well future directions for training. A web-based survey was sent to program directors (PD's) of active pediatric neurology training programs. General questions about the programs were asked, as well as about success at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) exam, breakdown of rotations, views on CanMEDS roles and questions on the future of pediatric neurology. 9/9 PD's completed the survey. 96.5% of all trainees successfully passed their RCPSC exam from 2001-2006. Breakdowns of the number and type of rotations for each year of training were provided. All CanMEDS roles were deemed to be important by PD's and programs have developed unique strategies to teach and assess these roles.92.6% of trainees chose to go into academic practice, with the most popular subspecialty being epilepsy. All PD's favour joint training sessions particularly for neurogenetics and neuromuscular disease. Overall, PD's suggest recruitment for future child neurologists at the medical student level but are divided as to whether we are currently training too few or too many child neurologists. This survey provides a view of the current state of pediatric neurology training in Canada and suggestions for further development of post-graduate training. In particular, attention should be given to joint educational programs as well as urgently assessing the manpower needs of child neurologists.

  14. Future directions in geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Katherine H.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Humanity is confronted with an enormous challenge, as succinctly stated by the late Steven Schneider (2001; quoted by Jantzen 2004*): “Humans are forcing the Earth’s environmental systems to change at a rate that is more advanced than their knowledge of the consequences.” Geobiologists and low-temperature geochemists characterize material from the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere to understand processes operating within and between these components of the Earth system from the atomic to the planetary scale. For this reason, the interwoven disciplines of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry are central to understanding and ultimately predicting the behavior of these life-sustaining systems. We present here comments and recommendations from the participants of a workshop entitled “Future Directions in Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry,” hosted by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, DC, on 27–28 August 2010. The goal of the workshop was to suggest ways to leverage the vast intellectual and analytical capabilities of our diverse scientific community to characterize the Earth’s past, present, and future geochemical habitat as we enter the second decade of what E. O. Wilson dubbed “the century of the environment.”

  15. Future directions for radiological physics: An interface with molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experiments with low energy x-rays and fast molecular ions have shown that the products of the interaction of several ionizations within a few nanometers dominate radiation effects. However, the authors still can only make assumptions about the physical and chemical nature of this initial damage. Enzymatic repair of DNA damage is another key factor, but they have little idea of what governs the success or failure (misrepair) of these processes. Unresolved problems like these dictate the future direction of radiological physics. Molecular biology techniques are being applied to determine molecular alterations which result in observed damage. Interpretation of these experiments will require new data on the physics of energy transfer to macromolecules and the stochastics of energy deposition in time. Future studies will attempt to identify the initial damage, before biological processes have amplified it. This will require a detailed understanding of the role of chromatin structure in governing gene expression, the transport of energy within macromolecules, the transport of ions and radicals in the semiordered environment near DNA strands, and many other physical characteristics within the living cell

  16. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  17. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  18. Effect-directed analysis: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P.; Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-09-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has become useful for identification of toxicant(s) that occur in mixtures in the environment, especially those that are causative agents of specific adverse effects. Here, we summarize and review EDA methodology including preparation of samples, biological analyses, fractionations, and instrumental analyses, highlighting key scientific advancements. A total of 63 documents since 1999 (Scopus search) including 46 research articles, 13 review papers, and 4 project descriptions, have been collected and reviewed in this study. At the early stage (1999-2010), most studies that applied EDA focused on organic extracts of freshwater and coastal contaminated sediments and wastewater. Toxic effects were often measured using cell-based bioassays ( in vitro) and the causative chemicals were identified by use of low resolution gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GCMSD). More recently (2010-present), EDA has been extended to various matrices such as biota, soil, crude oil, and suspended solids and techniques have been improved to include determination of bioavailability in vivo. In particular, methods for non-target screenings of organic chemicals in environmental samples using cutting-edge instrumentation such as time of flight-mass spectrometry (ToF-MS), Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR), and Orbitrap mass spectrometer have been developed. This overview provides descriptions of recent improvements of EDA and suggests future research directions based on current understandings and limitations.

  19. CT of pulmonary emphysema - current status, challenges, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanovich, Diana; Boiselle, Phillip M.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by irreversible destruction of lung parenchyma. Emphysema is a major contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which by itself is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Computed tomography (CT) is an established method for the in-vivo analysis of emphysema. This review first details the pathological basis of emphysema and shows how the subtypes of emphysema can be characterized by CT. The review then shows how CT is used to quantify emphysema, and describes the requirements and foundations for quantification to be accurate. Finally, the review discusses new challenges and their potential solution, notably focused on multi-detector-row CT, and emphasizes the open questions that future research on CT of pulmonary emphysema will have to address. (orig.)

  20. Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turyshev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard theory of gravity, especially where the needs of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory is used for many practical purposes involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss recent progress in tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for the new generation of high-accuracy tests of new physics beyond general relativity. Space-based experiments in fundamental physics are presently capable of uniquely addressing important questions related to the fundamental laws of nature. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics that are anticipated in the near future and evaluate the discovery potential of a number of recently proposed space-based gravitational experiments. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Fontan Surgical Planning: Previous Accomplishments, Current Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusty, Phillip M; Slesnick, Timothy C; Wei, Zhenglun Alan; Rossignac, Jarek; Kanter, Kirk R; Fogel, Mark A; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2018-04-01

    The ultimate goal of Fontan surgical planning is to provide additional insights into the clinical decision-making process. In its current state, surgical planning offers an accurate hemodynamic assessment of the pre-operative condition, provides anatomical constraints for potential surgical options, and produces decent post-operative predictions if boundary conditions are similar enough between the pre-operative and post-operative states. Moving forward, validation with post-operative data is a necessary step in order to assess the accuracy of surgical planning and determine which methodological improvements are needed. Future efforts to automate the surgical planning process will reduce the individual expertise needed and encourage use in the clinic by clinicians. As post-operative physiologic predictions improve, Fontan surgical planning will become an more effective tool to accurately model patient-specific hemodynamics.

  2. Flow and Noise Control: Review and Assessment of Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    Technologies for developing radically new aerovehicles that would combine quantum leaps in cost, safety, and performance benefits with environmental friendliness have appeared on the horizon. This report provides both an assessment of the current state-of-the-art in flow and noise control and a vision for the potential gains to be made, in terms of performance benefit for civil and military aircraft and a unique potential for noise reduction, via future advances in flow and noise technologies. This report outlines specific areas of research that will enable the breakthroughs necessary to bring this vision to reality. Recent developments in many topics within flow and noise control are reviewed. The flow control overview provides succinct summaries of various approaches for drag reduction and improved maneuvering. Both exterior and interior noise problems are examined, including dominant noise sources, physics of noise generation and propagation, and both established and proposed concepts for noise reduction. Synergy between flow and noise control is a focus and, more broadly, the need to pursue research in a more concurrent approach involving multiple disciplines. Also discussed are emerging technologies such as nanotechnology that may have a significant impact on the progress of flow and noise control.

  3. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-11-15

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR technologies. Next, we describe CRISPR/Cas-derived technologies for bacterial strain development, including genome editing and gene expression regulation applications. Then, other CRISPR technologies possessing great potential for industrial applications are described, including typing and tracking of bacterial strains, virome identification, vaccination of bacteria, and advanced antimicrobial approaches. For each application, we note our suggestions for additional improvements as well. In the same context, replication of CRISPR/Cas-based chromosome imaging technologies developed originally in eukaryotic systems is introduced with its potential impact on studying bacterial chromosomal dynamics. Also, the current patent status of CRISPR technologies is reviewed. Finally, we provide some insights to the future of CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems by proposing complementary techniques to be developed for the use of CRISPR technologies in even wider range of applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Philippine historical earthquakecatalog: its development, current stateand future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bautista

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This report will trace the development of the historical earthquake catalog of the Philippines, assess its present state and recommend future research directions. The current Philippine historical earthquake catalog is culled from various catalogs, both global and local, that were developed since the first Philippine catalog by Perrey was published in 1860. While early global catalogs gave simple mention of earthquakes in the Philippines, more focused earthquake catalogs about the Philippines gave more explicit descriptions of earthquake accounts and adopted descriptions by local historians. Over the years, various historians and seismologists continued to compile their catalogs whose contents depended on the author?s perspectives and purposes. These works varied from simple listings to others including detailed descriptions. It was only recently that an attempt made to parameterize the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes using magnitude-felt area relations was done. A more detailed catalog, however, is now underway that will show details of intensity distribution for each significant historical earthquake. By comparing the historical catalog with the recent catalog and assuming that the recent catalog is complete, we find that there are still a substantial amount of historical earthquakes that needs to be reviewed and located. Possible sources of new information are local libraries, museums and archives in the Philippines, Spain and other Southeast Asian countries to which the country was in contact with during historical times.

  6. GaN-on-Silicon - Present capabilities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    Gallium Nitride, in the form of epitaxial HEMT transistors on various substrate materials, is the newest and most promising semiconductor technology for high performance devices in the RF, microwave, and mmW arenas. This is particularly true for GaN-on-Silicon based devices and MMIC's which enable both state-of-the-art high frequency functionality and the ability to scale production into large wafer diameter CMOS foundries. The design and development of GaN-on-Silicon structures and devices will be presented beginning with the basic material parameters, growth of the required epitaxial construction, and leading to the fundamental operational theory of high frequency, high power HEMTs. In this discussion comparisons will be made with alternative substrate materials with emphasis on contrasting the inherent advantages of a silicon based system. Theory of operation of microwave and mmW high power HEMT devices will be presented with special emphasis on fundamental limitations of device performance including inherent frequency limiting transit time analysis, required impedance transformations, internal and external parasitic reactance, thermal impedance optimization, and challenges improved by full integration into monolithic MMICs. Lastly, future directions for implementing GaN-on-Silicon into mainstream CMOS silicon semiconductor technologies will be discussed.

  7. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoliash, D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  8. Phytophthora database 2.0: update and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongsoo; Martin, Frank; Geiser, David M; Kim, Hye-Seon; Mansfield, Michele A; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Park, Sook-Young; Coffey, Michael D; Russo, Joseph; Kim, Seong H; Balci, Yilmaz; Abad, Gloria; Burgess, Treena; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Seogchan

    2013-12-01

    The online community resource Phytophthora database (PD) was developed to support accurate and rapid identification of Phytophthora and to help characterize and catalog the diversity and evolutionary relationships within the genus. Since its release in 2008, the sequence database has grown to cover 1 to 12 loci for ≈2,600 isolates (representing 138 described and provisional species). Sequences of multiple mitochondrial loci were added to complement nuclear loci-based phylogenetic analyses and diagnostic tool development. Key characteristics of most newly described and provisional species have been summarized. Other additions to improve the PD functionality include: (i) geographic information system tools that enable users to visualize the geographic origins of chosen isolates on a global-scale map, (ii) a tool for comparing genetic similarity between isolates via microsatellite markers to support population genetic studies, (iii) a comprehensive review of molecular diagnostics tools and relevant references, (iv) sequence alignments used to develop polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostics tools to support their utilization and new diagnostic tool development, and (v) an online community forum for sharing and preserving experience and knowledge accumulated in the global Phytophthora community. Here we present how these improvements can support users and discuss the PD's future direction.

  9. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  10. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  11. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Deborah D.; Sperduto, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  12. Acute Kidney Injury: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Briosa Neves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common problem highly associated with hospitalisation. AKI is the cause of harmful short-term consequences: longer hospital stays, greater disability after discharge, and greater risk of in-hospital mortality, as well as adverse long-term outcomes, such as progression to chronic kidney disease, development of cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of long-term mortality. The concept of AKI has changed since the introduction of the ‘Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease’ (RIFLE classification. More recently, the ‘Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes’ (KDIGO classification appears to have provided increased diagnostic sensitivity and outcome-prediction capability. Novel biomarkers and further research on the role of the immune system in AKI may help improve the diagnosis, severity, outcome evaluation, and treatment of the condition. In this review we describe the epidemiology, diagnosis, and prognosis of AKI, as well as possible future directions for its clinical management.

  13. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Kooyk, Yvette van, E-mail: y.vankooyk@vumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-08

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future.

  14. The Midwifery Legacies Project: history, progress, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Davis, Tonia L; McGee, Karen B; Moore, Elaine M; Paine, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    The Midwifery Legacies Project, formerly known as the OnGoing Group, was founded as an annual greeting card outreach aimed at maintaining contact with midwives as they approached retirement and beyond. In 2009, the importance of documenting personal and professional stories of midwives arose out of a bequest by a midwife who was relatively unknown outside of the community she served. The result has been the evolution of a robust collection of stories, which are known as the 20th Century Midwife Story Collection. Between 2009 and 2014, more than 120 US midwives aged 65 years or older were interviewed by a midwife, a student midwife, or a professional filmmaker. Collectively, these midwives' stories offer an intimate snapshot of the social, political, and cultural influences that have shaped US midwifery during the past half century. Individually, the stories honor and recognize midwives' contributions to the profession and the women they have served. This article details the development, progress, and future directions of the Midwifery Legacies Project. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Caroline E.; May, Melanie; Preston, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  16. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  17. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  18. High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Benjamin S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represents the cornerstone of cardiac arrest resuscitation care. Prompt delivery of high-quality CPR can dramatically improve survival outcomes; however, the definitions of optimal CPR have evolved over several decades. The present review will discuss the metrics of CPR delivery, and the evidence supporting the importance of CPR quality to improve clinical outcomes. The introduction of new technologies to quantify metrics of CPR delivery has yielded important insights into CPR quality. Investigations using CPR recording devices have allowed the assessment of specific CPR performance parameters and their relative importance regarding return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge. Additional work has suggested new opportunities to measure physiologic markers during CPR and potentially tailor CPR delivery to patient requirements. Through recent laboratory and clinical investigations, a more evidence-based definition of high-quality CPR continues to emerge. Exciting opportunities now exist to study quantitative metrics of CPR and potentially guide resuscitation care in a goal-directed fashion. Concepts of high-quality CPR have also informed new approaches to training and quality improvement efforts for cardiac arrest care.

  19. Solar energy systems: assessment of present and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, H.-M.; Aulich, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the present state and the future potential of solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) technologies, and examines both the environmental implications of these technologies and the economics which determine their viability in the energy market. Although some significant cost reductions have been achieved, particularly in PV technology, solar conversion technologies are still not generally competitive against conventional fuels, and future cost reductions may be limited. It is argued that fiscal measures will be necessary if solar conversion technologies are to make a significant global impact. (Author)

  20. Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Several research areas of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) system have reached a state, where the coupling mechanisms can no longer be treated as boundary conditions or ad-hoc assumptions in our physical models. It is nothing new that our community has become increasingly aware of the necessity to use global measurements from multiple observation platforms and missions, in order to understand both the system as a whole as well as its individual subsystems. In this presentation we briefly review the current status and outstanding issues of inner MI research. We attempt to establish a working definition of the term "Systems Approach", then present observational tools and techniques that enable such an approach. Physical modeling plays a central role not only in understanding the mechanisms at work, but also in determining the key quantities to be measured. We conclude by discussing questions relevant to future directions. Are there new techniques that need more attention? Should multi-platform observations be included as a default component already at the mission-level in the future? Is solar minimum uninteresting from an MI perspective? Should we actively compare to magnetospheres of other planets? Examples of outstanding issues in inner MI research include the circulation of ionospheric plasma from low to high latitudes and its escape to the magnetosphere, where it is energized by magnetospheric processes and becomes a part of the plasma pressure that in turn affects the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric field. The electric field, in turn, plays a controlling role in the transport of both magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma, which is intimately linked with ionospheric conductance. The conductance, in turn, is controlled by thermospheric chemistry coupled with plasma flow and heating and magnetospheric precipitation and Joule heating. Several techniques have emerged as important tools: auroral imaging, inversions of ENA images to retrieve the

  1. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  2. Multifunctional nanodiamonds in regenerative medicine: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan; Pacelli, Settimio; Paul, Arghya

    2017-09-10

    With recent advances in the field of nanomedicine, many new strategies have emerged for diagnosing and treating diseases. At the forefront of this multidisciplinary research, carbon nanomaterials have demonstrated unprecedented potential for a variety of regenerative medicine applications including novel drug delivery platforms that facilitate the localized and sustained release of therapeutics. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are a unique class of carbon nanoparticles that are gaining increasing attention for their biocompatibility, highly functional surfaces, optical properties, and robust physical properties. Their remarkable features have established NDs as an invaluable regenerative medicine platform, with a broad range of clinically relevant applications ranging from targeted delivery systems for insoluble drugs, bioactive substrates for stem cells, and fluorescent probes for long-term tracking of cells and biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. This review introduces the synthesis techniques and the various routes of surface functionalization that allow for precise control over the properties of NDs. It also provides an in-depth overview of the current progress made toward the use of NDs in the fields of drug delivery, tissue engineering, and bioimaging. Their future outlook in regenerative medicine including the current clinical significance of NDs, as well as the challenges that must be overcome to successfully translate the reviewed technologies from research platforms to clinical therapies will also be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ian F; Jakacki, Regina I

    2011-07-26

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. With the increasingly widespread availability of MRI, the incidence of childhood brain tumors seemed to rise in the 1980s, but has subsequently remained relatively stable. However, management of brain tumors in children has evolved substantially during this time, reflecting refinements in classification of tumors, delineation of risk groups within histological subsets of tumors, and incorporation of molecular techniques to further define tumor subgroups. Although considerable progress has been made in the outcomes of certain tumors, prognosis in other childhood brain tumor types is poor. Among the tumor groups with more-favorable outcomes, attention has been focused on reducing long-term morbidity without sacrificing survival rates. Studies for high-risk groups have examined the use of intensive therapy or novel, molecularly targeted approaches to improve disease control rates. In addition to reviewing the literature and providing an overview of the complexities in diagnosing childhood brain tumors, we will discuss advances in the treatment and categorization of several tumor types in which progress has been most apparent, as well as those in which improvements have been lacking. The latest insights from molecular correlative studies that hold potential for future refinements in therapy will also be discussed.

  4. Radiation protection in dental radiology - Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapaki, V

    2017-12-01

    Dental radiology uses X-ray technology to diagnose and design treatment of various clinical problems related to the oral cavity and surrounding tissues. As technology quickly evolves, there are numerous X-ray modalities using different tools in the attempt to best image and treat efficiently these diseases, disorders or other related clinical conditions. The reported numbers of dental X-rays, the fact that these may be under-reported in many countries and because dental X-rays are performed more on younger individuals, whose teeth and dentition are still developing, calls for increased need on radiation protection. The objectives of this paper are to report on the latest technology updates and related radiation protection issues, to present future directions and define gaps. Most of existing radiation protection national and international guidelines are more than a decade old. Update is needed to account for newer technologies such as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital imaging. Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), a well established method for dose optimization, are not yet defined for CBCT and have to be set for various clinical indications. As far as shielding is concerned, recent data confirm that use of lead apron, even in pregnant patients, or gonadal shielding are not recommended, due to negligible radiation dose reduction. Thyroid lead shielding should be used in case the organ is in or close to the primary beam. Specifically for CBCT, leaded glasses, thyroid collars and collimation (smaller field of view (FOV) especially for paediatric patients) minimize the dose to organs outside the FOV. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  6. Estimates of future discharges of the river Rhine using two scenario methodologies: direct versus delta approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with a hydrological model for the river Rhine for the present (1960–1989 and a projected future (2070–2099 climate are discussed. The hydrological model (RhineFlow is driven by meteorological data from a 90-years (ensemble of three 30-years simulation with the HadRM3H regional climate model for both present-day and future climate (A2 emission scenario. Simulation of present-day discharges is realistic provided that (1 the HadRM3H temperature and precipitation are corrected for biases, and (2 the potential evapotranspiration is derived from temperature only. Different methods are used to simulate discharges for the future climate: one is based on the direct model output of the future climate run (direct approach, while the other is based on perturbation of the present-day HadRM3H time series (delta approach. Both methods predict a similar response in the mean annual discharge, an increase of 30% in winter and a decrease of 40% in summer. However, predictions of extreme flows differ significantly, with increases of 10% in flows with a return period of 100 years in the direct approach and approximately 30% in the delta approach. A bootstrap method is used to estimate the uncertainties related to the sample size (number of years simulated in predicting changes in extreme flows.

  7. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, but macrovascular outcomes and cardiovascular safety remain controversial with several glucose-lowering agents. Future directions in diabetes care include strategies such as the 'bionic pancreas', stem cell therapy and targeting the intestinal microbiome. All of these treatments are still being refined, and it may be several decades before they are clinically useful. Prevention and cure of diabetes is the Holy Grail but remain elusive due to lack of detailed understanding of the metabolic, genetic and immunological causes that underpin diabetes. Much progress has been made since the time of Prof MacLean 90 years ago, but there are still great strides to be taken before the life of the patient with diabetes improves even more significantly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos N

    2015-04-01

    of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. Keywords: magnetic particle imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, magnetic particle spectrometer, peripheral nerve stimulation, cardiovascular interventions

  9. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  10. Discussion and Future Directions for Eye Tracker Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Mulvey, Fiona; Mardanbegi, Diako

    2011-01-01

    Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking.......Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking....

  11. Future directions in radiation protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.

    1987-01-01

    Our visions of the future are often very optimistic and hopeful, representing the best imaginings of the human mind. The authors are inclined to think of the future as filled with new and better things. Some people even visualize the future as a science fiction perfection, but, in reality, it will also contain elements of the past and the present, both good and bad. With respect to radiation protection, a guess would tell us that the future holds the implementation of some version of ICRP-26 in one revision or another of the NRC 10 CFR20 regulations. But many of the technical problems of today may likely be ''solved'' by the public, the politicians, the sociologists and the bureaucrats of the future. For example, two such ''solutions'' may possibly appear in such grotesque forms as drastically lowered allowable annual doses or as engineered facilities for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste above ground on seismic stilts. All of these aspects - the good, the bad, the new, the old, and the indifferent - are all touched upon in this vision of the future

  12. Filmless radiography - present possibilities and direction of future developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wocial, A.; Wojciechowski, Z.A.; Rozenblicki, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents introduction for new filmless radiography like CR Computed Radiography and DR Digital Radiography direct and non direct. The main factors are considered, which determine classification to different type of radiography. For each technique authors describe advantages and disadvantages supporting by practice examples. Paper contains a lot of practical information about a most of existing radiographic equipment at the NDT market. (author)

  13. Managing employer brand attributes to attract potential future leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; De Dominicis, Stefano; Illia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    for attracting talented people. Using three empirical studies, we identify brand attributes that have not been very widely diffused among real companies (versus ideal) but are relevant for attracting young professionals with the potential to become leaders. We also identify which brand attributes already present...... among real employees allow for attracting talented individuals versus the non-talented ones. The three studies are conducted with a sample of 493, 729 and 1605 recent graduates from Italian universities, respectively. The results indicate that the most idealized brand attributes are related...... are discussed with reference to how they contribute to our understanding of EB, brand management and the attraction of future leaders....

  14. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...

  15. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidskog, R.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of

  16. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    2011-07-24

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  17. Childhood obesity: State of art and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Cortés

    2016-04-01

    It is expected to clarify agreements and dissonances in the proposals to combat and prevent childhood obesity. Furthermore, this study aims to project recommendations for future studies involving childhood obesity throw the causes that have been associated disease in the reviewed literature.

  18. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  19. Gender and Diversity in Organizations: Past, Present, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Audrey J.; James, Erika Hayes

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on how the nature of organizations has changed in recent years and implications of these changes for the future. Discusses key issues that have been studied on gender and diversity in organizations (discrimination, affirmative action, barriers to career advancement, and sexual harassment). Notes strategies for enhancing…

  20. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health

  1. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  2. Vocational Psychology: An Analysis and Directions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Key areas of future research in vocational psychology include changing organizational structures, changing career attitudes, diversity of career development opportunities, international focus, increasing diversity, changing nature of technology, evolving educational systems, increased entrepreneurship, work and family issues, and career-leisure…

  3. Planning for the Future of Geo-Cybereducation: Outcomes of the Workshop, Challenges, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Inspired by the recommendations of the NSF report “Fostering Learning in the Networked World: The Cyberlearning Opportunity and Challenge” (NSF08204), the NSF National STEM Digital Learning program funded “Planning for the Future of Geocybereducation” Workshop sought to bring together leaders from the geoscience education community, from major geoscience research initiatives, and from the growing public- and private-sector geoscience information community. The objectives of the workshop were to begin conversations aimed at identifying best practices and tools for geoscience cyber-education, in the context of both the changing nature of learners and of rapidly evolving geo-information platforms, and to provide guidance to the NSF as to necessary future directions and needs for funding. 65 participants met and interacted live for the two-day workshop, with ongoing post-meeting virtual interactions via a collaborative workspace (www.geocybered.ning.com). Topics addressed included the rapidly changing character of learners, the growing capabilities of geoscience information systems and their affiliated tools, and effective models for collaboration among educators, researchers and geoinformation specialists. Discussions at the meeting focused on the implications of changing learners on the educational process, the challenges for teachers and administrators in keeping pace, and on the challenges of communication among these divergent professional communities. Ongoing virtual discussions and collaborations have produced a draft workshop document, and the workshop conveners are maintaining the workshop site as a venue for ongoing discussion and interaction. Several key challenges were evident from the workshop discussions and subsequent interactions: a) the development of most of the large geoinformatics and geoscience research efforts were not pursued with education as a significant objective, resulting in limited financial support for such activities after the

  4. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  5. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Impact of Future Climate on Sub-Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Projected future climate will have a significant impact on the hydrology of interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds, directly though the changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, and indirectly through the cryospheric and ecological impacts. Although the latter is the dominant factor controlling the hydrological processes in the interior Alaska sub-arctic, it is often overlooked in many climate change impact studies. In this study, we aim to quantify and compare the direct and indirect impact of the projected future climate on the hydrology of the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) meso-scale hydrological model will be implemented to simulate the hydrological processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics in the Chena River Basin (area = 5400km2), located in the interior Alaska sub-arctic region. Permafrost and vegetation distribution will be derived from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Model (LPJ) model, respectively. All models will be calibrated and validated using historical data. The Scenario Network for Alaskan and Arctic Planning (SNAP) 5-model average projected climate data products will be used as forcing data for each of these models. The direct impact of climate change on hydrology is estimated using surface parameterization derived from the present day permafrost and vegetation distribution, and future climate forcing from SNAP projected climate data products. Along with the projected future climate, outputs of GIPL and LPJ will be incorporated into the VIC model to estimate the indirect and overall impact of future climate on the hydrology processes in the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. Finally, we will present the potential hydrological and ecological changes by the end of the 21st century.

