WorldWideScience

Sample records for potential engineering discrepancies

  1. Minimizing the Discrepancy between Simulated and Historical Failures in Turbine Engines: A Simulation-Based Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kibria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability modeling of a module in a turbine engine requires knowledge of its failure rate, which can be estimated by identifying statistical distributions describing the percentage of failure per component within the turbine module. The correct definition of the failure statistical behavior per component is highly dependent on the engineer skills and may present significant discrepancies with respect to the historical data. There is no formal methodology to approach this problem and a large number of labor hours are spent trying to reduce the discrepancy by manually adjusting the distribution’s parameters. This paper addresses this problem and provides a simulation-based optimization method for the minimization of the discrepancy between the simulated and the historical percentage of failures for turbine engine components. The proposed methodology optimizes the parameter values of the component’s failure statistical distributions within the component’s likelihood confidence bounds. A complete testing of the proposed method is performed on a turbine engine case study. The method can be considered as a decision-making tool for maintenance, repair, and overhaul companies and will potentially reduce the cost of labor associated to finding the appropriate value of the distribution parameters for each component/failure mode in the model and increase the accuracy in the prediction of the mean time to failures (MTTF.

  2. Minimizing the Discrepancy between Simulated and Historical Failures in Turbine Engines: A Simulation-Based Optimization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Kibria; Krystel K. Castillo-Villar; Harry Millwater

    2015-01-01

    The reliability modeling of a module in a turbine engine requires knowledge of its failure rate, which can be estimated by identifying statistical distributions describing the percentage of failure per component within the turbine module. The correct definition of the failure statistical behavior per component is highly dependent on the engineer skills and may present significant discrepancies with respect to the historical data. There is no formal methodology to approach this problem and a l...

  3. Discrepancy of neural response between exogenous and endogenous task switching: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Maki; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kusumi, Ichiro; Murohashi, Harumitsu; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2012-08-01

    Task switching is a well-known cognitive paradigm to explore task-set reconfiguration processes such as rule shifting. In particular, endogenous task switching is thought to differ qualitatively from stimulus-triggered exogenous task switching. However, no previous study has examined the neural substrate of endogenous task switching. The purpose of the present study is to explore the differences between event-related potential responses to exogenous and endogenous rule switching at cue stimulus. We modified two patterns of cued switching tasks: exogenous (bottom-up) rule switching and endogenous (top-down) rule switching. In each task cue stimulus was configured to induce switching or maintaining rule. In exogenous switching tasks, late positive deflection was larger in the switch rule condition than in the maintain rule condition. However, in endogenous switching tasks late positive deflection was unexpectedly larger in the maintain-rule condition than in the switch-rule condition. These results indicate that exogenous rule switching is explicit stimulus-driven processes, whereas endogenous rule switching is implicitly parallel processes independent of external stimulus.

  4. Discrepancy between perceived pain and cortical processing: A voxel-based morphometry and contact heat evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J L K; Jutzeler, C R; Haefeli, J; Curt, A; Freund, P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if local gray and white matter volume variations between subjects could account for variability in responses to CHEP stimulation. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to perform voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray and white matter in 30 neurologically healthy subjects. Contact heat stimulation was performed on the dorsum of the right hand at the base of the thumb. Evoked potentials were acquired from a vertex-recording electrode referenced to linked ears. Controlling for age, total intracranial volume, and skull/scalp thickness, CHEP amplitude and pain rating were not significantly correlated between subjects. A VBM region of interest approach demonstrated a significant interaction between pain rating and N2 amplitude in the right insular cortex (ppain rating. This finding suggests that the discrepancy between pain ratings and the amplitude of evoked potentials is not solely related to measurement artifact, but rather attributable, in part, to anatomical differences between subjects. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  6. Engineered quantum tunnelling in extended periodic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimberger, Sandro; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver; Mannella, Riccardo; Arimondo, Ennio [CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Largo Pontecorvo 3, 1-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Quantum tunnelling from a tilted, but otherwise periodic potential is studied. Our theoretical and experimental results show that, by controlling the system's parameters, we can engineer the escape rate of a Bose-Einstein condensate to an exceptional degree. Possible applications of this atom-optics realization of the open Wannier-Stark system are discussed.

  7. Computational investigation of feedback loop as a potential source of neuromechanical wave speed discrepancy in swimming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Namu; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2017-11-01

    Aquatic locomotion relies on feedback loops to generate the flexural muscle moment needed to attain the reference shape. Experimentalists have consistently reported a difference between the electromyogram (EMG) and curvature wave speeds. The EMG wave speed has been found to correlate with the cross-sectional moment wave. The correlation, however, remains unexplained. Using feedback dependent controller models, we demonstrate two scenarios - one at higher passive elastic stiffness and another at lower passive elastic stiffness of the body. The former case becomes equivalent to the penalty type mathematical model for swimming used in prior literature and it does not reproduce neuromechanical wave speed discrepancy. The latter case at lower elastic stiffness does reproduce the wave speed discrepancy and appears to be biologically most relevant. These findings are applied to develop testable hypotheses about control mechanisms that animals might be using at during low and high Reynolds number swimming. This work is supported by NSF Grants DMS-1547394, CBET-1066575, ACI-1460334, and IOS-1456830. Travel for NP is supported by Institute for Defense Analyses.

  8. Remaining Physiological Barriers in Porcine Kidney Xenotransplantation: Potential Pathways behind Proteinuria as well as Factors Related to Growth Discrepancies following Pig-to-Kidney Xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jigesh A; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Tanabe, Tatsu; Watanabe, Hironosuke; Johnson, Richard J; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Considerable shortages in the supply of available organs continue to plague the field of solid organ transplantation. Despite changes in allocation, as well as the utilization of extended criteria and living donors, the number of patients waiting for organs continues to grow at an alarming pace. Xenotransplantation, cross-species solid organ transplantation, offers one potential solution to this dilemma. Previous extensive research dedicated to this field has allowed for resolution of xenograft failure due to acute rejection, leaving new areas of unresolved challenges as barriers to success in large animal models. Specific to kidney xenotransplantation, recent data seems to indicate that graft compromise can occur due to discrepancies in growth between breeds of donors and significant proteinuria leading to nephrotic syndrome in the recipient. Given these potential limitations, herein, we review potential pathways behind proteinuria, as well as potential causative factors related to growth discrepancies. Control of both of these has the potential to allow xenotransplantation to become clinically applicable in an effort to resolve this organ shortage crisis.

  9. Optimistic bias and Facebook use: self-other discrepancies about potential risks and benefits of Facebook use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Despite the accumulating evidence on the positive and negative outcomes of Facebook use, how people perceive themselves to be subject to these outcomes as well as the consequences and mechanisms of these perceptions are underexplored. According to optimistic bias, Facebook users may perceive that bad things are more likely to happen to others than to themselves, while good things are more likely to happen to them than to others. The findings from an online survey among Facebook users indicate that the negative psychological and social outcomes of using Facebook were perceived to be more likely to happen to other Facebook users than to themselves, pscams) significantly mediated one's willingness to support Internet regulation, Sobel z=2.49, p=0.01. For positive outcomes of Facebook use, the direction of optimistic bias was reversed, t(235) = -5.52, p<0.01, indicating that people minimized the likelihoods of experiencing positive events from Facebook while assessing that other Facebook users are prone to encounter those positive events. This reversal pattern emerged among those with negative attitudes toward, and low involvement with, Facebook. These findings demonstrate important and novel self-other discrepant perceptions concerning the risks and benefits of Facebook use.

  10. Cyanide bioremediation: the potential of engineered nitrilases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason M; Trevor Sewell, B; Benedik, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The cyanide-degrading nitrilases are of notable interest for their potential to remediate cyanide contaminated waste streams, especially as generated in the gold mining, pharmaceutical, and electroplating industries. This review provides a brief overview of cyanide remediation in general but with a particular focus on the cyanide-degrading nitrilases. These are of special interest as the hydrolysis reaction does not require secondary substrates or cofactors, making these enzymes particularly good candidates for industrial remediation processes. The genetic approaches that have been used to date for engineering improved enzymes are described; however, recent structural insights provide a promising new approach.

  11. Silk: a potential medium for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajo, Cassandra; Behzad, Farhad; Yuan, Xue-Feng; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2008-01-01

    Human skin is a complex bilayered organ that serves as a protective barrier against the environment. The loss of integrity of skin by traumatic experiences such as burns and ulcers may result in considerable disability or ultimately death. Therefore, in skin injuries, adequate dermal substitutes are among primary care targets, aimed at replacing the structural and functional properties of native skin. To date, there are very few single application tissue-engineered dermal constructs fulfilling this criterion. Silk produced by the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, has a long history of use in medicine. It has recently been increasingly investigated as a promising biomaterial for dermal constructs. Silk contains 2 fibrous proteins, sericin and fibroin. Each one exhibits unique mechanical and biological properties. Comprehensive review of randomized-controlled trials investigating current dermal constructs and the structures and properties of silk-based constructs on wound healing. This review revealed that silk-fibroin is regarded as the most promising biomaterial, providing options for the construction of tissue-engineered skin. The research available indicates that silk fibroin is a suitable biomaterial scaffold for the provision of adequate dermal constructs.

  12. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  13. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  14. The mediation roles of discrepancy stress and self-esteem between masculine role discrepancy and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Ma, Yee-Ling; Lau, Mason C M

    2018-08-01

    Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed. Levels of masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, self-esteem, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed by using validated scales. Results of structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the proposed model fit the sample well. (χ 2 (118) = 832.34, p masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, and emotional/mental health problems. We found that discrepancy stress significantly mediated the association between masculine role discrepancy and social anxiety, while self-esteem significantly mediated the associations between masculine role discrepancy and both social anxiety and depression. Study limitations mainly included the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-reported questionnaires. The associations between masculine discrepancy and social anxiety/depressive symptoms among men may be explained by the increase in discrepancy stress and decrease in self-esteem. The findings suggest needs and directions for future research for the relationship between masculine role discrepancy and men's mental health, mechanisms involved, and interventions for improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Collagen as potential cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, N; Spier, R E

    2004-05-01

    Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.

  16. Engineering for All: A Middle School Program to Introduce Students to Engineering as a Potential Social Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Michael; Crismond, David; Hecht, Deborah; Lomask, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series about Engineering for All (EfA), a $1.7M National Science Foundation-funded project, which introduces middle school students to engineering, not only as a career path, but as an endeavor with potential for doing social good. Engineering for All opens students' eyes to the role engineers play in…

  17. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  18. Pharmaceutical and biomedical potential of surface engineered dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Jitendra; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched, globular, monodisperse, nanometric polymeric architecture, having definite molecular weight, shape, and size (which make these an inimitable and optimum carrier molecule in pharmaceutical field). Dendritic architecture is having immense potential over the other carrier systems, particularly in the field of drug delivery because of their unique properties, such as structural uniformity, high purity, efficient membrane transport, high drug pay load, targeting potential, and good colloidal, biological, and shelf stability. Despite their enormous applicability in different areas, the inherent cytotoxicity, reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, and hemolytic toxicity restricted their use in clinical applications, which is primarily associated with cationic charge present on the periphery due to amine groups. To overcome this toxic nature of dendrimers, some new types of nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable dendrimers have been developed (e.g., polyester dendrimer, citric acid dendrimer, arginine dendrimer, carbohydrate dendrimers, etc.). The surface engineering of parent dendrimers is graceful and convenient strategy, which not only shields the positive charge to make this carrier more biomimetic but also improves the physicochemical and biological behavior of parent dendrimers. Thus, surface modification chemistry of parent dendrimers holds promise in pharmaceutical applications (such as solubilization, improved drug encapsulation, enhanced gene transfection, sustained and controlled drug release, intracellular targeting) and in the diagnostic field. Development of multifunctional dendrimer holds greater promise toward the biomedical applications because a number of targeting ligands determine specificity in the same manner as another type of group would secure stability in biological milieu and prolonged circulation, whereas others facilitate their transport through cell membranes. Therefore, as a

  19. Holographic black hole engineering at finite baryon chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougemont, Romulo

    2017-01-01

    This is a contribution for the Proceedings of the Conference Hot Quarks 2016, held at South Padre Island, Texas, USA, 12-17 September 2016. I briefly review some thermodynamic and baryon transport results obtained from a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model engineered to describe the physics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The results for the equation of state, baryon susceptibilities, and the curvature of the crossover band are in quantitative agreement with the corresponding lattice QCD results with 2 + 1 flavors and physical quark masses. Baryon diffusion is predicted to be suppressed by increasing the baryon chemical potential. (paper)

  20. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  1. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Corazzari, Ingrid; Fenoglio, Ivana; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Viola, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  2. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis: The potential for engineering bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Kanczler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopaedic challenge. Bone is a highly vascularised tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal connection between blood vessels and bone cells to maintain skeletal integrity. Angiogenesis thus plays a pivotal role in skeletal development and bone fracture repair. Current procedures to repair bone defects and to provide structural and mechanical support include the use of grafts (autologous, allogeneic or implants (polymeric or metallic. These approaches face significant limitations due to insufficient supply, potential disease transmission, rejection, cost and the inability to integrate with the surrounding host tissue.The engineering of bone tissue offers new therapeutic strategies to aid musculoskeletal healing. Various scaffold constructs have been employed in the development of tissue-engineered bone; however, an active blood vessel network is an essential pre-requisite for these to survive and integrate with existing host tissue. Combination therapies of stem cells and polymeric growth factor release scaffolds tailored to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis are under evaluation and development actively to stimulate bone regeneration. An understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions of blood vessels and bone cells will enhance and aid the successful development of future vascularised bone scaffold constructs, enabling survival and integration of bioengineered bone with the host tissue. The role of angiogenic and osteogenic factors in the adaptive response and interaction of osteoblasts and endothelial cells during the multi step process of bone development and repair will be highlighted in this review, with consideration of how some of these key mechanisms can be combined with new developments in tissue engineering to enable repair and growth of skeletal fractures. Elucidation of the processes of angiogenesis, osteogenesis and tissue engineering strategies offer

  3. A panorama of discrepancy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastav, Anand; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy theory concerns the problem of replacing a continuous object with a discrete sampling. Discrepancy theory is currently at a crossroads between number theory, combinatorics, Fourier analysis, algorithms and complexity, probability theory and numerical analysis. There are several excellent books on discrepancy theory but perhaps no one of them actually shows the present variety of points of view and applications covering the areas "Classical and Geometric Discrepancy Theory", "Combinatorial Discrepancy Theory" and "Applications and Constructions". Our book consists of several chapters, written by experts in the specific areas, and focused on the different aspects of the theory. The book should also be an invitation to researchers and students to find a quick way into the different methods and to motivate interdisciplinary research.

  4. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

  5. Why all the confusion? Experimental task explains discrepant semantic priming effects in schizophrenia under “automatic” conditions: evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Kreher, Donna A.; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2009-01-01

    The schizophrenia research literature contains many differing accounts of semantic memory function in schizophrenia as assessed through the semantic priming paradigm. Most recently, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) have been used to demonstrate both increased and decreased semantic priming at a neural level in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy controls. The present study used ERPs to investigate the role of behavioral task in determining neural semantic priming effects in schizophren...

  6. Velocity Potential in Engineering Hydraulics versus Force Potential in Groundwater Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, K.

    2013-12-01

    Within engineering practice, the calculation of subsurface flow is dominated by the mathematical pseudo-physics of the engineer's adaptation of continuum methods to mechanics. Continuum mechanics rose to prominence in the 19th century in an successful attempt to solve practical engineering problems. To that end were put in place quite a number of simplifications in geometry and the properties of water and other fluids, as well as simplifications of Darcy's equation, in order to find reasonable answers to practical problems by making use of analytical equations. The proof of the correctness of the approach and its usefulness was in the practicability of results obtained. In the 1930s, a diametrically-opposed duality developed in the theoretical derivation of the laws of subsurface fluid flow between Muskat's (1937) velocity potential (engineering hydraulics) and Hubbert's (1940) force potential. The conflict between these authors lasted a lifetime. In the end Hubbert stated on one occasion that Muskat formulates a refined mathematics but does not know what it means in physical terms. In this author's opinion that can still be said about the application of continuum mechanics by engineers to date, as for example to CO2 sequestration, regional groundwater flow, oil sands work, and geothermal studies. To date, engineering hydraulics is best represented by Bear (1972) and de Marsily (1986). In their well-known textbooks, both authors refer to Hubbert's work as the proper way to deal with the physics of compressible fluids. Water is a compressible fluid. The authors then ignore, however, their own insights (de Marsily states so explicitly, Bear does not) and proceed to deal with water as an incompressible fluid. At places both authors assume the pressure gradients to be the main driving force for flow of fluids in the subsurface. That is not, however, the case. Instead the pressure potential forces are caused by compression initiated by unused gravitational energy not

  7. Preparation of Laponite Bioceramics for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ju, Yaping; Li, Jipeng; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Xuanyong; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP) bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24955961

  8. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Potential Errors and Test Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Lackner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product lines (SPL are a method for the development of variant-rich software systems. Compared to non-variable systems, testing SPLs is extensive due to an increasingly amount of possible products. Different approaches exist for testing SPLs, but there is less research for assessing the quality of these tests by means of error detection capability. Such test assessment is based on error injection into correct version of the system under test. However to our knowledge, potential errors in SPL engineering have never been systematically identified before. This article presents an overview over existing paradigms for specifying software product lines and the errors that can occur during the respective specification processes. For assessment of test quality, we leverage mutation testing techniques to SPL engineering and implement the identified errors as mutation operators. This allows us to run existing tests against defective products for the purpose of test assessment. From the results, we draw conclusions about the error-proneness of the surveyed SPL design paradigms and how quality of SPL tests can be improved.

  10. Potential of Bioactive Glasses for Cardiac and Pulmonary Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Kargozar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Repair and regeneration of disorders affecting cardiac and pulmonary tissues through tissue-engineering-based approaches is currently of particular interest. On this matter, different families of bioactive glasses (BGs have recently been given much consideration with respect to treating refractory diseases of these tissues, such as myocardial infarction. The inherent properties of BGs, including their ability to bond to hard and soft tissues, to stimulate angiogenesis, and to elicit antimicrobial effects, along with their excellent biocompatibility, support these newly proposed strategies. Moreover, BGs can also act as a bioactive reinforcing phase to finely tune the mechanical properties of polymer-based constructs used to repair the damaged cardiac and pulmonary tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of different forms of BGs, alone or in combination with other materials (e.g., polymers, in regards to repair and regenerate injured tissues of cardiac and pulmonary systems.

  11. 235Cf anti ν discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ν for 235 Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ν and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of 235 Cf anti ν. It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the 235 Cf anti ν discrepancy. 22 references

  12. Why all the confusion? Experimental task explains discrepant semantic priming effects in schizophrenia under "automatic" conditions: evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreher, Donna A; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-06-01

    The schizophrenia research literature contains many differing accounts of semantic memory function in schizophrenia as assessed through the semantic priming paradigm. Most recently, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) have been used to demonstrate both increased and decreased semantic priming at a neural level in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy controls. The present study used ERPs to investigate the role of behavioral task in determining neural semantic priming effects in schizophrenia. The same schizophrenia patients and healthy controls completed two experiments in which word stimuli were identical, and the time between the onset of prime and target remained constant at 350 ms: in the first, participants monitored for words within a particular semantic category that appeared only in filler items (implicit task); in the second, participants explicitly rated the relatedness of word-pairs (explicit task). In the explicit task, schizophrenia patients showed reduced direct and indirect semantic priming in comparison with healthy controls. In contrast, in the implicit task, schizophrenia patients showed normal or, in positively thought-disordered patients, increased direct and indirect N400 priming effects compared with healthy controls. These data confirm that, although schizophrenia patients with positive thought disorder may show an abnormally increased automatic spreading activation, the introduction of semantic decision-making can result in abnormally reduced semantic priming in schizophrenia, even when other experimental conditions bias toward automatic processing.

  13. Re: Engineered Nanoparticles Induce Cell Apoptosis: Potential for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs have been widely applied in industry, biology and medicine recently (i.e. clothes, sunscreens, cosmetics, foods, diagnostic medicine, imaging and drug delivery. There are many kinds of manufactured nanomaterial products including TiO2, ZnO, CeO2, Fe2O3, and CuO (as metal oxide nanoparticles as well as gold, silver, platinum and palladium (as metal nanoparticles, and other carbon-based ENP’s such as carbon nanotububes and quantum dots. ENPs with their sizes no larger than 100 nm are able to enter the human body and accumulate in organs and cause toxic effects. In many researches, ENP effects on the cancer cells of different organs with related cell apoptosis were noted (AgNP, nano-Cr2O3, Au-Fe2O3 NPs, nano-TiO2, nano-HAP, nano-Se, MoO3 nanoplate, Realgar nanoparticles. ENPs, with their unique properties, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and surface modification with tissue recognition ligands or antibodies, has been increasingly explored as a tool to carry small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules for cancer therapy, thus generating the new concept “nanocarrier”. Direct induction of cell apoptosis by ENPs provides an opportunity for cancer treatment. In the century of nanomedicine that depends on development of the nanotechnology, ENPs have a great potential for application in cancer treatment with minimal side effects.

  14. The potentialities of the wind driven engines with Magnus effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, N.M.; Gorelov, V.P.; Gorelov, S.V.; Kachanov, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    Possibilities of wind engine realizing of Magnus effect like of untraditional kind energy source is shown in the article. In this engine instead of traditional propellers the rotatable cylinders are installed. According interaction of the cylinders with wind the Magnus force arises. Magnus force exceeds propellers rise force in 5-10 times and maintain very large turning moment of wind wheel and most effective operation of engine, especially at low wind rates. Advantage of the engine consists in that it switch on under wind rate 1 m/c, when for propeller one requires 4-5 m/c

  15. Natural gas engine concept with EZEV potential; Erdgasmotorkonzept mit EZEV-Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, F.; Mueller, P.; Heck, E.; Langen, P. [BMW AG (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The first natural gas vehicles form BMW are designed for arbitrary gasoline or natural gas operation. It is possible only to a limited extent to take advantage of the benefits of natural gas as a fuel as long as this is the case. An analysis was made to determine possible improvements in terms of fuel economy, emissions, full load and maximum exhaust gas temperatures through selective optimisation for exclusive natural gas operation. The results of this analysis have been used in the design of natural gas engines for mid-sized vehicles. Vehicle examinations in FTP75 confirm the existing potential for satisfying EZEV standards discussed in California even with vehicles of the upper midsize category by using optimised natural gas engines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die ersten Automobile mit Erdgasantrieb von BMW sind fuer den wahlweisen Benzin- oder Erdgasbetrieb ausgelegt. Deshalb koennen die Vorteile des Kraftstoffs Erdgas nur zum Teil genutzt werden. Es wurde untersucht, welche Verbesserungen durch gezielte Optimierung fuer den ausschliesslichen Erdgasbetrieb bei Kraftstoffverbrauch, Emissionen, Vollast und maximalen Abgastemperaturen moeglich sind. Die Ergebnisse wurden bei der Auslegung von Erdgasmotoren fuer Mittelklassefahrzeuge verwendet. Untersuchungen im FTP-75 bestaetigen, dass mit optimierten Erdgasmotoren das Potential besteht, selbst mit Automobilen der oberen Mittelklasse die in Kalifornien diskutierten EZEV-Standards zu erfuellen. (orig.)

  16. The Potential for Computer Based Systems in Modular Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering.......The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering....

  17. Potential applications of skip SMV with thrust engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Savvaris, Al

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential applications of Space Maneuver Vehicles (SMV) with skip trajectory. Due to soaring space operations over the past decades, the risk of space debris has considerably increased such as collision risks with space asset, human property on ground and even aviation. Many active debris removal methods have been investigated and in this paper, a debris remediation method is first proposed based on skip SMV. The key point is to perform controlled re-entry. These vehicles are expected to achieve a trans-atmospheric maneuver with thrust engine. If debris is released at altitude below 80 km, debris could be captured by the atmosphere drag force and re-entry interface prediction accuracy is improved. Moreover if the debris is released in a cargo at a much lower altitude, this technique protects high value space asset from break up by the atmosphere and improves landing accuracy. To demonstrate the feasibility of this concept, the present paper presents the simulation results for two specific mission profiles: (1) descent to predetermined altitude; (2) descent to predetermined point (altitude, longitude and latitude). The evolutionary collocation method is adopted for skip trajectory optimization due to its global optimality and high-accuracy. This method is actually a two-step optimization approach based on the heuristic algorithm and the collocation method. The optimal-control problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) which can be efficiently and accurately solved by the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) procedure. However, such a method is sensitive to initial values. To reduce the sensitivity problem, genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to refine the grids and provide near optimum initial values. By comparing the simulation data from different scenarios, it is found that skip SMV is feasible in active debris removal and the evolutionary collocation method gives a truthful re-entry trajectory that satisfies the

  18. The potential of quantum technology gravity sensors in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckwell, G.; Metje, N.; Boddice, D.; Usher, C.

    2017-12-01

    Potential field techniques have advantages over active geophysical techniques as they are not limited to the depth they can image features, provided the signals of interest are detectable amongst the other variations recorded by the instrument. A new generation of gravity instruments based on quantum technology promise greatly increased measurement sensitivity, but with this comes significant challenges in data processing and noise suppression. In the UK Innovate UK funded SIGMA project (http://www.rsksigma.co.uk/) the field of opportunity for a step change in gravity sensor accuracy has been evaluated by comparison with existing geophysical sensors, identifying the range of targets and depths of interest to commercial end users that are currently undetectable and might become visible. Forward modelling was used to quantify the potential of a Quantum Technology (QT) gravity and gravity gradiometer sensor. A substantive improvement in detectability of targets is predicted, which can be considered as a factor of 1.5 to 2 increase in the depth of detectability, or in the reduction of the size of the feature of interest. To take further advantage of new instrument sensitivity, new survey workflows are required. The accuracy of measured gravity maps is limited by environmental vibration noise, and by the accuracy with which tidal variations and terrain signals can be removed. It is still common practice in engineering scale surveys for gravity values to be reduced to Bouguer residuals. However, with a more sensitive instrument comes the need to measure the terrain more accurately. This can be achieved within a commercially viable workflow using a laser scanner for rapid data acquisition and advanced processing to produce an accurate DEM. Initial tests on 4 commercial sites have shown that an improvement of 10s of mGal can be achieved if applying a full digital terrain model correction to the microgravity data even on sites with very minor topographic height variations

  19. Investigating potential correlations between jet engine noise and plume dynamics in the hypertemporal infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed; Knobel, Kimberly; Wager, Jason; Lopez, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a hazard and environmental pollutant, affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines. Mitigating the effects of jet engine noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers, but engine noise is not yet sufficiently well-characterized that it can easily be mitigated for new engine designs. That is, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the utility of high-speed imaging (also called hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet aircraft engines with acoustic noise from the jet engines. This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures, and will define potentially-detectable characteristics of such signatures in the hypertemporal domain. A systematic test campaign to determine whether such signatures actually exist and can be correlated with acoustic jet engine characteristics will be proposed. The detection of any hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines will enable the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to benefits for operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  20. A review of Curtiss-Wright rotary engine developments with respect to general aviation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1979-01-01

    Aviation related rotary (Wankel-type) engine tests, possible growth directions and relevant developments at Curtiss-Wright have been reviewed. Automotive rotary engines including stratified charge are described and flight test results of rotary aircraft engines are presented. The current 300 HP engine prototype shows basic durability and competitive performance potential. Recent parallel developments have separately confirmed the geometric advantages of the rotary engine for direct injected unthrottled stratified charge. Specific fuel consumption equal to or better than pre- or swirl-chamber diesels, low emission and multi-fuel capability have been shown by rig tests of similar rotary engine.

  1. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  2. Tissue engineering as a potential alternative or adjunct to surgical reconstruction in treating pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, M; Gräs, Søren; Lose, G

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering strategies could potentially provide attractive alternatives to surgical reconstruction of native tissue or the use of surgical implants in treating pelvic organ prolapse (POP).......Cell-based tissue engineering strategies could potentially provide attractive alternatives to surgical reconstruction of native tissue or the use of surgical implants in treating pelvic organ prolapse (POP)....

  3. The potential of biobased materials in the civil engineering sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Anne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Large quantities of materials are used in the Dutch civil engineering sector every year. Many of these materials have a significant impact on the environment because these materials are based on non-renewable resources and the production is often

  4. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  5. Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased population has resulted in extra use of conventional sources of fuels due to which there is risk of extinction of fossil fuels’ resources especially petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is emerging as an excellent alternative choice across the world as a direct replacement for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel offers a great choice. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. Hence in this paper effort has been made to find out feasibility of biodiesel obtained from eucalyptus oil and its impact on diesel engine. Higher viscosity is a major issue while using vegetable oil directly in engine which can be removed by converting it into biodiesel by the process of transesterification. Various fuel properties like calorific value, flash point and cetane value of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends of different proportions were evaluated and found to be comparable with petroleum diesel. The result of investigation shows that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC for two different samples of B10 blend of eucalyptus biodiesel is 2.34% and 2.93% lower than that for diesel. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE for B10 blends was found to be 0.52% and 0.94% lower than that for diesel. Emission characteristics show that Smoke Opacity improves for both samples, smoke is found to be 64.5% and 62.5% cleaner than that of diesel. Out of all blends B10 was found to be a suitable alternative to conventional diesel fuel to control air pollution without much significant effect on engine performance. On comparing both samples, biodiesel prepared from sample A of eucalyptus oil was found to be superior in all aspects of performance and emission.

  6. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Baisheng; Li, Yan-Ling; Qi, Jingshan; Ahuja, Rajeev; Sun, Zhimei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene has been attracted intense interest due to its unexpected high carrier mobility and distinguished anisotropic optoelectronic and electronic properties. In this work, we unraveled strain engineered phosphorene as a photocatalyst in the application of water splitting hydrogen production based on density functional theory calculations. Lattice dynamic calculations demonstrated the stability for such kind of artificial materials under different strains. The phosphorene lattice is unst...

  7. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3?5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms ?error? and ?discrepancy? and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and ...

  8. Molecular and chemical engineering of bacteriophages for potential medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug discovery. Phages also offer solutions for modern cell imaging, biosensor construction or food pathogen detection. Here we present a review of bacteriophage research as a dynamically developing field with promising prospects for further development of medicine and biotechnology.

  9. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  10. REALIZING POTENTIAL OF ART IN THE SYSTEM OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliy Smakovskaya

    2015-12-01

    It tested a pilot program of diagnosis and development of art perception in students of a technical college, and revealed its multifunctional potential – as a tool for mainstreaming subjective creativity in a special space – art communications.

  11. The Potential of Design in a Sustainable Engineering Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is still a relatively new term in everyday public discourses, yet broad consensus is emerging that issues of sustainability should take a central part in future development strategies. Some of the professions most seriously effected by the complexities and challenges of sustainable...... approach to problem solving across professions. In other words, how a reflected design practice makes it possible to deal with issues of sustainability....... concept, but its use has always been fluent and changing. Today it is no longer solely a matter of formalist aesthetics employing materials and tangible form for iconic recognition. The design field is rather shifting towards a reflective, creative practice working across disciplines and professions......, and the objects of design are shifting towards systems, services, and experiences rather than material products. Illustrated by two concrete engineering programs I will argue that a reflected design practice makes it possible to deal with open, complex challenges, and that it enables a more contextually situated...

  12. Basic Potential of Carbon Nanotubes in Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Haniu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are attracting interest in various fields of science because they possess a high surface area-to-volume ratio and excellent electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. Various medical applications of CNTs are expected, and the properties of CNTs have been greatly improved for use in biomaterials. However, the safety of CNTs remains unclear, which impedes their medical application. Our group is evaluating the biological responses of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs in vivo and in vitro for the promotion of tissue regeneration as safe scaffold materials. We recently showed that intracellular accumulation is important for the cytotoxicity of CNTs, and we reported the active physiological functions CNTs in cells. In this review, we describe the effects of CNTs in vivo and in vitro observed by our group from the standpoint of tissue engineering, and we introduce the findings of other research groups.

  13. Interpersonal relationships management potentials for the engineering students’ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Legañoa Ferrá

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the key role of ICT in autonomous learning of physics. The use of eb didactic materials in guiding autonomous learning in Cuban Higher Education is examined together with and account of autonomous learning guiding tasks in progress under the auspice of “Enrique José Varona” Center for Science of Education at the University of Camagüey. Likewise, the experience of the Physics Department in designing web didactic materials by means of Exelearning software is described. The standards being used in Physics courses and the features characterizing the Physics Web Didactics for Physics II are fully explained. The paper closes with the finding of the test given to a group of Electric Engineering second year students in 2012-2013 academic years. Key words: autonomous learning, web didactic materials, learning design, learning standards, learning of physics

  14. Potential for Fuel Tank Fire and Hydrodynamic Ram from Uncontained Aircraft Engine Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the potential consequences of the impact and penetration of fuel tanks by debris from uncontained engine failures on commercial jet aircraft. The report presents a brief review of accident data and of the pertinent technical lit...

  15. Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

    2013-03-01

    Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010-mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment.

  16. Genetic engineering, a potential aid to conventional plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Soomro, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    To develop improve crop varieties, the most basic elements are crossing of desirable parents to provide genetic variation for evaluation and selection of desirable plants among the progenies. In conventional plant breeding, gene transfer is achieved by back crossing or less frequently by recurrent selection. Both processes take several generations to reach to a point where genetic milieu of the parents remains. Plant breeders also face the most difficult situation when the desired gene is present in the entirely diverse species where wide crosses become inevitable. In addition, genomic disharmony, unfavourable genic interaction and chromosomal instability also account for limited success of wide hybridization in the field crops. Under such circumstances, tissue culture techniques, such as somaclonal variation, Embryo Rescue Technique and Somatic hybridization are the ultimate options. There may be other cases where desired genes are present in entirely different genera or organisms and crossings of donor with recipient is no more a concern. Plant breeders also spend much of their time manipulating quantitatively inherited traits such as yield, that have low heritability. These characters are assumed to be determined by a large number of genes each with minor and additive effects. Direct selection for such traits is less effective. Genetic Engineering approaches like isozymes and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) with heritability of 1.0 make the selection very efficient and accurate as indirect selection criteria for quantitatively inherited traits. Hence isozymes and RFLPs techniques can easily be exercised at cellular or seedling stages thus reducing the time and labour oriented screening of plants at maturity. Rather new approach such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) will also be discussed in this article. (Orig./A.B.)

  17. The resolution of discrepancies among nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Significant differences among input data occur in the evaluation of nuclear data because it is difficult to achieve experimental results with the accuracy required for some applications. Types of ''discrepancies'' are classified. The means are reviewed by which an evaluator may treat discrepancies in the process of evaluation. When all means fail that are based on how the discrepant data were obtained, the perplexed evaluator must sometimes combine discrepant data based just on the stated values and uncertainties; techniques for treating such challenges are compared. Some well-known data discrepancies are examined as examples

  18. Genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida X3 strain and its potential ability to bioremediate soil microcosms contaminated with methyl parathion and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Xu, Xingjian; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    A multifunctional Pseudomonas putida X3 strain was successfully engineered by introducing methyl parathion (MP)-degrading gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in P. putida X4 (CCTCC: 209319). In liquid cultures, the engineered X3 strain utilized MP as sole carbon source for growth and degraded 100 mg L(-1) of MP within 24 h; however, this strain did not further metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP), an intermediate metabolite of MP. No discrepancy in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) was observed between the engineered X3 strain and its host strain. The inoculated X3 strain accelerated MP degradation in different polluted soil microcosms with 100 mg MP kg(-1) dry soil and/or 5 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil; MP was completely eliminated within 40 h. However, the presence of Cd in the early stage of remediation slightly delayed MP degradation. The application of X3 strain in Cd-contaminated soil strongly affected the distribution of Cd fractions and immobilized Cd by reducing bioavailable Cd concentrations with lower soluble/exchangeable Cd and organic-bound Cd. The inoculated X3 strain also colonized and proliferated in various contaminated microcosms. Our results suggested that the engineered X3 strain is a potential bioremediation agent showing competitive advantage in complex contaminated environments.

  19. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-01-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well

  20. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin, E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra, E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur, 13220 (Indonesia); Sulaksono, Anto, E-mail: anto.sulaksono@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, 164242 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  1. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P., E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Belfaqih, Idrus H., E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, State University of Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

  3. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system

  4. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  5. Identification of informative features for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chi; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Jhang, Syu-Ruei; Tung, Chun-Wei

    2017-08-18

    The immunotoxicity of engine exhausts is of high concern to human health due to the increasing prevalence of immune-related diseases. However, the evaluation of immunotoxicity of engine exhausts is currently based on expensive and time-consuming experiments. It is desirable to develop efficient methods for immunotoxicity assessment. To accelerate the development of safe alternative fuels, this study proposed a computational method for identifying informative features for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts. A principal component regression (PCR) algorithm was applied to develop prediction models. The informative features were identified by a sequential backward feature elimination (SBFE) algorithm. A total of 19 informative chemical and biological features were successfully identified by SBFE algorithm. The informative features were utilized to develop a computational method named FS-CBM for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts. FS-CBM model achieved a high performance with correlation coefficient values of 0.997 and 0.943 obtained from training and independent test sets, respectively. The FS-CBM model was developed for predicting proinflammatory potentials of engine exhausts with a large improvement on prediction performance compared with our previous CBM model. The proposed method could be further applied to construct models for bioactivities of mixtures.

  6. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  7. Potentials and limits of downsizing a diesel engine; Potenziale und Grenzen des Downsizings beim Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauch, Andreas; Tophoven, Jens; Trzebiatowski, Tobias; Raatz, Thorsten [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Bereich Forschung und Vorausentwicklung

    2011-07-15

    In order to reach lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, Bosch modified a three-cylinder diesel engine regarding its turbo-charging and fuel injection system and integrated it into a mid-size luxury car. So it is possible to determine both, the potentials concerning fuel consumption and emissions of this downsizing approach as well as its limits. (orig.)

  8. Ethanol and its potential for downsized engine concepts; Ethanol und sein Potenzial fuer Downsizing-Motorenkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaderlapp, Markus; Adomeit, Philipp; Kolbeck, Andreas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Thewes, Matthias [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2012-02-15

    The intense discussion of e-mobility has withdrawn the public attention from alternative fuels - which appears inadequate when the properties and potentials of ethanol fuels for combustion engines are considered. FEV and RWTH Aachen University investigated to which extent this alternative fuel could be conducive to CO{sub 2} reduction. (orig.)