  6. Advanced ceramic materials and their potential impact on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laren, M.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the types of advanced ceramic materials that are being used today and their potential for even greater utilization in the future. Market analysis and projections have been developed from a number of sources both foreign and domestic are referenced and given in the text. Projection on the future use of advanced ceramics to the year 2000 indicate a potential growth of the total world market approaching 187 billion dollars. This paper describes advanced ceramic materials by their functionality, i.e. structural, electronic, chemical, thermal, biological, nuclear, etc. It also refers to specific engineering uses of advanced ceramics and include automotive ceramic materials with physical data for the most likely ceramic materials to be used for engine parts. This family of materials includes silicon carbides, silicon nitride, partially stabilized zirconia and alumina. Fiber reinforced ceramic composites are discussed with recognition of the research on fiber coating chemistry and the compatibility of the coating with the fiber and the matrix. Another class of advanced ceramics is toughened ceramics. The transformation toughened alumina is recognized as an example of this technology. The data indicate that electronic ceramic materials will always have the largest portion of the advanced ceramic market and the critical concepts of a wide range of uses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  7. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  8. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.

    2009-01-01

    yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above mentioned risk factors may be prone to renal toxicity with PRRT. Bone marrow toxicity can be direct toxicity (grade 3-4 HGB, WBC, PLT, mostly reversible) or late stochastic effects (development of myelodysplasia and/or leukemia). Risk factors are previous chemotherapy, impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min) and possibly age. With the current schedule of 4 cycles of 7.4 GBq Lu-DOTATATE each at 8-week intervals, and careful monitoring of relevant parameters, severe side effects occur only in about 1% of patients. For Y-DOTATOC and possibly Y-DOTATATE (NB: no dosimetry studies known) a cumulative activity of 13.3 GBq (360 mCi) fractionated in at least 3 to 4 cycles at 8-week intervals seems a safe schedule. Future developments: an FDA and EMEA approval of Y-DOTATOC and Lu-DOTATATE for PRRT is highly needed to establish this therapy modality. To achieve approval controlled clinical studies are required. The therapeutic window for sst-targeted PRRT can be widened to improve efficacy and/or decrease toxicity. Currently the addition of capacetabine as radiosensitizer to Lu- DOTATATE is investigated in a controlled trial. Patients who relapse after previous response to PRRT receive 2 additional cycles of Lu-DOTATATE. In patients with a single inoperable tumor, PRRT can be applied to shrink the tumor and to offer the patient surgery with curative intent afterwards. Animal experiments have shown that Lu-DOTATATE may prevent that liver tumors will develop after infusion of tumor cells in the portal vein; thus, Lu-DOTATATE may have a role in neo-adjuvant therapy

  9. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  10. Artificial intelligence in nuclear engineering: developments, lesson learned and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Da [The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: druan@sckcen.be

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this lecture, an overview on artificial intelligence (AI) from control to decision making in nuclear engineering will be given mainly based on the 10 years progress of the FLINS forum (Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technology in Nuclear Science). Some FLINS concrete examples on nuclear reactor operation, nuclear safeguards information management, and cost estimation under uncertainty for a large nuclear project will be illustrated for the potential use of AI in nuclear engineering. Recommendations and future research directions on AI in nuclear engineering will be suggested from a practical point of view. (author)

  11. Artificial intelligence in nuclear engineering: developments, lesson learned and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Da

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this lecture, an overview on artificial intelligence (AI) from control to decision making in nuclear engineering will be given mainly based on the 10 years progress of the FLINS forum (Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technology in Nuclear Science). Some FLINS concrete examples on nuclear reactor operation, nuclear safeguards information management, and cost estimation under uncertainty for a large nuclear project will be illustrated for the potential use of AI in nuclear engineering. Recommendations and future research directions on AI in nuclear engineering will be suggested from a practical point of view. (author)

  12. Computers in nuclear medicine - current trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, a decision to purchase computing equipment for nuclear medicine usually required evaluation of the 'local' needs. With the advent of Pacs and state of the art computer techniques for image acquisition and manipulation, purchase and subsequent application is to become much more complex. Some of the current trends and future possibilities which may influence the choice and operation of computers within and outside the nuclear medicine environment is discussed. (author)

  13. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  14. Money laundering in Dubai: strategies and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Belaisha, Belaisha; Brooks, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – This paper aims to highlight present strategies to prevent money laundering in Dubai.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with Anti Money Laundering Suspicion Cases Unit (AMLSCU), Anti Organized Crime Department (AOCD) and Central Bank employees.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud – This paper shows that AMLSCU, AOCD and Central Bank employees are aware that future strategies to prevent money laundering are needed.\\ud \\ud Research limitations/...

  15. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  16. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F.; Valentine, G.; Smistad, E.

    2005-01-01

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10 -8 per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10 -8 be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the contents of

  17. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  18. Future Directions: Social Development in the Context of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies and cultures have become increasingly diverse and heterogeneous over the past decade. This diversity has a direct bearing on social justice in children's and adolescents' social development. Increased diversity can have positive consequences, such as the possibility for increased empathy, tolerance, perspective taking, and the…

  19. Watershed management and sustainable development: Lessons learned and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlyn Eckman; Hans M. Gregerson; Allen L. Lundgren

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental belief underlying the direction and content of this paper is that the paradigms of land and water management evolving into the 21st century increasingly favor a watershed focused approach. Underlying that approach is an appreciation of the processes of sustainable development and resource use. The increasing recognition that sustainable development and...

  20. Potential for GPC-based laser direct writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    lasers for such applications by using phase modulation as opposed to amplitude truncating masks. Here, we explore GPC’s potential for increasing the yield of micropscopic 3D printing also known as direct laser writing. Many light based additive manufacturing techniques, adopt a point scanning approach...

  1. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  2. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  3. Archiving strategy for USGS EROS center and our future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation and Science Center has the responsibility to acquire, manage, and preserve our Nation's land observations. These records are obtained primarily from airplanes and satellites dating back to the 1930s. The ability to compare landscapes from the past with current information enables change analysis at local and global scales. With new observations added daily, the records management challenges are daunting, involving petabytes of electronic data and tens of thousands of rolls of analog film. This paper focuses upon the appraisal and preservation functions employed to ensure that these records are available for current and future generations.

  4. Future Directions for Building Services Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    strategies for the effective integration of building services, and by developing new industrialised solutions for building services. The paper is based on the current Danish situation, and is based on linking research on building services, user needs, building design and new industrial processes.  ......  The hypothesis of this paper is that industrial transformation in the Danish construction sector needs in the future to focus on integrating building services technologies into the buildings. This can be illustrated by analysing historical developments in building services usage, exploring design...

  5. Recruitment of oncology nurses for Internet research: issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Lim, Hyun Ju; Bender, Melinda; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Yang, Soon-Ok; Lee, Hungsa

    2006-11-03

    To provide future directions for Internet research based on issues raised during the recruitment process of an Internet survey of oncology nurses. Throughout the research process, the research staff recorded issues as they arose and wrote memos regarding recruitment issues and possible reasons for the issues. Weekly group discussions were conducted, and written records of the discussions were kept. The written memos and records were reviewed, and the content was analyzed. The recruitment issues included flexibility required, mutual trust, changing Internet dynamics, and potential selection bias. As the issues indicated, recruiting nurses for the study only through the Internet did not work well. For future Internet research, the authors suggest using multiple Internet and real settings for recruitment, a variety of strategies, the quota sampling method, and creative motivation strategies.

  6. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  7. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Breivik, Knut; Dachs, Jordi; Muir, Derek

    2007-01-01

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks

  8. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States)], E-mail: lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, PO Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R4A6 (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks.

  9. Prevention of Rheumatic Diseases: Strategies, Caveats and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect a significant portion of the population and lead to increased health care costs, disability and even premature mortality; as such, effective preventive measures for these diseases could lead to substantial improvements in public health. Importantly, established and emerging data from natural history studies show that for most rheumatic diseases there is a period of ‘preclinical’ disease development during which abnormal biomarkers or other processes can be detected. These changes are useful to understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis; in addition, they may be applied to estimate a personal risk of future disease, while individuals are still relatively asymptomatic. Based on this, a hope is to implement effective screening and preventive approaches for some rheumatic diseases, perhaps in the near future. However, a key part of such approaches is a deep understanding of the mechanisms of disease development as well as evidence-based and effective screening and preventive interventions that incorporate disease biology as well as ethical and public health concerns. PMID:25437291

  10. Osteoporosis in older persons: current pharmacotherapy and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    Osteopororic fractures are highly prevalent in older persons having catastrophic consequences in their quality of life and increasing disability and mortality in this population. The mechanisms of osteoporosis in older persons are unique in terms of cellular changes and response to osteoporosis treatment. Therefore, specifically targeted treatments are required in this particular population. This paper provides an overview on the particular mechanisms of osteoporosis in older persons and the current and future therapeutic strategies to improve bone mass and prevent fractures in this population. Osteoporosis in older persons (especially in the old-old) has a unique pathophysiology that predisposes them to fractures thus having catastrophic consequences. Identification of patients at risk followed by therapies targeted to their cellular changes is pivotal to close the care gap observed in osteoporosis, predominantly in the older population. The treatment of osteoporosis has evolved from daily to yearly dosing thus facilitating compliance and effectiveness. It is expected that future biologically targeted treatments will have a similar separate dosing regime with better anti-fracture efficacy and lower incidence of side effects.

  11. The MCMI-III: present and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, T; Davis, R D

    1997-02-01

    Both the original Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I; Millon, 1977) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) were refined and strengthened on a regular basis by both theoretic logic and research data. This aspiration has continued. The new Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) has been further coordinated with the most recent official diagnostic schema, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) in an even more explicit way than before. Although the publication of the first version of the MCMI preceded the publication of the DSM-IV, its author played a major role in formulating the official manual's personality disorders, contributing thereby to their conceptual correspondence. The DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) was subsequently published in the same year as the MCMI-II; the inventory was modified in its final stages to make it as consonant as possible with the conceptual changes introduced in the then forthcoming official classification. The present version of the MCMI, the MCMI-III, strengthens these correspondences further by drawing on many of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV to serve as the basis for drafting the inventory's items. This article reports on a select set of theoretical and empirical developments that are being carefully weighed for possible inclusion in future MCMIs, or as a guide in the refinement process of future MCMIs.

  12. Cascading Events, Technology and the Floods Directive: future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescaroli Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascading events can be referred to multidimensional disasters, where a primary trigger generates a nonlinear series of secondary emergencies that escalate in time, becoming eventually the priority to tackle. In this process, critical infrastructure can be handled as roots of vulnerabilities, because they accumulate both physical attributes and functional nodes. When compromised, they produce widespread breakdowns of society, but also orient emergency responses and long-term recovery. Although floods have been widely associated to the failure of vulnerable equipments or to the disruption of strategic sectors such as energy, communication and transportation, their integration with the emerging concept of cascading has been limited. This open topic presents many challenges for scholars, researchers and practitioners, in particular when the implementation of the EU Floods Directive is considered. The paper presents an overview of the Floods Directive and its relation with the cascading events, using case studies and examples from the existing literature to point out missing links and gaps in the legislation. Conclusions argue that the Directive considers only local geographical scales and limited temporal horizons, which can be result inadequate to limit the escalation of events.

  13. Are all pharmacy staff interested in potential future roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Rhiannon; Chesney, Kate Marie; Keast, Emilia Paulina; Ng, Lye Jinn; Qi, Sarah; Samaranayaka, Sashika; Wang, Eddie

    2012-12-01

    To determine the current perceived roles and responsibilities of pharmacy staff in community pharmacies in New Zealand, and attitudes to proposed new advanced roles for pharmacy staff. Structured interviews were conducted within five community pharmacies, including at least two pharmacists, two dispensary staff and two pharmacy assistants. The interviews were structured to determine previous experience, current roles and responsibilities and the perceived future roles of pharmacy staff within a community pharmacy setting. Thematic analysis from 27 interviews identified key findings. Current roles appeared to be fairly well defined. Pharmacy assistants listed key roles as customer interactions and sales focus, noting that the dispensary was outside their area of responsibility. Technicians identified their role as being dispensary focused while pharmacists saw their role as the 'final check' to ensure accuracy as well as providing dispensing, counselling and managerial roles. With potential future roles, the assistants were less interested than the other groups, citing contentment with current situation and training as a barrier. Some technicians indicated an interest in furthering their roles, but many were reluctant and saw that additional training was too time consuming. Whilst pharmacists appeared to be interested in further scopes of practice, they appeared more reluctant to do this at the expense of handing dispensing responsibility to a non-pharmacist. Whilst there is a push for pharmacists to provide advanced clinical services, it is important to acknowledge that many staff working within community pharmacies are satisfied with their current role. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Fuel performance-experience to date and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proebstle, R.A.; Klepfer, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The experience in the USA to date, as reported in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission data, conforms a very favorable cost trend for nuclear fuel costs relative to fossil fuel costs. The nuclear fuel cost promose relative to other fuels looks even better in future. Uranium supply surplus and advances in enrichment technology suggest that this trend should continue. Threats to the economic potential for nuclear fuel costs include unexpected problems in actural versus projected core and fuel technical performance. The New designs for BWR's nuclear fuel are extended to 38,000 MWd/MTU and the fuel rod reliabilities of 0.999994 are achievable. This reliability is equivalent to less than 3 fuel rod failures over the 40 year life of a reactor. (Liu)

  15. Future Directions for Vocational Education in Australian Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Critics of vocational education do not recognize its potential to develop outcomes similar to general education. Vocational curriculum should be based on a holistic integrated model of competence, stressing problem solving and workplace learning, that might serve as the model for general curriculum. (SK)

  16. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, Andy [New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, PO Box 10002, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Meinshausen, Malte [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Manning, Martin, E-mail: andy.reisinger@nzagrc.org.nz [Climate Change Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO{sub 2} is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2}, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2} decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH{sub 4} would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N{sub 2}O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  17. Discovery potential for directional dark matter detection with nuclear emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, A. M.; NEWSdm Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several Experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this field a new frontier can be opened by directional detectors able to reconstruct the direction of the WIMP-recoiled nucleus thus allowing to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The angular distribution of WIPM-scattered nuclei is indeed expected to be peaked in the direction of the motion of the Solar System in the Galaxy, i.e. toward the Cygnus constellation, while the background distribution is expected to be isotropic. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is limited by the small achievable detector mass. In this paper we show the potentiality in terms of exclusion limit of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching sub-micrometric resolution.

  18. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  19. Low Anterior Resection Syndrome: Current Management and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Berger, Nicholas; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes for rectal cancer surgery have improved significantly over the past 20 years with increasing rates of survival and recurrence, specifically local recurrence. These gains have been realized during a period of time in which there has been an increasing emphasis on sphincter preservation. As we have become increasingly aggressive in avoiding resection of the anus, we have begun accepting bowel dysfunction as a normal outcome. Low anterior resection syndrome, defined as a constellation of symptoms including incontinence, frequency, urgency, or feelings of incomplete emptying, has a significant impact on quality of life and results in many patients opting for a permanent colostomy to avoid these symptoms. In this article, we will highlight the most recent clinical and basic science research on this topic and discuss areas of future investigation.

  20. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Healthcare Scheduling by Data Mining: Literature Review and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic literature review of the application of industrial engineering methods in healthcare scheduling, with a focus on the role of patient behavior in scheduling. Nine articles that used mathematical programming, data mining, genetic algorithms, and local searches for optimum schedules were obtained from an extensive search of literature. These methods are new approaches to solve the problems in healthcare scheduling. Some are adapted from areas such as manufacturing and transportation. Key findings from these studies include reduced time for scheduling, capability of solving more complex problems, and incorporation of more variables and constraints simultaneously than traditional scheduling methods. However, none of these methods modeled no-show and walk-ins patient behavior. Future research should include more variables related to patient and/or environment.

  2. Biomechanics in dermatology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Haber, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Biomechanics is increasingly being recognized as an important research area in dermatology. To highlight only a few examples, biomechanics has contributed to the development of novel topical therapies for aesthetic and medical purposes, enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of plantar melanoma, and provided insight into the epidemiology of psoriatic disease. This article summarizes the findings from recent studies to demonstrate the important role that biomechanics may have in dermatologic disease and therapy and places these biomechanical findings in a clinical context for the practicing physician. In addition, areas for future biomechanics research and development in dermatology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Current status and future direction of radiology in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    The author reported that there is a favourable increase of X-ray machine and radiologists proportionate to the increase of population in the Philippines but these are concentrated in Metro Manila. There is a proliferation of ultrasound units because of the cheaper cost of machines and lower overhead of the non-invasive and radiation-free procedure. It is noted that only four radiologists are actively involved in nuclear medicine. Facilities of radiotherapy and the number of radiation oncologists have remained stagnant for the past eight years; many of the equipment are poorly maintained and cobalt-60 sources unreplenished. Another drawback is the public fear of radiation from ionizing radiation emitting modalities such as diagnostic X-ray, nuclear medicine and computed tomography. Likewise, the future of radiology in the Philippines lies in the state of the art radiological facilities not yet available in the country. (ELC). 8 refs.; 9 tabs

  5. Psychosocial therapies for children and adolescents: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D J

    1995-02-01

    The assessment and psychosocial treatment of children must consider developmental phase and stage, developmental tasks, the nature of the disorder (does it affect a narrow sector or one developmental line or is there a broad disruption of development?) and biological contributions (including constitution, maturational rate, and factors such as the onset of puberty). Treatments can be distinguished along dimensions, including theoretical emphases, degrees of definition of the treatment, scope, the "patient" (child, family), duration, frequency of contacts, combination with other modalities, etc. Similarly, choice of treatment is based on many factors, including the clinician's expertise, availability of resources, wishes of parents, cost, etc. Future research should be grounded in a theory of child development as well as a theory of therapeutic action. Treatments should be well defined and currently practiced, provided by experts, and arise from realistic situations. The study of therapies bridges basic and applied research and provides data of profound relevance for theories of child development.

  6. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  7. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Pragmatics and adult language disorders: past achievements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Louise

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the current state of our knowledge of pragmatic disorders in adults with language impairment is assessed. A brief historical background of clinical pragmatics is presented, and the place of adult language pathology within the development of this field is discussed. A comprehensive review is undertaken of pragmatic deficits in adults with language impairments of diverse etiologies. Specifically, pragmatic deficits are examined in adults with left-hemisphere damage, often resulting in aphasia, and in adults with right-hemisphere damage, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders (principally, Alzheimer's disease). Although many pragmatic phenomena have been examined in these clinical populations, studies have also tended to neglect important areas of pragmatic functioning in adults with these disorders. Several such areas are identified within a wider discussion of how researchers and clinicians can best pursue future investigations of pragmatics in adults with language impairment.

  9. Supply chain risk management: review, classification and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to be more efficient, firms have adopted strategies such as outsourcing, global partnerships and lean practices. Although such strategies have tremendous abilities to improve the efficiencies but simultaneously they make the firms vulnerable to market uncertainties, dependencies and disruptions. Moreover, natural calamities and manmade crises have also put negative impact on strategic, operational and tactical performance of supply chains. These factors have triggered the interest of academia and industry to consider the risk issues as prime concerns. To capture the more fine-grained elements of diversified risk issues related to the supply chain we employ a multi-layered top town taxonomy to classify and codify the literature and put forward the probable dimensions for future research. We further study the pool of SCRM literature focusing on coordination, decision making and sector-wise SCRM implementation issues and derive relevant propositions.

  10. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to

  11. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to efficiently

  12. Psychiatric Advance Directives in India: What will the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Ashutosh; Rudra, Abhijit; Chatterjee, K; Das, R C

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) have been incorporated into India's Mental Health Care Bill, 2013. This is the first time any form of Advance Directive stands to receive legal sanction in India. PADs have numerous theoretical and empirically tenable therapeutic and financial advantages. Western experiences have shown high acceptance for the concept among psychiatric patients, and illustrated that most stable patients with severe mental illness retain the capacity to frame PADs consistent with community practice standards. However active psychopathology does impair this capacity, and therein, current subjective assessments of competence performed by Physicians without objective instruments are often inaccurate. Though PADs champion patient autonomy, when applied and studied, they have shown little significant advantage-there is currently not enough data to support evidence-based universal recommendations for PADs. PADs as incorporated into the Mental Health Care Bill model on existing Western statutes, and though many of the strengths of earlier systems have been subsumed, so have several of the shortcomings. The risks, benefits and applicability of PADs in India are complicated by the social re-calibration of patient autonomy, mental-healthcare delivery system weaknesses, and the relatively peripheral role the Psychiatrist is mandated to play in the entire advance directive process. Treating patients within the framework of their pre-stated wishes will be a much more intricate and arduous task than most of modern Psychiatric practice in India, but the difficulties, obstacles and inevitable failures encountered will provide evidence of the delivery system's weaknesses and thereby contribute to its strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Child Neurology: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ousley, Molliann; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method for focal brain stimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where small intracranial electric currents are generated by a powerful, rapidly changing extracranial magnetic field. Over the past 2 decades TMS has shown promise in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease in adults, but has been used on a more limited basis in children. We reviewed the literature to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS in child neurology and also its safety in pediatrics. Although TMS has not been associated with any serious side effects in children and appears to be well tolerated, general safety guidelines should be established. The potential for applications of TMS in child neurology and psychiatry is significant. Given its excellent safety profile and possible therapeutic effect, this technique should develop as an important tool in pediatric neurology over the next decade. PMID:18056688

  14. Applying Moving Objects Patterns towards Estimating Future Stocks Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Dahab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock is gaining vast popularity as a strategic investment tool not just by investor bankers, but also by the average worker. Large capitals are being traded within the stock market all around the world, making its impact not only macro economically focused, but also greatly valued taking into consideration its direct social impact. As a result, almost 66% of all American citizens are striving in their respective fields every day, trying to come up with better ways to predict and find patterns in stocks that could enhance their estimation and visualization so as to have the opportunity to take better investment decisions. Given the amount of effort that has been put into enhancing stock prediction techniques, there is still a factor that is almost completely neglected when handling stocks. The factor that has been obsolete for so long is in fact the effect of a correlation existing between stocks of the same index or parent company. This paper proposes a distinct approach for studying the correlation between stocks that belong to the same index by modelling stocks as moving objects to be able to track their movements while considering their relationships. Furthermore, it studies one of the movement techniques applied to moving objects to predict stock movement. The results yielded that both the movement technique and correlation coefficient technique are consistent in directions, with minor variations in values. The variations are attributed to the fact that the movement technique takes into consideration the sibling relationship

  15. Issues in vaccinology: Present challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Dylan; Openshaw, Peter Jm; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Vaccination is a principal and highly cost-effective means of controlling infectious diseases, providing direct protection against pathogens by conferring long-lasting immunological memory and inducing population-level herd immunity. Despite rapid ongoing progress in vaccinology, there remain many obstacles to the development and deployment of novel or improved vaccines; these include the underlying science of how to induce and sustain appropriate protective immune responses as well as bureaucratic, logistic and socio-political hurdles. The failure to distribute and administer existing vaccines to at-risk communities continues to account for a large proportion of infant mortality worldwide: almost 20 million children do not have access to basic vaccines and several million still die each year as a result. While emerging epidemic or pandemic diseases pose a significant threat to global health and prosperity, there are many infectious diseases which provide a continuous or cyclical burden on healthcare systems which also need to be addressed. Gaps in knowledge of the human immune system stand in the way of developing technologies to overcome individual and pathogenic variation. The challenges in tackling infectious disease and directions that the field of preventive medicine may take to improve the current picture of global health are the focus of this review. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Integrated Landscape Modeling partnership - Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Scherff, Eric J.