  9. Socio-economic and Engineering Assessments of Renewable Energy Cost Reduction Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Joachim

    This dissertation combines three perspectives on the potential of cost reductions of renewable energy--a relevant topic, as high energy costs have traditionally been cited as major reason to vindicate developments of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants, and to justify financial support mechanisms and special incentives for renewable energy generators. First, I highlight the role of market and policy drivers in an international comparison of upfront capital expenses of residential photovoltaic systems in Germany and the United States that result in price differences of a factor of two and suggest cost reduction opportunities. In a second article I examine engineering approaches and siting considerations of large-scale photovoltaic projects in the United States that enable substantial system performance increases and allow thus for lower energy costs on a levelized basis. Finally, I investigate future cost reduction options of wind energy, ranging from capital expenses, operating expenses, and performance over a project's lifetime to financing costs. The assessment shows both substantial further cost decline potential for mature technologies like land-based turbines, nascent technologies like fixed-bottom offshore turbines, and experimental technologies like floating offshore turbines. The following paragraphs summarize each analysis: International upfront capital cost comparison of residential solar systems: Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or "soft" costs between the two countries, of which only 35% be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in

  10. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  11. Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Andrew; Brooks, Richard; Shipway, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sources of I.C. engine cold start efficiency are reviewed and quantified. • Potential solutions are reviewed and the benefit quantified together. • Potential conflicts between different engine sub-systems are discussed. • Fuel consumption benefits of up to 7% are observed during cold start. • Emission reductions of up to 40% during cold start are observed. - Abstract: Legislation on vehicle emissions continues to become more stringent in an effort to minimise the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment. One area of significant concern in this respect is that of the cold-start; the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold-start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. The drive for thermal efficiency (of both the internal combustion engine and of the vehicle as a whole) has led to a variety of solutions being trialled to assess their merits and effects on other vehicle systems during this warm-up phase (and implemented where appropriate). The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. In the case of the engine, this is primarily focused on the lubricant system. Lubricant viscosity is highly sensitive to temperature and the increased viscosity at low temperatures results in higher frictional and pumping losses than would be observed at the target operating temperature. The approaches used to tackle the problem include the use of phase change materials (to reduce the cool-down rate during a period following engine running) [1,2] and the use of thermal barrier coatings in an attempt to insulate the cylinder bore and prevent heat loss (thus increasing the amount of energy utilised as brake work [3]). A range of system alterations have also been trialled including

  12. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  13. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  14. Potentials of NO{sub X} emission reduction methods in SI hydrogen engines: Simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, H.; Jazayeri, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, No.15, Pardis Street, Vanak Square, Tehran (Iran); Ebrahimi, R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 4th Tehranpars Square, East Vafadar Street, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    The ever increasing cost of hydrocarbon fuels and more stringent emission standards may resolve challenges in producing hydrogen and using it as an alternative fuel in industries. Internal combustion engines are well-established technology and hydrogen fuel in such engines is considered as an attractive choice in exploiting clean, efficient and renewable hydrogen energy. This work presents an improved thermo-kinetics model for simulation of hydrogen combustion in SI engines. The turbulent propagating flame is modeled using turbulent burning velocity model. During combustion the charge is divided into three zones containing unburned charge, flame and burned gas. The adiabatic flame is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium while the detailed chemical kinetics scheme is considered for burned and unburned zones. The results were first validated against published experiments. Good agreements were obtained between simulation and experiment for varying equivalence ratio, ignition timing and compression ratio. Detailed analysis of engine NO{sub X} emission was performed afterward. The lean-burn and EGR strategies' potentials were examined by the current model. The effects of different amounts of cooled dry EGR and hot wet EGR on the NO{sub X} emission, engine power output and indicated thermal efficiency were investigated and compared theoretically. (author)

  15. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Molina, S.; Novella, R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle

  16. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Methods Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. Conclusion These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs. PMID:25995167

  17. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adrian P

    2017-02-01

    Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3-5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms "error" and "discrepancy" and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and system-based. Possible strategies to minimise error are considered, along with the means of dealing with perceived underperformance when it is identified. The inevitability of imperfection is explained, while the importance of striving to minimise such imperfection is emphasised. • Discrepancies between radiology reports and subsequent patient outcomes are not inevitably errors. • Radiologist reporting performance cannot be perfect, and some errors are inevitable. • Error or discrepancy in radiology reporting does not equate negligence. • Radiologist errors occur for many reasons, both human- and system-derived. • Strategies exist to minimise error causes and to learn from errors made.

  18. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-10-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.

  19. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Berke, Danielle S.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress, a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men’s historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men. PMID:29593368

  20. Engineered Potentials and Dynamics of Ultracold Quantum Gases Under the Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER: DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL INSTITUTION: PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola Cappellaro TYPE REPORT: Ph.D. Dissertation PERIOD...CONTRACT NUMBER Engineered potentials and dynamics of ulu·acold quantum gases W911NF-11-1-0400 under the microscope Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM...Schnorrberger, M. Moreno- Cardoner , S. Fölling, and I. Bloch, “Counting atoms using interaction blockade in an optical superlat- tice,” Phys. Rev. Lett

  1. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  2. Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-11-01

    This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medication errors are considered among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Among these errors are discrepancies identified during transfer of patients from one care unit to another, from one physician care to another, or upon patient discharge. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify the prevalence and types of medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jordan and to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of these discrepancies. Methods: A three months prospective observational study was conducted at the department of internal medicine at Jordan university hospital. During the study period, 200 patients were selected using convenience sampling, and a pre-prepared data collection form was used for data collection. Later, a comparison between the pre-admission and admission medication was conducted to identify any possible discrepancies, and all of these discrepancies were discussed with the responsible resident to classify them into intentional (documentation errors or unintentional. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors associated with the occurrence of unintentional discrepancies. Results: A total of 412 medication discrepancies were identified at the time of hospital admission. Among them, 144 (35% were identified as unintentional while the remaining 268 (65% were identified as intentional discrepancies. Ninety-four patients (47% were found to have at least one unintentional discrepancy and 92 patients (46% had at least one documentation error. Among the unintentional discrepancies, 97 (67% were found to be associated with a potential harm/deterioration to the patients. Increasing patients’ age (beta = 0.195, p-value = .013 and being treated by female residents (beta = 0.139, p-value = .045 were significantly associated with higher number of discrepancies. Conclusion: The prevalence of

  4. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential disturbance interactions with a single IGV in an F109 turbofan engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Joel F.

    A common cause of aircraft engine failure is the high cycle fatigue of engine blades and stators. One of the primary causes of these failures is due to blade row interactions, which cause an aerodynamic excitation to be resonant with a mechanical natural frequency. Traditionally, the primary source of such aerodynamic excitations has been practically limited to viscous wakes from upstream components. However, more advanced designs require that blade rows be very highly loaded and closely spaced. This results in aerodynamic excitation from potential fields of down stream engine components, in addition to the known wake excitations. An experimental investigation of the potential field from the fan of a Honeywell F109 turbofan engine has been completed. The investigation included velocity measurements upstream of the fan, addition of an airfoil shaped probe upstream of the fan on which surface pressure measurements were acquired, and measurement of the velocity in the interaction region between the probe and the fan. This investigation sought to characterize the response on the upstream probe due to the fan potential field and the interaction between a viscous wake and the potential field; as such, all test conditions were for subsonic fan speeds. The results from the collected data show that fan-induced potential disturbances propagate upstream at acoustic velocities, to produce vane surface-pressure amplitudes as high as 40 percent Joel F. Kirk of the inlet, mean total pressure. Further, these fan-induced pressure amplitudes display large variations between the two vane surfaces. An argument is made that the structure of the pressure response is consistent with the presence of two distinct sources of unsteady forcing disturbances. The disturbances on the incoming-rotation-facing surface of the IGV propagated upstream at a different speed than those on the outgoing-rotation-facing surface, indicating that one originated from a rotating source and the other from a

  6. Icariin: does it have an osteoinductive potential for bone tissue engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Tie; Huang, Yuanliang; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2014-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines have been recommended for bone regeneration and repair for thousands of years. Currently, the Herba Epimedii and its multi-component formulation are the attractive native herbs for the treatment of osteoporosis. Icariin, a typical flavonol glycoside, is considered to be the main active ingredient of the Herba Epimedii from which icariin has been successfully extracted. Most interestingly, it has been reported that icariin can be delivered locally by biomaterials and that it has an osteoinductive potential for bone tissue engineering. This review focuses on the performance of icariin in bone tissue engineering and on blending the information from icariin with the current knowledge relevant to molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. The osteoinductive potential of icariin could be attributed to its multiple functions in the musculoskeletal system which is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways in anti-osteoporosis, osteogenesis, anti-osteoclastogenesis, chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammation. The osteoinductive potential and the low price of icariin make it a very attractive candidate as a substitute of osteoinductive protein-bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), or as a promoter for enhancing the therapeutic effects of BMPs. However, the effectiveness of the local delivery of icariin needs to be investigated further. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  8. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  9. Consequences of discrepancies on verified material balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Hough, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    There exists a gap between the way item discrepancies that are found in an IAEA inspection are treated in practice and how they are treated in the IAEA Safeguards Technical Manual, Part F, Statistics. In the latter case, the existence of even a single item discrepancy is cause for rejection of the facility data. Probabilities of detection for given inspection plans are calculated based on this premise. In fact, although the existence of discrepancies may be so noted in inspection reports, they in no sense of the word lead to rejection of the facility data, i.e., to ''detection''. Clearly, however, discrepancies have an effect on the integrity of the material balance, and in fact, this effect may well be of dominant importance when compared to that of small measurement biases. This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the effect of item discrepancies on the facility MUF. The G-circumflex statistic is introduced. It is analogous to the familiar D-circumflex statistic used to quantify the effects of small biases. Thus, just as (MUF-D-circumflex) is the facility MUF adjusted for the inspector's variables measurements, so is (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) the MUF adjusted for both the variables and attributes measurements, where it is the attributes inspection that detects item discrepancies. The distribution of (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is approximated by a Pearson's distribution after finding the first four moments. Both the number of discrepancies and their size and sign distribution are treated as random variables. Assuming, then, that ''detection'' occurs when (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) differs significantly from zero, procedures for calculating effectiveness are derived. Some generic results on effectiveness are included. These results apply either to the case where (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is treated as the single statistic, or to the two-step procedure in which the facility's data are first examined using (D-circumflex+G-circumflex) as

  10. A Ternary Nanofibrous Scaffold Potential for Central Nerve System Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatkish, Niloufar; Nouri Khorasani, Saied; Morshed, Mohammad; Allafchian, Ali-Reza; Beigi, Mohammad-Hossein; Masoudi Rad, Maryam; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul

    2018-04-10

    In the present research, a ternary Polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/fibrinogen nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering application was developed. Through this combination, PCL improved the scaffold mechanical properties; meanwhile, gelatin and fibrinogen provided more hydrophilicity and cell proliferation. Three types of nanofibrous scaffolds containing different fibrinogen contents were prepared and characterized. Morphological study of the nanofibers showed that the prepared nanofibers were smooth, uniform without any formation of beads with a significant reduction in nanofiber diameter after incorporation of fibrinogen. The chemical characterization of the scaffolds confirmed that no chemical reaction occurred between the scaffold components. The tensile test results of the scaffolds showed that increasing in fibrinogen content led to a decrease in mechanical properties. Furthermore, Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were employed to evaluate cell-scaffold interaction. Cell culture results indicated that higher cell proliferation occurred for the higher amount of fibrinogen. Statistical analysis was also carried out to evaluate the significant difference for the obtained results of water droplet contact angle and cell culture. Therefore, the results confirmed that PCL/Gel/Fibrinogen scaffold has a good potential for tissue engineering applications including Central Nerve System (CNS) tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  12. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  13. Strategic Framework for Implementing the Potential of Import Substitution on the Example of Railway Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Georgievna Lavrikova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, Russia’s economy is dependent on import in some of its strategically important sectors. The recent economic and political developments such as the aggravation of geopolitical situation and termination of economic partnership between Russia and a number of countries and entities, and also the Government’s policy that aims to reduce import dependence determine the need to expand the interaction between domestic producers and the need to use domestic resources, materials and equipment in economic activities. Import substitution in Russia can become a driving force of its industrial growth. The paper presents different interpretations of the term “import substitution” contained in several publications of recent years; it also reveals a common approach of the authors to this problem. The article summarizes existing proposals on priority areas of import substitution such as the shift towards import-substituting production and technology in strategically important industries. Mechanical engineering is seen as a most important industry in this respect. Russia’s machine-building complex is a highly diversified industry, therefore the policy of import substitution implies that it will be implemented efficiently in various sectors of mechanical engineering on the basis of the differentiated approach, with regard to industry and sectoral specifics. The article considers a strategic framework for the implementation of the import substitution potential on the example of railway engineering. The authors reveal trends in the development of the internal market of railway engineering products; they determine the degree of import dependence for individual sectors of the industry on the basis of statistical data. The article substantiates priorities and possibilities of import substitution in different sectors, and in high-tech sectors of railway engineering. The authors point out a goal of import substitution in these sectors, the goal is to

  14. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  15. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  17. CALCULATING SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL OF BUILDINGS AND VISUALIZATION WITHIN UNITY 3D GAME ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buyuksalih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy modelling is increasingly popular, important, and economic significant in solving energy crisis for big cities. It is a clean and renewable resource of energy that can be utilized to accommodate individual or group of buildings electrical power as well as for indoor heating. Implementing photovoltaic system (PV in urban areas is one of the best options to solve power crisis over expansion of urban and the growth of population. However, as the spaces for solar panel installation in cities are getting limited nowadays, the available strategic options are only at the rooftop and façade of the building. Thus, accurate information and selecting building with the highest potential solar energy amount collected is essential in energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development of the city. Estimating the solar energy/radiation from rooftop and facade are indeed having a limitation - the shadows from other neighbouring buildings. The implementation of this solar estimation project for Istanbul uses CityGML LoD2-LoD3. The model and analyses were carried out using Unity 3D Game engine with development of several customized tools and functionalities. The results show the estimation of potential solar energy received for the whole area per day, week, month and year thus decision for installing the solar panel could be made. We strongly believe the Unity game engine platform could be utilized for near future 3D mapping visualization purposes.

  18. Small intestinal submucosa: A potential osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Ningbo Medical Science Research Institute, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315020 (China); Zhang, Chi; Cheng, Mengjie; Gu, Qiaoqiao [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhao, Jiyuan, E-mail: zhaojiyuan@nbu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2017-06-01

    SIS is an acellular, naturally occurring collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) material with various bioactive factors, which broadly applied in tissue engineering in clinic. Several studies have applied SIS in bone tissue engineering to enhance bone regeneration in animal models. However, the mechanism was rarely investigated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity of SIS scaffold to bone regeneration systematically and the potential mechanism. Our results showed that SIS scaffold with excellent biocompatibility was beneficial for cell attachment, proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of various cells contributing to bone repair. In mouse calvarial defect model, bone regeneration was significantly enhanced in the defects implanted with SIS scaffolds, along with the up-regulation of BMP-2 and CD31 expression. Accordingly, ID-1, the downstream target gene of BMPs, was increased in BMSCs cultured on SIS scaffolds. The results of this study suggest that SIS scaffold is a potential osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial which plays multiple roles to various cells during process of bone regeneration. - Highlights: • SIS facilitates cell adhesion of BMSCs, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. • SIS promotes cell proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. • SIS promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and osteoblasts via BMP-2 pathway. • Synergistic effects of SIS to multiple cells enhance bone regeneration in vivo.

  19. Calculating Solar Energy Potential of Buildings and Visualization Within Unity 3d Game Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuksalih, G.; Bayburt, S.; Baskaraca, A. P.; Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Solar energy modelling is increasingly popular, important, and economic significant in solving energy crisis for big cities. It is a clean and renewable resource of energy that can be utilized to accommodate individual or group of buildings electrical power as well as for indoor heating. Implementing photovoltaic system (PV) in urban areas is one of the best options to solve power crisis over expansion of urban and the growth of population. However, as the spaces for solar panel installation in cities are getting limited nowadays, the available strategic options are only at the rooftop and façade of the building. Thus, accurate information and selecting building with the highest potential solar energy amount collected is essential in energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development of the city. Estimating the solar energy/radiation from rooftop and facade are indeed having a limitation - the shadows from other neighbouring buildings. The implementation of this solar estimation project for Istanbul uses CityGML LoD2-LoD3. The model and analyses were carried out using Unity 3D Game engine with development of several customized tools and functionalities. The results show the estimation of potential solar energy received for the whole area per day, week, month and year thus decision for installing the solar panel could be made. We strongly believe the Unity game engine platform could be utilized for near future 3D mapping visualization purposes.

  20. The potential of genetic engineering of plants for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Martini, Flavio; Furini, Antonella; DalCorso, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The genetic engineering of plants to facilitate the reclamation of soils and waters contaminated with inorganic pollutants is a relatively new and evolving field, benefiting from the heterologous expression of genes that increase the capacity of plants to mobilize, stabilize and/or accumulate metals. The efficiency of phytoremediation relies on the mechanisms underlying metal accumulation and tolerance, such as metal uptake, translocation and detoxification. The transfer of genes involved in any of these processes into fast-growing, high-biomass crops may improve their reclamation potential. The successful phytoextraction of metals/metalloids and their accumulation in aerial organs have been achieved by expressing metal ligands or transporters, enzymes involved in sulfur metabolism, enzymes that alter the chemical form or redox state of metals/metalloids and even the components of primary metabolism. This review article considers the potential of genetic engineering as a strategy to improve the phytoremediation capacity of plants in the context of heavy metals and metalloids, using recent case studies to demonstrate the practical application of this approach in the field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Small intestinal submucosa: A potential osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Chi; Cheng, Mengjie; Gu, Qiaoqiao; Zhao, Jiyuan

    2017-01-01

    SIS is an acellular, naturally occurring collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) material with various bioactive factors, which broadly applied in tissue engineering in clinic. Several studies have applied SIS in bone tissue engineering to enhance bone regeneration in animal models. However, the mechanism was rarely investigated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity of SIS scaffold to bone regeneration systematically and the potential mechanism. Our results showed that SIS scaffold with excellent biocompatibility was beneficial for cell attachment, proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of various cells contributing to bone repair. In mouse calvarial defect model, bone regeneration was significantly enhanced in the defects implanted with SIS scaffolds, along with the up-regulation of BMP-2 and CD31 expression. Accordingly, ID-1, the downstream target gene of BMPs, was increased in BMSCs cultured on SIS scaffolds. The results of this study suggest that SIS scaffold is a potential osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial which plays multiple roles to various cells during process of bone regeneration. - Highlights: • SIS facilitates cell adhesion of BMSCs, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. • SIS promotes cell proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. • SIS promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and osteoblasts via BMP-2 pathway. • Synergistic effects of SIS to multiple cells enhance bone regeneration in vivo.

  2. Scaling limits for the Lego discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameren, Andre van; Kleiss, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    For the Lego discrepancy with M bins, which is equivalent with a χ 2 -statistic with M bins, we present a procedure to calculate the moment generating function of the probability distribution perturbatively if M and N, the number of uniformly and randomly distributed data points, become large. Furthermore, we present a phase diagram for various limits of the probability distribution in terms of the standardized variable if M and N become infinite

  3. Evaluation of Fibrin-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Gsib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO. First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts. We further evaluated their biocompatibility ex vivo with a chick embryo organotypic culture model. Subcutaneous implantations of the matrices were subsequently conducted on nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. Our preliminary data highlighted that our biomaterials were non-cytotoxic (viability above 90%. The organotypic culture showed that the IPN matrices induced higher cell adhesion (across all the explanted organ tissues and migration (skin, intestine than the control groups, suggesting the advantages of using a biomimetic, yet mechanically-reinforced IPN-based matrix. We observed no major inflammatory response up to 12 weeks post implantation. All together, these data suggest that these fibrin-based IPNs are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  4. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  5. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z; Khalid, M N

    2014-01-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  6. Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Arezou; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Talebnia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering and development of new therapeutic drug release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. The aim of the present study was to synthesis and optimize of the chitosan nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications. Fe3O4 was synthesized and optimized as magnetic core nanoparticles and then chitosan covered this magnetic core. The size and morphology of the nano-magnetic chitosan was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Topography and size distribution of the nanoparticles were shown with two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chitosan nanoparticles prepared in the experiment exhibited white powder shape. The SEM micrographs of the nano-magnetic chitosan showed that they were approximately uniform spheres. The unmodified chitosan nanoparticles composed of clusters of nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm. AFM provides a three-dimensional surface profile. The TEM image showed physical aggregation of the chitosan nanoparticles. The results show that a novel chitosan nanoparticle was successfully synthesized and characterized. It seems that this nanoparticle like the other chitosan nano particles has potential applications for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering, industrial and pharmaceutical fields.

  7. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Engineered hierarchies of integrable potentials and related orthogonal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balondo Iyela, Daddy; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N= 1 and N= 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N⩾ 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N⩾ 3 general periodic hierarchies

  8. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Engineered hierarchies of integrable potentials and related orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balondo Iyela, Daddy [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin); Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathématique et Physique (IRMP), Université catholique de Louvain U.C.L., 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Département de Physique, Université de Kinshasa (UNIKIN), B.P. 190 Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Govaerts, Jan [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin); Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathématique et Physique (IRMP), Université catholique de Louvain U.C.L., 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hounkonnou, M. Norbert [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin)

    2013-09-15

    Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N= 1 and N= 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N⩾ 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N⩾ 3 general periodic hierarchies.

  9. Nano surface engineering of Mn 2 O 3 for potential light-harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Ghosh, Srabanti; Parida, Manas R.; Liu, Bo; Mohammed, Omar F.; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are well known applied materials including their use as efficient catalysts for various environmental applications. Multiple oxidation states and their change due to various experimental conditions are concluded to be responsible for their multifaceted functionality. Here we demonstrate that the interaction of a small organic ligand with one of the oxide varieties induces completely new optical properties and functionalities (photocatalysis). We have synthesized Mn2O3 microspheres via a hydrothermal route and characterized them using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental mapping (EDAX). When the microspheres are allowed to interact with the biologically important small ligand citrate, nanometer-sized surface functionalized Mn2O3 (NPs) are formed. Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy confirm the covalent attachment of the citrate ligand to the dangling bond of Mn at the material surface. While cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirm multiple surface charge states after the citrate functionalization of the Mn2O3 NPs, new optical properties of the surface engineered nanomaterials in terms of absorption and emission emerge consequently. The engineered material offers a novel photocatalytic functionality to the model water contaminant methylene blue (MB). The effect of doping other metal ions including Fe3+ and Cu2+ on the optical and catalytic properties is also investigated. In order to prepare a prototype for potential environmental application of water decontamination, we have synthesized and duly functionalized the material on the extended surface of a stainless steel metal mesh (size 2 cm × 1.5 cm, pore size 150 μm × 200 μm). We demonstrate that the functionalized mesh always works as a "physical" filter of suspended particulates. However, it works as a "chemical" filter (photocatalyst) for the potential water soluble contaminant (MB) in the presence

  10. Engineering fibrin hydrogels to promote the wound healing potential of mesenchymal stem cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kaitlin C; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Zhou, Dejie; Ho, Steve S; Leach, J Kent

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete endogenous factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) that promote angiogenesis, modulate the inflammatory microenvironment, and stimulate wound repair, and MSC spheroids secrete more trophic factors than dissociated, individual MSCs. Compared to injection of cells alone, transplantation of MSCs in a biomaterial can enhance their wound healing potential by localizing cells at the defect site and upregulating trophic factor secretion. To capitalize on the therapeutic potential of spheroids, we engineered a fibrin gel delivery vehicle to simultaneously enhance the proangiogenic and anti-inflammatory potential of entrapped human MSC spheroids. We used multifactorial statistical analysis to determine the interaction between four input variables derived from fibrin gel synthesis on four output variables (gel stiffness, gel contraction, and secretion of VEGF and PGE 2 ). Manipulation of the four input variables tuned fibrin gel biophysical properties to promote the simultaneous secretion of VEGF and PGE 2 by entrapped MSC spheroids while maintaining overall gel integrity. MSC spheroids in stiffer gels secreted the most VEGF, while PGE 2 secretion was highest in more compliant gels. Simultaneous VEGF and PGE 2 secretion was greatest using hydrogels with intermediate mechanical properties, as small increases in stiffness increased VEGF secretion while maintaining PGE 2 secretion by entrapped spheroids. The fibrin gel formulation predicted to simultaneously increase VEGF and PGE 2 secretion stimulated endothelial cell proliferation, enhanced macrophage polarization, and promoted angiogenesis when used to treat a wounded three-dimensional human skin equivalent. These data demonstrate that a statistical approach is an effective strategy to formulate fibrin gel formulations that enhance the wound healing potential of human MSCs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under investigation for wound

  11. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  12. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  13. Potential of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yihua; Tsang, Kent K S; Zhang Han

    2006-01-01

    The insufficiency of self-repair and regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) leads to difficulty of rehabilitation of the injured brain. In the past few decades, the significant progress in cell therapy and tissue engineering has contributed to the functional recovery of the CNS to a great extent. The present review focuses on the potential role of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the CNS. (topical review)

  14. Evaluating Admission Practices as Potential Barriers to Creating Equitable Access to Undergraduate Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Beth Ann

    2016-01-01

    To create a more competitive and creative engineering workforce, breakthroughs in how we attract and educate more diverse engineers are mandated. Despite a programmatic focus on increasing the representation of women and minorities in engineering during the last few decades, no single solution has been identified and is probably not realistic. But…

  15. Potential utilization of biodiesel as alternative fuel for compression ignition engine in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. A.; Ma'arof, M. I. N.; Ahmad, I. N.; Husain, H.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is a type of fuel which is derived from various sources of vegetable plants and waste fuels. Today, numerous biodiesels have been engineered to be at par or even better in term of performance in comparison to pure diesel. Therefore, biodiesel has shown a promising sign as one of the best candidate in overcoming total dependency on pure diesel. This paper gives review on various tests and experiments conducted on biodiesel in order to highlight the potentials given by this particular fuel. In addition, providing the supporting evidences to further endorse for a mass usage of biodiesel in Malaysia - simultaneously, driving the country to become a potential global biodiesel producer in the near future. The reviewed studies were obtained mainly via indexed journals and online libraries. Conclusively, every test and study for every blend of biodiesel had shown consistent positive results in regards to performance and in overcoming emission related issues. Thus, providing the evidence that biodiesel is highly reliable. Malaysia as a semi-agricultural nation could take the advantage in becoming one of the leading global biodiesel producers. Nevertheless, this will requires total cooperation of every concerned government bodies and authorities.

  16. Engineered BDNF producing cells as a potential treatment for neurologic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peter; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Yu, Abigail S.; Annett, Geralyn; Fink, Kyle D.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in wide range of neurological diseases and injury. This neurotrophic factor is vital for neuronal health, survival, and synaptic connectivity. Many therapies focus on the restoration or enhancement of BDNF following injury or disease progression. Areas covered The present review will focus on the mechanisms in which BDNF exerts its beneficial functioning, current BDNF therapies, issues and potential solutions for delivery of neurotrophic factors to the central nervous system, and other disease indications that may benefit from overexpression or restoration of BDNF. Expert opinion Due to the role of BDNF in neuronal development, maturation, and health, BDNF is implicated in numerous neurological diseases making it a prime therapeutic agent. Numerous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of BDNF in a number of neurodegenerative disease models and in acute CNS injury, however clinical translation has fallen short due to issues in delivering this molecule. The use of MSC as a delivery platform for BDNF holds great promise for clinical advancement of neurotrophic factor restoration. The ease with which MSC can be engineered opens the door to the possibility of using this cell-based delivery system to advance a BDNF therapy to the clinic. PMID:27159050

  17. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  18. Evaluation Tests of Select Fuel Additives for Potential Use in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility of Using Biodiesel Additives.” The technical monitor was Dr. Todd Bridges (CEERD- EM-D). The work was performed by the Coastal Engineering...analysis, quality assurance and control, and reporting was managed by Southern Research Institute’s Advanced Energy and Transportation Technologies...candidate conditions. The calculations were based on BTU contents found on the GREET Transportation Fuel Cycle Analyses Model (Argone National

  19. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ► From 1990 to 2008, CO 2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ► Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ► The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ► The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ► Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  20. Building information modelling review with potential applications in tunnel engineering of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihong; Qin, Haiyang; Qiu, Junling; Fan, Haobo; Lai, Jinxing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    Building information modelling (BIM) can be applied to tunnel engineering to address a number of problems, including complex structure, extensive design, long construction cycle and increased security risks. To promote the development of tunnel engineering in China, this paper combines actual cases, including the Xingu mountain tunnel and the Shigu Mountain tunnel, to systematically analyse BIM applications in tunnel engineering in China. The results indicate that BIM technology in tunnel engineering is currently mainly applied during the design stage rather than during construction and operation stages. The application of BIM technology in tunnel engineering covers many problems, such as a lack of standards, incompatibility of different software, disorganized management, complex combination with GIS (Geographic Information System), low utilization rate and poor awareness. In this study, through summary of related research results and engineering cases, suggestions are introduced and an outlook for the BIM application in tunnel engineering in China is presented, which provides guidance for design optimization, construction standards and later operation maintenance.

  1. Discrepancies in assessing undergraduates’ pragmatics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ndayizeye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to reveal the level of implementation of authentic assessment in the pragmatics course at the English Education Department of a university. Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM was used. The instruments were questionnaire, documentation, and observation. The result of the research shows that respectively, the effectiveness of definition, installation, process, and production stages in logits are -0.06, -0.14, 0.45, and 0.02 on its aspect of the assessment methods’ effectiveness in uncovering students’ ability. Such values indicate that the level of implementation fell respectively into ‘very high’,’high’, ‘low’, and ‘very low’ categories.  The students’ success rate is in ‘very high’ category with the average score of 3.22. However, the overall implementation of the authentic assessment fell into a ‘low’ category with the average score of 0.06. Discrepancies leading to such a low implementation are the unavailability of the assessment scheme, that of scoring rubric, minimal (only 54.54% diversification of assessment methods, infrequency of the lecturer’s feedback on the students’ academic achievement, and the non-use of portfolio assessment.

  2. Analysis of F-16 radar discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, K. A.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred and eight aircraft were randomly selected from three USAF F-16 bases and examined. These aircraft included 63 single-seat F-16As and 45 two-seat F-16Bs and encompassed 8,525 sorties and 748 radar system write-ups. Programs supported by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were run on the data. Of the 748 discrepancies, over one-third of them occurred within three sorties of each other and half within six sorties. Sixteen percent of all aircraft which had a discrepancy within three sorties had another write-up within the next three sorties. Designated repeat/recurring write-ups represented one-third of all the instances in which the write-up separation interval was three sorties or less. This is an indication that maintenance is unable to correct equipment failures as they occur, most likely because the false alarm rate is too high and maintenance is unable to duplicate the error conditions on the ground for correct error diagnosis.

  3. An ABO blood grouping discrepancy: Probable B(A) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Anubhav; Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2017-06-01

    In B(A) phenotype, an autosomal dominant phenotype, there is a weak A expression on group B RBCs. We herein report a case of a probable B(A) phenotype in a first time 20-year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card (Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland). The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. The cell grouping was A weak B RhD positive while the serum grouping was B. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. It was a group II ABO discrepancy with or without group IV discrepancy. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. One lot of anti-A was showing 'weak +' agglutination while the other lot was showing 'negative' reaction with the donor RBCs by tube technique. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin. Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B(A) phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np, and 239 Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for 252 Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 237 Np is reported herein. These studies

  5. Ligament Tissue Engineering and Its Potential Role in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, E. W.; Rupani, A.; Foley, G. T.; Khan, W. S.; Cartmell, S.; Anand, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging discipline that combines the principle of science and engineering. It offers an unlimited source of natural tissue substitutes and by using appropriate cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and advanced bioreactors, it is possible that tissue engineering could be implemented in the repair and regeneration of tissue such as bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Whilst repair and regeneration of ligament tissue has been demonstrated in animal studies, further research ...

  6. Potential of Electrospun Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/Collagen Blends for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tunable nonwoven mats based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and type I collagen (Coll were successfully produced by electrospinning. The PHB/Coll weight ratio (fixed at 100/0, 70/30, and 50/50, resp. was found to control the morphological, thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the mats. Increasing collagen amounts led to larger diameters of the fibers (in the approximate range 600–900 nm, while delaying their thermal decomposition (from 245°C to 262°C. Collagen also accelerated the hydrolytic degradation of the mats upon incubation in aqueous medium at 37°C for 23 days (with final weight losses of 1%, 15%, and 23% for 100/0, 70/30, and 50/50 samples, resp., as a result of increased mat wettability and reduced PHB crystallinity. Interestingly, 70/30 meshes were the ones displaying the lowest stiffness (~116 MPa; p<0.05 versus 100/0 and 50/50 meshes, while 50/50 samples had an elastic modulus comparable to that of 100/0 ones (~250 MPa, likely due to enhanced physical crosslinking of the collagen chains, at least at high protein amounts. All substrates were also found to allow for good viability and proliferation of murine fibroblasts, up to 6 days of culture. Collectively, the results evidenced the potential of as-spun PHB/Coll meshes for tissue engineering applications.

  7. Nanoparticles Engineered from Lecithin-in-Water Emulsions As A Potential Delivery System for Docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    Docetaxel is a potent anti-cancer drug. However, there continues to be a need for alternative docetaxel delivery systems to improve its efficacy. We reported the engineering of a novel spherical nanoparticle formulation (~270 nm) from lecithin-in-water emulsions. Docetaxel can be incorporated into the nanoparticles, and the resultant docetaxel-nanoparticles were stable when stored as an aqueous suspension. The release of the docetaxel from the nanoparticles was likely caused by a combination of diffusion and Case II transport. The docetaxel-in-nanoparticles were more effective in killing tumor cells in culture than free docetaxel. Moreover, the docetaxel-nanoparticles did not cause any significant red blood cell lysis or platelet aggregation in vitro, nor did they induce detectable acute liver damage when injected intravenously into mice. Finally, compared to free docetaxel, the intravenously injected docetaxel-nanoparticles increased the accumulation of the docetaxel in a model tumor in mice by 4.5-fold. These lecithin-based nanoparticles have the potential to be a novel biocompatible and efficacious delivery system for docetaxel. PMID:19524029

  8. Potential applications of luminescent molecular rotors in food science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassawi, Fatemah M; Corradini, Maria G; Rogers, Michael A; Ludescher, Richard D

    2017-06-29

    Fluorescent molecular rotors (MRs) are compounds whose emission is modulated by segmental mobility; photoexcitation generates a locally excited (LE), planar state that can relax either by radiative decay (emission of a photon) or by formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state that can relax nonradiatively due to internal rotation. If the local environment around the probe allows for rapid internal rotation in the excited state, fast non-radiative decay can either effectively quench the fluorescence or generate a second, red-shifted emission band. Conversely, any environmental restriction to twisting in the excited state due to free volume, crowding or viscosity, slows rotational relaxation and promotes fluorescence emission from the LE state. The environmental sensitivity of MRs has been exploited extensively in biological applications to sense microviscosity in biofluids, the stability and physical state of biomembranes, and conformational changes in macromolecules. The application of MRs in food research, however, has been only marginally explored. In this review, we summarize the main characteristics of fluorescent MRs, their current applications in biological research and their current and potential applications as sensors of physical properties in food science and engineering.

  9. Engineered Nanoparticles as Potential Food Contaminants and Their Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaomo; Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as metallic or metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs), have gained much attention in recent years. Increasing use of ENPs in various areas may lead to the release of ENPs into the environment and cause the contamination of agricultural and food products by ENPs. In this study, we selected two important ENPs (zinc oxide [ZnO] and silver [Ag] NPs) as potential food contaminants and investigated their toxicity via an in vitro model using Caco-2 cells. The physical properties of ENPs and their effects on Caco-2 cells were characterized by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. Results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of cell viability was observed after a 24-h of exposure of Caco-2 cells to 3-, 6-, and 12-mM ZnO NPs or 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3-mM Ag NPs. The noticeable changes of cells include the alteration in cell shape, abnormal nuclear structure, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasmic deterioration. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, but not that of Ag NPs after exposure to simulated gastric fluid, significantly decreased. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO and Ag NPs penetrated the membrane of Caco-2 cells. EDS results also confirm the presence of NPs in the cytoplasm of the cells. This study demonstrates that ZnO and Ag NPs have cytotoxic effects and can inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Cell biology of sarcomeric protein engineering: disease modeling and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian R; Metzger, Joseph M

    2014-09-01

    The cardiac sarcomere is the functional unit for myocyte contraction. Ordered arrays of sarcomeric proteins, held in stoichiometric balance with each other, respond to calcium to coordinate contraction and relaxation of the heart. Altered sarcomeric structure-function underlies the primary basis of disease in multiple acquired and inherited heart disease states. Hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathies are caused by inherited mutations in sarcomeric genes and result in altered contractility. Ischemia-mediated acidosis directly alters sarcomere function resulting in decreased contractility. In this review, we highlight the use of acute genetic engineering of adult cardiac myocytes through stoichiometric replacement of sarcomeric proteins in these disease states with particular focus on cardiac troponin I. Stoichiometric replacement of disease causing mutations has been instrumental in defining the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy in a cellular context. In addition, taking advantage of stoichiometric replacement through gene therapy is discussed, highlighting the ischemia-resistant histidine-button, A164H cTnI. Stoichiometric replacement of sarcomeric proteins offers a potential gene therapy avenue to replace mutant proteins, alter sarcomeric responses to pathophysiologic insults, or neutralize altered sarcomeric function in disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Imaging with Kantorovich--Rubinstein Discrepancy

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We propose the use of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm from optimal transport in imaging problems. In particular, we discuss a variational regularization model endowed with a Kantorovich- Rubinstein discrepancy term and total variation regularization in the context of image denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition. We point out connections of this approach to several other recently proposed methods such as total generalized variation and norms capturing oscillating patterns. We also show that the respective optimization problem can be turned into a convex-concave saddle point problem with simple constraints and hence can be solved by standard tools. Numerical examples exhibit interesting features and favorable performance for denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition.

  13. Discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion factors Clambda and Csub(E) are used in relating ionization chamber readings (M) to absorbed dose in water for measurements made in phantoms irradiated with photons of quality lambda and electrons of mean energy - E respectively. New calculations of Clambda (Nahum, A.E., and Greening, J.R., 1976, Phys. Med. Biol., vol.21, 862) have yielded values which differ by up to 5% from those quoted by ICRU (ICRU, 1969, Report 14, ICRU Publications, P.O. Box 30165, Washington, DC 20014). Nahum and Greening have also pointed out that the recommended values of Clambda and Csub(E) for radiations of approximately the same primary electron energy should be the same, but differ by approximately 4%. Alternative explanations are offered for these discrepancies. If the ICRU values are corrected for the perturbation of the electron flux in the phantom by the introduction of a cavity, the ionization chamber, into the phantom, then the resulting values are in good agreement with those quoted by Nahum and Greening. The discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E) is the result of inconsistent definitions. The ICRU definition of Csub(E) leads to a dose conversion factor which is dimensionally correct but is based on the assumption that the product M.Nsub(c), where Nsub(c) is the exposure calibration factor for the ionization chamber at the calibration quality, 2MV, can be identified as exposure, whereas this is only true at the calibration quality. More accurate definitions of Clambda and Csub(E) are therefore proposed. (U.K.)