    2016-01-28

    The Integrated Landscape Modeling (ILM) partnership is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify, evaluate, and develop models to quantify services derived from ecosystems, with a focus on wetland ecosystems and conservation effects. The ILM partnership uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) modeling platform to facilitate regional quantifications of ecosystem services under various scenarios of land-cover change that are representative of differing conservation program and practice implementation scenarios. To date, the ILM InVEST partnership has resulted in capabilities to quantify carbon stores, amphibian habitat, plant-community diversity, and pollination services. Work to include waterfowl and grassland bird habitat quality is in progress. Initial InVEST modeling has been focused on the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States; future efforts might encompass other regions as data availability and knowledge increase as to how functions affecting ecosystem services differ among regions.The ILM partnership is also developing the capability for field-scale process-based modeling of depressional wetland ecosystems using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model. Progress was made towards the development of techniques to use the APEX model for closed-basin depressional wetlands of the PPR, in addition to the open systems that the model was originally designed to simulate. The ILM partnership has matured to the stage where effects of conservation programs and practices on multiple ecosystem services can now be simulated in selected areas. Future work might include the continued development of modeling capabilities, as well as development and evaluation of differing conservation program and practice scenarios of interest to partner agencies including the USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). When

  17. Future direction for implementing the cooperation with OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Yong Don

    1999-03-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ia an intergovernmental organization consisting of industrialized countries with shared democratic principles and free market economics. The objectives of the agency are to identify key issues related to nuclear energy and to address these issues as well as to implement joint R and D projects, contributing to the development of nuclear energy as a safe, environmentally-acceptable and economical energy source through cooperation among its participating countries. Appropriate measures to effectively implement international nuclear cooperation and strategies to upgrade Korea's status in the international arena as well as ways to utilize the agency for our benefits through analysis of its policy and current status of the agency as a multilateral nuclear cooperative body are also presented in this report. Analysis of information about the agency's activities and acquisition of capabilities to collect relevant information, coupled with efforts to enhance Korea's status in the international nuclear arena by actively being involved in the international organizations such as OECD/NEA are required to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and establish effective national nuclear policies. This report can be utilized as valuable material not only in establishing national nuclear policy by giving an overview of the report prepared by the high level advisory group on the future of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, who recently wrapped up their activities, but also in promoting the understanding of the agency's activities and the agency's long-term perspective mapped out in 1995. Future plans and strategies for effective implementation of nuclear cooperation with the agency, including ways to participate in the agency's activities, with KAERI taking a leading role, and in the NEA joint R and D projects, ways to strengthen capabilities, to analyze

  18. Regionalisation of the recent and potential future climate of Central Asia. Modelling on the basis of direct climate data. Final report; Regionalisierung der rezenten und potentiell-zukuenftigen Klimaverhaeltnisse Zentralasiens. Modellierung auf Basis von direkten Klimadaten, geomorphologisch-palaeooekologischen Befunden und GCM-Simulationen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehner, J; Haselein, F; Hoffmann, H; Klinge, M; Lehmkuhl, F

    2001-07-01

    During the research project, the scientific base for the methodological coupling of GCM-Simulations and relief parametrisations for a spatially distributed downscaling scheme and for the detection of climatic controlled geomorphologic process regions was founded. The results of the application of the downscaling procedure and the detected climatic determinants of the recent geomorphologic process regions serve as the actualistic base for a proxy based climatic reconstruction as well as for the prognosis of potential future climatic impacts on the environment of Central and High Mountain Asia. For the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation of Central- and High Mountain Asia was reconstructed and compared to the downscaling results of GCM-Paleo simulations (ECHAM). Due to the possibility of a direct parameterisation of GCM generated circulation variables and complex relief parameters for the regionalisation of climatic variables and geomorphologic process regions, the validation of ECHAM paleo simulations was also possible by comparing the proxy based reconstruction of the late quaternary environment to the modelled environment as derived from the application of ECHAM LGM simulations. For the assessment of potential future climatic impacts on the natural environment, alternative SRES emission scenarios are taken into account to detect the range of possible future changes in the distribution of Central Asia mountain belts and climatic controlled geomorphologic process regions. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes wurden die Grundlagen zur methodisch-konzeptionellen Koppelung von GCM-Simulationen mit Reliefparametrisierungen zur raeumlich hochaufloesenden Klimaregionalisierung sowie zur Erfassung und quantitativen Eingrenzung klimatisch determinierter Prozessregionen geschaffen, die die aktualistische Basis fuer Klimarekonstruktionen auf Basis von Proxies aber auch die Grundlage fuer geomorphologisch

  19. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  20. Future direction of ASME nuclear codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, Kevin; Sheehan, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    While the nuclear power industry in the US is in a period of stasis, there continues to be a great deal of activity in the ASME nuclear standards development arena. As plants age, the need for new approaches in standardization changes with the changing needs of the industry. New tools are becoming available in the form of risk analysis, and this is finding its way into more and more of ASME's standards activities. This paper will take a look at the direction that ASME nuclear Codes and Standards are heading in this and other areas, as well as taking a look at some advance reactor concepts and plans for standards to address new technologies

  1. Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Colyvan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development of improved models of ecological hypothesis testing and theory choice. Philosophy can also help ecologists understand the role and limitations of mathematical models in ecology. On the other side, philosophy of science will be advanced by having ecological case studies as part of the stock of examples. Ecological case studies can shed light on old philosophical topics as well as raise novel issues for the philosophy of science. For example, understanding theoretical terms such as "biodiversity" is important for scientific reasons, but such terms also carry political importance. Formulating appropriate definitions for such terms is thus not a purely scientific matter, and this may prompt a reevaluation of philosophical accounts of defining theoretical terms. We consider some of the topics currently receiving attention in the philosophy of ecology and other topics in need of attention. Our aim is to prompt further exchange between ecology and philosophy of science and to help set the agenda for future work in the philosophy of ecology. The topics covered include: the role of mathematical models, environmental problem formulation, biodiversity, and environmental ethics.

  2. Future directions in high-pressure neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, M.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to manipulate structure and properties using pressure has been well known for many centuries. Diffraction provides the unique ability to observe these structural changes in fine detail on lengthscales spanning atomic to nanometre dimensions. Amongst the broad suite of diffraction tools available today, neutrons provide unique capabilities of fundamental importance. However, to date, the growth of neutron diffraction under extremes of pressure has been limited by the weakness of available sources. In recent years, substantial government investments have led to the construction of a new generation of neutron sources while existing facilities have been revitalized by upgrades. The timely convergence of these bright facilities with new pressure-cell technologies suggests that the field of high-pressure (HP) neutron science is on the cusp of substantial growth. Here, the history of HP neutron research is examined with the hope of gleaning an accurate prediction of where some of these revolutionary capabilities will lead in the near future. In particular, a dramatic expansion of current pressure-temperature range is likely, with corresponding increased scope for extreme-conditions science with neutron diffraction. This increase in coverage will be matched with improvements in data quality. Furthermore, we can also expect broad new capabilities beyond diffraction, including in neutron imaging, small angle scattering and inelastic spectroscopy.

  3. Future directions for separation science in nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent extraction and ion exchange have been the most widely used separation techniques in nuclear and radiochemistry since their development in the 1940s. Many successful separations processes based on these techniques have been used for decades in research laboratories, analytical laboratories, and industrial plants. Thus, it is easy to conclude that most of the fundamental and applied research that is needed in these areas has been done, and that further work in these ''mature'' fields is unlikely to be fruitful. A more careful review, however, reveals that significant problems remain to be solved, and that there is a demand for the development of new reagents, methods, and systems to solve the increasingly complex separations problems in the nuclear field. Specifically, new separation techniques based on developments in membrane technology and biotechnology that have occurred over the last 20 years should find extensive applications in radiochemical separations. Considerable research is needed in such areas as interfacial chemistry, the design and control of highly selective separation agents, critically evaluated data bases and mathematical models, and the fundamental chemistry of dilute solutions if these problems are to be solved and new techniques developed in a systematic way. Nonaqueous separation methods, such as pyrochemical and fluoride volatility processes, have traditionally played a more limited role in nuclear and radiochemistry, but recent developments in the chemistry and engineering of these processes promises to open up new areas of research and application in the future

  4. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  5. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Amy L; Ball, Karen L; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M; Faughnan, Marie E; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A; McCulloch, Charles E; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L

    2013-04-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in "research silos" with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation , and HHT Foundation International . Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations.

  6. Remote Patient Monitoring in IBD: Current State and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreja, Ashish; Otobo, Emamuzo; Ramireddy, Karthik; Deorocki, Allyssa

    2018-03-07

    Mobile apps are now increasingly used in conjunction with telemedicine and wearable devices to support remote patient monitoring (RPM). The goal of this paper is to review the available evidence and assess the scope of RPM integration into standard practices for care and management of chronic disease in general and, more specifically, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RPM has been associated with improvements in health outcomes and indicators across a broad range of chronic diseases. However, there is limited data on the effectiveness of RPM in IBD care. From the emerging literature and body of research, we found promising results about the feasibility of integrating RPM in IBD care and RPM's capacity to support IBD improvement in key process and outcome metrics. Concerns regarding privacy and provider acceptability have limited the mass integration of RPM to date. However, with the healthcare industry's move toward value-based population care and the advent of novel payment models for RPM reimbursement, the adoption of RPM into standard IBD care practices will likely increase as the technology continues to improve and become a mainstream tool for healthcare delivery in the near future.

  7. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  8. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  9. Molybdenum-99 production at ANSTO: present and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlevy, T.M.; Hetherington, E.; Juric, J.; Hwang, T.; La Riviere, C.; Rutherford, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) decays to give technetium-99m ( 99 Tc m ), the most versatile diagnostic radioisotope used in approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. ANSTO (formerly the AAEC) has supplied technetium generators to the medical community since 1967-68. From small-scale beginnings, 99 Tc m - generators are now also supplied to customers in New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Korea and China. 99 Mo is produced in HIFAR by the fission of uranium-235 ( 235 U). Uranium (2.2% 235 U) dioxide pellets are irradiated and then chemically processed to separate and purify the 99 Mo for generator production. The current process involves alumina column separation of 99 Mo from uranium and other fission products; desorption of 99 Mo with ammonia; evaporation to dryness to remove volatile impurities; secondary purification of 99 Mo on alumina. Recent studies have sought to optimize the 99 Mo yield to meet an increasing market demand. These studies focused on two major stages of the process - alumina column separation and evaporation/ boil down. The effects of changes in pH of loading solution, rates of loading and desorption, volume of eluting solvent and temperature of evaporation have been investigated. The results of tracer and production scale experiments will be presented and the impacts upon future 99 Mo production in Australia discussed

  10. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  11. Computer aided surgery. Current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    This review describes topics in the title in the order of 3D model reconstruction and therapeutic planning based on images before surgery; registration of the actual images in virtual physical space of the patient who is under surgical operation, to the preoperative ones with use of 3D-position sensor, ultrasonics, endoscopy and X-diaphanoscopy; and their accuracy analysis. Images before surgery usually obtained with CT and MR are reconstructed in 3D for the purpose of therapeutic planning by segmentation of the target organ/site, surrounding organs, bones and blood vessels. Navigation system at the surgery functions to make the images obtained before and during operation to be integrated for their registration and displaying. Usually, the optical marker and camera both equipped in the endoscope, and position sensor (tracker) are used for integration in the operation coordinate system. For this, the actual pictures at liver operation are given. For accuracy analysis there is a theory of target registration error, which has been established on FDA demands. In future, development of technology concerned in this field like that of robot, bio-dynamics, biomaterials, sensor and high performance computing together with 4D document of surgery for feed-back to technology are desirable for the systematic growing of this surgical technology. (T.I.)

  12. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports.

  13. Sleep, insomnia, and hypertension: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S Justin; Calhoun, David

    2017-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) varies over 24 hours. During normal sleep, BP typically decreases by 10% or more. Research suggests that disordered sleep, particularly sleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea, is associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Less is known about the relationship between insomnia and hypertension. Population-based studies have reported an association between insomnia symptoms and both prevalent and incident hypertension, particularly in the context of short sleep duration. Furthermore, a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the relationship between insomnia and hypertension. However, few studies have examined these proposed mechanisms, and even fewer clinical trials have been conducted to determine if improved sleep improves BP and/or reverses a nondipping BP pattern. Methodological concerns, particularly with respect to the diagnosis of insomnia, no doubt impact the strength of any observed association. Additionally, a large majority of studies have only examined the association between insomnia symptoms and clinic BP. Therefore, future research needs to focus on careful consideration of the diagnostic criteria for insomnia, as well as inclusion of either home BP or ambulatory BP monitoring. Finally, clinical trials aimed at improving the quality of sleep should be conducted to determine if improved sleep impacts 24-hour BP. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Future directions and cycles for electricity production from geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 25% more power may be produced using binary-flashing geothermal cycles. - Highlights: • Power from geothermal power plants is continuously available and “dispatchable.” • The next generation of geothermal will include more binary plants. • Lower temperature geothermal resources will be utilized in the future. • Dry rock resources may produce a high fraction of electricity in several countries. - Abstract: Geothermal power production is economically competitive and capable to produce a high percentage of the electric power demand in several countries. The currently operating geothermal power plants utilize water from an aquifer at relatively higher temperatures and produce power using dry steam, flashing or binary cycles. A glance at the map of the global geothermal resources proves that there is a multitude of sites, where the aquifer temperature is lower. There are also many geothermal resources where a high geothermal gradient exists in the absence of an aquifer. It becomes apparent that the next generation of geothermal power plants will utilize more of the lower-temperature aquifer resources or the dry resources. For such power plants to be economically competitive, modified or new cycles with higher efficiencies must be used. This paper presents two methods to increase the efficiency of the currently used geothermal cycles. The first uses a binary-flashing system to reduce the overall entropy production, thus, producing more electric power from the resource. The second describes a heat extraction system to be used with dry hot-rock resources.

  15. Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

    Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

  16. Mental health literacy as theory: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Douglas A; Hammer, Joseph H

    2018-02-13

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is one increasingly researched factor thought to influence mental health behaviors. Researchers have argued for expanding the definition of MHL to include additional constructs, but no consensus has yet been reached on what constructs should be included as part of MHL. The purpose of this paper is to (i) elucidate how the expansion of the MHL construct has impeded the growth of MHL research and (ii) through the lens of construct and theory development, highlight how these challenges might be remedied. An inclusive search of the literature was undertaken to identify MHL studies. The principles of construct and theory development guided a critical analysis of MHL. The review of the literature found that MHL violates many principles of what constitutes an acceptable construct definition. To address these concerns, we proposed conceptualizing MHL as a theory and recommended principles of theory development that should be taken into consideration. A theory of MHL can guide future researchers to clearly delineate important constructs and their interrelationships. For practitioners, a theory of MHL can help inform how to improve MHL at both the individual and community level.

  17. Sustainability performance evaluation: Literature review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Karabulut, Yağmur

    2018-07-01

    Current global economic activities are increasingly being perceived as unsustainable. Despite the high number of publications, sustainability science remains highly dispersed over diverse approaches and topics. This article aims to provide a structured overview of sustainability performance evaluation related publications and to document the current state of literature, categorize publications, analyze and link trends, as well as highlight gaps and provide research recommendations. 128 articles between 2007 and 2018 are identified. The results suggest that sustainability performance evaluation models shall be more balanced, suitable criteria and their interrelations shall be well defined and subjectivity of qualitative criteria inherent to sustainability indicators shall be considered. To address this subjectivity, group decision-making techniques and other analytical methods that can deal with uncertainty, conflicting indicators, and linguistic evaluations can be used in future works. By presenting research gaps, this review stimulates researchers to establish practically applicable sustainability performance evaluation frameworks to help assess and compare the degree of sustainability, leading to more sustainable business practices. The review is unique in defining corporate sustainability performance evaluation for the first time, exploring the gap between sustainability accounting and sustainability assessment, and coming up with a structured overview of innovative research recommendations about integrating analytical assessment methods into conceptual sustainability frameworks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology's contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology's strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.

  19. Current and future direction in the management of scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sean M; Shapiro, Lee; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-09-01

    Scleroderma is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology. As more information is gained about the underlying mechanisms and the improved classifications of scleroderma subtypes, treatments can be better personalized. Improving scleroderma patients' early diagnosis before end organ manifestations occur should improve clinical trial design and outcomes. Two recently FDA-approved antifibrotics for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be effective treatments in patients with pulmonary fibrosis secondary to scleroderma after further investigation. The potential impact of Nanobiotechnology in improving the efficacy and safety of existing antifibrotics and immunomodulators might present an exciting new approach in the management of scleroderma.

  20. Divorce and health: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A

    2015-04-01

    Social relationships play a vital role in health and well-being, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This article reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce, and health outcomes. Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the article integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10%-15%) struggle quite substantially, and it seems that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation are discussed. To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes, (b) better studies of objective social behavior after separation, and (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high-risk adults.

  1. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Magni, Diego; Valentini, Luana; Singleton, Andrew; Micale, Fabio; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) is a portal, including a map server, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. The map server presents Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts, which is complemented by more detailed information provided by regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web mapping and web coverage services. In addition, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells and administrative regions in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. Current work is focusing on validating the available products, developing combined indicators, improving the functionalities, extending the linkage to additional national and regional drought information systems and testing options for medium-range probabilistic drought forecasting across Europe. Longer-term goals include the development of long-range drought forecasting products, the analysis of drought hazard and risk, the monitoring of drought impact and the integration of EDO in a global drought information system. The talk will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and the ways to include a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. European, national river basin, and local authorities) in the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  2. Future directions for international safeguards - ESARDA WG on integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezniczek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing IAEA inspection effort does not mean that the overall safeguards effort will be reduced. There will be compensation and additional effort spent by states and SSACs (State Systems of Accounting and Control). State and/or regional authorities take very serious their responsibilities to safeguard the nuclear material. Enhanced cooperation between all players should be more seriously considered by the IAEA. A more effective implementation of the principle 'one job - one person' and sub-delegation of verification tasks should be taken into account for future evolution. At present, the state level approach is still based on a bottom up approach and not developed top down. The basis is still an aggregation of the facility specific safeguards approaches with some minor adjustments by state specific factors. The touchstone for a true state level approach would be a top-down development process with the result that safeguards effort spent in a state is no longer strongly correlated to the amount and quality of nuclear material in that state. The limitation of the Physical Model is that only the technical aspects are reflected. To actually perform a proliferation, the technical capability is a necessary but insufficient condition. Besides the pure technical capabilities, one has to consider the feasibility for a state to actually implement a proliferation action in its given environment. Factors to be considered are for example institutional factors, ownership of facilities and social and political structures in the state. The help a purely technical assessment can provide is also limited in cases where states have a well developed fuel cycle and thus have at their disposal all required technical capabilities. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  3. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  4. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  5. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Park, H.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ ≳ 8 mas yr{sup –1}. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ≲12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  6. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  7. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Park, H.; Han, C.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Udalski, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.

    2014-01-01

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ ≳ 8 mas yr –1 . Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ≲12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  8. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  9. Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavik Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining and measuring organizational culture (OC is of paramount importance to organizations because a strong culture could potentially increase service quality and yield sustainable competitive advantages. However, such process could be challenging to managers because the scope of OC has been defined differently across disciplines and industries, which has led to the development of various scales for measuring OC. In addition, previously developed OC scales may also not be fully applicable in the hospitality and tourism context. Therefore, by highlighting the key factors affecting the business environment and the unique characteristics of hospitality industry, this paper aims to align the scope of OC closely with the industry and to put forth the need for a new OC scale that accurately responds to the context of the hospitality industry.

  10. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  11. Nuclear disasters: current plans and future directions for oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    To show that there is a significant role for oncologists in the event of a terrorist nuclear disaster. Professionals need data on current political issues regarding a nuclear attack already put in place by the administration and the military. Review of what actually occurs during a fission bomb's explosion helps to point out what medical care will be most needed. The author contends that those trained in the oncologies could play a major part. Modern-day America. Potential civilian survivors. Large gaps noted in statewide disaster plans in the public domain. Oncologists must get involved now in disaster planning; statewide plans are necessary throughout the nation; the public needs to know the basics of what to do in the advent of a nuclear bomb explosion.

  12. Soil respiration in Mexico: Advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cueva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (RS is a CO2 efflux from the soil to the atmosphere defined as the sum of autotrophic (respiration by roots and mycorrhizae, and heterotrophic (respiration of microorganisms that decompose fractions of organic matter and of soil fauna respiration. Globally, RS is considered to be the second largest flux of C to the atmosphere. From published literature it is clear that its main controls are soil temperature, soil moisture, photosynthesis, organic matter inputs and soil biota composition. Despite its relevance in C cycle science, there have been only twenty eight studies in Mexico in the last decade where direct measurement of gas exchange was conducted in the field. These studies were held mostly in agricultural and forest ecosystems, in Central and Southern Mexico where mild subtropical conditions prevail. However, arid, semi-arid, tropical and wetland ecosystems may have an important role in Mexico’s CO2 emissions because of their extent and extensive land use changes. From the twenty eight studies, only two provided continuous measurements of RS with high temporal resolution, highlighting the need for long-term studies to evaluate the complex biophysical controls of this flux and associated processes over different ecological succession stages. We conclude that Mexico represents an important opportunity to understand its complex dynamics, in national and global context, as ecosystems in the country cover a wide range of climatic conditions. This is particularly important because deforestation and degradation of Mexican ecosystems is rapidly increasing along with expected changes in climate.

  13. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, K.J.; Griffin, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions

  14. Microneedles for Transdermal Biosensing: Current Picture and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrelli, Letizia; Marsilio Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-09

    A novel trend is rapidly emerging in the use of microneedles, which are a miniaturized replica of hypodermic needles with length-scales of hundreds of micrometers, aimed at the transdermal biosensing of analytes of clinical interest, e.g., glucose, biomarkers, and others. Transdermal biosensing via microneedles offers remarkable opportunities for moving biosensing technologies and biochips from research laboratories to real-field applications, and envisages easy-to-use point-of-care microdevices with pain-free, minimally invasive, and minimal-training features that are very attractive for both developed and emerging countries. In addition to this, microneedles for transdermal biosensing offer a unique possibility for the development of biochips provided with end-effectors for their interaction with the biological system under investigation. Direct and efficient collection of the biological sample to be analyzed will then become feasible in situ at the same length-scale of the other biochip components by minimally trained personnel and in a minimally invasive fashion. This would eliminate the need for blood extraction using hypodermic needles and reduce, in turn, related problems, such as patient infections, sample contaminations, analysis artifacts, etc. The aim here is to provide a thorough and critical analysis of state-of-the-art developments in this novel research trend, and to bridge the gap between microneedles and biosensors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nanoparticles in medical applications – a direction of the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of producing nanoparticles, called nanotechnologies, have inspired lively interest over the recent years due to the broad possibilities for application of nanoparticles in numerous fields, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology, medicine, pharmacy, cosmetology and others. Nanoparticles are defined as particles which may occur in various shapes and which have at least one dimension smaller than 100 nm. Depending on the process of creation we can differentiate between natural nanoparticles occurring in the environment and designed nanoparticles, which are man-made. Designed nanoparticles are characterised by special physical properties which make them suitable for biomedical applications, among others. An example of such an application is the use of silver nanocomposites, which in a micronised form display a strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. Graphene, the latest achievement of nanotechnology with unique mechanical and physical properties, is another material which raises much interest among researchers. The dynamic development of numerous directions in modern technologies based on nanotechnologies is an indisputable sign of progress. The discovery of the unique properties of nanomaterials opens wide possibilities for numerous applications; however, it also requires comprehensive research to ensure they are safe to use.

  16. Xi. Sleep and development: conclusions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Literature on sleep and child development is growing in novel directions across several disciplines necessitating guiding conceptual principles and methodological tools. First, this volume presents a summary of discussions from an SRCD-sponsored multidisciplinary forum on sleep and development, which includes presentation of key issues and guiding recommendations for research priorities in this fast developing field. Second, enhancing accessibility to child development researchers, state of the science sleep assessment methodologies are presented with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. Third, seven empirical studies conducted with "typically" developing infants and children provide examples of relations between sleep and some of the many individual and familial factors that influence and are influenced by sleep. In the presentation of empirical findings, a developmental ecological systems perspective adapted to sleep was espoused to illustrate some of the multiple levels of influence in the study of child sleep and development. Collectively, studies in this volume build significantly on the literature through: (a) illustrating linkages between various sleep parameters (e.g., quality, sleeping arrangements) and other key developmental domains (e.g., attachment, parenting); (b) demonstration of longitudinal relations connecting sleep with development, which is scarce in this field; and (c) utilization of actigraphy-based assessments of sleep duration and quality, which are underutilized in the literature yet important for a more nuanced understanding of sleep and development. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Scorecard cardiovascular medicine. Its impact and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, E J; Califf, R M

    1994-01-01

    Public release of operator-specific data for cardiovascular procedures has set a new precedent, introducing the "scorecard" era. Justification exists for public disclosure, but the mechanics of appropriate data release are complex from a clinical, statistical, and logistic standpoint. Scorecard medicine may appropriately promote regionalization of medical centers and consolidation of services, but unless the process is directed effectively, it may impair the development of new treatments because of a more restrictive clinical practice environment. We propose revamping our current system to facilitate rapid and accurate access to outcome data in the local practice environment so that improvement in practice occurs on a voluntary basis rather than in response to punitive restrictions. A rational plan needs to be developed for dealing with high-risk patients, perhaps through compensation in regression models used to calculate expected outcomes, and for the start-up of novice physicians. Special provisions are needed to promote clinical research. Before procedures are done, it would be ideal to provide a full disclosure informed consent, whereby the physician reports operator-specific data and the patient's decision-making process is facilitated. Overall, appropriate implementation of scorecards could ultimately lead to a substantial improvement in the quality of U.S. cardiovascular medicine.

  18. Obesity in the news: directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, D; Koteyko, N; Gunter, B

    2012-06-01

    Obesity attracts large volumes of news coverage. This in turn has spawned academic studies investigating how news framing may affect views about causes of and solutions to obesity. We use key studies to demonstrate that although existing research has made valuable discoveries about how obesity is defined in various media outlets, some methodological and theoretical questions remain unaddressed. We argue that extant research has focused on one dimension of analysis--the problematization of obesity in news stories--precluding insights into the entire process of obesity communication. Drawing on framing and media studies research, we propose a multidimensional approach to shed more light on factors affecting the production of obesity news stories by journalists and how they may be received by audience members. Ways of moving research into this multidimensional direction are proposed, including analysis of journalistic news values, political leaning and style of media outlets, emotion-eliciting language, readers' comments and obesity-related news visuals. Knowledge resulting from the exploration of these dimensions of the issue of obesity can be used to improve strategies to inform and engage audience members. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  20. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  1. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  2. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  3. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  4. Decompression to altitude: assumptions, experimental evidence, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Philip P; Butler, Bruce D

    2009-02-01

    Although differences exist, hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures share common physiological, biochemical, and clinical features, and their comparison may provide further insight into the mechanisms of decompression stress. Although altitude decompression illness (DCI) has been experienced by high-altitude Air Force pilots and is common in ground-based experiments simulating decompression profiles of extravehicular activities (EVAs) or astronauts' space walks, no case has been reported during actual EVAs in the non-weight-bearing microgravity environment of orbital space missions. We are uncertain whether gravity influences decompression outcomes via nitrogen tissue washout or via alterations related to skeletal muscle activity. However, robust experimental evidence demonstrated the role of skeletal muscle exercise, activities, and/or movement in bubble formation and DCI occurrence. Dualism of effects of exercise, positive or negative, on bubble formation and DCI is a striking feature in hypobaric exposure. Therefore, the discussion and the structure of this review are centered on those highlighted unresolved topics about the relationship between muscle activity, decompression, and microgravity. This article also provides, in the context of altitude decompression, an overview of the role of denitrogenation, metabolic gases, gas micronuclei, stabilization of bubbles, biochemical pathways activated by bubbles, nitric oxide, oxygen, anthropometric or physiological variables, Doppler-detectable bubbles, and potential arterialization of bubbles. These findings and uncertainties will produce further physiological challenges to solve in order to line up for the programmed human return to the Moon, the preparation for human exploration of Mars, and the EVAs implementation in a non-zero gravity environment.