  14. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Reidy, Dennis E; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-05-24

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. PMID:27226013

  16. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  17. Potential Health and Environmental Risks of Three-Dimensional Engineered Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Almeida Monteiro Melo Ferraz, Marcia; Henning, Heiko H.W.; Da Costa, Pedro Ferreira; Malda, Jos; Le Gac, Séverine; Bray, Fabrice; Van Duursen, Majorie B.M.; Brouwers, Jos F.; Van De Lest, Chris H.A.; Bertijn, Ingeborg; Kraneburg, Lisa; Vos, Peter L.A.M.; Stout, Tom A.E.; Gadella, Barend M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer engineering, such as in three-dimensional (3D) printing, is rapidly gaining popularity, not only in the scientific and medical fields but also in the community in general. However, little is known about the toxicity of engineered materials. Therefore, we assessed the toxicity of 3D-printed

  18. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  19. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines: Fuel Blendstocks with the Potential to Optimize Future Gasoline Engine Performance; Identification of Five Chemical Families for Detailed Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, John T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holladay, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Wagner, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines (Co-Optima) initiative is conducting the early-stage research needed to accelerate the market introduction of advanced fuel and engine technologies. The research includes both spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) combustion approaches, targeting applications that impact the entire on-road fleet (light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles). The initiative's major goals include significant improvements in vehicle fuel economy, lower-cost pathways to reduce emissions, and leveraging diverse U.S. fuel resources. A key objective of Co-Optima's research is to identify new blendstocks that enhance current petroleum blending components, increase blendstock diversity, and provide refiners with increased flexibility to blend fuels with the key properties required to optimize advanced internal combustion engines. This report identifies eight representative blendstocks from five chemical families that have demonstrated the potential to increase boosted SI engine efficiency, meet key fuel quality requirements, and be viable for production at commercial scale by 2025-2030.

  20. Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications.

  1. Numerical method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management: Application to a medium-upper segment passenger car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caresana, F.; Bilancia, M.; Bartolini, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant reductions in vehicle fuel consumption can be obtained through a greater control of the thermal status of the engine, especially under partial load conditions. Different systems have been proposed to implement this concept, referred to as improved engine thermal management. The amount of fuel saved depends on the components and layout of the engine cooling plant and on the performance of its control system. In this work, a method was developed to calculate the theoretical minimum fuel consumption of a passenger car and used as a reference in comparing different engine cooling system concepts. A high-medium class car was taken as an example and simulated on standard cycles. Models for power train and cooling system components were developed and linked to simulate the vehicle. A preliminary analysis of the engine was performed using AVL's Boost program. The fuel consumption of the complete vehicle, equipped with a conventional cooling plant, was determined on standard cycles and compared with that of a vehicle equipped with a 'perfect' cooling system, to calculate the theoretical reduction in fuel consumption. - Highlights: → We propose a method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management. → A conventional cooling system is compared to a 'perfect' one to estimate fuel economy. → We tested the method in an upper-medium segment passenger car.

  2. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  3. Nano-hydroxyapatite/β-CD/chitosan nanocomposite for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Jolly, Reshma; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Rauf, Ahmar; Kazmi, Shadab

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel tri-component nanocomposite system incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and chitosan (CS), (n-HA/β-CD/CS) at three different temperatures via co-precipitation method. The chemical interactions and surface morphology have been evaluated by TEM, SEM and AFM techniques revealing the agglomerated nanoparticles in CS/n-HA-HA binary system whereas the ternary systems produced needle shaped nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously at low temperature with more porous and rougher surface. The addition of β-CD in CS/n-HA at low temperature decreased the particle size and raised the thermal stability as compared to CS/n-HA. The comparative hemolytic, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion studies confirmed the better hemocompatibility of n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites relative to CS/n-HA. The cell viability has been evaluated in vitro using MG-63 cell line which revealed superior non toxicity of n-HA/β-CD/CS-LT nanocomposite in comparison to n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT) and CS/n-HA nanocomposites. Thus it may be concluded that the orchestrated organic/inorganic n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites exhibited relatively higher cell viability of human osteoblast cells, stimulated greater osteogenesis, controlled biodegradation, enhanced antibacterial activity with excellent in-vitro biomineralization and remarkable mechanical parameters as compared to CS/n-HA nanocomposite and thus may provide opportunities for potential use as an alternative biomaterial for Bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermogelling chitosan–collagen–bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cheisy D.F.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br; Pereira, Marivalda M., E-mail: mpereira@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  5. Introduction of potential helix-capping residues into an engineered helical protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M H; Hefford, M A

    1998-08-01

    MB-1 is an engineered protein that was designed to incorporate high percentages of four amino acid residues and to fold into a four-alpha-helix bundle motif. Mutations were made in the putative loop I and III regions of this protein with the aim of increasing the stability of the helix ends. Four variants, MB-3, MB-5, MB-11 and MB-13, have replacements intended to promote formation of an 'N-capping box'. The loop I and III sequences of MB-3 (both GDLST) and MB-11 (GGDST) were designed to cause alphaL C-terminal 'capping' motifs to form in helices I and III. MB-5 has a sequence, GPDST, that places proline in a favourable position for forming beta-turns, whereas MB-13 (GLDST) has the potential to form Schellman C-capping motifs. Size-exclusion chromatography suggested that MB-1, MB-3, MB-5, MB-11 and MB-13 all form dimers, or possibly trimers. Free energies for the unfolding of each of these variants were determined by urea denaturation, with the loss of secondary structure followed by CD spectroscopy. Assuming an equilibrium between folded dimer and unfolded monomer, MB-13 had the highest apparent stability (40.5 kJ/mol, with +/-2.5 kJ/mol 95% confidence limits), followed by MB-11 (39.3+/-5.9 kJ/mol), MB-3 (36.4+/-1.7 kJ/mol), MB-5 (34.7+/-2.1 kJ/mol) and MB-1 (29.3+/-1.3 kJ/mol); the same relative stabilities of the variants were found when a folded trimer to unfolded monomer model was used to calculate stabilities. All of the variants were relatively unstable for dimeric proteins, but were significantly more stable than MB-1. These findings suggest that it might be possible to increase the stability of a protein for which the three-dimensional structure is unknown by placing amino acid residues in positions that have the potential to form helix- and turn-stabilizing motifs.

  6. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  7. The Persistence of Prior Concepts about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm’s Law in Students of Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Periago

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyze second-year industrial-engineering and chemical-engineering students’ prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of circuit theory. Specifically, we have focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between these as expressed by Ohm’s Law. In order to find out what the students’ prior concepts were, we applied a survey containing nine questions dealing with the most basic concepts of circuit theory. Let us emphasize that there was little information available about the prior concepts of the population type (university students investigated in this research.

  8. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  9. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  10. Assessment of the Potential Impact of Combustion Research on Internal Combustion Engine Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A review of the present level of understanding of the basic thermodynamic, fluid dynamic, and chemical kinetic processes which affect the fuel economy and levels of pollutant exhaust products of Diesel, Stratified Charge, and Spark Ignition engines i...

  11. OSTEOPATHIC APPROACH: LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY AND LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg length discrepancy (LLD is a biomechanical impediment, which is a potential factor in affecting musculoskeletal disorders in the rest of life, such as scoliosis, osteoarthritis and muscle tightness, or even tenderness in lumbar and pelvic area. Athletes who have developed LLD have symptoms in gait, running, standing posture. Skeletal regions related to the disorder are the lumbar spine, ilium, hip joint, greater trochanter and knee, or even ankle and plantar region. Muscles involved in these areas are numeous. In osteopathic management, the manual practitioner can use a lot of basic techniques to handle these dysfunctions. To cope with musculoskeletal problems, osteopathic manipulation techniques would be an ideal modality to alleviate the LLD syndrome. An overview of the mentioned topics of concern will be discussed in the review.

  12. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez Reyes, Felisa

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  13. Comparison of Engineered Peptide-Glycosaminoglycan Microfibrous Hybrid Scaffolds for Potential Applications in Cartilage Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Romanelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in tissue engineering have enabled the ability to design and fabricate biomaterials at the nanoscale that can actively mimic the natural cellular environment of host tissue. Of all tissues, cartilage remains difficult to regenerate due to its avascular nature. Herein we have developed two new hybrid polypeptide-glycosaminoglycan microfibrous scaffold constructs and compared their abilities to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation, sulfated proteoglycan synthesis and soluble collagen synthesis when seeded with chondrocytes. Both constructs were designed utilizing self-assembled Fmoc-protected valyl cetylamide nanofibrous templates. The peptide components of the constructs were varied. For Construct I a short segment of dentin sialophosphoprotein followed by Type I collagen were attached to the templates using the layer-by-layer approach. For Construct II, a short peptide segment derived from the integrin subunit of Type II collagen binding protein expressed by chondrocytes was attached to the templates followed by Type II collagen. To both constructs, we then attached the natural polymer N-acetyl glucosamine, chitosan. Subsequently, the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate was then attached as the final layer. The scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro culture studies were carried out in the presence of chondrocyte cells for both scaffolds and growth morphology was determined through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy taken at different magnifications at various days of culture. Cell proliferation studies indicated that while both constructs were biocompatible and supported the growth and adhesion of chondrocytes, Construct II stimulated cell adhesion at higher rates and resulted in the formation of three dimensional cell-scaffold matrices within 24 h. Proteoglycan

  14. Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wood Use in Civil Engineering in Japan Based on Life-Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Kayo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt, and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil. Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles.

  15. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  16. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  17. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  18. Quasirandom geometric networks from low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    We define quasirandom geometric networks using low-discrepancy sequences, such as Halton, Sobol, and Niederreiter. The networks are built in d dimensions by considering the d -tuples of digits generated by these sequences as the coordinates of the vertices of the networks in a d -dimensional Id unit hypercube. Then, two vertices are connected by an edge if they are at a distance smaller than a connection radius. We investigate computationally 11 network-theoretic properties of two-dimensional quasirandom networks and compare them with analogous random geometric networks. We also study their degree distribution and their spectral density distributions. We conclude from this intensive computational study that in terms of the uniformity of the distribution of the vertices in the unit square, the quasirandom networks look more random than the random geometric networks. We include an analysis of potential strategies for generating higher-dimensional quasirandom networks, where it is know that some of the low-discrepancy sequences are highly correlated. In this respect, we conclude that up to dimension 20, the use of scrambling, skipping and leaping strategies generate quasirandom networks with the desired properties of uniformity. Finally, we consider a diffusive process taking place on the nodes and edges of the quasirandom and random geometric graphs. We show that the diffusion time is shorter in the quasirandom graphs as a consequence of their larger structural homogeneity. In the random geometric graphs the diffusion produces clusters of concentration that make the process more slow. Such clusters are a direct consequence of the heterogeneous and irregular distribution of the nodes in the unit square in which the generation of random geometric graphs is based on.

  19. Chitosan and Its Potential Use as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Martin; Vega-Ruiz, Brenda; Ramos-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Saldaña-Koppel, Daniel Alexander; Quiñones-Olvera, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an important therapeutic strategy to be used in regenerative medicine in the present and in the future. Functional biomaterials research is focused on the development and improvement of scaffolding, which can be used to repair or regenerate an organ or tissue. Scaffolds are one of the crucial factors for tissue engineering. Scaffolds consisting of natural polymers have recently been developed more quickly and have gained more popularity. These include chitosan, a copolymer derived from the alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Expectations for use of these scaffolds are increasing as the knowledge regarding their chemical and biological properties expands, and new biomedical applications are investigated. Due to their different biological properties such as being biocompatible, biodegradable, and bioactive, they have given the pattern for use in tissue engineering for repair and/or regeneration of different tissues including skin, bone, cartilage, nerves, liver, and muscle. In this review, we focus on the intrinsic properties offered by chitosan and its use in tissue engineering, considering it as a promising alternative for regenerative medicine as a bioactive polymer. PMID:26504833

  20. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  2. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2015-06-01

    Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Discrepancies Between Clinical Diagnoses and Autopsy Findings in Critically Ill Children: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Ana P C P; Bachette, Letícia G; Carmona, Fabio; Manso, Paulo H; Vicente, Walter V A; Ramalho, Fernando S

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses in patients who died in the pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of a tertiary care university hospital. A prospective study of all consecutive autopsies discussed at monthly mortality conferences over 5 years. Discrepancies between premortem and autopsy diagnoses were classified according to modified Goldman et al criteria. From January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, a total of 2,679 children were admitted to the two PICUs of our hospital; 257 (9.6%) died, 150 (58.4%) underwent autopsy, and 123 were included. Complete concordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was observed in 86 (69.9%) patients; 20 (16.3%) had a class I discrepancy, and eight (6.5%) had a class II discrepancy. Comparing 2011 and 2015, the rate of major discrepancies decreased from 31.6% to 15%. Our results emphasize the importance of autopsy to clarify the cause of death and its potential contribution to improvement of team performance and quality of care. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  6. Mid-term function and remodeling potential of tissue engineered tricuspid valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropcke, Diana M; Rasmussen, Jonas; Ilkjær, Christine

    2018-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: ECM tricuspid tube grafts were stronger than native leaflet tissue. Histologically, the acellular ECM tube grafts showed evidence of constructive tissue remodeling with endothelialization and connective tissue organization. These findings support the concept of tissue engineering...... at implantation (baseline) compared to native leaflet tissue (0.3 ± 0.02 mg/mm3vs. 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/mm3, p ...). Histologically, ECM valves showed endothelialization, host cell infiltration and structural collagen organization together with elastin generation after six months, indicating tissue remodeling and -engineering together with gradual development of a close-to-native leaflet structure without foreign body response...

  7. Nanotechnology versus stem cell engineering: in vitro comparison of neurite inductive potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Michela; Wrobel, Sandra; Fregnan, Federica; Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Shahar, Abraham; Ratzka, Andreas; Grothe, Claudia; Geuna, Stefano; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Innovative nerve conduits for peripheral nerve reconstruction are needed in order to specifically support peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR) whenever nerve autotransplantation is not an option. Specific support of PNR could be achieved by neurotrophic factor delivery within the nerve conduits via nanotechnology or stem cell engineering and transplantation. Here, we comparatively investigated the bioactivity of selected neurotrophic factors conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles (np-NTFs) and of bone marrow-derived stem cells genetically engineered to overexpress those neurotrophic factors (NTF-BMSCs). The neurite outgrowth inductive activity was monitored in culture systems of adult and neonatal rat sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons as well as in the cell line from rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell sympathetic culture model system. We demonstrate that np-NTFs reliably support numeric neurite outgrowth in all utilized culture models. In some aspects, especially with regard to their long-term bioactivity, np-NTFs are even superior to free NTFs. Engineered NTF-BMSCs proved to be less effective in induction of sensory neurite outgrowth but demonstrated an increased bioactivity in the PC-12 cell culture system. In contrast, primary nontransfected BMSCs were as effective as np-NTFs in sensory neurite induction and demonstrated an impairment of neuronal differentiation in the PC-12 cell system. Our results evidence that nanotechnology as used in our setup is superior over stem cell engineering when it comes to in vitro models for PNR. Furthermore, np-NTFs can easily be suspended in regenerative hydrogel matrix and could be delivered that way to nerve conduits for future in vivo studies and medical application.

  8. Engineering students approaching the mathematics textbook as a potential learning tool – opportunities and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Randahl, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Doktorgradsavhandling It is usually assumed that the students at tertiary level work intensively and individually with the new mathematical concepts (Wood, 2001). In this context the mathematics textbook might be an important learning tool. This thesis addresses the issue of what factors might influence the role of the mathematics textbook as a learning tool. The study is situated in the context of the basic mathematics course taken by first-year engineering students. A b...

  9. Nanotechnology versus stem cell engineering: in vitro comparison of neurite inductive potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morano M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Michela Morano,1,* Sandra Wrobel,2,3,* Federica Fregnan,1 Ofra Ziv-Polat,4 Abraham Shahar,4 Andreas Ratzka,2 Claudia Grothe,2,3 Stefano Geuna,1 Kirsten Haastert-Talini2,3 1Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Università Degli Studi di Torino, Orbassano, Piemonte, Italy; 2Institute of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Lower-Saxony, Germany; 3Center for Systems Neuroscience (ZSN, Hannover, Lower-Saxony, Germany; 4NVR Research Ltd, Ness-Ziona, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Purpose: Innovative nerve conduits for peripheral nerve reconstruction are needed in order to specifically support peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR whenever nerve autotransplantation is not an option. Specific support of PNR could be achieved by neurotrophic factor delivery within the nerve conduits via nanotechnology or stem cell engineering and transplantation.Methods: Here, we comparatively investigated the bioactivity of selected neurotrophic factors conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles (np-NTFs and of bone marrow-derived stem cells genetically engineered to overexpress those neurotrophic factors (NTF-BMSCs. The neurite outgrowth inductive activity was monitored in culture systems of adult and neonatal rat sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons as well as in the cell line from rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12 cell sympathetic culture model system.Results: We demonstrate that np-NTFs reliably support numeric neurite outgrowth in all utilized culture models. In some aspects, especially with regard to their long-term bioactivity, np-NTFs are even superior to free NTFs. Engineered NTF-BMSCs proved to be less effective in induction of sensory neurite outgrowth but demonstrated an increased bioactivity in the PC-12 cell culture system. In contrast, primary nontransfected BMSCs were as effective as np-NTFs in sensory neurite induction and demonstrated an impairment of neuronal differentiation in the PC-12

  10. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  11. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Alice

    2007-04-01

    Review of the report by the National Academies, with a focus on action strategies in the physical sciences. Women face barriers to hiring and promotion in research universities in many fields of science and engineering; a situation that deprives the United States of an important source of talent as the country faces increasingly stiff global competition in higher education, science and technology, and the marketplace. Eliminating gender bias in universities requires immediate, overarching reform and decisive action by university administrators, professional societies, government agencies, and Congress. Forty years ago, women made up only 3 percent of America's scientific and technical workers, but by 2003 they accounted for nearly one-fifth. In addition, women have earned more than half of the bachelor's degrees awarded in science and engineering since 2000. However, their representation on university and college faculties fails to reflect these gains. Among science and engineering Ph.D.s, four times more men than women hold full-time faculty positions. And minority women with doctorates are less likely than white women or men of any racial or ethnic group to be in tenure positions. The report urges higher education organizations and professional societies to form collaborative, self-monitoring body that would recommend standards for faculty recruitment, retention, and promotion; collect data; and track compliance across institutions. A ``report card'' template is provided in the report. To read the report online, add a comment, or purchase hard copy, go to: http://www.engineeringpathway.com/ep/learningresource/summary/index.jhtml?id=94A4929D-F1B2-432E-8167-63335569CB4E.

  12. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  13. Modelling Potential Consequences of Different Geo-Engineering Treatments for the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2017-12-01

    From 1950 onwards, the Baltic Sea ecosystem suffered increasingly from eutrophication. The most obvious reason for the eutrophication is the huge amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) reaching the Baltic Sea from human activities. However, although nutrient loads have been decreasing since 1980, the hypoxic areas have not decreased accordingly. Thus, geo-engineering projects were discussed and evaluated to artificially ventilate the Baltic Sea deep water and suppress nutrient release from the sediments. Here, we aim at understanding the consequences of proposed geo-engineering projects in the Baltic Sea using long-term scenario modelling. For that purpose, we utilize a 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO E2E, a novel NPZD-Fish model approach that resolves hydrodynamics, biogeochemical cycling and lower and higher trophic level dynamics. We performed scenario modelling that consider proposed geo-engineering projects such as artificial ventilation of Baltic Sea deep waters and phosphorus binding in sediments with polyaluminium chlorides. The model indicates that deep-water ventilation indeed suppresses phosphorus release in the first 1-4 years of treatment. Thereafter macrobenthos repopulates the formerly anoxic bottom regions and nutrients are increasingly recycled in the food web. Consequently, overall system productivity and fish biomass increases and toxic algae blooms decrease. However, deep-water ventilation has no long-lasting effect on the ecosystem: soon after completion of the ventilation process, the system turns back into its original state. Artificial phosphorus binding in sediments in contrast decreases overall ecosystem productivity through permanent removal of phosphorus. As expected it decreases bacterial production and toxic algae blooms, but it also decreases fish production substantially. Contrastingly to deep water ventilation, artificial phosphorus binding show a long-lasting effect over decades after termination of the treatment.

  14. The potential applications of fibrin-coated electrospun polylactide nanofibers in skin tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačáková, Markéta; Musílková, Jana; Riedel, Tomáš; Stránská, D.; Brynda, Eduard; Žaloudková, Margit; Bačáková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2016 (2016), s. 771-789 E-ISSN 1178-2013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : electrospun nanofibers * nanocoating * skin tissue engineering * fibroblasts * fibrin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V); JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B) Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  15. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarah K; Sen, Sanchita; Murphy, Michelle; Pontiggia, Laura

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR) program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%), non-formulary omission (16.2%), dose discrepancy (10.1%), and frequency discrepancy (4.1%). Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  16. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus SK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%, non-formulary omission (16.2%, dose discrepancy (10.1%, and frequency discrepancy (4.1%. Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. Conclusion: A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  17. Effect of EHR user interface changes on internal prescription discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, A; Sawarkar, A; Dementieva, Y A; Breydo, E; Ramelson, H

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of "as directed" option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew / Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.

  18. Effect of EHR User Interface Changes on Internal Prescription Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, A.; Dementieva, Y.A.; Breydo, E.; Ramelson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of „as directed“ option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a „Renew / Sign“ button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes. PMID:25298811

  19. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  20. Errors and discrepancies in the administration of intravenous infusions: a mixed methods multihospital observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Furniss, D.; Blandford, A.; Chumbley, G.; Iacovides, I.; Wei, L.; Cox, A.; Mayer, A.; Vos, J.; Galal-Edeen, G. H.; Schnock, K. O.; Dykes, P. C.; Bates, D. W.; Franklin, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intravenous medication administration has traditionally been regarded as error prone, with high potential for harm. A recent US multisite study revealed few potentially harmful errors despite a high overall error rate. However, there is limited evidence about infusion practices in England and how they relate to prevalence and types of error. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of errors and discrepancies in infusion administration in English hospitals, an...

  1. Development of hybrid polymer scaffolds for potential applications in ligament and tendon tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Sambit [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Cho-Hong, James Goh [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Siew-Lok, Toh [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2007-09-15

    Fibre-based scaffolds have been widely used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Knitted scaffolds have been proved to favour collagenous matrix deposition which is crucial for tendon/ligament reconstruction. However, such scaffolds have the limitation of being dependent on a gel system for cell seeding, which is unstable in a dynamic environment such as the knee joint. This study developed three types of hybrid scaffolds, based on knitted biodegradable polyester scaffolds, aiming to improve mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation on the scaffolds. The hybrid scaffolds were created by coating the knitted scaffolds with a thin film of poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone) (group I), poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibres (group II) and type 1 collagen (group III). Woven scaffolds were also fabricated and compared with the various hybrid scaffolds in terms of their mechanical properties during in vitro degradation and cell attachment and growth. This study demonstrated that the coating techniques could modulate the mechanical properties and facilitate cell attachment and proliferation in the hybrid scaffold, which could be applied with promise in tissue engineering of tendons/ligaments.

  2. Development of hybrid polymer scaffolds for potential applications in ligament and tendon tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Cho-Hong, James Goh; Siew-Lok, Toh

    2007-01-01

    Fibre-based scaffolds have been widely used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Knitted scaffolds have been proved to favour collagenous matrix deposition which is crucial for tendon/ligament reconstruction. However, such scaffolds have the limitation of being dependent on a gel system for cell seeding, which is unstable in a dynamic environment such as the knee joint. This study developed three types of hybrid scaffolds, based on knitted biodegradable polyester scaffolds, aiming to improve mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation on the scaffolds. The hybrid scaffolds were created by coating the knitted scaffolds with a thin film of poly (ε-caprolactone) (group I), poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibres (group II) and type 1 collagen (group III). Woven scaffolds were also fabricated and compared with the various hybrid scaffolds in terms of their mechanical properties during in vitro degradation and cell attachment and growth. This study demonstrated that the coating techniques could modulate the mechanical properties and facilitate cell attachment and proliferation in the hybrid scaffold, which could be applied with promise in tissue engineering of tendons/ligaments

  3. Investigation on the Potential of High Efficiency for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current brake thermal efficiency of advanced internal combustion engines is limited to 50%, and how to further improve the efficiency is a challenge. In this study, a theoretical investigation on engine thermal efficiency was carried out using one-dimension simulations based on the first law of thermodynamics. The energy balance was evaluated by varying parameters such as compression ratio (CR; heat transfer coefficient; intake charge properties; and combustion phasing etc.—their influences on the efficiency limits were demonstrated. Results show that for a given heat transfer coefficient, an optimal CR exists to obtain the peak efficiency. The optimal CR decreases with the increase of heat transfer coefficient, and high CR with a low heat-transfer coefficient can achieve a significantly high efficiency. A higher density and specific heat ratio of intake charge, as well as a shorter combustion duration with a proper CA50 (crank angle at 50% of total heat release, can increase efficiency significantly. Methanol shows an excellent ability in decreasing the peak in-cylinder temperature; and the peak indicated efficiency is relatively higher than other tested fuels. The displacement has few effects on the indicated efficiency, while it shows a strong effect on the energy distribution between heat transfer and exhaust energy. All these strategies with high CR result in high in-cylinder pressure and temperature; which means a breakthrough of material is needed in the future.

  4. Surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials as potential scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangkui; Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang; Wang, Haixia; Li, Qian; Yang, Jing; Hao, Xuefang; Lv, Juan; Ma, Nan; Li, Wenzhong

    2015-08-07

    Surface modification and endothelialization of vascular biomaterials are common approaches that are used to both resist the nonspecific adhesion of proteins and improve the hemocompatibility and long-term patency of artificial vascular grafts. Surface modification of vascular grafts using hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), zwitterionic polymers, heparin or other bioactive molecules can efficiently enhance hemocompatibility, and consequently prevent thrombosis on artificial vascular grafts. However, these modified surfaces may be excessively hydrophilic, which limits initial vascular endothelial cell adhesion and formation of a confluent endothelial lining. Therefore, the improvement of endothelialization on these grafts by chemical modification with specific peptides and genes is now arousing more and more interest. Several active peptides, such as RGD, CAG, REDV and YIGSR, can be specifically recognized by endothelial cells. Consequently, graft surfaces that are modified by these peptides can exhibit targeting selectivity for the adhesion of endothelial cells, and genes can be delivered by targeting carriers to specific tissues to enhance the promotion and regeneration of blood vessels. These methods could effectively accelerate selective endothelial cell recruitment and functional endothelialization. In this review, recent developments in the surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials in vascular tissue engineering are summarized. Both gene engineering and targeting ligand immobilization are promising methods to improve the clinical outcome of artificial vascular grafts.

  5. Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-06-01

    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

  6. 3rd DAtF-seminar on the development of potential for young scientists and engineers in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, H.

    2003-01-01

    The 3 rd seminar organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. for young nuclear scientists and engineers seeking to realize their potential was about 'Communication - Key to Acceptance'. The topic was presented in contributions outlining the scientific viewpoint and in results of practical everyday experience. The young participants from all areas of the nuclear industry were sensitized to the problem areas under discussion, which were then debated in more detail. Reference was made to the importance of continuous communication with all participants. The seminar offered valuable suggestions for working with the media and the public, but also for handling information in one's daily work. (orig.)

  7. Biodegradable Thermogel as Culture Matrix of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Potential Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo Zhang; Jian-xun Ding; Wei-guo Xu; Jie Wu; Fei Chang; Xiu-li Zhuang; Xue-si Chen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymer was synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of LA and GA with PEG as macroinitiator and stannous octoate as catalyst.The amphiphilic copolymer self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solutions,and formed hydrogels as the increase of temperature at relatively high concentrations (> 15 wt%).The favorable degradability of the hydrogel was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo degradation experiments.The good cellular and tissular compatibilities of the thermogel were demonstrated.The excellent adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells endowed PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogelling hydrogel with fascinating prospect for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Rotary engine developments at Curtiss-Wright over the past 20 years and review of general aviation engine potential. [with direct chamber injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the rotary engine as a viable power plant capable of wide application is reviewed. Research results on the stratified charge engine with direct chamber injection are included. Emission control, reduced fuel consumption, and low noise level are among the factors discussed in terms of using the rotary engine in general aviation aircraft.

  9. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in .... that the proportion of women Internet users in developing countries is much smaller than that of ..... equality: a contradiction in terminis? Computers in ...

  10. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  11. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  12. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  13. The INDC/NEANDC joint discrepancy file 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, B.H.; Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-06-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee (NEANDC) maintain a close interest in nuclear data which exhibit discrepancies and, by making known the details of the disagreements, encouragement is given to the undertaking of new measurements as a means of eliminating the ambiguities. The previous discrepancy file was published by NEANDC and INDC in 1984. This document contains 10 papers and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Learning about physical parameters: the importance of model discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjarsdóttir, Jenný; O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Science-based simulation models are widely used to predict the behavior of complex physical systems. It is also common to use observations of the physical system to solve the inverse problem, that is, to learn about the values of parameters within the model, a process which is often called calibration. The main goal of calibration is usually to improve the predictive performance of the simulator but the values of the parameters in the model may also be of intrinsic scientific interest in their own right. In order to make appropriate use of observations of the physical system it is important to recognize model discrepancy, the difference between reality and the simulator output. We illustrate through a simple example that an analysis that does not account for model discrepancy may lead to biased and over-confident parameter estimates and predictions. The challenge with incorporating model discrepancy in statistical inverse problems is being confounded with calibration parameters, which will only be resolved with meaningful priors. For our simple example, we model the model-discrepancy via a Gaussian process and demonstrate that through accounting for model discrepancy our prediction within the range of data is correct. However, only with realistic priors on the model discrepancy do we uncover the true parameter values. Through theoretical arguments we show that these findings are typical of the general problem of learning about physical parameters and the underlying physical system using science-based mechanistic models. (paper)

  15. Preparing and probing many-body correlated systems in a Quantum Gas Microscope by engineering arbitrary landscape potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, M. Eric; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool box for observing the emergence of strongly correlated physics in quantum systems. Dynamic control of optical potentials on the single-site level allows us to prepare and probe many-body quantum states through local Hamiltonian engineering. We achieve these high precision levels of optical control through spatial light modulation with a DMD (digital micro-mirror device). This allows for both arbitrary beam shaping and aberration compensation in our imaging system to produce high fidelity optical potentials. We use these techniques to control state initialization, Hamiltonian dynamics, and measurement in experiments investigating low-dimensional many-body physics - from one-dimensional correlated quantum walks to characterizing entanglement.

  16. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  17. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  18. Polycaprolactone-Chitin Nanofibrous Mats as Potential Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sup Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the preparation of poly(caprolactone (PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats by electrospinning from a blended solution of PCL and chitin dissolved in a cosolvent, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and trifluoroacetic acid. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the neutralized PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats were morphologically stable, with a mean diameter of 340.5±2.6 nm, compared with a diameter of 524.2±12.1 nm for PCL mats. The nanofibrous mats showed decreased water contact angles as the proportion of chitin increased. However, the tensile properties of nanofibrous mats containing 30~50% (wt/wt chitin were enhanced compared with PCL-only mats. In vitro studies showed that the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs for up to 7 days in culture was higher on composite (OD value: 1.42±0.09 than on PCL-only (0.51±0.14 nanofibrous mats, with viability correlated with chitin concentration. Together, our results suggest that PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats can be used as an implantable substrate to modulate HDF viability in tissue engineering.

  19. Mechanical properties of electrospun bilayer fibrous membranes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juan; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Bilayer fibrous membranes of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) were fabricated by electrospinning, using a parallel-disk mandrel configuration that resulted in the sequential deposition of a layer with fibers aligned across the two parallel disks and a layer with randomly oriented fibers, both layers deposited in a single process step. Membrane structure and fiber alignment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and two-dimensional fast Fourier transform. Because of the intricacies of the generated electric field, bilayer membranes exhibited higher porosity than single-layer membranes consisting of randomly oriented fibers fabricated with a solid-drum collector. However, despite their higher porosity, bilayer membranes demonstrated generally higher elastic modulus, yield strength and toughness than single-layer membranes with random fibers. Bilayer membrane deformation at relatively high strain rates comprised multiple abrupt microfracture events characterized by discontinuous fiber breakage. Bilayer membrane elongation yielded excessive necking of the layer with random fibers and remarkable fiber stretching (on the order of 400%) in the layer with fibers aligned in the stress direction. In addition, fibers in both layers exhibited multiple localized necking, attributed to the nonuniform distribution of crystalline phases in the fibrillar structure. The high membrane porosity, good mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLLA (demonstrated in previous studies) make the present bilayer membranes good scaffold candidates for a wide range of tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corrosion of similar and dissimilar metal crevices in the engineered barrier system of a potential nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.; Dunn, D.S.; Csontos, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Crevice corrosion is considered possible if the corrosion potential (E corr ) exceeds the repassivation potential for crevice corrosion (E rcrev ). In this study, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic hold were used to determine the E rcrev of similar and dissimilar metal crevices in the engineered barrier system of the potential Yucca Mountain repository in 0.5 M NaCl, 4 M NaCl, and 4 M MgCl 2 solutions at 95 deg. C. The results were compared with data previously obtained using crevices formed between Alloy 22 and polytetrafluoroethylene. It was observed that, except for Type 316L stainless steel, all other metal-to-metal crevices were less susceptible to crevice corrosion than the corresponding metal-to-polytetrafluoroethylene crevices. Measurements of galvanic coupling were used to evaluate the crevice corrosion propagation behavior in 5 M NaCl solution at 95 deg. C. The crevice specimens were coupled to either an Alloy 22 or a Titanium Grade 7 plate using metal or polytetrafluoroethylene crevice washers. Crevice corrosion of Type 316L stainless steel propagated without repassivation. For all the tests using a polytetrafluoroethylene crevice washer, crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 was initiated at open circuit potential by the addition of CuCl 2 as an oxidant, whereas no crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 was initiated for all the tests using Alloy 22 or Titanium Grade 7 metals as crevice washer. However, crevice corrosion propagation was found to be very limited under such test conditions

  1. Comparison of potentials between stem cells isolated from human anterior cruciate ligament and bone marrow for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Te; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Lee, Oscar K

    2010-07-01

    We have previously isolated and identified stem cells from human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation abilities between bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and ACL-derived stem cells (LSCs) from the same donors when cultured with different growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Ligament tissues and bone marrow aspirate were obtained from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and ACL reconstruction surgeries. Proliferation, colony formation, and population doubling capacity as well as multilineage differentiation potentials of LSCs and BMSCs were compared. Gene expression and ECM production for ligament engineering were also evaluated. It was found that BMSCs possessed better osteogenic differentiation potential than LSCs, while similar adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation abilities were observed. Proliferation rates of both LSCs and BMSCs were enhanced by bFGF and TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 treatment significantly increased the expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin in LSCs, but TGF-beta1 only upregulated type I collagen and tenascin-c in BMSCs. Protein quantification further confirmed the results of differential gene expression and suggested that LSCs and BMSCs increase ECM production upon TGF-beta1 treatment. In summary, in comparison with BMSCs, LSCs proliferate faster and maintain an undifferentiated state with bFGF treatment, whereas under TGF-beta1 treatment, LSCs upregulate major tendinous gene expression and produce a robust amount of ligament ECM protein, making LSCs a potential cell source in future applications of ACL tissue engineering.

  2. Screw engine used as an expander in ORC for low-potential heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lukáš

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with a screw motor that is used as an expander in an ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle) system, whose organic working substance allows the transformation of low-potential heat (waste heat, solar and geothermal energy) into electrical energy. The article describes the specific properties of an organic substance and a screw motor that must be considered when designing and assembling a complete power unit. Screw machines are not commonly used as expansion devices, so it is necessary to perform an analysis that makes it possible to adapt the screw machine to the expansion process in terms of profiling and design.

  3. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  4. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Teen Dating Violence, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Cortina, Kai S.; Kernsmith, Roger M.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Methods Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Results Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Conclusions Boys who experience stress about being perceived as “sub-masculine” may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential “threats” to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. PMID:26003576

  5. How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this series of three special lectures, leading experts from AECOM would explore the impact of a trio of major projects on a single city. In common with every metropolis, London has run-down districts and infrastructure in need of upgrading. The lectures propose to cover three of the biggest challenges: regenerating run-down areas; reducing congestion and transporting people more efficiently; and improving water and wastewater systems. Each project contributes to a collective public aim - to realise the potential of a growing city, and ensure its healthy, sustainable and competitive future. Lecture 1: Into the lecture series and The London 2012 Olympic Games Most cities share a group of common complex challenges – growing populations, ageing infrastructure, and mitigating the effects of climate change. These require similar responses to find the most appropriate solutions to make sure that all urban dwellers can have the basics of food, warmth, clean water and shelter. In addition, they must have the ...