  5. Kinetic physics in ICF: present understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Collins, G.

    2018-06-01

    Kinetic physics has the potential to impact the performance of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Systematic anomalies in the National Ignition Facility implosion dataset have been identified in which kinetic physics may play a role, including inferred missing energy in the hohlraum, drive asymmetry in near-vacuum hohlraums, low areal density and high burn-averaged ion temperatures (〈Ti 〉) compared with mainline simulations, and low ratios of the DD-neutron and DT-neutron yields and inferred 〈Ti 〉. Several components of ICF implosions are likely to be influenced or dominated by kinetic physics: laser-plasma interactions in the LEH and hohlraum interior; the hohlraum wall blowoff, blowoff/gas and blowoff/ablator interfaces; the ablator and ablator/ice interface; and the DT fuel all present conditions in which kinetic physics can significantly affect the dynamics. This review presents the assembled experimental data and simulation results to date, which indicate that the effects of long mean-free-path plasma phenomena and self-generated electromagnetic fields may have a significant impact in ICF targets. Simulation and experimental efforts are proposed to definitively quantify the importance of these effects at ignition-relevant conditions, including priorities for ongoing study.

  6. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  7. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolution......Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now...... revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial...... microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR...

  8. Increasing global crop harvest frequency: recent trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Deepak K; Foley, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    The world’s agricultural systems face the challenge of meeting the rising demands from population growth, changing dietary preferences, and expanding biofuel use. Previous studies have put forward strategies for meeting this growing demand by increasing global crop production, either expanding the area under cultivation or intensifying the crop yields of our existing agricultural lands. However, another possible means for increasing global crop production has received less attention: increasing the frequency of global cropland harvested each year. Historically, many of the world’s croplands were left fallow, or had failed harvests, each year, foregoing opportunities for delivering crop production. Furthermore, many regions, particularly in the tropics, may be capable of multiple harvests per year, often more than are harvested today. Here we analyze a global compilation of agricultural statistics to show how the world’s harvested cropland has changed. Between 2000 and 2011, harvested land area grew roughly 4 times faster than total standing cropland area. Using a metric of cropland harvest frequency (CHF)—the ratio of land harvested each year to the total standing cropland—and its recent trends, we identify countries that harvest their croplands more frequently, and those that have the potential to increase their cropland harvest frequency. We suggest that a possible ‘harvest gap’ may exist in many countries that represents an opportunity to increase crop production on existing agricultural lands. However, increasing the harvest frequency of existing croplands could have significant environmental and social impacts, which need careful evaluation. (letter)

  9. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM. PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC, or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.

  10. Future Directions for Hypothermia following Severe Traumatic Brian Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Annie W; Hinson, Holly E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health care problem on both individual and public health levels. As a major cause of death and disability in the United States, it is associated with a significant economic and public health burden. Although the evidence to support the use of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest is well established, its use in treating TBI remains controversial. Hypothermia has the potential to mitigate some of the destructive processes that occur as part of secondary brain injury after TBI. Hypothermia can be helpful in lowering intracranial pressure, for example, but its influence on functional outcome is unclear. There is insufficient evidence to support the broad use of prophylactic hypothermia for neuroprotection after TBI. Investigators are beginning to more carefully select patients for temperature modulating therapies, in a more personalized approach. Examples include targeting immunomodulation and scaling hypothermia to achieve metabolic targets. This review will summarize the clinical evidence for the use of hypothermia to limit secondary brain injury following acute TBI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Chaffin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term "adaptive governance" is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based on this synthesis, we define adaptive governance as a range of interactions between actors, networks, organizations, and institutions emerging in pursuit of a desired state for social-ecological systems. In addition, we identify and discuss ambiguities in adaptive governance scholarship such as the roles of adaptive management, crisis, and a desired state for governance of social-ecological systems. Finally, we outline a research agenda to examine whether an adaptive governance approach can become institutionalized under current legal frameworks and political contexts. We suggest a further investigation of the relationship between adaptive governance and the principles of good governance; the roles of power and politics in the emergence of adaptive governance; and potential interventions such as legal reform that may catalyze or enhance governance adaptations or transformation toward adaptive governance.

  12. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  13. Assessing dengue vaccination impact: Model challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Mario; Vannice, Kirsten; Hombach, Joachim; Jit, Mark; Simmons, Cameron P

    2016-08-31

    In response to the sharp rise in the global burden caused by dengue virus (DENV) over the last few decades, the WHO has set out three specific key objectives in its disease control strategy: (i) to estimate the true burden of dengue by 2015; (ii) a reduction in dengue mortality by at least 50% by 2020 (used as a baseline); and (iii) a reduction in dengue morbidity by at least 25% by 2020. Although various elements will all play crucial parts in achieving this goal, from diagnosis and case management to integrated surveillance and outbreak response, sustainable vector control, vaccine implementation and finally operational and implementation research, it seems clear that new tools (e.g. a safe and effective vaccine and/or effective vector control) are key to success. The first dengue vaccine was licensed in December 2015, Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) developed by Sanofi Pasteur. The WHO has provided guidance on the use of CYD-TDV in endemic countries, for which there are a variety of considerations beyond the risk-benefit evaluation done by regulatory authorities, including public health impact and cost-effectiveness. Population-level vaccine impact and economic and financial aspects are two issues that can potentially be considered by means of mathematical modelling, especially for new products for which empirical data are still lacking. In December 2014 a meeting was convened by the WHO in order to revisit the current status of dengue transmission models and their utility for public health decision-making. Here, we report on the main points of discussion and the conclusions of this meeting, as well as next steps for maximising the use of mathematical models for vaccine decision-making. Copyright © 2016.

  14. Exploring the Future Potential of Jute in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the future potential of the jute sector in Bangladesh by examining its growth performance, international competitiveness, profitability, and production efficiency using national time-series data of over the period 1973–2013 and farm survey data from 289 farmers from two major jute growing areas of Bangladesh. Results revealed that the jute sector has experienced substantial growth in area, production, productivity, prices, and exports. However, productivity has stagnated during the latter 10-year period (2004–2013, while it grew at a rate of 1.3% per annum (p.a. during the first 31-year period (1973–2003. Only traditional jute production is globally competitive, although financial profitability of white jute is relatively higher (benefit cost ratio = 1.24 and 1.17, respectively. Land, labor, and irrigation are the main productivity drivers for jute. The mean production efficiency of jute is estimated at 75% indicating substantial scope to improve yield by eliminating inefficiency. Marginal farmers are relatively inefficient. Policy implications include investments in research and development, irrigation, and tenurial reform and export protection for white jute in order to revive the sector and boost export earnings.

  15. Historical Spice as a Future Drug: Therapeutic Potential of Piperlongumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Spice and spice-derived compounds have been identified and explored for their health benefits since centuries. One of the spice long pepper has been traditionally used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomach ache, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. In this review, the evidences for the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of piperlongumine have been described. The active component piperlonguime has shown effective against various ailments including cancer, neurogenerative disease, arthritis, melanogenesis, lupus nephritis, and hyperlipidemic. These beneficial effects of piperlongumine is attributed to its ability to modulate several signaling molecules like reactive oxygen species, kinases, proteasome, proto-oncogenes, transcription factors, cell cycle, inflammatory molecules and cell growth and survival molecules. Piperlongumine also chemosensitizes to drugs resistant cancer cells. Overall the consumption of long peppers is therefore recommended for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancer, and thus piperlongumine may be a promising future candidate drug against cancer.

  16. Topological insulators/superconductors: Potential future electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hor, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new material called topological insulator has been discovered and becomes one of the fastest growing field in condensed matter physics. Topological insulator is a new quantum phase of matter which has Dirac-like conductivity on its surface, but bulk insulator through its interior. It is considered a challenging problem for the surface transport measurements because of dominant internal conductance due to imperfections of the existing crystals of topological insulators. By a proper method, the internal bulk conduction can be suppressed in a topological insulator, and permit the detection of the surface currents which is necessary for future fault-tolerant quantum computing applications. Doped topological insulators have depicted a large variety of bulk physical properties ranging from magnetic to superconducting behaviors. By chemical doping, a TI can change into a bulk superconductor. Nb x Bi 2 Se 3 is shown to be a superconductor with T c ∼ 3.2 K, which could be a potential candidate for a topological superconductor

  17. Carbon offset potentials and design: Anticipating future public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.C.; Kosloff, L.H.; Gowen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon offsets offer CO 2 emitters the opportunity to compensate for some proportion of their CO 2 emissions through the pursuit of emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects beyond their own operational boundaries. The flexibility to pursue carbon offsets ''off-site'' can dramatically reduce the costs of achieving a given net emissions reduction. The future role of carbon offsets, however, continues to be a topic of considerable debate. Several processes are currently under way nationally and internationally that will help shape this role. This paper discusses how alternative policy outcomes could encourage or restrict the viability of carbon offsets as a component of corporate climate change mitigation portfolios and proposes criteria by which projects should be evaluated prior to the finalization of national or international policy frameworks. Based on these outcomes, the potential for offsets could be very large or very modest. It is vital that policy development in the offset arena account for the still voluntary nature of mitigation efforts and that the objective of climate change mitigation not be forgotten in the push for offset rules and regulations. At the same time, carbon offsets are far from a panacea for climate change mitigation and should be evaluated in the context of a larger global mitigation portfolio

  18. Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES): Conceptual framework and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Lidia Del; Finset, Arnstein; Mellblom, Anneli V; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Korsvold, Live; Zhou, Yuefang; Zimmermann, Christa; Humphris, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    To discuss the theoretical and empirical framework of VR-CoDES and potential future direction in research based on the coding system. The paper is based on selective review of papers relevant to the construction and application of VR-CoDES. VR-CoDES system is rooted in patient-centered and biopsychosocial model of healthcare consultations and on a functional approach to emotion theory. According to the VR-CoDES, emotional interaction is studied in terms of sequences consisting of an eliciting event, an emotional expression by the patient and the immediate response by the clinician. The rationale for the emphasis on sequences, on detailed classification of cues and concerns, and on the choices of explicit vs. non-explicit responses and providing vs. reducing room for further disclosure, as basic categories of the clinician responses, is described. Results from research on VR-CoDES may help raise awareness of emotional sequences. Future directions in applying VR-CoDES in research may include studies on predicting patient and clinician behavior within the consultation, qualitative analyses of longer sequences including several VR-CoDES triads, and studies of effects of emotional communication on health outcomes. VR-CoDES may be applied to develop interventions to promote good handling of patients' emotions in healthcare encounters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Leadership Potential for the Army's Future Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A transforming Army requires a corresponding transformation in its leader development and assessment methodology to enable the future force in the volatile uncertain complex and ambiguous contemporary...

  20. Oro-facial pain and temporomandibular disorders classification systems: A critical appraisal and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasser, G D; Manfredini, D; Goulet, J-P; De Laat, A

    2018-03-01

    It is a difficult undertaking to design a classification system for any disease entity, let alone for oro-facial pain (OFP) and more specifically for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A further complication of this task is that both physical and psychosocial variables must be included. To augment this process, a two-step systematic review, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, of the classification systems published during the last 20 years for OFP and TMD was performed. The first search step identified 190 potential citations which ultimately resulted in only 17 articles being included for in-depth analysis and review. The second step resulted in only 5 articles being selected for inclusion in this review. Five additional articles and four classification guidelines/criteria were also included due to expansion of the search criteria. Thus, in total, 14 documents comprising articles and guidelines/criteria (8 proposals of classification systems for OFP; 6 for TMD) were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. For each, a discussion as to their advantages, strengths and limitations was provided. Suggestions regarding the future direction for improving the classification process with the use of ontological principles rather than taxonomy are discussed. Furthermore, the potential for expanding the scope of axes included in existing classification systems, to include genetic, epigenetic and neurobiological variables, is explored. It is therefore recommended that future classification system proposals be based on combined approaches aiming to provide archetypal treatment-oriented classifications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Future Directions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A lot of interesting problems. How to combine complexity allocation and power distribution at the Central Office. How to combine thousands of tones for low complexity channel estimation. How to take care of instantaneous symbol energies to only cancel dominant crosstalkers?

  2. Future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotska, L; Armstrong, H

    2000-11-01

    Despite progress in promotion and support of breastfeeding over the past decade, the HIV pandemic necessitates new actions based on human rights, such as voluntary and confidential testing and counseling, offering HIV-positive women objective information on the risks and costs of all infant feeding options, and providing appropriate support for their decisions. Implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and the International Code of Marketing are essential components of a rights-based policy response to HIV and will lessen spillover of replacement feeding among HIV-negative women. Protective effects of nevirapine and exclusive breastfeeding, as well as the listed additional topics, require further research. We have yet to make exclusive breastfeeding easy and common when mothers choose to breastfeed.

  3. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Abigail T.; James, Sara St.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning

  4. Economic effects of ocean acidification: Publication patterns and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Laura J; Tubb, Adeline

    2017-09-01

    Human societies derive economic benefit from marine systems, yet these benefits may be modified as humans drive environmental change. Here, we conducted the first systematic review of literature on the potential economic effects of ocean acidification. We identified that while there is a growing literature discussing this topic, assessments of the direction and magnitude of anticipated economic change remain limited. The few assessments which have been conducted indicate largely negative economic effects of ocean acidification. Insights are, however, limited as the scope of the studies remains restricted. We propose that understanding of this topic will benefit from using standard approaches (e.g. timescales and emissions scenarios) to consider an increasing range of species/habitats and ecosystem services over a range of spatial scales. The resulting understanding could inform decisions such that we maintain, or enhance, economic services obtained from future marine environments.

  5. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  6. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T. Berman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT, through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning.

  7. Fractional Flow Reserve Measurement by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Review with Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Rizvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR measurement is currently the gold standard for coronary intervention. FFR measurement by coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT is a novel and promising imaging technology that permits noninvasive assessment of physiologically significant coronary lesions. FFRCT is capable of combining the anatomic information provided by coronary computed tomography angiography with computational fluid dynamics to compute FFR. To date, several studies have reported the diagnostic performance of FFRCT compared with invasive FFR measurement as the reference standard. Further studies are now being implemented to determine the clinical feasibility and economic implications of FFRCT techniques. This article provides an overview and discusses the available evidence as well as potential future directions of FFRCT.

  8. Identifying therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: the current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Beiqin; Xie, Jingwu

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Our basic understanding of gastric cancer biology falls behind that of many other cancer types. Current standard treatment options for gastric cancer have not changed for the last 20 years. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish novel strategies to treat this deadly cancer. Successful clinical trials with Gleevec in CML and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have set up an example for targeted therapy of cancer. In this review, we will summarize major progress in classification, therapeutic options of gastric cancer. We will also discuss molecular mechanisms for drug resistance in gastric cancer. In addition, we will attempt to propose potential future directions in gastric cancer biology and drug targets. PMID:26373844

  9. Developing Self-Directed Executive Functioning: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jane E.; Munakata, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    How do children become increasingly self-directed across development, achieving their goals without help from others? How might such developments be impacted by societal changes in how children spend their time? Children's abilities to achieve their goals are supported by developing executive functions (EFs), cognitive processes that predict…

  10. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,

  11. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e + 3 - linear colliders

  12. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph L.; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Li, Zhiyin; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Berheto, Tezera Moshago; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Faro, Andé; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R.; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Leung, Ricky; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molla, Gedefaw; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vargas, Veronica; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future

  13. Future of computing technology in physics - the potentials and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.

    1984-02-01

    The impact of the developments of modern digital computers is discussed, especially with respect to physics research in the future. The effects of large data processing capability and increasing rates at which data can be acquired and processed are considered

  14. Future of computing technology in physics - the potentials and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, A.E.

    1984-02-01

    The impact of the developments of modern digital computers is discussed, especially with respect to physics research in the future. The effects of large data processing capability and increasing rates at which data can be acquired and processed are considered. (GHT)

  15. Seeking potential contributions to future carbon budget in conterminous US forests considering disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangmin; Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard A.; Chen, Jing M.; Dugan, Alexa

    2017-11-01

    Currently, US forests constitute a large carbon sink, comprising about 9 % of the global terrestrial carbon sink. Wildfire is the most significant disturbance influencing carbon dynamics in US forests. Our objective is to estimate impacts of climate change, CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition on the future net biome productivity (NBP) of US forests until the end of twenty-first century under a range of disturbance conditions. We designate three forest disturbance scenarios under one future climate scenario to evaluate factor impacts for the future period (2011-2100): (1) no wildfires occur but forests continue to age (Saging), (2) no wildfires occur and forest ages are fixed in 2010 (Sfixed_nodis), and (3) wildfires occur according to a historical pattern, consequently changing forest age (Sdis_age_change). Results indicate that US forests remain a large carbon sink in the late twenty-first century under the Sfixed_nodis scenario; however, they become a carbon source under the Saging and Sdis_age_change scenarios. During the period of 2011 to 2100, climate is projected to have a small direct effect on NBP, while atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition have large positive effects on NBP regardless of the future climate and disturbance scenarios. Meanwhile, responses to past disturbances under the Sfixed_nodis scenario increase NBP regardless of the future climate scenarios. Although disturbance effects on NBP under the Saging and Sdis_age_change scenarios decrease with time, both scenarios experience an increase in NBP prior to the 2050s and then a decrease in NBP until the end of the twenty-first century. This study indicates that there is potential to increase or at least maintain the carbon sink of conterminous US forests at the current level if future wildfires are reduced and age structures are maintained at a productive mix. The effects of CO2 on the future carbon sink may overwhelm effects of other factors at the end of the twenty

  16. Sensitivity of direct global warming potentials to key uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weubbles, D.J.; Jain, A.K.; Palten, K.O.; Grant, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of global warming potential was developed as a relative measure of the potential effects on climate of a greenhouse gas. In this paper a series of sensitivity studies examines several uncertainties in determination of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). The original evaluation of GWPs did not attempt to account for the possible sinks of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that could balance the carbon cycle and produce atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 that match observations. In this study, a balanced carbon cycle model is applied in calculation of the radiative forcing from CO 2 . Use of the balanced model produces up to 21% enhancement of the GWPs for most trace gases compared with the IPCC (1990) values for time horizons up to 100 years, but a decreasing enhancement with longer time horizons. Uncertainty limits of the fertilization feedback parameter contribute a 20% range in GWP values. Another systematic uncertainty in GWPs is the assumption of an equilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases remains constant) versus a disequilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases varies with time). The latter gives GWPs that are 19 to 32% greater than the former for a 100 year time horizons, depending upon the carbon dioxide emission scenario chosen. Five scenarios are employed: constant-concentration, constant-emission past 1990 and the three IPCC (1992) emission scenarios. For the analysis of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetime (tor) of the GWP changes in direct proportion to (tor) for short-lived gases, but to a lesser extent for gases with (tor) greater than the time horizontal for the GWP calculation. 40 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  17. In vivo reprogramming for heart regeneration: A glance at efficiency, environmental impacts, challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2017-07-01

    Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes. Moreover, in vivo cardiac reprogramming not only drives cardiac tissue regeneration, but also improves cardiac function and survival rate after myocardial infarction. Thanks to the influence of cardiac microenvironment and the same developmental origin, cardiac fibroblasts seem to be more amenable to reprogramming toward cardiomyocyte fate than other cell sources (e.g. skin fibroblasts). Thus, reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to functional induced cardiomyocytes in the cardiac environment holds great promises for induced regeneration and potential clinical purposes. Application of small molecules in future studies may represent a major advancement in this arena and pharmacological reprogramming would convey reprogramming technology to the translational medicine paradigm. This study reviews accomplishments in the field of in vitro and in vivo mouse cardiac reprogramming and then deals with strategies for the enhancement of the efficiency and quality of the process. Furthermore, it discusses challenges ahead and provides suggestions for future research. Human cardiac reprogramming is also addressed as a foundation for possible application of in vivo cardiac reprogramming for human heart regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  19. Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Harvey, James S.; Martin, Francis L.; Newbold, Robert F.; O’Donovan, Michael R.; Pant, Kamala; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Scott, Andrew D.; Schechtman, Leonard M.; Shen, Rhine R.; Tanaka, Noriho; Yasaei, Hemad

    2012-01-01

    Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting. PMID:21852270

  20. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings—Findings from Expert Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration’s new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences’ product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations. PMID:28708124

  1. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings-Findings from Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-07-14

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration's new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences' product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations.

  2. Directly patching high-level exchange-correlation potential based on fully determined optimized effective potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2017-12-01

    The key element in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. We recently proposed the exchange-correlation potential patching (XCPP) method with the aim of directly constructing high-level XC potential in a large system by patching the locally computed, high-level XC potentials throughout the system. In this work, we investigate the patching of the exact exchange (EXX) and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation potentials. A major challenge of XCPP is that a cluster's XC potential, obtained by solving the optimized effective potential equation, is only determined up to an unknown constant. Without fully determining the clusters' XC potentials, the patched system's XC potential is "uneven" in the real space and may cause non-physical results. Here, we developed a simple method to determine this unknown constant. The performance of XCPP-RPA is investigated on three one-dimensional systems: H20, H10Li8, and the stretching of the H19-H bond. We investigated two definitions of EXX: (i) the definition based on the adiabatic connection and fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) and (ii) the Hartree-Fock (HF) definition. With ACFDT-type EXX, effective error cancellations were observed between the patched EXX and the patched RPA correlation potentials. Such error cancellations were absent for the HF-type EXX, which was attributed to the fact that for systems with fractional occupation numbers, the integral of the HF-type EXX hole is not -1. The KS spectra and band gaps from XCPP agree reasonably well with the benchmarks as we make the clusters large.

  3. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  4. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  5. Comprehensive embryo testing. Experts' opinions regarding future directions: an expert panel study on comprehensive embryo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Dondorp, Wybo J; Geraedts, Joep P M; de Wert, Guido M

    2013-05-01

    What do scientists in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) consider to be the future direction of comprehensive embryo testing? Although there are many biological and technical limitations, as well as uncertainties regarding the meaning of genetic variation, comprehensive embryo testing will impact the IVF/PGD practice and a timely ethical reflection is needed. Comprehensive testing using microarrays is currently being introduced in the context of PGD and PGS, and it is to be expected that whole-genome sequencing will also follow. Current ethical and empirical sociological research on embryo testing focuses on PGD as it is practiced now. However, empirical research and systematic reflection regarding the impact of comprehensive techniques for embryo testing is missing. In order to understand the potential of this technology and to be able to adequately foresee its implications, we held an expert panel with seven pioneers in PGD. We conducted an expert panel in October 2011 with seven PGD pioneers from Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Participants expected the use of comprehensive techniques in the context of PGD. However, the introduction of these techniques in embryo testing requires timely ethical reflection as it involves a shift from choosing an embryo without a particular genetic disease (i.e. PGD) or most likely to result in a successful pregnancy (i.e. PGS) to choosing the best embryo based on a much wider set of criteria. Such ethical reflection should take account of current technical and biological limitations and also of current uncertainties with regard to the meaning of genetic variance. However, ethicists should also not be afraid to look into the future. There was a general agreement that embryo testing will be increasingly preceded by comprehensive preconception screening, thus enabling smart combinations of genetic testing. The group was composed of seven participants from

  6. Sensitivity of direct global warming potentials to key uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Patten, K.O.; Grant, K.E.; Jain, A.K.

    1992-07-01

    A series of sensitivity studies examines the effect of several uncertainties in Global Wanning Potentials (GWPs). For example, the original evaluation of GWPs for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (EPCC, 1990) did not attempt to account for the possible sinks of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that could balance the carbon cycle and produce atmospheric concentrations of C0 2 that match observations. In this study, a balanced carbon cycle model is applied in calculation of the radiative forcing from C0 2 . Use of the balanced model produces up to 20 percent enhancement of the GWPs for most trace gases compared with the EPCC (1990) values for time horizons up to 100 years, but a decreasing enhancement with longer time horizons. Uncertainty limits of the fertilization feedback parameter contribute a 10 percent range in GWP values. Another systematic uncertainty in GWPs is the assumption of an equilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases remains constant) versus a disequilibrium atmosphere. The latter gives GWPs that are 15 to 30 percent greater than the former, dependening upon the carbon dioxide emission scenario chosen. Seven scenarios are employed: constant emission past 1990 and the six EPCC (1992) emission scenarios. For the analysis of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetime (τ), the GWP changes in direct proportion to τ for short-lived gases, but to a lesser extent for gases with τ greater than the time horizon for the GWP calculation

  7. Strategic directions of personnel potential forming of a building complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of directions of strategic approach forming of labor potential management of a building complex is carried out in this paper. On the basis of this analysis the system of actions for strategy forming divided into consecutive stages is offered. The development of the personnel forecast is a strategic planning basis. One of personnel forecast variants is the correlation of needs estimates in personnel of a building complex with available allowances. On the basis of the personnel forecast strategic analysis it is possible to compose working programs for the stated goals of implementation. Operational assessment of personnel requirements of a building complex is proved to be combined with strategic objectives. Some assessment approaches to qualitative and quantitative need for specialists of a building complex are offered. The fact that high-quality labor power supply system of a building complex with should be based on industry development forecast and increase in construction products competitiveness is revealed in the article. Strategic management priority will allow to react immediately to the current situation changes, to introduce amendments both into tactical, and operational management.

  8. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production. (author)

  9. Potential remobilization of belowground permafrost carbon under future global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Kuhry; E. Dorrepaal; G. Hugelius; E.A.G. Schuur; C. Tarnocai

    2010-01-01

    Research on permafrost carbon has dramatically increased in the past few years. A new estimate of 1672 Pg C of belowground organic carbon in the northern circumpolar permafrost region more than doubles the previous value and highlights the potential role of permafrost carbon in the Earth System. Uncertainties in this new estimate remain due to relatively few available...

  10. Future potential country doctor: the perspectives of German GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik; Joos, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, especially in rural areas. There are several reasons for this shortage. Over the last decade, fewer medical students in Germany have decided to work in patient care, even fewer in general practice and fewer still in general practice in rural areas. The aim of this study was to explore the 'pros and cons' of GPs' work in rural areas and to identify from GPs' perspective possible measures for counteracting future GP shortages. Within a qualitative approach, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The results were categorized into three main inductively-derived categories: personal, professional and regional/structural level. A higher level of self-confidence and a higher 'feel-good' factor due to GPs originating from rural areas were positive aspects at the personal level. Regarding the professional level, a low level of competition and varied work made a GP's profession attractive in rural areas. Negative aspects were mostly apparent at the regional/structural level, such a low earnings and few leisure facilities. Measures to counter the lack of GPs in rural areas were explored on all three levels: on the personal level, more optimism and resulting satisfaction on the part of doctors in rural areas could be improved by enhancing the benefits of being a doctor in a rural area. Regarding the professional level, more group practices are required to make working as a GP in a rural area more attractive. At a regional/structural level, young physicians who originate from rural areas should be recruited to work in rural areas. Financial incentives are regarded as not sufficient to attract enough young physicians to open practices in rural areas. Future action will be required at the personal, professional and regional/structural levels. The origin of medical students (urban or rural) should be considered a relevant

  11. Inertial confinement fusion: present status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Power from inertial confinement fusion holds much promise for society. This paper points out many of the benefits relative to combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and fission power. Potential problems are also identified and put in perspective. The progress toward achieving inertial fusion power is described and results of recent work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Key phenomenological uncertainties are described and experimental goals for the Nova laser system are given. Several ICF reactor designs are discussed

  12. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. BOX 2008 MS6172, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To date, the US reactor fleet has generated approximately 68,000 MTHM of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and even with no new nuclear build in the US, this stockpile will continue to grow at approximately 2,000 MTHM per year for several more decades. In the absence of reprocessing and recycle, this UNF is a liability and needs to be dealt with accordingly. However, with the development of future fuel cycle and reactor technologies in the decades ahead, there is potential for UNF to be used effectively and efficiently within a future US nuclear reactor fleet. Based on the detailed expected operating lifetimes, the future UNF discharges from the existing reactor fleet have been calculated on a yearly basis. Assuming a given electricity demand growth in the US and a corresponding growth demand for nuclear energy via new nuclear build, the future discharges of UNF have also been calculated on a yearly basis. Using realistic assumptions about reprocessing technologies and timescales and which future fuels are likely to be reprocessed, the amount of plutonium that could be separated and stored for future reactor technologies has been determined. With fast reactors (FRs) unlikely to be commercially available until 2050, any new nuclear build prior to then is assumed to be a light water reactor (LWR). If the decision is made for the US to proceed with reprocessing by 2030, the analysis shows that the UNF from future fuels discharged from 2025 onwards from the new and existing fleet of LWRs is sufficient to fuel a realistic future demand from FRs. The UNF arising from the existing LWR fleet prior to 2025 can be disposed of directly with no adverse effect on the potential to deploy a FR fleet from 2050 onwards. Furthermore, only a proportion of the UNF is required to be reprocessed from the existing fleet after 2025. All of the analyses and conclusions are based on realistic deployment timescales for reprocessing and reactor deployment. The impact of the delay in recycling the UNF

  13. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To date, the US reactor fleet has generated approximately 68,000 MTHM of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and even with no new nuclear build in the US, this stockpile will continue to grow at approximately 2,000 MTHM per year for several more decades. In the absence of reprocessing and recycle, this UNF is a liability and needs to be dealt with accordingly. However, with the development of future fuel cycle and reactor technologies in the decades ahead, there is potential for UNF to be used effectively and efficiently within a future US nuclear reactor fleet. Based on the detailed expected operating lifetimes, the future UNF discharges from the existing reactor fleet have been calculated on a yearly basis. Assuming a given electricity demand growth in the US and a corresponding growth demand for nuclear energy via new nuclear build, the future discharges of UNF have also been calculated on a yearly basis. Using realistic assumptions about reprocessing technologies and timescales and which future fuels are likely to be reprocessed, the amount of plutonium that could be separated and stored for future reactor technologies has been determined. With fast reactors (FRs) unlikely to be commercially available until 2050, any new nuclear build prior to then is assumed to be a light water reactor (LWR). If the decision is made for the US to proceed with reprocessing by 2030, the analysis shows that the UNF from future fuels discharged from 2025 onwards from the new and existing fleet of LWRs is sufficient to fuel a realistic future demand from FRs. The UNF arising from the existing LWR fleet prior to 2025 can be disposed of directly with no adverse effect on the potential to deploy a FR fleet from 2050 onwards. Furthermore, only a proportion of the UNF is required to be reprocessed from the existing fleet after 2025. All of the analyses and conclusions are based on realistic deployment timescales for reprocessing and reactor deployment. The impact of the delay in recycling the UNF

  14. The History, Status, Gaps, and Future Directions of Neurotoxicology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tongjian; Luo, Wenjing; Ruan, Diyun; Wu, Yi-Jun; Fox, Donald A; Chen, Jingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Rapid economic development in China has produced serious ecological, environmental, and health problems. Neurotoxicity has been recognized as a major public health problem. The Chinese government, research institutes, and scientists conducted extensive studies concerning the source, characteristics, and mechanisms of neurotoxicants. This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive history and review of major sources of neurotoxicants, national bodies/legislation engaged, and major neurotoxicology research in China. Peer-reviewed research and pollution studies by Chinese scientists from 1991 to 2015 were examined. PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were the major search tools. The central problem is an increased exposure to neurotoxicants from air and water, food contamination, e-waste recycling, and manufacturing of household products. China formulated an institutional framework and standards system for management of major neurotoxicants. Basic and applied research was initiated, and international cooperation was achieved. The annual number of peer-reviewed neurotoxicology papers from Chinese authors increased almost 30-fold since 2001. Despite extensive efforts, neurotoxicity remains a significant public health problem. This provides great challenges and opportunities. We identified 10 significant areas that require major educational, environmental, governmental, and research efforts, as well as attention to public awareness. For example, there is a need to increase efforts to utilize new in vivo and in vitro models, determine the potential neurotoxicity and mechanisms involved in newly emerging pollutants, and examine the effects and mechanisms of mixtures. In the future, we anticipate working with scientists worldwide to accomplish these goals and eliminate, prevent and treat neurotoxicity. Cai T, Luo W, Ruan D, Wu YJ, Fox DA, Chen J. 2016. The history, status, gaps, and future directions of neurotoxicology in

  15. Methodological Characteristics and Future Directions for Plyometric Jump Training Research: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Álvarez, Cristian; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Gentil, Paulo; Asadi, Abbas; Chaabene, Helmi; Moran, Jason; Meylan, Cesar; García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Granacher, Urs; Kraemer, William; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training, including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., a lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results, and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to (1) characterize the main elements of plyometric jump training studies (e.g., training protocols) and (2) provide future directions for research. From 648 potentially relevant articles, 242 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The main issues identified related to an insufficient number of studies conducted in females, youths, and individual sports (~ 24.0, ~ 37.0, and ~ 12.0% of overall studies, respectively); insufficient reporting of effect size values and training prescription (~ 34.0 and ~ 55.0% of overall studies, respectively); and studies missing an active/passive control group and randomization (~ 40.0 and ~ 20.0% of overall studies, respectively). Furthermore, plyometric jump training was often combined with other training methods and added to participants' daily training routines (~ 47.0 and ~ 39.0% of overall studies, respectively), thus distorting conclusions on its independent effects. Additionally, most studies lasted no longer than 7 weeks. In future, researchers are advised to conduct plyometric training studies of high methodological quality (e.g., randomized controlled trials). More research is needed in females, youth, and individual sports. Finally, the identification of specific dose-response relationships following plyometric training is needed to specifically tailor intervention programs, particularly in the long term.

  16. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF TEHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ON FUTURE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN COSMIN-ALEXANDRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments in the last decades have reached unbelievable levels, what was once the domain of science fiction movies is now a reality, and this developments have left few areas of human life unchanged. In this paper we aim to explore the changes that technology brought to the way people work and, especially to the way people will work. While we acknowledge that any prediction about the future is almost always proved wrong from the get go, we think that the importance of the subject warrants the risk. The paper draws its routes from some of the most influential theories about how technology will impact the way people work and is main objective is to spark a conversation about the merits of lack thereof that they contain. It is by no means an extensive work, but rather the beginning of a research focus that will, hopefully bring new insights in the above mentioned field. For the sake of convenience we have grouped the predictions in three categories: “Business as usual”, “Lateral developments” and “All bets are off” based on how profound the change would be. Each of this levels offers different benefits, as well as different challenges, our hope is that throw a process of thorough consideration solutions can be generated to maximize the former while minimizing the latter.

  17. Green Marketing Mix: A Review of Literature and Direction for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Kumar; Bhimrao Ghodeswar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a systematic review of literature in green marketing domain and to propose directions for future research. Green marketing issues are delineated from literature extending marketing orientation and marketing mix frameworks. As society becomes more concerned with the natural environment, businesses modify their behaviour in an attempt to address society's concerns. Based on the literature review, the conceptual review and direction for futu...

  18. Basic mechanisms of gabitril (tiagabine) and future potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S; Chapman, A G

    1999-01-01

    Gabitril (tiagabine) is a potent selective inhibitor of the principal neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (GAT-1) in the cortex and hippocampus. By slowing the reuptake of synaptically-released GABA, it prolongs inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. In animal models of epilepsy, tiagabine is particularly effective against kindled (limbic) seizures and against reflexly-induced generalized convulsive seizures. These data are predictive of its efficacy in complex partial seizures in humans. Possible clinical applications outside the field of epilepsy include bipolar disorder and pain.

  19. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M and O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide

  20. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  1. Combined potential of future long-baseline and reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, P.; Lindner, M.; Rolinec, M.; Schwetz, T.; Winter, W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the determination of neutrino oscillation parameters by experiments within the next ten years. The potential of conventional beam experiments (MINOS, ICARUS, OPERA), superbeam experiments (T2K, NOνA), and reactor experiments (D-CHOOZ) to improve the precision on the 'atmospheric' parameters Δm 31 2 , θ 23 , as well as the sensitivity to θ 13 are discussed. Further, we comment on the possibility to determine the leptonic CP-phase and the neutrino mass hierarchy if θ 13 turns out to be large

  2. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1985-11-01

    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  3. Assessment approaches in massive open online courses: Possibilities, challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yao; Suen, Hoi K.

    2018-03-01

    The development of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has launched an era of large-scale interactive participation in education. While massive open enrolment and the advances of learning technology are creating exciting potentials for lifelong learning in formal and informal ways, the implementation of efficient and effective assessment is still problematic. To ensure that genuine learning occurs, both assessments for learning (formative assessments), which evaluate students' current progress, and assessments of learning (summative assessments), which record students' cumulative progress, are needed. Providers' more recent shift towards the granting of certificates and digital badges for course accomplishments also indicates the need for proper, secure and accurate assessment results to ensure accountability. This article examines possible assessment approaches that fit open online education from formative and summative assessment perspectives. The authors discuss the importance of, and challenges to, implementing assessments of MOOC learners' progress for both purposes. Various formative and summative assessment approaches are then identified. The authors examine and analyse their respective advantages and disadvantages. They conclude that peer assessment is quite possibly the only universally applicable approach in massive open online education. They discuss the promises, practical and technical challenges, current developments in and recommendations for implementing peer assessment. They also suggest some possible future research directions.

  4. Acceleration of cardiovascular MRI using parallel imaging: basic principles, practical considerations, clinical applications and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, T.; Sodickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CVMR) imaging has proven to be of clinical value for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMR requires rapid imaging; however, the speed of conventional MRI is fundamentally limited due to its sequential approach to image acquisition, in which data points are collected one after the other in the presence of sequentially-applied magnetic field gradients and radiofrequency coils to acquire multiple data points simultaneously, and thereby to increase imaging speed and efficiency beyond the limits of purely gradient-based approaches. The resulting improvements in imaging speed can be used in various ways, including shortening long examinations, improving spatial resolution and anatomic coverage, improving temporal resolution, enhancing image quality, overcoming physiological constraints, detecting and correcting for physiologic motion, and streamlining work flow. Examples of these strategies will be provided in this review, after some of the fundamentals of parallel imaging methods now in use for cardiovascular MRI are outlined. The emphasis will rest upon basic principles and clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular MRI applications. In addition, practical aspects such as signal-to-noise ratio considerations, tailored parallel imaging protocols and potential artifacts will be discussed, and current trends and future directions will be explored. (orig.)

  5. Arctic transitions in the Land - Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Sturm, M.; Chapin, F. S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.

  6. Challenges and future direction of molecular research in air pollution-related lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahadin, Maizatul Syafinaz; Ab Mutalib, Nurul Syakima; Latif, Mohd Talib; Greene, Catherine M; Hassan, Tidi

    2018-04-01

    Hazardous air pollutants or chemical release into the environment by a variety of natural and/or anthropogenic activities may give adverse effects to human health. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM) affect number of different human organs, especially the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported that ambient air pollution is a cause of lung cancer. Recently, the agency has classified outdoor air pollution as well as PM air pollution as Group 1 carcinogens. In addition, several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between air pollutants to lung cancer risks and mortality. However, there are only a few studies examining the molecular effects of air pollution exposure specifically in lung cancer due to multiple challenges to mimic air pollution exposure in basic experimentation. Another major issue is the lack of adequate adjustments for exposure misclassification as air pollution may differ temporo-spatially and socioeconomically. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current molecular understanding of air pollution-related lung cancer and potential future direction in this challenging yet important research field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social networks and future direction for obesity research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Redeker, Nancy; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to decrease obesity rates, the prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States. Obesity risk behaviors including physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and sleep deprivation are intertwined during daily life and are difficult to improve in the current social environment. Studies show that social networks-the thick webs of social relations and interactions-influence various health outcomes, such as HIV risk behaviors, alcohol consumption, smoking, depression, and cardiovascular mortality; however, there is limited information on the influences of social networks on obesity and obesity risk behaviors. Given the complexities of the biobehavioral pathology of obesity and the lack of clear evidence of effectiveness and sustainability of existing interventions that are usually focused on an individual approach, targeting change in an individual's health behaviors or attitude may not take sociocontextual factors into account; there is a pressing need for a new perspective on this problem. In this review, we evaluate the literature on social networks as a potential approach for obesity prevention and treatment (i.e., how social networks affect various health outcomes), present two major social network data analyses (i.e., egocentric and sociometric analysis), and discuss implications and the future direction for obesity research using social networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multisource Remote Sensing Data: Literature Survey, Taxonomy, Principles, Applications, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite time series with high spatial resolution is critical for monitoring land surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. Although remote sensing technologies have experienced rapid development in recent years, data acquired from a single satellite sensor are often unable to satisfy our demand. As a result, integrated use of data from different sensors has become increasingly popular in the past decade. Many spatiotemporal data fusion methods have been developed to produce synthesized images with both high spatial and temporal resolutions from two types of satellite images, frequent coarse-resolution images, and sparse fine-resolution images. These methods were designed based on different principles and strategies, and therefore show different strengths and limitations. This diversity brings difficulties for users to choose an appropriate method for their specific applications and data sets. To this end, this review paper investigates literature on current spatiotemporal data fusion methods, categorizes existing methods, discusses the principal laws underlying these methods, summarizes their potential applications, and proposes possible directions for future studies in this field.

  10. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  11. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  12. Potential future changes in water limitations of the terrestrial biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Lucht, W. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 601203, D-14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    This study explores the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and climate change on soil moisture (W{sub r} ) and biome-level water limitation (L{sub TA}), using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model forced by five different scenarios of change in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, all based on the same IS92a emission scenario. L{sub TA} is defined as an index that quantifies the degree to which transpiration and photosynthesis are co-limited by soil water shortage (high values indicate low water limitation). Soil moisture decreases in many regions by 2071-2100 compared to 1961-1990, though the regional pattern of change differs substantially among the scenarios due primarily to differences in GCM-specific precipitation changes. In terms of L{sub TA}, ecosystems in northern temperate latitudes are at greatest risk of increasing water limitation, while in most other latitudes L{sub TA} tends to increase (but again varies the regional pattern of change among the scenarios). The frequently opposite direction of change in W r and L{sub TA} suggests that decreases in W r are not necessarily felt by actual vegetation, which is attributable mainly to the physiological vegetation response to elevated CO2. Without this beneficial effect, the sign of change in L{sub TA} would be reversed from predominantly positive to predominantly negative.

  13. Potential future changes in water limitations of the terrestrial biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Lucht, W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and climate change on soil moisture (W r ) and biome-level water limitation (L TA ), using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model forced by five different scenarios of change in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, all based on the same IS92a emission scenario. L TA is defined as an index that quantifies the degree to which transpiration and photosynthesis are co-limited by soil water shortage (high values indicate low water limitation). Soil moisture decreases in many regions by 2071-2100 compared to 1961-1990, though the regional pattern of change differs substantially among the scenarios due primarily to differences in GCM-specific precipitation changes. In terms of L TA , ecosystems in northern temperate latitudes are at greatest risk of increasing water limitation, while in most other latitudes L TA tends to increase (but again varies the regional pattern of change among the scenarios). The frequently opposite direction of change in W r and L TA suggests that decreases in W r are not necessarily felt by actual vegetation, which is attributable mainly to the physiological vegetation response to elevated CO2. Without this beneficial effect, the sign of change in L TA would be reversed from predominantly positive to predominantly negative

  14. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  15. The nuclear regulatory process in Canada experience and possible future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainsbury, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying principle in the Canadian licensing process is that the licensee (owner/operatopr) bears the responsibility for safety while the regulatory authority sets safety objectives and audits their achievement. As a consequence, Canadian Regulatory Requirements emphasize numerical safety goals, and minimize specific design or operational rules. This paper traces the evolution of this approach, and indicates direction for the future. (author)

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  17. Key Challenges and Future Directions for Educational Research on Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Close, Kevin; Evans, Mat

    2018-01-01

    At the 2015 "NARST: A Worldwide Organization for Improving Science Teaching and Learning Through Research" Annual International Conference, a group of scholars held an extended pre-conference workshop to discuss key challenges and future directions faced by argumentation researchers around the world. This wide-ranging group of…

  18. Issues in contemporary and potential future molecular diagnostics for dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Soe, Hui Jen

    2017-03-01

    Dengue has been the most common arbovirus infection worldwide with 2.5 billion people living in over 100 endemic tropical and subtropical regions. Due to the high number of asymptomatic cases and the signs and symptoms being rather unspecific, dengue cases are often under-reported and might influence dengue surveillance programs. Therefore, a rapid, easy to use, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool is essential for early and accurate diagnosis to ease the clinical management of patients as well as for the development of new interventions. Areas covered: This report discusses the contemporary dengue diagnostic tool, mainly from the aspect of molecular diagnosis where an overview of several nuclei acid amplification tests has been included. Potential molecular diagnostic tools such as biosensor and microarray are also discussed in this report. Expert commentary: Rapidness and accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity is imperative in dengue diagnosis for both clinical management and surveillance of dengue to ensure early treatment and corrective control measures can be carried out. In the next five years it is expected that there will be newer tests developed using not only the lateral flow techniques but more specifically biosensors and nanotechnology. These new technologies will have to be validated with the appropriate number and category of samples and to address the issue of cross-reactivity.

  19. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-01

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population—thus becoming the "heavy charged particle of choice" for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  20. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.

    2008-12-01

    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  1. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  2. Potential of light water reactors for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption worldwide is going to increase further in the next few decades. Reliable supplies of electricity can be achieved only by centralized power plant structures. In this scenario, nuclear power plants are going to play a leading role as reliable and competitive plants, also under deregulated market conditions. Today, light water reactors have achieved a leading position, both technically and economically, contributing 85% to worldwide electricity generation in nuclear plants. They will continue to be a proven technology in power generation. In many countries, activities therefore are concentrated on extending the service life of plants beyond a period of forty years. New nuclear generating capacities are expected to be created and added from the end of this decade onward. Most of this capacity will be in light water reactors. The concepts of third-generation reactors will meet all economic and technical safety requirements of the 21st century and will offer considerable potential for further development. Probably some thirty years from now, fourth-generation nuclear power plants will be ready for commercial application. These plants will penetrate especially new sectors of the energy markets. Public acceptance of new nuclear power plants is not a matter of reactor lines, provided that safety requirements are met. The important issue is the management of radioactive waste. The construction of new nuclear power plants in Western Europe and North America mainly hinges on the ability to explain to the public that there is a need for new plants and that nuclear power is fundamental to assuring sustainable development. (orig.)

  3. MEDIA ENVIRONMENT AS FACTOR OF REALIZATION OF CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF FUTURE TEACHERS` IN THE MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Lebedieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  4. Para Sport Athletic Identity from Competition to Retirement: A Brief Review and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michelle; Martin, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the literature on para sport athletic identity and provide avenues for future research direction. First, the authors briefly describe the existing quantitative and qualitative research on para sport athletic identity and, thereby, illustrate the complexities para sport athletes experience regarding the way they describe their participation in competitive sport. Next, the authors describe how para sport athletes with acquired permanent disabilities and congenital disabilities face similar, yet unique, identity-related challenges. Finally, the authors argue that future researchers should consider examining para sport athletes' identity through narrative identity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Papers of the 1997 CERI international petrochemical conference : transformation, growth and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A global overview of the current state of the petrochemical industry, a forecast of future developments, and Alberta's place in the petrochemical industry were the principal themes of this conference. Main topics explored included: (1) global opportunities for petrochemical producers, (2) natural gas and feedstock supplies, (3) chemical industry environment, (4) pipeline implications and transportation systems for the petrochemical industry, (5) partnerships, (6) investment cycles, and (7) forces and future directions for the Canadian industry. The Proceedings volume includes complete text of some of the papers, and speaking notes and copies of overhead slides for others, as submitted by individual speakers. refs., tabs., figs

  6. The clean energy future of Saskatchewan. Evaluating the potential for nuclear power in Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, I. [SaskPower, Clean Energy Group, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The clean energy direction of Saskatchewan is very dependent on the vision of the energy future. Saskatchewan has depended strongly on coal as a base load asset and embracing the future will depend on creating multiple pathways. This presentation will explore the pathways and the reasons why they are important.

  7. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  8. Polymer-drug conjugates: origins, progress to date and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    This overview focuses on bioconjugates of water-soluble polymers with low molecular weight drugs and proteins. After a short discussion of the origins of the field, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. Then research directions needed for the acceleration of the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic are outlined. Two most important directions, synthesis of backbone degradable polymer carriers and drug-free macromolecular therapeutics, a new paradigm in drug delivery, are discussed in detail. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What is past is prologue: future directions in Tokamak Power Reactor Design Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    After reviewing the first generation of studies and the primary conclusions they produced, four current designs are discussed that are representative of present trends in this area of research. In particular, the trends towards reduced reactor size and higher neutron wall loadings are discussed. Moving in this direction requires new approaches to many subsystem designs. New approaches and future directions in first wall and blanket designs that can achieve reliable operation and reasonable lifetime, the use of cryogenic but normal aluminum magnets for the pulsed coils in a tokamak, blanket designs that allow elimination of the intermediate loop, and low activity shields and toroidal field magnets are described. A discussion is given of the future role of conceptual reactor design research and the need for close interactions with ongoing experiments in fusion technology

  10. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TSUNAMI GENERATION IN CHINA'S BOHAI SEA FROM DIRECT GEOTECTONIC AND COLLATERAL SOURCE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pararas Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Sea borders northeastern China's most populous and highest economic valuecoastal areas where several megacities are located. Critical infrastructure facilities exist or areunder construction, including a nuclear power plant and super port facilities. Large reserves of oilhave been discovered and a number of offshore oil platforms have been built. The extent ofdevelopment along coastal areas requires a better assessment of potential tsunami risks. Althoughtsunamis do not pose as much of a threat as earthquakes in this region, locally destructive tsunamishave been generated in the past and future events could have significant impacts on coastalpopulations and China's economy, particularly because most of the development has taken place inlow-lying regions, including river deltas. The present study examines the geotectonics of the Bohaibasin region, the impact of past historical events, and the potential for local tsunami generationfrom a variety of direct and collateral source mechanisms triggered by intra plate earthquakes.More specifically, the present study examines: amajor active faults bounding the Bohai Basin; bthe resulting crustal deformation patterns of tectonic structures that have resulted in catastrophicearthquakes in recent years; c the basin-wide extension - with local inversion - extending into theBohai Sea that generated tsunamigenic earthquakes in 1888 and 1969; and d deformational futureseismic events with the potential to generate local tsunamis directly or by collateral mechanisms offolding, en-echelon bookshelf failures, or from destabilization/dissociation of structuralaccumulations of gas hydrate deposits within the basin's thick sedimentary stratigraphic layers.

  11. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  12. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings?Findings from Expert Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug A...

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING FUTURE NAVIGATORS READING ENGLISH AUTHENTIC SAILING DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Приміна

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the psychological peculiarities of teaching future navigators reading English professional authentic documentation have been analyzed. The psychological foundations of understanding printed information in general and foreign information particularly have been disclosed. The processes of textual information perception and visual material perception comprehension have been analysed. The language levels of foreign text comprehension have been examined. The peculiarities of perceptual transformation of foreign language information while reading English sailing directions have been found out.

  14. Methods for direct measurement of the plasma potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Christoffersen, G. B.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1972-01-01

    Reports on a simple experimental technique which can be used for determination of the plasma where the plasma potential prevails; these ions are accepted by the analyser plate when phi c= phi pl. Part of this technique has been used by Andersen, Jensen, Michelsen and Nielsen (1971) in measurements...

  15. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as predictors of future business potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis come from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of approximately 2000 private customers evaluated...

  16. Reducing the Potential for Future Financial Crises: A Framework for Macro-Prudential Policy in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Jenkins; Gordon Thiessen

    2012-01-01

    Canada needs a policy framework and new governance structure beyond what is in place to reduce the potential for future financial crises. The authors make the case for establishing a formal committee with a mandate to identify potential systemic risks and to act promptly before they materialize. While Canada's system of regulating and supervising financial institutions might hold up as a model of good performance, changes can and should be made, say Jenkins and Thiessen. Future crises undoubt...