  6. Reverse engineering model structures for soil and ecosystem respiration: the potential of gene expression programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ilie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate model representation of land–atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for climate projections. However, the exact responses of carbon cycle processes to climatic drivers often remain uncertain. Presently, knowledge derived from experiments, complemented by a steadily evolving body of mechanistic theory, provides the main basis for developing such models. The strongly increasing availability of measurements may facilitate new ways of identifying suitable model structures using machine learning. Here, we explore the potential of gene expression programming (GEP to derive relevant model formulations based solely on the signals present in data by automatically applying various mathematical transformations to potential predictors and repeatedly evolving the resulting model structures. In contrast to most other machine learning regression techniques, the GEP approach generates readable models that allow for prediction and possibly for interpretation. Our study is based on two cases: artificially generated data and real observations. Simulations based on artificial data show that GEP is successful in identifying prescribed functions, with the prediction capacity of the models comparable to four state-of-the-art machine learning methods (random forests, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and kernel ridge regressions. Based on real observations we explore the responses of the different components of terrestrial respiration at an oak forest in south-eastern England. We find that the GEP-retrieved models are often better in prediction than some established respiration models. Based on their structures, we find previously unconsidered exponential dependencies of respiration on seasonal ecosystem carbon assimilation and water dynamics. We noticed that the GEP models are only partly portable across respiration components, the identification of a general terrestrial respiration model possibly prevented by equifinality issues. Overall

  7. Reverse engineering model structures for soil and ecosystem respiration: the potential of gene expression programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Iulia; Dittrich, Peter; Carvalhais, Nuno; Jung, Martin; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Migliavacca, Mirco; Morison, James I. L.; Sippel, Sebastian; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wilkinson, Matthew; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate model representation of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for climate projections. However, the exact responses of carbon cycle processes to climatic drivers often remain uncertain. Presently, knowledge derived from experiments, complemented by a steadily evolving body of mechanistic theory, provides the main basis for developing such models. The strongly increasing availability of measurements may facilitate new ways of identifying suitable model structures using machine learning. Here, we explore the potential of gene expression programming (GEP) to derive relevant model formulations based solely on the signals present in data by automatically applying various mathematical transformations to potential predictors and repeatedly evolving the resulting model structures. In contrast to most other machine learning regression techniques, the GEP approach generates readable models that allow for prediction and possibly for interpretation. Our study is based on two cases: artificially generated data and real observations. Simulations based on artificial data show that GEP is successful in identifying prescribed functions, with the prediction capacity of the models comparable to four state-of-the-art machine learning methods (random forests, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and kernel ridge regressions). Based on real observations we explore the responses of the different components of terrestrial respiration at an oak forest in south-eastern England. We find that the GEP-retrieved models are often better in prediction than some established respiration models. Based on their structures, we find previously unconsidered exponential dependencies of respiration on seasonal ecosystem carbon assimilation and water dynamics. We noticed that the GEP models are only partly portable across respiration components, the identification of a general terrestrial respiration model possibly prevented by equifinality issues. Overall, GEP is a promising

  8. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  9. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  10. Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: Potential and implication of biochar modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Ming; Vithanage, Meththika; Mandal, Sanchita; Gao, Bin; Bolan, Nanthi S; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The use of biochar has been suggested as a means of remediating contaminated soil and water. The practical applications of conventional biochar for contaminant immobilization and removal however need further improvements. Hence, recent attention has focused on modification of biochar with novel structures and surface properties in order to improve its remediation efficacy and environmental benefits. Engineered/designer biochars are commonly used terms to indicate application-oriented, outcome-based biochar modification or synthesis. In recent years, biochar modifications involving various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, amination, surfactant modification, impregnation of mineral sorbents, steam activation and magnetic modification have been widely studied. This review summarizes and evaluates biochar modification methods, corresponding mechanisms, and their benefits for contaminant management in soil and water. Applicability and performance of modification methods depend on the type of contaminants (i.e., inorganic/organic, anionic/cationic, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, polar/non-polar), environmental conditions, remediation goals, and land use purpose. In general, modification to produce engineered/designer biochar is likely to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar and its potential applications for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Studies on Four Stroke Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tamarind Seed Oil as Potential Alternate Fuel for Sustainable Green Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhana Raju

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this present novel work is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel derived from the tamarind seed through the transesterification process as potential alternative feedstock for the diesel engine. The physio-chemical properties of tamarind seed methyl ester (TSME were evaluated experimentally and compared with the base fuel. Test fuels were prepared in 3 concentrations such as B10 (10% tamarind seed oil and 90% diesel, B20 and B30.Experiments were conducted at a constant speed, the injection timing of 23° crank angle and compression ratio 17.5:1 with varying load conditions to investigate the diesel engine characteristics. TSME 20 shown better thermal efficiency (34.41% over diesel which is 1.17 % higher and also it produces lower emissions of CO, HC, and smoke opacity. N-Amyl alcohol (NAA is used as a fuel additive for the optimum blend of TSME20; added in 5% and 10% concentration on the volume basis. From the analysis of experimental data, the use of fuel additives significantly reduces the smoke opacity by 29.49 % for TSME20 NAA 10% blend in addition to the reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions; however, the specific fuel consumption and the oxides of nitrogen were marginally increased.

  12. Fibrochondrogenic potential of synoviocytes from osteoarthritic and normal joints cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds for meniscal tissue engineering in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Warnock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are a common cause of stifle lameness in dogs. Use of autologous synoviocytes from the affected stifle is an attractive cell source for tissue engineering replacement fibrocartilage. However, the diseased state of these cells may impede in vitro fibrocartilage formation. Synoviocytes from 12 osteoarthritic (“oaTSB” and 6 normal joints (“nTSB” were cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds and compared for their ability to synthesize fibrocartilage sheets. Gene expression of collagens type I and II were higher and expression of interleukin-6 was lower in oaTSB versus nTSB. Compared with nTSB, oaTSB had more glycosaminoglycan and alpha smooth muscle staining and less collagen I and II staining on histologic analysis, whereas collagen and glycosaminoglycan quantities were similar. In conclusion, osteoarthritic joint—origin synoviocytes can produce extracellular matrix components of meniscal fibrocartilage at similar levels to normal joint—origin synoviocytes, which makes them a potential cell source for canine meniscal tissue engineering.

  13. Engineered fungal polyketide biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris: a potential excellent host for polyketide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Limei; Cai, Menghao; Shen, Wei; Xiao, Siwei; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-09-08

    Polyketides are one of the most important classes of secondary metabolites and usually make good drugs. Currently, heterologous production of fungal polyketides for developing a high potential industrial application system with high production capacity and pharmaceutical feasibility was still at its infancy. Pichia pastoris is a highly successful system for the high production of a variety of heterologous proteins. In this work, we aim to develop a P. pastoris based in vivo fungal polyketide production system for first time and evaluate its feasibility for future industrial application. A recombinant P. pastoris GS115-NpgA-ATX with Aspergillus nidulans phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) gene npgA and Aspergillus terrus 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthase (6-MSAS) gene atX was constructed. A specific compound was isolated and identified as 6-MSA by HPLC, LC-MS and NMR. Transcription of both genes were detected. In 5-L bioreactor, the GS115-NpgA-ATX grew well and produced 6-MSA quickly until reached a high value of 2.2 g/L by methanol induction for 20 hours. Thereafter, the cells turned to death ascribing to high concentration of antimicrobial 6-MSA. The distribution of 6-MSA changed that during early and late induction phase it existed more in supernatant while during intermediate stage it mainly located intracellular. Different from 6-MSA production strain, recombinant M. purpureus pksCT expression strains for citrinin intermediate production, no matter PksCT located in cytoplasm or in peroxisomes, did not produce any specific compound. However, both npgA and pksCT transcripted effectively in cells and western blot analysis proved the expression of PPtase. Then the PPTase was expressed and purified, marked by fluorescent probes, and reacted with purified ACP domain and its mutant ACPm of PksCT. Fluoresence was only observed in ACP but not ACPm, indicating that the PPTase worked well with ACP to make it bioactive holo-ACP. Thus, some other factors may

  14. Management of scientific and engineering data collected during site characterization of a potential high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository encompasses many diverse investigations to determine the nature of the site. Laboratory and on-site investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and past use of the area, to name a few. Effective use of the data from these investigations requires development of a system for the collection, storage, and dissemination of those scientific and engineering data needed to support model development, design, and performance assessment. The time and budgetary constraints associated with this project make sharing of technical data within the geoscience community absolutely critical to the successful solution of the complex scientific problem challenging us

  15. The Potential Role of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Programs in Reducing Teen Dating Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Kearns, Megan C; Reidy, Dennis E

    2016-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are growing fields that provide job stability, financial security, and health prosperity for professionals in these fields. Unfortunately, females are underrepresented in STEM, which is potentially both a consequence and precipitant of gender inequity in the United States. In addition to the financial and health benefits, increasing the number of girls and women in STEM fields may also indirectly prevent and/or reduce teen dating violence and intimate partner violence by: (1) increasing women's financial independence, thereby reducing dependence on potentially abusive partners; (2) decreasing household poverty and financial stress, which may lead to reductions in relationship discord; and (3) increasing attitudes and beliefs about women as equals, thereby increasing gender equity. In this commentary, we discuss the potential role of primary and secondary school STEM programs in reducing violence against women. We review the literature on existing evaluations of STEM programs for educational outcomes, discuss the limitations of these evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research.

  16. Review: Potential biotechnological assets related to plant immunity modulation applicable in engineering disease-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Santos; Arraes, Fabrício Barbosa Monteiro; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; Grossi-de-Sa, Maira; Fernandez, Diana; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2018-05-01

    This review emphasizes the biotechnological potential of molecules implicated in the different layers of plant immunity, including, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS), and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) that can be applied in the development of disease-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants. These biomolecules are produced by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes) or plants during their mutual interactions. Biomolecules involved in the first layers of plant immunity, PTI and ETS, include inhibitors of pathogen cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and susceptibility (S) proteins, while the ETI-related biomolecules include plant resistance (R) proteins. The biomolecules involved in plant defense PTI/ETI responses described herein also include antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and ribosome-inhibiting proteins (RIPs), as well as enzymes involved in plant defensive secondary metabolite biosynthesis (phytoanticipins and phytoalexins). Moreover, the regulation of immunity by RNA interference (RNAi) in GM disease-resistant plants is also considered. Therefore, the present review does not cover all the classes of biomolecules involved in plant innate immunity that may be applied in the development of disease-resistant GM crops but instead highlights the most common strategies in the literature, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Grandotto, M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy were carried out for light water reactor physics. It was shown that using recently published resonance parameters and substituting a multilevel formalism to the usual Breit and Wigner formula reduced the well known discrepancy between two values of the uranium 238 effective resonance integral: the value calculated with the nuclear data and the one deduced from critical experiments. Since the cross section computed with these assumptions agrees quite well with the Oak-Ridge transmission data, it was used to obtain the self-shielding effect and the capture rate in light water lattices. The multiplication factor calculated with this method is found very close to the experimental value. Preliminary results for a set of benchmarks relative to several types of thermal neutron reactors lead to very low discrepancies. The reactivity loss is only 130 x 10 -5 instead of 650 x 10 -5 in the case of the usual libraries and the single level formula

  18. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.

  19. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resolving taxonmic discrepancies: Role of Electronic Catalogues of Known Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Chavan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a disparity in availability of nomenclature change literature to the taxonomists of the developing world and availability of taxonomic papers published by developing world scientists to their counterparts in developed part of the globe. This has resulted in several discrepancies in the naming of organisms. Development of electronic catalogues of names of known organisms would help in pointing out these issues. We have attempted to highlight a few of such discrepancies found while developing IndFauna, an electronic catalogue of known Indian fauna and comparing it with existing global and regional databases.Full Text: PDF

  1. Digital evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy: A comparison of ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional and digital techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Yuan, Fusong; Luo, Xu; Yu, Zhuoren; Tang, Zhihui

    2018-04-05

    Marginal discrepancy is key to evaluating the accuracy of fixed dental prostheses. An improved method of evaluating marginal discrepancy is needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional and digital methods with a digital method for the quantitative evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy. The novel method was based on 3-dimensional scanning, iterative closest point registration techniques, and reverse engineering theory. Six standard tooth preparations for the right maxillary central incisor, right maxillary second premolar, right maxillary second molar, left mandibular lateral incisor, left mandibular first premolar, and left mandibular first molar were selected. Ten conventional ceramic crowns and 10 CEREC crowns were fabricated for each tooth preparation. A dental cast scanner was used to obtain 3-dimensional data of the preparations and ceramic crowns, and the data were compared with the "virtual seating" iterative closest point technique. Reverse engineering software used edge sharpening and other functional modules to extract the margins of the preparations and crowns. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns was obtained from the 2-dimensional cross-sectional straight-line distance between points on the margin of the ceramic crowns and the standard preparations based on the circumferential function module along the long axis. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional methods was 115 ±15.2 μm, and 110 ±14.3 μm for those fabricated using the digital technique was. ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the 2 methods or among ceramic crowns for different teeth (P>.05). The digital quantitative evaluation method for the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns was established. The evaluations determined that the absolute marginal discrepancies were

  2. Factors controlling the redox potential of ZnCe6 in an engineered bacterioferritin photochemical 'reaction centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Abdullah; Vassiliev, Serguei; Poddutoori, Prashanth K; van der Est, Art; Bruce, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis has the unique ability to photochemically oxidize water. Recently an engineered bacterioferritin photochemical 'reaction centre' (BFR-RC) using a zinc chlorin pigment (ZnCe6) in place of its native heme has been shown to photo-oxidize bound manganese ions through a tyrosine residue, thus mimicking two of the key reactions on the electron donor side of PSII. To understand the mechanism of tyrosine oxidation in BFR-RCs, and explore the possibility of water oxidation in such a system we have built an atomic-level model of the BFR-RC using ONIOM methodology. We studied the influence of axial ligands and carboxyl groups on the oxidation potential of ZnCe6 using DFT theory, and finally calculated the shift of the redox potential of ZnCe6 in the BFR-RC protein using the multi-conformational molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann approach. According to our calculations, the redox potential for the first oxidation of ZnCe6 in the BRF-RC protein is only 0.57 V, too low to oxidize tyrosine. We suggest that the observed tyrosine oxidation in BRF-RC could be driven by the ZnCe6 di-cation. In order to increase the efficiency of tyrosine oxidation, and ultimately oxidize water, the first potential of ZnCe6 would have to attain a value in excess of 0.8 V. We discuss the possibilities for modifying the BFR-RC to achieve this goal.

  3. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in engineered nanomaterial induced cellular toxicity. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with the engineered nanomaterial mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify these toxicity ...

  4. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  5. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City (1/3), by Bill Hanway (Excecutive Director of Operations, AECOM Europe).   Wednesday, June 6, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor ) In this series of three special lectures, leading experts from AECOM would explore the impact of a trio of major projects on a single city. In common with every metropolis, London has run-down districts and infrastructure in need of upgrading. The lectures propose to cover three of the biggest challenges: regenerating run-down areas; reducing congestion and transporting people more efficiently; and improving water and wastewater systems. Each project contributes to a collective public aim - to realise the potential of a growing city, and ensure its healthy, sustainable and competitive future. Lecture 1: Into the lecture series and The London 2012 Olympic Games Most cities share a group of common complex challenges – growing populations, agei...

  6. Free Global Dsm Assessment on Large Scale Areas Exploiting the Potentialities of the Innovative Google Earth Engine Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Ravanelli, R.; Amicuzi, M.; Esposito, S.; Crespi, M.

    2017-05-01

    The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER) has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah) and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy) exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region) and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  7. FREE GLOBAL DSM ASSESSMENT ON LARGE SCALE AREAS EXPLOITING THE POTENTIALITIES OF THE INNOVATIVE GOOGLE EARTH ENGINE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nascetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  8. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  9. Comparative processes in personal and group judgments : Resolving the discrepancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Young, H

    The judgment mechanisms underlying personal- and group-level ratings of discrimination and privilege were investigated in high- and lour-status groups. PI consistent personal-group discrepancy is found for discrimination and privilege: but is not due to personal differentiation from the group.

  10. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important agent of empowerment is information, provided with dispatch through the Internet. In essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in Internet use with a view to indicating its implication to women empowerment. In the survey, cluster and proportionate sampling techniques ...

  11. Outcome discrepancies and selective reporting: impacting the leading journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem.

  12. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  13. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  14. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  15. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  16. Revolutionizing orthopaedic biomaterials: The potential of biodegradable and bioresorbable magnesium-based materials for functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraro, Kathryn F; Kim, Kwang E; Woo, Savio L-Y; Flowers, Jonquil R; McCullough, Matthew B

    2014-06-27

    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in magnesium (Mg) and its alloys as biomaterials for orthopaedic applications, as they possess desirable mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Also shown to be osteoinductive, Mg-based materials could be particularly advantageous in functional tissue engineering to improve healing and serve as scaffolds for delivery of drugs, cells, and cytokines. In this paper, we will present two examples of Mg-based orthopaedic devices: an interference screw to accelerate ACL graft healing and a ring to aid in the healing of an injured ACL. In vitro tests using a robotic/UFS testing system showed that both devices could restore function of the goat stifle joint. Under a 67-N anterior tibial load, both the ACL graft fixed with the Mg-based interference screw and the Mg-based ring-repaired ACL could restore anterior tibial translation (ATT) to within 2mm and 5mm, respectively, of the intact joint at 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. In-situ forces in the replacement graft and Mg-based ring-repaired ACL were also similar to those of the intact ACL. Further, early in vivo data using the Mg-based interference screw showed that after 12 weeks, it was non-toxic and the joint stability and graft function reached similar levels as published data. Following these positive results, we will move forward in incorporating bioactive molecules and ECM bioscaffolds to these Mg-based biomaterials to test their potential for functional tissue engineering of musculoskeletal and other tissues. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Example of a Human Factors Engineering approach to a medication administration work system: potential impact on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia; Bernonville, Stéphanie

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are: In this approach, the implementation of such a complex IT solution is considered a major redesign of the work system. The paper describes the Human Factor (HF) tasks embedded in the project lifecycle: (1) analysis and modelling of the current work system and usability assessment of the medication CPOE solution; (2) HF recommendations for work re-design and usability recommendations for IT system re-engineering both aiming at a safer and more efficient work situation. Standard ethnographic methods were used to support the analysis of the current work system and work situations, coupled with cognitive task analysis methods and documents review. Usability inspection (heuristic evaluation) and both in-lab (simulated tasks) and on-site (real tasks) usability tests were performed for the evaluation of the CPOE candidate. Adapted software engineering models were used in combination with usual textual descriptions, tasks models and mock-ups to support the recommendations for work and product re-design. The analysis of the work situations identified different work organisations and procedures across the hospital's departments. The most important differences concerned the doctor-nurse communications and cooperation modes and the procedures for preparing and administering the medications. The assessment of the medication CPOE functions uncovered a number of usability problems including severe ones leading to impossible to detect or to catch errors. Models of the actual and possible distribution of tasks and roles were used to support decision making in the work design process. The results of the usability assessment were translated into requirements to support the necessary re-engineering of the IT application. The HFE approach to medication CPOE efficiently identifies and distinguishes currently unsafe or uncomfortable work situations that could obviously benefit from an IT solution from other work situations incorporating efficient work

  18. Potentials, consequences and trade-offs of terrestrial carbon dioxide removal. Strategies for climate engineering and their limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boysen, Lena R.

    2017-01-17

    For hundreds of years, humans have engineered the planet to fulfil their need for increasing energy consumption and production. Since the industrial revolution, one consequence are rising global mean temperatures which could change by 2 C to 4.5 C until 2100 if mitigation enforcement of CO{sub 2} emissions fails.To counteract this projected global warming, climate engineering techniques aim at intendedly cooling Earth's climate for example through terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) which is commonly perceived as environmentally friendly. Here, tCDR refers to the establishment of large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) in combination with the production of long-lasting carbon products such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage or biochar. This thesis examines the potentials and possible consequences of tCDR by analysing land-use scenarios with different spatial and temporal scales of BPs using an advanced biosphere model forced by varying climate projections. These scenario simulations were evaluated with focus on their carbon sequestration potentials, trade-offs with food production and impacts on natural ecosystems and climate itself. Synthesised, the potential of tCDR to permanently extract CO{sub 2} out of the atmosphere is found to be small, regardless of the emission scenario, the point of onset or the spatial extent. On the contrary, the aforementioned trade-offs and impacts are shown to be unfavourable in most cases. In a high emission scenario with a late onset of BPs (i.e. around 2050), even unlimited area availability for tCDR could not reverse past emissions sufficiently, e.g. BPs covering 25% of all agricultural or natural land could delay 2100's carbon budget by no more than two or three decades (equivalent to ∼550 or 800 GtC tCDR), respectively. However, simultaneous emission reductions and an earlier establishment of BPs (i.e. around 2035) could result in strong carbon extractions reversing past emissions (e.g. six or eight

  19. Potentials, consequences and trade-offs of terrestrial carbon dioxide removal. Strategies for climate engineering and their limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, Lena R.