  17. Future-oriented technology analysis: Its potential to address disruptive transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnin, Cristiano; Havas, Attila; Saritas, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on the potential of future-oriented analysis (FTA) to address major change and to support decision-makers and other stakeholders in anticipating and dealing with transformations. It does so by critically reflecting on the selected papers for this special issue as well as on the discussions that took place at the fourth Seville International Conference on Future-oriented Technology Analysis. Considering the potential roles of FTA in enabling a better understanding of co...

  18. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  19. Potential Significance of the EU Water Framework Directive to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars Skov Andersen; Martin Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) is a unique piece of legislation, which may be of great significance to on - going reforms of the water sector in China. First and foremost it unites 27 European mem- ber states behind a common goal, which is "to achieve good chemical and ecological status" of all water bodies across the EU. Other significant characteristics of the EU WFD are that (1) it sets a clear timeframe with a number of time - bound actions for member states to achieve the goal, hut leaves it to member states to achieve this goal in a decent- ralised process, which makes allowance for the different socio - economic conditions, (2) it defines the river basin as the management unit for water thus departing with the traditional fragmented management by administrative units and it appoints a single competent authority for water management within each fiver basin, thus facilitating resolution of sector conflicts, (3) it requires a financial and economic analysis of the costs of implementing the EU WFD to enable deci- sion makers to assess whether the required improvements are affordable to government and to the population within the fiver basin, and (4) it requires a structured process for information and consultation with stakeholders and the public throughout the planning and implementation process.

  20. [Scientific potential of phenomics - functional direction of genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasanov, A V; Valtseva, E A

    In this paper on the based on the integration of known theories, doctrines and concepts - principles of consistency and self-regulation of physiological functions (Pavlov I.P., 1950), the theory offunctional systems (Anokhin P.K., 1973), the theory of adaptive reactions (Selye H., 1960 ; Garkavi LKh et al, 1979), the doctrine of the dominant (Ukhtomsky A.A., 1966), doctrine on health (Baevsky R.M.), doctrine on the body type of the human by Merlin VS. conception on the “the interrelationship between the function and genetic apparatus” by Meyerson F.Z., Pshennikova M.G., Platonov V.N., and others, there is proposed to select phenomics - functional division of genetics considering the poolability of specific mechanisms of the body in an integral system of the adaptive act in favor of the development of a personalized approach to the diagnosis and prevention of non-communicable diseases, increasing life expectancy of working age into the particular scientific direction. The task of phenomics is the establishment of the phenotypic characteristics of the person, norms of the response of systems of his body, determination of the deviation of the level of the functioning of the each system from the norm of its response and the elaboration of the tactics for the correction of the functional state of the organism (the optimization of its life activity), with taking into account the directedness of the interaction of body systems. The description of the shaping of the mechanism of stereotyped response of the organism generated an important contribution to the development of phenomics. Stereotyped response being initiated by the non-specific response of the body is aimed at the shaping of the activity of its systems after a fashion of norms of the activity, promotes the recovery of the specificity of the body, plays an important role in the establishment of cause-effect relations of the disease.

  1. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter? A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Mazerolle, Erin L.; D'Arcy, Ryan C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: (1) the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and (2) fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter) as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter). Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI. PMID:25152709

  2. Are Managed Futures Indices Telling Truth? Biases in CTA Databases and Proposals of Potential Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Managed futures are an alternative asset class which has recently became considerably popular among investment industry. However, due to its characteristics, access to managed futures historical performance statistics is relatively confined. All available information originates from commercial and academic databases, reporting to which is entirely voluntary. This situation results in series of biases which distort the managed futures performance in the eyes of investors. The paper consists of two parts. First, the author reviews and describes various biases that influence the reliability of the managed futures indices and databases. The second section encompasses author’s proposals of potential enhancements, which aim to reduce the impact of the biases in order to derive a benchmark that could better reflect characteristics of managed futures investment from the point of view of a potential investor.

  3. Fall Prediction and Prevention Systems: Recent Trends, Challenges, and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Rajagopalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fall prediction is a multifaceted problem that involves complex interactions between physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Existing fall detection and prediction systems mainly focus on physiological factors such as gait, vision, and cognition, and do not address the multifactorial nature of falls. In addition, these systems lack efficient user interfaces and feedback for preventing future falls. Recent advances in internet of things (IoT and mobile technologies offer ample opportunities for integrating contextual information about patient behavior and environment along with physiological health data for predicting falls. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in fall detection and prediction systems. It also describes the challenges, limitations, and future directions in the design and implementation of effective fall prediction and prevention systems.

  4. Fall Prediction and Prevention Systems: Recent Trends, Challenges, and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Litvan, Irene; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Fall prediction is a multifaceted problem that involves complex interactions between physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Existing fall detection and prediction systems mainly focus on physiological factors such as gait, vision, and cognition, and do not address the multifactorial nature of falls. In addition, these systems lack efficient user interfaces and feedback for preventing future falls. Recent advances in internet of things (IoT) and mobile technologies offer ample opportunities for integrating contextual information about patient behavior and environment along with physiological health data for predicting falls. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in fall detection and prediction systems. It also describes the challenges, limitations, and future directions in the design and implementation of effective fall prediction and prevention systems.

  5. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga Shoji; Plataniotis KonstantinosN; Trémeau Alain

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the mos...

  6. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  7. Face-to-face: Changing future teachers through direct service learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Caro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study analyzed the changes in social dispositions of pre-service teachers. These pre-service teachers tutored homeless children in an urban homeless shelter as part of a direct service learning project. Utilizing surveys at the beginning of the study and at the end, and reflective journals of participants, data was analyzed according to changes in the following dispositions: understanding students with social needs, anticipated changes in future teaching dispositions, and anticipated changes in pedagogical approaches. Findings support the need for imbedding direct service learning into teacher preparation programs. KEYWORDSteacher preparation, social dispositions, service-learning, community-based research, civic engagement, community engagement, community partnerships

  8. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  9. Clinical trials in orthopaedics and the future direction of clinical investigations for femoroacetabular impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clohisy, John C; Kim, Young-Jo; Lurie, Jon

    2013-01-01

    to be further defined. To date, clinical research reports have included primarily surgical case series. Future clinical investigations are needed to establish improved clinical evidence to guide patient care. Most urgent is the need to better understand the potential role of standardized nonsurgical treatment......Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect a diverse patient population. The natural history of the disease, the role of nonsurgical management, the indications for surgery, optimal surgical techniques, and the predictors of treatment outcomes need...... options for FAI and to define the predictors of surgical and nonsurgical outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials and large observational cohort studies targeted at these clinical research deficiencies will strengthen the evidence and improve informed decision making regarding the management...

  10. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  11. Applying quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, David A.; Mombelli, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Tran, Lang; Worth, Andrew; Fadeel, Bengt; McCall, Maxine J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure–toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure–toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes

  12. Bilingual teaching in nursing education in China: evolution, status, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xu, Yu; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-09-01

    Based on Chinese published literature and personal observations, this article reviews the history of bilingual teaching in nursing education in China, describes its current status and challenges, and predicts its future directions. Bilingual teaching in nursing education enjoys increasing popularity in China. The major factors that affect bilingual teaching are bilingual educators, students' English-language levels, bilingual teaching materials, and teaching models. Based on surveys of nursing schools, the English-language proficiency of the nursing educators varies greatly. The main issues with the teaching methods lie in over-translation, cramming, and limited interaction between the students and the teachers. Despite relatively inadequate English-language proficiency among Chinese nursing students, their interest can be strengthened greatly if international exchanges are available and promoted. Bilingual textbooks are more suitable in China's national context because of pricing and relevance. Although immersive bilingual teaching is the ideal, it is more feasible to begin with infiltrative bilingual teaching and move progressively towards increased English-language penetration. Future directions for improving bilingual teaching include training teaching faculty members, strengthening international exchanges, providing better bilingual study atmospheres, and gradually implementing bilingual textbooks. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Research progress from the SCI Model Systems (SCIMS): An interactive discussion on future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninger, Michael L; Field-Fote, Edelle C; Kirshblum, Steven C; Lammertse, Daniel P; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Hudson, Lesley; Heinemann, Allen W

    2018-03-01

    To describe current and future directions in spinal cord injury (SCI) research. The SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) programs funded by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) during the 2011 to 2016 cycle provided abstracts describing findings from current research projects. Discussion among session participants generated ideas for research opportunities. Pre-conference workshop before the 2016 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) annual meeting. A steering committee selected by the SCIMS directors that included the moderators of the sessions at the ASIA pre-conference workshop, researchers presenting abstracts during the session, and the audience of over 100 attending participants in the pre-conference workshop. Group discussion followed presentations in 5 thematic areas of (1) Demographics and Measurement; (2) Functional Training; (3) Psychosocial Considerations; (4) Assistive Technology; and (5) Secondary Conditions. The steering committee reviewed and summarized discussion points on future directions for research and made recommendations for research based on the discussion in each of the five areas. Significant areas in need of research in SCI remain, the goal of which is continued improvement in the quality of life of individuals with SCI.

  14. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and male infertility: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Connor M; Flannigan, Ryan; Schlegel, Peter N

    2018-03-01

    To summarise the current state of research into spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) therapies with a focus on future directions, as SSCs show promise as a source for preserving or initiating fertility in otherwise infertile men. We performed a search for publications addressing spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the treatment of male infertility. The search engines PubMed and Google Scholar were used from 1990 to 2017. Search terms were relevant for spermatogonial stem cell therapies. Titles of publications were screened for relevance; abstracts were read, if related and full papers were reviewed for directly pertinent original research. In all, 58 papers were found to be relevant to this review, and were included in appropriate subheadings. This review discusses the various techniques that SSCs are being investigated to treat forms of male infertility. Evidence does not yet support clinical application of SSCs in humans. However, significant progress in the in vitro and in vivo development of SSCs, including differentiation into functional germ cells, gives reason for cautious optimism for future research.

  15. What is past is prologue: future directions in tokamak power reactor design research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual tokamak power reactor designs over the last five years have provided us with many fundamental insights regarding tokamaks as fusion reactors. This first generation of studies has helped lay the groundwork upon which to build improvements in reactor design and begin a process of optimization. After reviewing the first generation of studies and the primary conclusions they produced, we discuss four current designs that are representative of present trends in this area of research. In particular, we discuss the trends towards reduced reactor size and higher neutron wall loadings. Moving in this direction requires new approaches to many subsystem designs. We describe new approaches and future directions in first wall and blanket designs that can achieve reliable operation and reasonable lifetime, the use of cryogenic but normal aluminum magnets for the pulsed coils in a tokamak, blanket designs that allow elimination of the intermediate loop, and low activity shields and toroidal field magnets. We close with a discussion of the future role of conceptual reactor design research and the need for close interaction with ongoing experiments in fusion technology

  16. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and male infertility: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Forbes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarise the current state of research into spermatogonial stem cell (SSC therapies with a focus on future directions, as SSCs show promise as a source for preserving or initiating fertility in otherwise infertile men. Materials and methods: We performed a search for publications addressing spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the treatment of male infertility. The search engines PubMed and Google Scholar were used from 1990 to 2017. Search terms were relevant for spermatogonial stem cell therapies. Titles of publications were screened for relevance; abstracts were read, if related and full papers were reviewed for directly pertinent original research. Results: In all, 58 papers were found to be relevant to this review, and were included in appropriate subheadings. This review discusses the various techniques that SSCs are being investigated to treat forms of male infertility. Conclusions: Evidence does not yet support clinical application of SSCs in humans. However, significant progress in the in vitro and in vivo development of SSCs, including differentiation into functional germ cells, gives reason for cautious optimism for future research. Keywords: Non-obstructive azoospermia, Fertility preservation, Onco-fertility, Male infertility, Stem cell therapy, Allograft

  17. Future Directions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research. An NHLBI Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Timothy S.; Tager, Andrew M.; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B.; Schwartz, David A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R.; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K.; Chapman, Harold A.; Collard, Harold R.; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S.; Henke, Craig A.; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; King, Talmadge E.; Loyd, James E.; Lawson, William E.; Marsh, Clay B.; Noble, Paul W.; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A.; O’Riordan, Thomas G.; Oury, Tim D.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Wells, Rebecca G.; White, Eric S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

  18. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veluswamy, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is looked upon as the next generation clean energy carrier, search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been pursued relentlessly. Improving hydrogen storage capacity to meet DOE targets has been challenging and research efforts are continuously put forth to achieve the set targets and to make hydrogen storage a commercially realizable process. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art experimental work conducted on the storage of hydrogen as hydrogen clathrates both at the molecular level and macroscopic level. It identifies future directions and challenges for this exciting area of research. Hydrogen storage capacities of different clathrate structures – sI, sII, sH, sVI and semi clathrates have been compiled and presented. In addition, promising new approaches for increasing hydrogen storage capacity have been described. Future directions for achieving increased hydrogen storage and process scale up have been outlined. Despite few limitations in storing hydrogen in the form of clathrates, this domain receives prominent attention due to more environmental-friendly method of synthesis, easy recovery of molecular hydrogen with minimum energy requirement, and improved safety of the process

  19. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  20. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  1. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The report contains a general overview of present technology concerning production of biogas through anaerobic breakdown of easily recycled organic material as well as implementation areas for biogas. The work has been done in three parts: description of present situation, technical limitations and development efforts, synthesis. In Sweden there are more than 220 biogas plants for handling crops, sludge and organic residue material. Production of biogas occurs primarily at sewage treatment plants and landfills. Total capacity in 2004 was approx. 300,000 m{sup 3} anaerobic chamber volume, of which approx. 73% was utilised. Planned increase in capacity was approx. 125,000 m{sup 3} or approx. 42%.The substrate brought to the plants was comprised of approx. 45% manure, 30% offal, 10% biowaste from households and 15% other substrates. Calculations based on the energy content of input substrate indicate that approx. 10% of the gas was from manure, 65% from offal, 25% from household waste and 5% from other substrates. In 2005 a total of 1,5 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden. Biogas is used primarily for heating purposes followed by use as vehicle fuel and in electricity production. More than 55 GWh is torched away. Sewage treatment plants are not included. Interest in using biogas as fuel has increased. The theoretical biogas potential in Sweden has been calculated to be 14-17 TWh per year, of which approx. 80% is found in agriculturally related biomass. Approximately 3 TWh originates from various types of household and industrial waste. Generally it can be said that there is a large potential for improvement and increased efficiency within the whole chain of substrate collection, preparatory treatment of substrates, operational control of biogas plants, upgrade/treatment and use of gas as well as spreading and use of biofertilizer. The greatest increase in substrate will come from the amount of crops from the agricultural sector. The contacts between farmers and plant

  2. Future Research Directions in the Positive Valence Systems: Measurement, Development, and Implications for Youth Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The Positive Valence Systems (PVS) have been introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health as a domain to help organize multiple constructs focusing on reward-seeking behaviors. However, the initial working model for this domain is strongly influenced by adult constructs and measures. Thus, the present review focuses on extending the PVS into a developmental context. Specifically, the review provides some hypotheses about the structure of the PVS, how PVS components may change throughout development, how family history of depression may influence PVS development, and potential means of intervening on PVS function to reduce onsets of depression. Future research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  3. Present status and future directions of the Mayo/IBM PACS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Richard L.; Forbes, Glenn S.; Gehring, Dale G.; Salutz, James R.; Pavlicek, William

    1991-07-01

    This joint project began in 1988 and was motivated by the need to develop an alternative to the archival process in place at that time (magnetic tape) for magnetic resonance imaging and neurological computed tomography. In addition, this project was felt to be an important step in gaining the necessary clinical experience for the future implementation of various aspects of electronic imaging. The initial phase of the project was conceived and developed to prove the concept, test the fundamental components, and produce performance measurements for future work. The key functions of this phase centered on attachment of imaging equipment (GE Signa) and archival processes using a non-dedicated (institutionally supplied) local area network (LAN). Attachment of imaging equipment to the LAN was performed using commercially available devices (Ethernet, PS/2, Token Ring). Image data were converted to ACR/NEMA format with retention of the vendor specific header information. Performance measurements were encouraging and led to the design of following projects. The second phase has recently been concluded. The major features of this phase have been to greatly expand the network, put the network into clinical use, establish an efficient and useful viewing station, include diagnostic reports in the archive data, provide wide area network (WAN) capability via ISDN, and establish two-way real-time video between remote sites. This phase has heightened both departmental and institutional thought regarding various issues raised by electronic imaging. Much discussion regarding both present as well as future archival processes has occurred. The use of institutional LAN resources has proven to be adequate for the archival function examined thus far. Experiments to date have shown that use of dedicated resources will be necessary for retrieval activities at even a basic level. This report presents an overview of the background present status and future directions of the project.

  4. Part-task training in the context of automation: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Robert S; Clegg, Benjamin A; Blitch, John G

    2013-01-01

    Automation often elicits a divide-and-conquer outlook. By definition, automation has been suggested to assume control over a part or whole task that was previously performed by a human (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). When such notions of automation are taken as grounds for training, they readily invoke a part-task training (PTT) approach. This article outlines broad functions of automation as a source of PTT and reviews the PTT literature, focusing on the potential benefits and costs related to using automation as a mechanism for PTT. The article reviews some past work in this area and suggests a path to move beyond the type of work captured by the "automation as PTT" framework. An illustrative experiment shows how automation in training and PTT are actually separable issues. PTT with automation has some utility but ultimately remains an unsatisfactory framework for the future broad potential of automation during training, and we suggest that a new conceptualization is needed.

  5. Research on Social Networking Sites and Social Support from 2004 to 2015: A Narrative Review and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; Martinez, Lourdes; Holmstrom, Amanda; Chung, Minwoong; Cox, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a narrative review of scholarship on social support through social networking sites (SNSs) published from 2004 to 2015. By searching keywords related to social support and SNSs in major databases for social sciences, we identified and content analyzed directly relevant articles (N = 88). The article summarizes the prevalence of theory usage; the function of theory usage (e.g., testing a theory, developing a theory); major theories referenced; and methodologies, including research designs, measurement, and the roles of social support and SNS examined in this literature. It also reports four themes identified across the studies, indicating the trends in the current research. Based on the review, the article presents a discussion about study sites, conceptualization of social support, theoretical coherence, the role of social networks, and the dynamic relationships between SNS use and social support, which points out potential avenues for shaping a future research agenda.

  6. The outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use among pregnant and birthing women: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by a substantial number of pregnant women and maternity care providers are often faced with the task of ensuring women are using safe and effective treatments while respecting a woman's right to autonomous decision-making. In the era of evidence-based medicine maternity health professionals are expected to draw upon the best available evidence when making clinical decisions and providing health advice. This review will outline the current trends in research evidence associated with the outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use amongst pregnant and birthing women as well as highlight some potential directions for future development in this important yet largely unknown topic in contemporary maternity care.

  7. The Impact of Therapeutic Antibodies on the Management of Digestive Diseases: History, Current Practice, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, M Anthony; Rubin, David T

    2017-04-01

    The development of therapeutic antibodies represents a revolutionary change in medical therapy for digestive diseases. Beginning with the initial studies that confirmed the pathogenicity of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease, the development and application of therapeutic antibodies brought challenges and insights into their potential and optimal use. Infliximab was the first biological drug approved for use in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The lessons learned from infliximab include the importance of immunogenicity and the influence of pharmacokinetics on disease response and outcomes. Building on this foundation, other therapeutic antibodies achieved approval for inflammatory bowel disease and many more are in development for several digestive diseases. In this review, we reflect on the history of therapeutic antibodies and discuss current practice and future directions for the field.

  8. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  9. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Intervention among Suicidal Men: Future Directions for Telephone Crisis Support Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Telephone crisis support is a confidential, accessible, and immediate service that is uniquely set up to reduce male suicide deaths through crisis intervention. However, research focusing on telephone crisis support with suicidal men is currently limited. To highlight the need to address service delivery for men experiencing suicidal crisis, this perspective article identifies key challenges facing current telephone crisis support research and proposes that understanding of the role of telephone crisis helplines in supporting suicidal men may be strengthened by careful examination of the context of telephone crisis support, together with the impact this has on help-provision for male suicidal callers. In particular, the impact of the time- and information-poor context of telephone crisis support on crisis-line staff's identification of, and response to, male callers with thoughts of suicide is examined. Future directions for research in the provision of telephone crisis support for suicidal men are discussed.

  11. Solidification microstructures and solid-state parallels: Recent developments, future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kurz, W. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: wilfried.kurz@epfl.ch; Napolitano, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Plapp, M. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Purdy, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4L7 (Canada); Rappaz, M. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Trivedi, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Rapid advances in atomistic and phase-field modeling techniques as well as new experiments have led to major progress in solidification science during the first years of this century. Here we review the most important findings in this technologically important area that impact our quantitative understanding of: (i) key anisotropic properties of the solid-liquid interface that govern solidification pattern evolution, including the solid-liquid interface free energy and the kinetic coefficient; (ii) dendritic solidification at small and large growth rates, with particular emphasis on orientation selection; (iii) regular and irregular eutectic and peritectic microstructures; (iv) effects of convection on microstructure formation; (v) solidification at a high volume fraction of solid and the related formation of pores and hot cracks; and (vi) solid-state transformations as far as they relate to solidification models and techniques. In light of this progress, critical issues that point to directions for future research in both solidification and solid-state transformations are identified.

  12. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  13. Neural Plasticity following Abacus Training in Humans: A Review and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain has an enormous capacity to adapt to a broad variety of environmental demands. Previous studies in the field of abacus training have shown that this training can induce specific changes in the brain. However, the neural mechanism underlying these changes remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the behavioral and imaging findings of comparisons between abacus experts and average control subjects and focused on changes in activation patterns and changes in brain structure. Finally, we noted the limitations and the future directions of this field. We concluded that although current studies have provided us with information about the mechanisms of abacus training, more research on abacus training is needed to understand its neural impact.

  14. Parasites as drivers of key processes in aquatic ecosystems: Facts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, B; Nachev, M; Pahl, M; Grabner, D; Selbach, C

    2017-09-01

    Despite the advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of parasites that we have made in recent years, we are still far away from having a complete picture of the ecological implications connected to parasitism. In the present paper we highlight key issues that illustrate (1) important contributions of parasites to biodiversity, (2) their integral role in ecosystems, (3) as well as their ecological effects as keystone species (4) and in biological invasion processes. By using selected examples from aquatic ecosystems we want to provide an insight and generate interest into the topic, and want to show directions for future research in the field of ecological parasitology. This may help to convince more parasitologists and ecologists contributing and advancing our understanding of the complex and fascinating interplay of parasites, hosts and ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Indocyanine green enhanced surgery; principle, clinical applications and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade a new emergent technology has become very popular in all fields of surgery using Indocyanine green and near infrared fluorescent optical systems. This revolutionary approach overlaps conventional and near infrared images to produce highly informative intraoperative images on the anatomy and physiology of various tissues. Near infrared fluorescence is employed for perioperative angiography in vascular mapping, assessment of anastomoses, location of sentinel lymph nodes and delineation of biliary tree anatomy, highlighting tumours and metastatic deposits, improving surgical techniques and for many other uses. A lot of researchers have reported better surgical outcomes and technique innovations facilitated by this novel technology which although in its early stages, it lights up great interest worldwide. This article reviews the principle of the method, the properties of the fluorescent dye, the main clinical applications and discusses future research directions.

  16. Redox cofactor engineering in industrial microorganisms: strategies, recent applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaheng; Li, Huiling; Zhao, Guangrong; Caiyin, Qinggele; Qiao, Jianjun

    2018-05-01

    NAD and NADP, a pivotal class of cofactors, which function as essential electron donors or acceptors in all biological organisms, drive considerable catabolic and anabolic reactions. Furthermore, they play critical roles in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. However, many metabolic engineering efforts in industrial microorganisms towards modification or introduction of metabolic pathways, especially those involving consumption, generation or transformation of NAD/NADP, often induce fluctuations in redox state, which dramatically impede cellular metabolism, resulting in decreased growth performance and biosynthetic capacity. Here, we comprehensively review the cofactor engineering strategies for solving the problematic redox imbalance in metabolism modification, as well as their features, suitabilities and recent applications. Some representative examples of in vitro biocatalysis are also described. In addition, we briefly discuss how tools and methods from the field of synthetic biology can be applied for cofactor engineering. Finally, future directions and challenges for development of cofactor redox engineering are presented.

  17. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A review of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics: Background, recent developments and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, J.

    1981-01-01

    The research and development over the past eight years on local Green's function methods for the high-accuracy, high-efficiency numerical solution of nuclear engineering problems is reviewed. The basic concepts and key ideas are presented by starting with an expository review of the original fully two-dimensional local Green's function methods developed for neutron diffusion and heat conduction, and continuing through the progressively more complicated and more efficient nodal Green's function methods for neutron diffusion, heat conduction and neutron transport to establish the background for the recent development of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics. Some of the impressive numerical results obtained via these classes of methods for nuclear engineering problems are briefly summarized. Finally, speculations are proffered on future directions in which the development of these types of methods in fluid mechanics and other areas might lead. (orig.) [de

  19. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  20. Alzheimer's Caregiver Support Online: lessons learned, initial findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueckauf, Robert L; Loomis, Jeffrey S

    2003-01-01

    Family caregivers of older adults with progressive dementia (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) are faced with a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties, such as dealing with persistent, repetitive questions, managing agitation and depression, and monitoring hygiene and self-care activities. Although professional and governmental organizations have called for the creation of community-based education and support programs, most dementia caregivers continue to receive little or no formal instruction in responding effectively to these challenges. The current paper describes the development and implementation of Alzheimer's Caregiver Support Online, a Web- and telephone-based education and support network for caregivers of individuals with progressive dementia. Lessons learned from the first two years of this state-supported initiative are discussed, followed by the findings of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded strategic marketing initiative and an initial program evaluation of AlzOnline's Positive Caregiving classes. Finally, clinical implications and future directions for program development and evaluation research are proposed.

  1. Mergers and acquisitions: A synthesis of theories and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissal Ben Letaifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review a synthesis of theories and empirical studies dealing with the mergers and acquisitions in the recent decay in an attempt to provide directions for future research. The review focuses on four main streams including: first, the motives for mergers-acquisitions; which are the strategic profits, the overconfidence of managers and the desire to create a big empire resulting from merger. From second, corporate characteristics of firms that did merger or acquisition; third, the economic consequences of the operation of merger and acquisition and finally; fourth, the implication on the market with the impact of merger on the value of the firm. We think that this article can give another idea about the information disclosed by any company choosing to merge and can be analyzed by practitioners by giving them the theoretical background of the merger and acquisition problem.

  2. Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: state of the science and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    The family is one of the primary contexts of child development. Marital and parent-child conflict (family conflict) are common and predict a wide range of negative behavioral and emotional outcomes in children. Thus, an important task for developmental researchers is to identify the processes through which family conflict contributes to children's psychological maladjustment, as well as vulnerability and protective factors in the context of family conflict. In the current paper, we aim to advance a conceptual model that focuses on indices of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning that increase vulnerability or provide protection against psychological maladjustment in the context of family conflict. In doing so, we provide a selective review that reflects the state of the science linking family conflict, children's ANS activity, and child psychological adjustment, and offer directions and guidance for future research. Our hope is to accelerate research at the intersection of family conflict and ANS functioning to advance understanding of risk and resilience among children.

  3. Age and impulsive behavior in drug addiction: A review of past research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct-Acting Antivirals for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C: Open Issues and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Bok Chae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two direct-acting antivirals (DAAs show well-established efficacy against hepatitis C virus (HCV, namely, first-wave protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Most clinical trials have examined DAAs in combination with standard of care (SOC regimens. Future therapeutic drugs were divided into three categories. They are second-wave protease inhibitors, second-generation protease inhibitors, and polymerase inhibitors. Second-wave protease inhibitors are more improved form and can be administered once a day. Oral drug combinations can be favored because interferon (IFN not only has to be given as intradermal injection, but also can cause several serious side effects. Combination of drugs with different mechanisms shows a good sustained virological response (SVR. But several mutations are associated with viral resistance to DAAs. Therefore, genotypic resistance data may provide insights into strategies aimed at maximizing SVR rates and minimizing resistance. Combined drug regimens are necessary to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HCV. Many promising DAA candidates have been identified. Of these, a triple regimen containing sofosbuvir shows promise, and treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir yields a high SVR rate (95%. Oral drug combinations will be standard of care in the near future.

  5. Online learning in dentistry: an overview of the future direction for dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwetter, D J; Reynolds, P A; Eaton, K A; De Vries, J

    2010-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the diversity of tools available for online learning and identifies the drivers of online learning and directives for future research relating to online learning in dentistry. After an introduction and definitions of online learning, this paper considers the democracy of knowledge and tools and systems that have democratized knowledge. It identifies assessment systems and the challenges of online learning. This paper also identifies the drivers for online learning, including those for instructors, administrators and leaders, technology innovators, information and communications technology personnel, global dental associations and government. A consideration of the attitudes of the stakeholders and how they might work together follows, using the example of the unique achievement of the successful collaboration between the Universities of Adelaide, Australia and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The importance of the interaction of educational principles and research on online learning is discussed. The paper ends with final reflections and conclusions, advocating readers to move forward in adopting online learning as a solution to the increasing worldwide shortage of clinical academics to teach dental clinicians of the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Remote sensing of forest insect disturbances: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senf, Cornelius; Seidl, Rupert; Hostert, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Insect disturbance are important agents of change in forest ecosystems around the globe, yet their spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics are not well understood. Remote sensing has gained much attention in mapping and understanding insect outbreak dynamics. Consequently, we here review the current literature on the remote sensing of insect disturbances. We suggest to group studies into three insect types: bark beetles, broadleaved defoliators, and coniferous defoliators. By so doing, we systematically compare the sensors and methods used for mapping insect disturbances within and across insect types. Results suggest that there are substantial differences between methods used for mapping bark beetles and defoliators, and between methods used for mapping broadleaved and coniferous defoliators. Following from this, we highlight approaches that are particularly suited for each insect type. Finally, we conclude by highlighting future research directions for remote sensing of insect disturbances. In particular, we suggest to: 1) Separate insect disturbances from other agents; 2) Extend the spatial and temporal domain of analysis; 3) Make use of dense time series; 4) Operationalize near-real time monitoring of insect disturbances; 5) Identify insect disturbances in the context of coupled human-natural systems; and 6) Improve reference data for assessing insect disturbances. Since the remote sensing of insect disturbances has gained much interest beyond the remote sensing community recently, the future developments identified here will help integrating remote sensing products into operational forest management. Furthermore, an improved spatiotemporal quantification of insect disturbances will support an inclusion of these processes into regional to global ecosystem models.

  7. Age Differences in Self-Continuity: Converging Evidence and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Rutt, Joshua L

    2017-06-01

    Life-span development is inherently linked to the perception of time and associated temporal construals. Such concepts are multi-faceted in nature and have important practical implications in areas such as time management, financial planning, or medical choices. A large body of research has documented age-related limitations in global time horizons, but age differences in other aspects of temporal construal are comparatively poorly understood. The present article draws attention to developmental trajectories of self-continuity, defined as perceived associations of one's present self with past and future selves. After considering historical roots and contemporary views on self-continuity, we turn to the life-span developmental literature and review several convergent streams of research that provide indirect evidence for age-related increases in self-continuity. We then consider a small body of recent studies which have directly assessed age differences in self-continuity and summarize our current understanding of this phenomenon including associations between explicit and implicit measures, symmetry between past and future self-continuity, and differentiation from other aspects of time perception. We conclude by highlighting open theoretical questions and considering the practical implications of an increased sense of self-continuity with advancing age. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Current status and future direction of INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira; Moriwaki, Masanao; Sugimoto, Jun; Nakai, Ryodai

    2007-01-01

    INPRO is an international forum to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles so as to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to a sustainable development of the human, and IAEA becomes the secretariat for INPRO. The number of the members counts 28 by recent participation of Japan and U.S.A. now, and it is a unique forum to bring together both technology users and technology holders, that includes 5 countries which do not still have nuclear power generation. Until now it was phase I, and focused its activities to make clear the desired characteristics of nuclear energy system toward the future, and to develop methodology to evaluate various nuclear energy systems, but it shifted to phase II from July, 2006, and it planned three areas of activities such as improvement of evaluation methodology, institutional/infrastructure oriented activities and a collaborative project of technology development. Current status and future direction of INPRO was presented to encourage Japan in significant contributions of these three areas. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-10-31

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of "top-down" processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.

  10. Future Direction of the Instrumentation and Control System for Security of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation and control systems are pervasively used as a vital component in modern industries. Nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs), originally use I and C systems for plant status monitoring, processes control, and many other purposes. After some events that raised security concerns, application areas of I and C systems have been expanded to physical protection of nuclear material and facilities. As nuclear policies over the world are strengthening security issues, the future direction of roles and technical requirements of security related I and C systems is described: An introduction of I and C systems, especially digitalized I and C systems, to security of nuclear facilities requires many careful considerations, such as system integration, verification and validation (V/V), etc. Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) established 'International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy, INSA' in 2014. One of the main achievements of INSA is test-bed implementation for technical criteria development of nuclear facilities' physical protection systems (PPSs) as well as for education and training of those systems. The test bed was modified and improved more suitably from the previous version to modern PPSs including state-of-the-art I and C technologies. KINAC is confident in the new test bed to become a fundamental technical basis of security related I and C systems in near future

  11. The U. S. DOE Carbon Storage Program: Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, D.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is taking steps to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through clean energy innovation, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) research. The Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from stationary sources. The Program is developing and advancing geologic storage technologies both onshore and offshore that will significantly improve the effectiveness of CCS, reduce the cost of implementation, and be ready for widespread commercial deployment in the 2025-2035 timeframe. The technology development and field testing conducted through this Program will be used to benefit the existing and future fleet of fossil fuel power generating and industrial facilities by creating tools to increase our understanding of geologic reservoirs appropriate for CO2 storage and the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The Program is evaluating the potential for storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, unmineable coal, organic-rich shale formations, and basalt formations. Since 1997, DOE's Carbon Storage Program has significantly advanced the CCS knowledge base through a diverse portfolio of applied research projects. The Core Storage R&D research component focuses on analytic studies, laboratory, and pilot- scale research to develop technologies that can improve wellbore integrity, increase reservoir storage efficiency, improve management of reservoir pressure, ensure storage permanence, quantitatively assess risks, and identify and mitigate potential release of CO2 in all types of storage formations. The Storage Field Management component focuses on scale-up of CCS and involves field validation of technology options, including large-volume injection field projects at pre-commercial scale to confirm system performance and economics. Future research involves commercial-scale characterization for regionally significant storage locations

  12. European Banking Recovery and Resolution Directive: Potential Impacts on European Systemic Important Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The great recession heralded in by the subprime mortgage crisis, took a dramatic turn for worse as a result of collapse of the Lehman Brothers bank in September 2008. The crisis deemed to be the most devastating after the Great Depression of 1929, had a debilitating effect on world economies, developing and advanced alike.  The extent of its devastation which  is still being felt in Europe and many parts of the globe reminds us the interconnectedness of financial institutions, particularly those tagged TBTF or SIFIs. Policy makers scrambled to curtail the ugly effect of the crisis by rescuing the SIFIs within their jurisdiction largely through bailout mechanism and provision of implicit guarantee for the debts of failing/failed institutions. As soon as the tide is stemmed, they cast their gaze on new crisis resolution and recovery measures that could rein in systemic risks associated with SIFIs, prevent future crises and reduce the concomitant moral hazards in the current resolution measures. This paper assesses ex ante the potential impact of implementing the new Banking recovery and resolution directives on Europe’s TBTF banksThe great recession heralded in by the subprime mortgage crisis, took a dramatic turn for worse as a result of collapse of the Lehman Brothers bank in September 2008. The crisis deemed to be the most devastating after the Great Depression of 1929, had a debilitating effect on world economies, developing and advanced alike.  The extent of its devastation which  is still being felt in Europe and many parts of the globe reminds us the interconnectedness of financial institutions, particularly those tagged TBTF or SIFIs. Policy makers scrambled to curtail the ugly effect of the crisis by rescuing the SIFIs within their jurisdiction largely through bailout mechanism and provision of implicit guarantee for the debts of failing/failed institutions. As soon as the tide is stemmed, they cast their gaze on new crisis

  13. Comments on the current status and possible future directions of research on heavy-ion interactions near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper contains comments on the current status and possible future directions of research on heavy-ion interactions near the Coulomb barrier. Fusion reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and transfer reactions are discussed

  14. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty as Predictors of Future Business Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their...

  15. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  17. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  18. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  19. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature.

  20. Computing Gowdy spacetimes via spectral evolution in future and past directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Paulo; Bernardi, Christine; LeFloch, Philippe G

    2009-01-01

    We consider a system of nonlinear wave equations with constraints that arises from the Einstein equations of general relativity and describes the geometry of the so-called Gowdy symmetric spacetimes on T 3 . We introduce two numerical methods, which are based on the pseudo-spectral approximation. The first approach relies on marching in the future timelike direction and toward the singularity t = 0 and is based on a novel nonlinear transformation, which allows us to reduce the nonlinear source terms to simple quadratic products of the unknown variables. The second approach is designed from asymptotic formulae that are available near this singularity, and evolves the solutions in the past timelike direction from the 'final' data given at t = 0. Numerical experiments are presented in various regimes, including cases where 'spiky' structures are observed as the singularity is approached. The proposed backward strategy leads to a robust numerical method which allows us to accurately simulate the long-time behavior of a large class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  1. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  2. Potentiality of Yeasts in the Direct Conversion of Starchy Materials to Ethanol and Its Relevance in the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L. V. A.; Reddy, O. V. S.; Basappa, S. C.

    In recent years, the use of renewable and abundantly available starchy and cellulosic materials for industrial production of ethanol is gaining importance, in view of the fact, that ethanol is one of the most prospective future motor fuels, that can be expected to replace fossil fuels, which are fast depleting in the world scenario. Although, the starch and the starchy substrates could be converted successfully to ethanol on industrial scales by the use of commercial amylolytic enzymes and yeast fermentation, the cost of production is rather very high. This is mainly due to the non-enzymatic and enzymatic conversion (gelatinization, liquefaction and saccharification) of starch to sugars, which costs around 20 % of the cost of production of ethanol from starch. In this context, the use of amylolytic yeasts, that can directly convert starch to ethanol by a single step, are potentially suited to reduce the cost of production of ethanol from starch. Research advances made in this direction have shown encouraging results, both in terms of identifying the potentially suited yeasts for the purpose and also their economic ethanol yields. This chapter focuses on the types of starch and starchy substrates and their digestion to fermentable sugars, optimization of fermentation conditions to ethanol from starch, factors that affect starch fermentation, potential amylolytic yeasts which can directly convert starch to ethanol, genetic improvement of these yeasts for better conversion efficiency and their future economic prospects in the new millennium.

  3. The application of Big Data in medicine: current implications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christopher; Kusumoto, Fred

    2016-10-01

    Since the mid 1980s, the world has experienced an unprecedented explosion in the capacity to produce, store, and communicate data, primarily in digital formats. Simultaneously, access to computing technologies in the form of the personal PC, smartphone, and other handheld devices has mirrored this growth. With these enhanced capabilities of data storage and rapid computation as well as real-time delivery of information via the internet, the average daily consumption of data by an individual has grown exponentially. Unbeknownst to many, Big Data has silently crept into our daily routines and, with continued development of cheap data storage and availability of smart devices both regionally and in developing countries, the influence of Big Data will continue to grow. This influence has also carried over to healthcare. This paper will provide an overview of Big Data, its benefits, potential pitfalls, and the projected impact on the future of medicine in general and cardiology in particular.

  4. Tele-yoga for Chronic Pain: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathersul, Danielle C; Mahoney, Louise A; Bayley, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Pain is a pervasive, debilitating disorder that is resistant to long-term pharmacological interventions. Although psychological therapies such as cognitive behavior therapy demonstrate moderate efficacy, many individuals continue to have ongoing difficulties following treatment. There is a current trend to establish complementary and integrative health interventions for chronic pain, for which yoga has been found to have exciting potential. Nevertheless, an important consideration within the field is accessibility to adequate care. Telehealth can be used to provide real-time interactive video conferencing leading to increased access to health care for individuals located remotely or who otherwise have difficulty accessing services, perhaps through issues of mobility or proximity of adequate services. This article assesses the current status and feasibility of implementing tele-yoga for chronic pain. Methodological limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  5. Community-level climate change vulnerability research: trends, progress, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Graham; Ford, James; Jones, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This study systematically identifies, characterizes, and critically evaluates community-level climate change vulnerability assessments published over the last 25 years (n = 274). We find that while the field has advanced considerably in terms of conceptual framing and methodological approaches, key shortcomings remain in how vulnerability is being studied at the community-level. We argue that vulnerability research needs to more critically engage with the following: methods for evaluating future vulnerability, the relevance of vulnerability research for decision-making, interdependencies between social and ecological systems, attention to researcher / subject power dynamics, critical interpretation of key terms, and consideration of the potentially positive opportunities presented by a changing climate. Addressing these research needs is necessary for generating knowledge that supports climate-affected communities in navigating the challenges and opportunities ahead.

  6. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  7. Endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michael X; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was first conceptually described almost 30 years ago in Japan and is now widely practiced throughout East Asia. ESD expands the boundaries of endoscopic resection (ER) by allowing en bloc resection of large early neoplastic lesions within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This offers advantages over other ER techniques by facilitating definitive histological staging and curative treatment of early cancer in selected cases. Indeed, the experience of ESD in Eastern countries is significant, and excellent outcomes from high-volume centers are reported. The potential benefits of ESD are recognized by Western endoscopists, but its adoption has been limited. A number of factors contribute to this, including epidemiological differences in GIT neoplasia between Western and Eastern populations and limitations in training opportunities. In this review, we discuss the role of ESD, its current status and the future in Western endoscopic practice. © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Global biomass production potentials exceed expected future demand without the need for cropland expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Delzeit, Ruth; Hank, Tobias; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2015-11-12

    Global biomass demand is expected to roughly double between 2005 and 2050. Current studies suggest that agricultural intensification through optimally managed crops on today's cropland alone is insufficient to satisfy future demand. In practice though, improving crop growth management through better technology and knowledge almost inevitably goes along with (1) improving farm management with increased cropping intensity and more annual harvests where feasible and (2) an economically more efficient spatial allocation of crops which maximizes farmers' profit. By explicitly considering these two factors we show that, without expansion of cropland, today's global biomass potentials substantially exceed previous estimates and even 2050s' demands. We attribute 39% increase in estimated global production potentials to increasing cropping intensities and 30% to the spatial reallocation of crops to their profit-maximizing locations. The additional potentials would make cropland expansion redundant. Their geographic distribution points at possible hotspots for future intensification.

  9. Current Animal Models of Postoperative Spine Infection and Potential Future Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStavrakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implant related infection following spine surgery is a devastating complication for patients and can potentially lead to significant neurological compromise, disability, morbidity, and even mortality. This paper provides an overview of the existing animal models of postoperative spine infection and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each model. In addition there is discussion regarding potential modifications to these animal models to better evaluate preventative and treatment strategies for this challenging complication. Current models are effective in simulating surgical procedures but fail to evaluate infection longitudinally using multiple techniques. Potential future modifications to these models include using advanced imaging technologies to evaluate infection, use of bioluminescent bacterial species, and testing of novel treatment strategies against multiple bacterial strains. There is potential to establish a postoperative spine infection model using smaller animals, such as mice, as these would be a more cost-effective screening tool for potential therapeutic interventions.

  10. Genetic Toxicology in the 21st Century: Reflections and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Snyder, Ronald D.; Waters, Michael D.; Benz, R. Daniel; Kemper, Raymond A.; Tice, Raymond R.; Richard, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, using a broad array of high throughput and high content technologies for toxicity profiling of environmental chemicals, and computational toxicology modeling. Progress and challenges, including the pressing need to incorporate metabolic activation capability, are summarized. PMID:21538556

  11. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    merit(s). Finally, open challenges and research directions are presented for future investigation.

  12. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eFrew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scarab beetles spend the majority of their lives belowground as larvae, feeding on grass roots. Many of these larvae are significant pests, causing damage to crops and grasslands. Damage by larvae of the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum, for example, can cause financial losses of up to AU$40 million annually to the Australian sugarcane industry. We review the ecology of some scarab larvae in Australasia, focusing on three subfamilies; Dynastinae, Rutelinae and Melolonthinae, containing key pest species. Although considerable research on the control of some scarab pests has been carried out in Australasia, for some species, the basic biology and ecology remains largely unexplored. We synthesize what is known about these scarab larvae and outline key knowledge gaps to highlights future research directions with a view to improve pest management. We do this by presenting an overview of the scarab larval host plants and feeding behavior; the impacts of abiotic (temperature, moisture and fertilization and biotic (pathogens, natural enemies and microbial symbionts factors on scarab larvae and conclude with how abiotic and biotic factors can be applied in agriculture for improved pest management, suggesting future research directions.Several host plant microbial symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes, can improve plant tolerance to scarabs and reduce larval performance, which have shown promise for use in pest management. In addition to this, several microbial scarab pathogens have been isolated for commercial use in pest management with particularly promising results. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae caused a 50% reduction in cane beetle larvae while natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes have also shown potential as a biocontrol. Continued research should focus on filling the gaps in the knowledge of the basic ecology and feeding behavior of scarab larval species within Australasia

  14. Digital Technologies in the Treatment of Anxiety: Recent Innovations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Carney, Rebekah; Newby, Jill; Cosco, Theodore D; Christensen, Helen; Sarris, Jerome

    2018-05-19

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety. However, the ability of these interventions for engaging patients in "real-world" settings is unclear. Recently, smartphone apps for anxiety have presented a more popular and ubiquitous method of intervention delivery, although the evidence base supporting these newer approaches drastically falls behind the extensive marketing and commercialization efforts currently driving their development. Meanwhile, the increasing availability of novel technologies, such as "virtual reality" (VR), introduces further potential of e-health treatments for generalized anxiety and anxiety-related disorders such as phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder, while also creating additional challenges for research. Although still in its infancy, e-health research is already presenting several promising avenues for delivering effective and scalable treatments for anxiety. Nonetheless, several important steps must be taken in order for academic research to keep pace with continued technological advances.

  15. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: current knowledge and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R C; Plummer, F A; Moses, S

    2001-11-01

    Over the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection, leading to recommendations for male circumcision to be added to the armamentarium of effective HIV prevention strategies. We review the epidemiological data from studies that have investigated this association, including ecological, cross-sectional/case-control, and prospective studies. We discuss problematic issues in interpreting the epidemiological data, including the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, age of circumcision, and potential confounders such as religion, cultural practices, and genital hygiene. In addition, we review studies of biological mechanisms by which the presence of the foreskin may increase HIV susceptibility, data on risks associated with the circumcision procedure, and available data on the acceptability and feasibility of introducing male circumcision in societies where it is traditionally not practised. Although the evidence in support of male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention measure is compelling, residual confounding in observational studies cannot be excluded. Taken together with concerns over the potential disinhibiting effect of male circumcision on risk behaviour, and safety of the circumcision procedure, randomised trials of male circumcision to prevent HIV infection are recommended. An individual's choice to undergo male circumcision or a community's decision to promote the practice should be made in the light of the best available scientific evidence. More knowledge is required to assist individuals and communities in making those decisions. We conclude with recommendations for future research.

  16. Postcessation weight gain concern as a barrier to smoking cessation: Assessment considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Levine, Michele D

    2018-01-01

    Concern about postcessation weight gain may be one potential barrier to quitting smoking. In this 'mini-review' of recent literature, we summarize findings on the relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation, and evaluate varied use of postcessation weight gain concern assessments and potential moderators of the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. We conducted a search using the terms "smoking" OR "smoking cessation" AND "weight concern" for articles published between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016. We identified 17 studies assessing postcessation weight gain concern, seven of which evaluated the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. The relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation was mixed. Recent studies varied in their assessments of postcessation weight gain concern, many of which were not validated and assessed correlates of this construct. Studies varied in their adjustment of demographic (e.g., sex), smoking-specific (e.g., smoking level), and weight-specific (e.g., body mass index) variables. The use of non-validated assessments and variability in testing covariates/moderators may contribute to conflicting results regarding the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation relationship. We recommend validating an assessment of postcessation weight gain concern, maintaining vigilance in testing and reporting covariates/moderators, and investigating trajectories of this construct over time and by smoking status to inform future assessment and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Agent-Based Models to Develop Public Policy about Food Behaviours: Future Directions and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. Giabbanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies. Current procedures for ABMs of food behaviours are mostly rooted in one technique, often ignore the food environment beyond home and work, and underutilize rich datasets. In this paper, we address some of these limitations to better support policymakers through two contributions. First, via a scoping review, we highlight readily available datasets and techniques to deal with these limitations independently. Second, we propose a three steps’ process to tackle all limitations together and discuss its use to develop future models for food behaviours. We acknowledge that this integrated process is a leap forward in ABMs. However, this long-term objective is well-worth addressing as it can generate robust findings to effectively inform the design of food behaviour interventions.

  18. Potential strong contribution of future anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change to the terrestrial carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Arneth, Almut; Robertson, Eddy; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    Anthropogenic land-use and land cover changes (LULCC) affect global climate and global terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. However, relatively few studies have quantified the impacts of future LULCC on terrestrial carbon cycle. Here, using Earth system model simulations performed with and without future LULCC, under the RCP8.5 scenario, we find that in response to future LULCC, the carbon cycle is substantially weakened: browning, lower ecosystem C stocks, higher C loss by disturbances and higher C turnover rates are simulated. Projected global greening and land C storage are dampened, in all models, by 22% and 24% on average and projected C loss by disturbances enhanced by ~49% when LULCC are taken into account. By contrast, global net primary productivity is found to be only slightly affected by LULCC (robust +4% relative enhancement compared to all forcings, on average). LULCC is projected to be a predominant driver of future C changes in regions like South America and the southern part of Africa. LULCC even cause some regional reversals of projected increased C sinks and greening, particularly at the edges of the Amazon and African rainforests. Finally, in most carbon cycle responses, direct removal of C dominates over the indirect CO2 fertilization due to LULCC. In consequence, projections of land C sequestration potential and Earth’s greening could be substantially overestimated just because of not fully accounting for LULCC.

  19. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from the Eurasian taiga: current knowledge and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hakola, H. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    n this paper, the research conducted on the emissions of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the European boreal zone, or taiga, is reviewed. We highlight the main findings and the key gaps in our knowledge. Ecosystem scale BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga are observed to be relatively low as compared with those from some forest ecosystems in warmer climates. One of the distinctive features of the Eurasian taiga is the predominance of monoterpene emitting coniferous trees. Recent research indicates that in addition to evaporation from storage structures, part of the monoterpene emission of conifers originates directly from synthesis. Monoterpene emission from boreal deciduous trees originates mainly directly from synthesis. The boreal trees exhibit distinct intra-species variation in the monoterpene mixtures they emit. Important sources of isoprene in the Eurasian taiga include Norway spruce, open wetland ecosystems and some non-dominant woody species, such as European aspen and willows. Many boreal tree species also emit non-terpenoid compounds and highly reactive sesquiterpenes. The future challenges in the research on BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga include (i) quantification and understanding the non-terpenoid VOC emissions from the taiga ecosystems, (ii) bringing ecosystems in the eastern Eurasian taiga into the sphere of BVOC emission studies, (iii) establishing long-term ecosystem flux studies combined with plant physiological measurements, and (iv) integrating knowledge and research skills on BVOC synthesis, storages and emissions, land cover changes and atmospheric processes in different spatial and temporal scales in order to better understand the impact of biosphere on atmospheric chemistry and composition in changing climate. (orig.)

  20. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. The potential natural vegetation of eastern Africa distribution, conservation and future changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo

    and sustainable management of the natural environment. There is therefore an urgent need for information that allow us to assess the current status of the region’s natural environment and to predict how this may change under future climates. This thesis aims to improve our knowledge on natural vegetation...... and how this is likely to change under different climate change scenarios. Chapter 4 presents an environmental gap analysis to prioritize conservation efforts in eastern Africa, based on an evaluation of the environmental representativeness of protected areas and an assessment of the level of threat...... distribution in eastern African, examine how this may change under future climates, and how this can be used to identify conservation priorities in the region. Chapter 1 presents a brief overview of the concept of the potential natural vegetation (PNV), synthesizes the general findings and discusses future...

  4. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  5. Potential Economic Benefits of Adapting Agricultural Production Systems to Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs to

  6. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  7. Brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer's disease: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Craft, Suzanne; Brooks, Samantha J; Frey, William H; Benedict, Christian

    2012-08-01

    Insulin receptors in the brain are found in high densities in the hippocampus, a region that is fundamentally involved in the acquisition, consolidation, and recollection of new information. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood-brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of experiments involving healthy humans has shown that increased central nervous system (CNS) insulin action enhances learning and memory processes associated with the hippocampus. Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to CNS insulin resistance, decreased expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes and attenuated permeation of blood-borne insulin across the blood-brain barrier, impaired brain insulin signaling could partially account for the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. Considering that insulin mitigates hippocampal synapse vulnerability to amyloid beta and inhibits the phosphorylation of tau, pharmacological strategies bolstering brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal insulin, could have significant therapeutic potential to deter AD pathogenesis.

  8. Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Faustman, Elaine M; Hoagland, Porter; Tsuchiya, Ami; Younglove, Lisa R; Wilcox, Bruce A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-11-07

    We review the major linkages between the oceans and public health, focusing on exposures and potential health effects due to anthropogenic and natural factors including: harmful algal blooms, microbes, and chemical pollutants in the oceans; consumption of seafood; and flooding events. We summarize briefly the current state of knowledge about public health effects and their economic consequences; and we discuss priorities for future research.We find that:* There are numerous connections between the oceans, human activities, and human health that result in both positive and negative exposures and health effects (risks and benefits); and the study of these connections comprises a new interdisciplinary area, "oceans and human health."* The state of present knowledge about the linkages between oceans and public health varies. Some risks, such as the acute health effects caused by toxins associated with shellfish poisoning and red tide, are relatively well understood. Other risks, such as those posed by chronic exposure to many anthropogenic chemicals, pathogens, and naturally occurring toxins in coastal waters, are less well quantified. Even where there is a good understanding of the mechanism for health effects, good epidemiological data are often lacking. Solid data on economic and social consequences of these linkages are also lacking in most cases.* The design of management measures to address these risks must take into account the complexities of human response to warnings and other guidance, and the economic tradeoffs among different risks and benefits. Future research in oceans and human health to address public health risks associated with marine pathogens and toxins, and with marine dimensions of global change, should include epidemiological, behavioral, and economic components to ensure that resulting management measures incorporate effective economic and risk/benefit tradeoffs.

  9. Current state and future direction of computer systems at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L. (Editor); Tucker, Jerry H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Computer systems have advanced at a rate unmatched by any other area of technology. As performance has dramatically increased there has been an equally dramatic reduction in cost. This constant cost performance improvement has precipitated the pervasiveness of computer systems into virtually all areas of technology. This improvement is due primarily to advances in microelectronics. Most people are now convinced that the new generation of supercomputers will be built using a large number (possibly thousands) of high performance microprocessors. Although the spectacular improvements in computer systems have come about because of these hardware advances, there has also been a steady improvement in software techniques. In an effort to understand how these hardware and software advances will effect research at NASA LaRC, the Computer Systems Technical Committee drafted this white paper to examine the current state and possible future directions of computer systems at the Center. This paper discusses selected important areas of computer systems including real-time systems, embedded systems, high performance computing, distributed computing networks, data acquisition systems, artificial intelligence, and visualization.

  10. Motor unit recruitment for dynamic tasks: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains many muscle fibres that are functionally grouped into motor units. For any motor task there are many possible combinations of motor units that could be recruited and it has been proposed that a simple rule, the 'size principle', governs the selection of motor units recruited for different contractions. Motor units can be characterised by their different contractile, energetic and fatigue properties and it is important that the selection of motor units recruited for given movements allows units with the appropriate properties to be activated. Here we review what is currently understood about motor unit recruitment patterns, and assess how different recruitment patterns are more or less appropriate for different movement tasks. During natural movements the motor unit recruitment patterns vary (not always holding to the size principle) and it is proposed that motor unit recruitment is likely related to the mechanical function of the muscles. Many factors such as mechanics, sensory feedback, and central control influence recruitment patterns and consequently an integrative approach (rather than reductionist) is required to understand how recruitment is controlled during different movement tasks. Currently, the best way to achieve this is through in vivo studies that relate recruitment to mechanics and behaviour. Various methods for determining motor unit recruitment patterns are discussed, in particular the recent wavelet-analysis approaches that have allowed motor unit recruitment to be assessed during natural movements. Directions for future studies into motor recruitment within and between functional task groups and muscle compartments are suggested.

  11. Current status and future directions of development of PR/PP evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    A mandatory design requirement for the introduction of generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) is defined as the characteristic of a nuclear energy system that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material, or misuse of technology, by State in order to acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The same report also defines physical protection (PP) as the use of technical, administrative, and operational measures to prevent the theft of nuclear/radioactive material for the purpose of producing nuclear weapons, producing nuclear devices for nuclear terrorism, or using the facility or transportation system for radiological sabotage. Since the early 1970s right after the Indian nuclear test, the international community has recognized the limits of political and diplomatic means to prevent overt proliferation by states and looked for ways to incorporate technical features that are inherent in NESs. As a first step, active research has been conducted to develop a methodology to evaluate PR and PP components of NESs and has now been reduced to two main R and D streams: the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). (Currently, GIF and INPRO are leading the debate as major projects for PR and PP evaluation methods.) This paper presents an overview of the R and D accomplishments during the development of PR and PP evaluation methodology. It also suggests some directions for future research

  12. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M; Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children's and adolescents' gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research.

  13. Current status and future directions of development of PR/PP evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A mandatory design requirement for the introduction of generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) is defined as the characteristic of a nuclear energy system that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material, or misuse of technology, by State in order to acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The same report also defines physical protection (PP) as the use of technical, administrative, and operational measures to prevent the theft of nuclear/radioactive material for the purpose of producing nuclear weapons, producing nuclear devices for nuclear terrorism, or using the facility or transportation system for radiological sabotage. Since the early 1970s right after the Indian nuclear test, the international community has recognized the limits of political and diplomatic means to prevent overt proliferation by states and looked for ways to incorporate technical features that are inherent in NESs. As a first step, active research has been conducted to develop a methodology to evaluate PR and PP components of NESs and has now been reduced to two main R and D streams: the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). (Currently, GIF and INPRO are leading the debate as major projects for PR and PP evaluation methods.) This paper presents an overview of the R and D accomplishments during the development of PR and PP evaluation methodology. It also suggests some directions for future research.

  14. Analysis of Big Data in Gait Biomechanics: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Petri, Giovanni; Ibáñez-Marcelo, Esther; Osis, Sean T; Ferber, Reed

    2018-01-01

    The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Next, we provide a review of recent research and development in multivariate and machine learning methods-based gait analysis that can be applied to big data analytics. These modern biomechanical gait analysis methods include several main modules such as initial input features, dimensionality reduction (feature selection and extraction), and learning algorithms (classification and clustering). Finally, a promising big data exploration tool called "topological data analysis" and directions for future research are outlined and discussed.

  15. Advancing the field of elder abuse: future directions and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-11-01

    Elder abuse, sometimes called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect); and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that one in 10 older adults experiences some form of elder abuse, but only one in 25 cases is reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy addressing the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow and Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with the Administration on Community Living (ACL) (previously known as the Administration on Aging) for the last 2 years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL and highlight two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act and the Elder Justice Act. I will also highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. JUPITER’S PHASE VARIATIONS FROM CASSINI : A TESTBED FOR FUTURE DIRECT-IMAGING MISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga, L. C.; Jackiewicz, J.; Rages, K.; West, R. A.; Knowles, B.; Lewis, N.; Marley, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present empirical phase curves of Jupiter from ∼0° to 140° as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini /Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. Phase curves are of interest for studying the energy balance of Jupiter and understanding the scattering behavior of the planet as an exoplanet analog. We find that Jupiter is significantly darker at partial phases than an idealized Lambertian planet by roughly 25% and is not well fit by Jupiter-like exoplanet atmospheric models across all wavelengths. We provide analytic fits to Jupiter’s phase function in several Cassini /ISS imaging filter bandpasses. In addition, these observations show that Jupiter’s color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by models. Therefore, the color of even a near Jupiter-twin planet observed at a partial phase cannot be assumed to be comparable to that of Jupiter at full phase. We discuss how the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope and other future direct-imaging missions can enhance the study of cool giants.

  17. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580

  18. Genetics and sport performance: current challenges and directions to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Limongi França GUILHERME

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a great progress in molecular biology techniques, which has facilitated the researches on influence of genetics on human performance. There are specific regions of DNA that can vary between individuals. Such variations (i.e., polymorphisms may, in part, explain why some individuals have differentiated responses to certain stimuli, including the responses to sports training. In a particular sport, the presence of specific polymorphisms may contribute to high levels of performance. Since 1998, several polymorphisms have been associated with athletic phenotypes; however the accumulation of information generated over these 15 years shows that the influence of genetics to sport is extremely complex. In this review, we will summarise the current status of the field, discussing the implications of available knowledge for the practice of professionals involved with the sport and suggesting future directions for research. We also discuss topics related to the importance of polygenic profile characterization of athletes, methods for the identification of new polymorphisms associated with physical performance, the use of genetic testing for predicting competitive success, and how crucial is the genetic profile for the success athletes in competition.

  19. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Seltmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arised from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, “preferred terms”, and “structural equivalency”. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the “URI table” by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the “Analyzer” to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org. We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.

  20. Fetal Cardiac Doppler Signal Processing Techniques: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdulrahman Alnuaimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fetal Doppler Ultrasound (DUS is commonly used for monitoring fetal heart rate and can also be used for identifying the event timings of fetal cardiac valve motions. In early-stage fetuses, the detected Doppler signal suffers from noise and signal loss due to the fetal movements and changing fetal location during the measurement procedure. The fetal cardiac intervals, which can be estimated by measuring the fetal cardiac event timings, are the most important markers of fetal development and well-being. To advance DUS-based fetal monitoring methods, several powerful and well-advanced signal processing and machine learning methods have recently been developed. This review provides an overview of the existing techniques used in fetal cardiac activity monitoring and a comprehensive survey on fetal cardiac Doppler signal processing frameworks. The review is structured with a focus on their shortcomings and advantages, which helps in understanding fetal Doppler cardiogram signal processing methods and the related Doppler signal analysis procedures by providing valuable clinical information. Finally, a set of recommendations are suggested for future research directions and the use of fetal cardiac Doppler signal analysis, processing, and modeling to address the underlying challenges.

  1. The challenges of transportation/traffic statistics in Japan and directions for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kawasaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.

  2. Current Status and Future Directions of Botulinum Neurotoxins for Targeting Pain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Pellett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs A1 and B1, given locally into peripheral tissues such as skin, muscles, and joints, alter nociceptive processing otherwise initiated by inflammation or nerve injury in animal models and humans. Recent data indicate that such locally delivered BoNTs exert not only local action on sensory afferent terminals but undergo transport to central afferent cell bodies (dorsal root ganglia and spinal dorsal horn terminals, where they cleave SNAREs and block transmitter release. Increasing evidence supports the possibility of a trans-synaptic movement to alter postsynaptic function in neuronal and possibly non-neuronal (glial cells. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted on BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1, the only two pharmaceutically developed variants. However, now over 40 different subtypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs have been identified. By combining our existing and rapidly growing understanding of BoNT/A1 and /B1 in altering nociceptive processing with explorations of the specific characteristics of the various toxins from this family, we may be able to discover or design novel, effective, and long-lasting pain therapeutics. This review will focus on our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby BoNTs alter pain processing, and future directions in the development of these agents as pain therapeutics.

  3. Greenshell™ Mussels: A Review of Veterinary Trials and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Eason

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of Greenshell™ mussel (GSM; Perna canaliculus preparations have been studied using in vitro test systems, animal models, and human clinical trials focusing mainly on anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. Activity is thought to be linked to key active ingredients that include omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, a variety of carotenoids and other bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the studies that have been undertaken in dogs, cats, and horses, and outline new research directions in shellfish breeding and high-value nutrition research programmes targeted at enhancing the efficacy of mussel and algal extracts. The addition of GSM to animal diets has alleviated feline degenerative joint disease and arthritis symptoms, and chronic orthopaedic pain in dogs. In horses, GSM extracts decreased the severity of lameness and joint pain and provided improved joint flexion in limbs with lameness attributed to osteoarthritis. Future research in this area should focus on elucidating the key active ingredients in order to link concentrations of these active ingredients with their pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects. This would enable consistent and improved efficacy from GSM-based products for the purpose of improved animal health.

  4. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  5. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  6. Context-Aware Recommender System: A Review of Recent Developmental Process and Future Research Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent data handling techniques are beneficial for users; to store, process, analyze and access the vast amount of information produced by electronic and automated devices. The leading approach is to use recommender systems (RS to extract relevant information from the vast amount of knowledge. However, early recommender systems emerged without the cognizance to contextualize information regarding users’ recommendations. Considering the historical methodological limitations, Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARS are now deployed, which leverage contextual information in addition to the classical two-dimensional search processes, providing better-personalized user recommendations. This paper presents a review of recent developmental processes as a fountainhead for the research of a context-aware recommender system. This work contributes by taking an integrated approach to the complete CARS developmental process, unlike other review papers, which only address a specific aspect of the CARS process. First, an in-depth review is presented pertaining to the state-of-the-art and classified literature, considering the domain of the application models, filters, extraction and evaluation approaches. Second, viewpoints are presented relating to the extraction of literature with analysis on the merit and demerit of each, and the evolving processes between them. Finally, the outstanding challenges and opportunities for future research directions are highlighted.

  7. Out of hospital point of care ultrasound: current use models and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B P; Sanghvi, A

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound has evolved from a modality that was once exclusively reserved to certain specialities of its current state, in which its portability and durability lend to its broadly increasing applications. This review describes portable ultrasound in the hospital setting and its comparison to gold standard imaging modalities. Also, this review summarizes current literature describing portable ultrasound use in prehospital, austere and remote environments, highlighting successes and barriers to use in these environments. Prehospital ultrasound has the ability to increase diagnostic ability and allow for therapeutic intervention in the field. In austere environments, ultrasound may be the only available imaging modality and thus can guide diagnosis, therapeutics and determine which patients may need emergent transfer to a healthcare facility. The most cutting edge applications of portable ultrasound employ telemedicine to obtain and transmit ultrasound images. This technology and ability to transmit images via satellite and cellular transmission can allow for even novice users to obtain interpretable images in austere environments. Portable ultrasound uses have steadily grown and will continue to do so with the introduction of more portable and durable technologies. As applications continue to grow, certain technologic considerations and future directions are explored.

  8. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F. Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector–pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  9. Report of the workshop for searching future direction of INS-LBL joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The workshop for searching the future direction of INS-LBL joint research was held from January 10 to 12, 1983, In Hakone. The Japan-USA joint experiment was started seven years ago at the Bevalac in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and four years have elapsed since the beginning of INS-LBL joint research. The five-year program of the INS-LBL joint research will end in the spring of 1984, therefore the progress and the results are reviewed, and the policy taken hereafter is reconsidered. The past ten years can be divided into two periods, and in the first period, the release of light particles from the core reaction of heavy ions was taken up. In the second period, the precise measurement of particle correlation and the study on rare events were the main subjects. The five-year program mentioned above was organized in the second period. The results obtained have been internationally evaluated high. Recently, the beam of heavy nuclei such as Xe and U has become to be accelerated by the Bevalac. It was proposed to shift to the nuclear physics of new isotopes from 1984 on. (Kako, I.)

  10. Virtual water content of temperate cereals and maize: Present and potential future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rost, Stefanie; Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Gerten, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    SummaryKnowledge of the virtual water content (VWC) of crops and especially its possible future developments is helpful for improvements in water productivity and water management, which are necessary at global scale due to rising demand for food, the necessity to ease present and future water scarcity, and the reduction of poverty. Using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model (LPJmL), this study quantifies the VWC of two of the most important crop types worldwide, temperate cereals and maize, at high spatial resolution (0.5°). We analyzed present conditions (1999-2003) and also for the first time also for scenarios of future climate and increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (2041-2070; HadCM3, ECHAM5 and CCSM3 climate models, A2 emissions scenario). VWC presently differs significantly among regions: highest values are common in large parts of Africa (>2 m 3 kg -1), and lowest values were found e.g. for Central Europe (Europe, South Africa, Argentina, Australia and South East Asia—are projected to become less water efficient (higher VWC) for at least one of the crop types. CO 2 fertilisation was simulated to generally reduce VWC, though realisation of this effect in the field will depend, for example, on the intensity of nutrient management in the future. The potentially adverse future changes in VWC found here pose a challenge to water management efforts and eventually global trade policies.

  11. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  12. Future potential distribution of the emerging amphibian chytrid fungus under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, Dennis; Kielgast, Jos; Lötters, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change poses a major threat to global biodiversity with a potential to alter biological interactions at all spatial scales. Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates and have been subject to increasing conservation attention over the past decade. A particular concern is the pandemic emergence of the parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been identified as the cause of extremely rapid large-scale declines and species extinctions. Experimental and observational studies have demonstrated that the host-pathogen system is strongly influenced by climatic parameters and thereby potentially affected by climate change. Herein we project a species distribution model of the pathogen onto future climatic scenarios generated by the IPCC to examine their potential implications on the pandemic. Results suggest that predicted anthropogenic climate change may reduce the geographic range of B. dendrobatidis and its potential influence on amphibian biodiversity.

  13. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Strategy for the future use and disposition of Uranium-233: History, inventories, storage facilities, and potential future uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereolos, P.J.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This document provides background information on the man-made radioisotope 233 U. It is one of a series of four reports that map out potential national strategies for the future use and disposition of 233 U pending action under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The scope of this report is separated 233 U, where separated refers to nonwaste 233 U or 233 U that has been separated from fission products. Information on other 233 U, such as that in spent nuclear fuel (SNF), is included only to recognize that it may be separated at a later date and then fall under the scope of this report. The background information in this document includes the historical production and current inventory of 233 U, the uses of 233 U, and a discussion of the available facilities for storing 233 U. The considerations for what fraction of the current inventory should be preserved for future use depend on several issues. First, 233 U always contains a small amount of the contaminant isotope 232 U. The decay products of 232 U are highly radioactive and require special handling. The current inventory has a variety of qualities with regard to 232 U content, ranging from 1 to about 200 ppm (on a total uranium basis). It is preferable to use 233 U with the minimum amount of 232 U in all applications. The second issue pertains to other isotopes of uranium mixed in with the 233 U, specifically 235 U and 238 U. A large portion of the inventory has a high quantity of 235 U associated with it. The presence of bulk amounts of 235 U complicates storage because of the added volume needing safeguards and criticality controls. Isotopic dilution using DU may remove safeguards and criticality concerns, but it increases the overall mass and may limit applications that depend on the fissile nature of 233 U. The third issue concerns the packaging of the material. There is no standard packaging (although one is being developed); consequently, the inventory exists in a variety of packages. For some

  15. Residual DNA analysis in biologics development: review of measurement and quantitation technologies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Morgan, Donna M; Wang, Gan; Mozier, Ned M

    2012-02-01

    Residual DNA (rDNA) is comprised of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments and longer length molecules originating from the host organism that may be present in samples from recombinant biological processes. Although similar in basic structural base pair units, rDNA may exist in different sizes and physical forms. Interest in measuring rDNA in recombinant products is based primarily on demonstration of effective purification during manufacturing, but also on some hypothetical concerns that, in rare cases, depending on the host expression system, some DNA sequences may be potentially infectious or oncogenic (e.g., HIV virus and the Ras oncogene, respectively). Recent studies suggest that a sequence known as long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1), widely distributed in the mammalian genome, is active as a retrotransposon that can be transcribed to RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and inserts into a new site in genome. This integration process could potentially disrupt critical gene functions or induce tumorigenesis in mammals. Genomic DNA from microbial sources, on the other hand, could add to risk of immunogenicity to the target recombinant protein being expressed, due to the high CpG content and unmethylated DNA sequence. For these and other reasons, it is necessary for manufacturers to show clearance of DNA throughout production processes and to confirm low levels in the final drug substance using an appropriately specific and quantitative analytical method. The heterogeneity of potential rDNA sequences that might be makes the testing of all potential analytes challenging. The most common methodology for rDNA quantitation used currently is real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a robust and proven technology. Like most rDNA quantitation methods, the specificity of RT-PCR is limited by the sequences to which the primers are directed. To address this, primase-based whole genome amplification is introduced herein. This paper will review the recent

  16. Cognitive theory in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: progress, development and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Myra J

    2005-06-01

    Important developments have taken place in cognitive theory of eating disorders (EDs) (and also in other disorders) since the review paper published by M.J. Cooper in 1997. The relevant empirical database has also expanded. Nevertheless, cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, although helpful to many patients, leaves much to be desired. The current paper reviews the relevant empirical evidence collected, and the theoretical revisions that have been made to cognitive models of eating disorders, since 1997. The status and limitations of these developments are considered, including whether or not they meet the criteria for "good" theory. New theoretical developments relevant to cognitive explanations of eating disorders (second generation theories) are then presented, and the preliminary evidence that supports these is briefly reviewed. The lack of integration between cognitive theories of EDs and risk (vulnerability) factor research is noted, and a potential model that unites the two is noted. The implications of the review for future research and the development of cognitive theory in eating disorders are then discussed. These include the need for study of cognitive constructs not yet fully integrated (or indeed not yet applied clinically) into current theories and the need for cognitive theories of eating disorders to continue to evolve (as they have indeed done since 1997) in order to fully integrate such constructs. Treatment studies incorporating these new developments also urgently need to be undertaken.

  17. MicroRNAs in fruit trees: discovery, diversity and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solofoharivelo, M C; van der Walt, A P; Stephan, D; Burger, J T; Murray, S L

    2014-09-01

    Since the first description of microRNAs (miRNAs) 20 years ago, the number of miRNAs identified in different eukaryotic organisms has exploded, largely due to the recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies. Functional studies, mostly from model species, have revealed that miRNAs are major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. In plants, they are implicated in fundamental biological processes, from plant development and morphogenesis, to regulation of plant pathogen and abiotic stress responses. Although a substantial number of miRNAs have been identified in fruit trees to date, their functions remain largely uncharacterised. The present review aims to summarise the progress made in miRNA research in fruit trees, focusing specifically on the economically important species Prunus persica, Malus domestica, Citrus spp, and Vitis vinifera. We also discuss future miRNA research prospects in these plants and highlight potential applications of miRNAs in the on-going improvement of fruit trees. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Substance abuse and psychosocial adaptation to physical disability: analysis of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ebener, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the current state of the literature with respect to substance abuse and psychosocial adjustment in persons with disabilities. The two primary databases containing the literature related to rehabilitation and disability issues (PsychINFO and MedLine) were searched to identify articles addressing the psychosocial impact of substance abuse in persons with disabilities. Eleven empirical articles specifically measuring the strength of the relationship between substance use and psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities were selected for analysis. Of the studies identified, five were related to spinal cord injury, three were related to traumatic brain injury, one was related to chronic back pain, one was related to HIV/AIDS, and one was related to persons with any type of disability. Each of the studies used different methodologies, measured substance abuse in different ways, and examined different psychosocial outcome variables. Examination of trends suggested that pre-injury substance abuse appears to be unrelated to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injury and negatively associated with satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. Recent substance abuse tends to have a detrimental effect on psychosocial outcomes across all disability groups. Future research, combined with appropriate pre-service and continuing education related to substance abuse and disability for rehabilitation practitioners, has the potential to lead to improved psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities.

  19. Management options for pediatric patients who stutter: current challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaghy MA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michelle A Donaghy,1 Kylie A Smith,2,3 1Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, 2Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Childrens Hospital, 3Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: Stuttering is a speech disorder, with onset often occurring in the preschool years. The prevalence of stuttering in young children is much higher than that in the general population, suggesting a high rate of recovery. However, we are unable to predict which children will recover without treatment, and it is widely acknowledged that stuttering therapy during childhood provides the best safeguard against chronic stuttering. This review reports on current evidence-based stuttering treatment options for preschoolers through to adolescents. We discuss the clinical challenges associated with treating pediatric clients who stutter at different stages of development and explore potential areas of treatment research that might serve to advance current clinical practice in the future. Keywords: stuttering, stammering, pediatric, therapy, evidence based

  20. Recognising triggers for soft-sediment deformation: Current understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo; Alfaro, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Most of the 16 papers in this special issue were presented at a session entitled "The recognition of trigger mechanisms for soft-sediment deformation" at the 27th IAS Meeting of Sedimentology in Alghero, Sardinia, Italy, which took place from 20th-23rd September 2009. They describe soft-sediment deformation structures that range widely in morphology, age, depositional environment and tectonic setting. In their interpretations, the authors have been asked to focus on identifying the agent that triggered deformation. Our aims in this introductory overview are to: (1) review the definition and scope of soft-sediment deformation; (2) clarify the significance and role of the trigger; (3) set the contributions in context and summarise their findings; and (4) discuss strategies for reliably identifying triggers and make recommendations for future study of this widespread and significant category of sedimentary structures. We recommend a three-stage approach to trigger recognition, combining the assessment of facies, potential triggers, and available criteria. This focus on the trigger for deformation distinguishes this collection of papers on soft-sediment deformation from other important collections, notably those edited by Jones and Preston (1987), Maltman (1994), Maltman et al. (2000), Shiki et al. (2000), Ettensohn et al. (2002b), Van Rensbergen et al. (2003) and Storti and Vannucchi (2007).