    2017-01-01

    For hundreds of years, humans have engineered the planet to fulfil their need for increasing energy consumption and production. Since the industrial revolution, one consequence are rising global mean temperatures which could change by 2 C to 4.5 C until 2100 if mitigation enforcement of CO_2 emissions fails.To counteract this projected global warming, climate engineering techniques aim at intendedly cooling Earth's climate for example through terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) which is commonly perceived as environmentally friendly. Here, tCDR refers to the establishment of large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) in combination with the production of long-lasting carbon products such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage or biochar. This thesis examines the potentials and possible consequences of tCDR by analysing land-use scenarios with different spatial and temporal scales of BPs using an advanced biosphere model forced by varying climate projections. These scenario simulations were evaluated with focus on their carbon sequestration potentials, trade-offs with food production and impacts on natural ecosystems and climate itself. Synthesised, the potential of tCDR to permanently extract CO_2 out of the atmosphere is found to be small, regardless of the emission scenario, the point of onset or the spatial extent. On the contrary, the aforementioned trade-offs and impacts are shown to be unfavourable in most cases. In a high emission scenario with a late onset of BPs (i.e. around 2050), even unlimited area availability for tCDR could not reverse past emissions sufficiently, e.g. BPs covering 25% of all agricultural or natural land could delay 2100's carbon budget by no more than two or three decades (equivalent to ∼550 or 800 GtC tCDR), respectively. However, simultaneous emission reductions and an earlier establishment of BPs (i.e. around 2035) could result in strong carbon extractions reversing past emissions (e.g. six or eight decades or ∼500 or

  20. Histopathological diagnostic discrepancies in soft tissue tumours referred to a specialist centre: reassessment in the era of ancillary molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thway, Khin; Wang, Jayson; Mubako, Taka; Fisher, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Soft tissue tumour pathology is a highly specialised area of surgical pathology, but soft tissue neoplasms can occur at virtually all sites and are therefore encountered by a wide population of surgical pathologists. Potential sarcomas require referral to specialist centres for review by pathologists who see a large number of soft tissue lesions and where appropriate ancillary investigations can be performed. We have previously assessed the types of diagnostic discrepancies between referring and final diagnosis for soft tissue lesions referred to our tertiary centre. We now reaudit this 6 years later, assessing changes in discrepancy patterns, particularly in relation to the now widespread use of ancillary molecular diagnostic techniques which were not prevalent in our original study. Materials and Methods. We compared the sarcoma unit's histopathology reports with referring reports on 348 specimens from 286 patients with suspected or proven soft tissue tumours in a one-year period. Results. Diagnostic agreement was seen in 250 cases (71.8%), with 57 (16.4%) major and 41 (11.8%) minor discrepancies. There were 23 cases of benign/malignant discrepancies (23.5% of all discrepancies). 50 ancillary molecular tests were performed, 33 for aiding diagnosis and 17 mutational analyses for gastrointestinal stromal tumour to guide therapy. Findings from ancillary techniques contributed to 3 major and 4 minor discrepancies. While the results were broadly similar to those of the previous study, there was an increase in frequency of major discrepancies. Conclusion. Six years following our previous study and notably now in an era of widespread ancillary molecular diagnosis, the overall discrepancy rate between referral and tertiary centre diagnosis remains similar, but there is an increase in frequency of major discrepancies likely to alter patient management. A possible reason for the increase in major discrepancies is the increasing lack of exposure to soft tissue

  1. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Groleau, G; Reiner, B; Stair, T

    1998-08-01

    is category I (potentially serious, needs immediate follow-up), category II (moderate risk, follow-up in one day), or category III (low risk, follow-up in several days). During the working day, the radiologist calls immediately for category I discrepancies. Those noted from the evening, night, or weekend before are called to the EP the next morning. All discrepancies with the preliminary interpretation are communicated to the EP and are kept in a computerized log for review by a radiologist at a weekly ED teaching conference. This system has reduced the need for the radiologist to ask or guess what the impression was in the ED the night before. It has reduced the variability in recording of impressions by EP's, in communication back from radiologists, in the clinical] follow-up made, and in the documentation of the whole QI process. This system ensures that EP's receive notification of their discrepant readings, and provides continuing education to all the EP's on interpreting images on their patients.

  2. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  3. Structural, thermal, optical properties and cytotoxicity of PMMA/ZnO fibers and films: Potential application in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balen, Rodrigo; Vidotto da Costa, Wilian; Lara Andrade, Jéssica de; Piai, Juliana Francis; Muniz, Edvani Curti; Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposite were prepared. • ZnO NPs incorporated into PMMA fibers reduces their diameter and beads presence. • PMMA films containing ZnO exhibit higher thermal stability than pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites show improved optical properties compared to pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO shows potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Abstract: Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites (100/0, 99/01, 97/03, 95/05, 90/10, and 85/15 wt.%) were produced by casting and electrospinning, respectively. Their structural, thermal, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, TGA, PAS, and PL. The incorporation of ZnO NPs reduced the diameter of PMMA fibers and the presence of beads. The surfaces of the fibers exhibited greater hydrophobicity, compared to the films, with contact angles of around 120° and 94°, respectively. PMMA films containing ZnO exhibited higher thermal stability than the pure polymer, while the corresponding fibers did not show any changes in thermal stability. The dispersion of the ZnO NPs at the surface and in the bulk of the nanocomposites appeared to be relatively homogeneous. ZnO improved the optical properties of the PMMA, with an intense absorption band near 370 nm observed for all the nanocomposites, which also exhibited luminescence with emission in the near-UV region, both attributed to ZnO. Biological tests demonstrated that fibers and films with up to 1% of ZnO exhibited good performance in the proliferation of fibroblast cells, indicating their potential for applications in tissue engineering. The fibers provided higher cell viability than the films, presumably due to their greater surface area and/or more suitable surface morphology. Nanocomposites with 15% ZnO inhibited cell proliferation, due to the cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs. Although several applications of PMMA have been suggested by biomedical researchers, until now there have been no reports on the specific

  4. Structural, thermal, optical properties and cytotoxicity of PMMA/ZnO fibers and films: Potential application in tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balen, Rodrigo; Vidotto da Costa, Wilian; Lara Andrade, Jéssica de; Piai, Juliana Francis [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Muniz, Edvani Curti [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), 87502-210, Umuarama, PR (Brazil); Programa de Pós- Graduação em Ciências de Materiais & Engenharia, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR-LD), 86036-370, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposite were prepared. • ZnO NPs incorporated into PMMA fibers reduces their diameter and beads presence. • PMMA films containing ZnO exhibit higher thermal stability than pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites show improved optical properties compared to pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO shows potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Abstract: Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites (100/0, 99/01, 97/03, 95/05, 90/10, and 85/15 wt.%) were produced by casting and electrospinning, respectively. Their structural, thermal, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, TGA, PAS, and PL. The incorporation of ZnO NPs reduced the diameter of PMMA fibers and the presence of beads. The surfaces of the fibers exhibited greater hydrophobicity, compared to the films, with contact angles of around 120° and 94°, respectively. PMMA films containing ZnO exhibited higher thermal stability than the pure polymer, while the corresponding fibers did not show any changes in thermal stability. The dispersion of the ZnO NPs at the surface and in the bulk of the nanocomposites appeared to be relatively homogeneous. ZnO improved the optical properties of the PMMA, with an intense absorption band near 370 nm observed for all the nanocomposites, which also exhibited luminescence with emission in the near-UV region, both attributed to ZnO. Biological tests demonstrated that fibers and films with up to 1% of ZnO exhibited good performance in the proliferation of fibroblast cells, indicating their potential for applications in tissue engineering. The fibers provided higher cell viability than the films, presumably due to their greater surface area and/or more suitable surface morphology. Nanocomposites with 15% ZnO inhibited cell proliferation, due to the cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs. Although several applications of PMMA have been suggested by biomedical researchers, until now there have been no reports on the specific

  5. Report of the 1st RCM on ''Nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications''. Working document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions and radiation techniques are uniquely suited for such a task, due to their favorable characteristics, and in most cases, not possible by other methods of synthesis. Accordingly, many of the developing and developed Member States have an interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. The proposal for this CRP was formulated based on the requests and information received from the member states and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant’s meeting on “Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes”, held on 10-14 December 2007, in Vienna. Based on these conclusions, this CRP aims to support MS to develop methodologies for the use of radiation in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of nanomaterials - nanogels, nanoparticles, nanovehicles, nanoporous membranes, and surfaces with enhanced biocompatibility for potential biomedical applications, such as cell-sheet engineering and artificial tissue construction; diagnostics and imaging; and drug delivery. Additionally, this CRP facilitates networking between radiation technologists and biomedical scientists for the development of such applications. The CRP generated a huge interest, but due to funding constrains, many good proposals had to be rejected. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 30 March - 03 April 2009. It was attended by 14 representatives and two observers. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities

  6. Report of the 1st RCM on ''Nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications''. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions and radiation techniques are uniquely suited for such a task, due to their favorable characteristics, and in most cases, not possible by other methods of synthesis. Accordingly, many of the developing and developed Member States have an interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. The proposal for this CRP was formulated based on the requests and information received from the member states and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant’s meeting on “Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes”, held on 10-14 December 2007, in Vienna. Based on these conclusions, this CRP aims to support MS to develop methodologies for the use of radiation in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of nanomaterials - nanogels, nanoparticles, nanovehicles, nanoporous membranes, and surfaces with enhanced biocompatibility for potential biomedical applications, such as cell-sheet engineering and artificial tissue construction; diagnostics and imaging; and drug delivery. Additionally, this CRP facilitates networking between radiation technologists and biomedical scientists for the development of such applications. The CRP generated a huge interest, but due to funding constrains, many good proposals had to be rejected. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 30 March - 03 April 2009. It was attended by 14 representatives and two observers. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities

  7. Discrepant feeling rules and unscripted emotion work: women coping with termination for fetal anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2009-10-01

    The sociology of emotion is rapidly evolving and has implications for medical settings. Advancing medical technologies create new contexts for decision-making and emotional reaction that are framed by "feeling rules." Feeling rules guide not only behavior, but also how one believes one should feel, thereby causing one to attempt to bring one's authentic feelings into line with perceived feeling rules. Using qualitative data, the theoretical existence of feeling rules in pregnancy and prenatal testing is confirmed. Further examination extends this analysis: at times of technological development feeling rules are often discrepant, leaving patients with unscripted emotion work. Data from a study of women who interrupted anomalous pregnancies indicate that feeling rules are unclear when competing feeling rules are operating during times of societal and technological change. Because much of this occurs below the level of consciousness, medical and psychological services providers need to be aware of potential discrepancies in feeling rules and assist patients in identifying the salient feeling rules. Patients' struggles ease when they can recognize the discrepancies and assess their implications for decision-making and emotional response. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α: A Potential Factor for the Enhancement of Osseointegration between Dental Implants and Tissue-Engineered Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duohong Zou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tissue-engineered bones are widely utilized to protect healthy tissue, reduce pain, and increase the success rate of dental implants. one of the most challenging obstacles lies in obtaining effective os-seointegration between dental implants and tissue-engineered structures. Deficiencies in vascularization, osteogenic factors, oxygen, and other nutrients inside the tissue-engineered bone during the early stages following implantation all inhibit effective osseointe-gration. Oxygen is required for aerobic metabolism in bone and blood vessel tissues, but oxygen levels inside tissue-engineered bone are not suf-ficient for cell proliferation. HIF-1α is a pivotal regulator of hypoxic and ischemic vascular responses, driving transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in vascular reactivity, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and osteogenesis.The hypothesis: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α seems a potential factor for the enhancement of osseointegration between dental implants and tissue-engineered bone.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of HIF-1α protein expression is recognized as the most promising approach for angiogenesis, because it can induce multiple angiogenic targets in a coordinated manner. Therefore, it will be a novel potential therapeutic methods targeting HIF-1α expression to enhance osseointegration be-tween dental implants and tissue-engineered bone.

  9. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The environmental context of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its potential role as an ecosystem engineer in sulphidic mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenaa, Gustav

    2001-06-01

    Microorganisms are the causative agent of the environmental problems since they catalyse the weathering of the (sulphidic) waste. The chemical oxidation alone is not fast enough to create any severe environmental problems. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is thought to be a key organism in weathering of sulphide minerals. A. ferrooxidans is affected by several more or less abiotic factors. The influence of temperature, pH and nutrient deficiency as potentially limiting factors for the activity of A. ferrooxidans has been investigated. It seems that temperature has less influence on its activity, but rather reflects the origin of the bacterial isolate. An alkaline pH seems enough to hinder growth and activity. The nutrients do not seem to be a limiting factor in the studied environment. The possible regulation of the activity of A. ferrooxidans is therefore a way to, at least partly, mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. Waste from the mining industry is the largest waste problem in Sweden. With amounts over 600 million tonnes one could easily imagine the tremendous cost involved in the abatement. The MiMi-programme, with researchers from several relevant fields, has as its aim to evaluate present and to find alternative techniques to mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. The understanding of A. ferrooxidans and its role as an ecosystem engineer is essential both in evaluating present techniques and even more so in finding alternative abatement techniques for sulphidic mine waste.

  11. Investigating the Potential Barrier Function of Nanostructured Materials Formed in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) Designed for Nuclear Waste Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Ruiz, Ana Isabel; Fernández, Raúl

    2018-02-21

    Clay and cement are known nano-colloids originating from natural processes or traditional materials technology. Currently, they are used together as part of the engineered barrier system (EBS) to isolate high-level nuclear waste (HLW) metallic containers in deep geological repositories (DGR). The EBS should prevent radionuclide (RN) migration into the biosphere until the canisters fail, which is not expected for approximately 10 3  years. The interactions of cementitious materials with bentonite swelling clay have been the scope of our research team at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) with participation in several European Union (EU) projects from 1998 up to now. Here, we describe the mineral and chemical nature and microstructure of the alteration rim generated by the contact between concrete and bentonite. Its ability to buffer the surrounding chemical environment may have potential for further protection against RN migration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Processing and characterization of diatom nanoparticles and microparticles as potential source of silicon for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Thi Duy Hanh [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); BIOtech Research Center and European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Trento (Italy); Bonani, Walter [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); BIOtech Research Center and European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Trento (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for Science and Technology of Materials, Trento Research Unit, Trento (Italy); Speranza, Giorgio [Center for Materials and Microsystems, PAM-SE, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento (Italy); Sglavo, Vincenzo; Ceccato, Riccardo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); BIOtech Research Center and European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Trento (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for Science and Technology of Materials, Trento Research Unit, Trento (Italy); Migliaresi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.migliaresi@unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); BIOtech Research Center and European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Trento (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for Science and Technology of Materials, Trento Research Unit, Trento (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    Silicon plays an important role in bone formation and maintenance, improving osteoblast cell function and inducing mineralization. Often, bone deformation and long bone abnormalities have been associated with silica/silicon deficiency. Diatomite, a natural deposit of diatom skeleton, is a cheap and abundant source of biogenic silica. The aim of the present study is to validate the potential of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons as silicon-donor materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Raw diatomite (RD) and calcined diatomite (CD) powders were purified by acid treatments, and diatom microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by fragmentation of purified diatoms under alkaline conditions. The influence of processing on the surface chemical composition of purified diatomites was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diatoms NPs were also characterized in terms of morphology and size distribution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS), while diatom MPs morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface area and microporosity of the diatom particles were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption methods. Release of silicon ions from diatom-derived particles was demonstrated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES); furthermore, silicon release kinetic was found to be influenced by diatomite purification method and particle size. Diatom-derived microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) showed limited or no cytotoxic effect in vitro depending on the administration conditions. - Highlights: • Diatomite is a natural source of silica and has a potential as silicon-donor for bone regenerative applications. • Diatom particles derived from purified diatom skeletons were prepared by fragmentation under extreme alkaline condition. • Dissolution of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons in DI water depend on purification method

  13. Discrepancies between perceptions of real and ideal yoga teachers and their relationship to emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Riley, Kristen E; Besedin, Elena Y; Stewart, V Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Although more individuals are adopting yoga into their lives, little research has examined practitioners' expectations and experiences of their yoga instructor's behavior. Discrepancies between real and ideal behaviors of yoga instructors may lead to unsatisfactory experiences and decrease the potential impact of yoga practice. This study investigated differences between yoga practitioners' real and ideal perceptions of their yoga teacher's behavior and the relationship between discrepant beliefs and students' symptoms of depression, anxiety,and stress. The Perceptions of Yoga Teacher Questionnaire (PYTQ), a recently developed survey of student attitudes regarding yoga teachers' behavior, was administered ina national online survey of yoga students and teachers. Greater discrepancy between real and idea yoga teacher behavior was anticipated to be positively associated with practitioners' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Pearson correlations corrected for multiple comparisons revealed that yoga students and teachers are generally satisfied with their teacher's behaviors. Significant discrepancies between real and ideal teacher behavior were found for both groups. Higher discrepancy scores were associated with symptoms of stress and anxiety but not depression for students, but not for teachers. These preliminary findings provide insight into the relationship between expectancies and real yoga teacher behaviors and their links to student emotional adjustment.More research in this area is warranted.

  14. Post-prior discrepancies in the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation for ion-helium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2003-09-28

    We have explored post-prior discrepancies within continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory for ion-atom ionization. Although there are no post-prior discrepancies when electron-target initial and final states are exact solutions of the respective Hamiltonians, discrepancies do arise for multielectronic targets, when a hydrogenic continuum with effective charge is used for the final electron-residual target wavefunction. We have found that the prior version calculations give better results than the post version, particularly for highly charged projectiles. We have explored the reasons for this behaviour and found that the prior version shows less sensitivity to the choice of the final state. The fact that the perturbation potentials operate upon the initial state suggests that the selection of the initial bound state is relatively more important than the final continuum state for the prior version.

  15. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  16. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  17. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted.

  18. Fabrication, characterization, and biocompatibility assessment of a novel elastomeric nanofibrous scaffold: A potential scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamirzaei Jeshvaghani, Elham; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Mansurnezhad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    With regard to flexibility and strength properties requirements of soft biological tissue, elastomeric materials could be more beneficial in soft tissue engineering applications. The present work investigates the use of an elastic polymer, (polycaprolactone fumarate [PCLF]), for fabricating...... experiments and its application for engineering of soft tissues subjected to in vivo cyclic mechanical stresses....

  19. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy B. Turer MD, MHS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35% and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%. In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03. Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care.

  20. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  1. Salary discrepancies between practicing male and female physician assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Bettie; Essary, Alison C; Virden, Thomas B; Cawley, James; Stoehr, James D

    2012-01-01

    Salary discrepancies between male and female physicians are well documented; however, gender-based salary differences among clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) have not been studied since 1992 (Willis, 1992). Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to evaluate the presence of salary discrepancies between clinically practicing male and female PAs and to analyze the effect of gender on income and practice characteristics. Using data from the 2009 American Academy of Physician Assistants' (AAPA) Annual Census Survey, we evaluated the salaries of PAs across multiple specialties. Differences between men and women were compared for practice characteristics (specialty, experience, etc) and salary (total pay, base pay, on-call pay, etc) in orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and family practice. Men reported working more years as a PA in their current specialty, working more hours per month on-call, providing more direct care to patients, and more funding available from their employers for professional development (p pay, overtime pay, administrative pay, on-call pay, and incentive pay based on productivity and performance (p pay (p = .001) in orthopedic surgery, higher total income (p = .011) and base pay (p = .005) in emergency medicine, and higher base pay in family practice (p discrepancies remain between employed male and female PAs regardless of specialty, experience, or other practice characteristics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A tailored biocatalyst achieved by the rational anchoring of imidazole groups on a natural polymer: furnishing a potential artificial nuclease by sustainable materials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José G L; Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Oliveira, Marco A S; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Orth, Elisa S

    2015-04-11

    Foreseeing the development of artificial enzymes by sustainable materials engineering, we rationally anchored reactive imidazole groups on gum arabic, a natural biocompatible polymer. The tailored biocatalyst GAIMZ demonstrated catalytic activity (>10(5)-fold) in dephosphorylation reactions with recyclable features and was effective in cleaving plasmid DNA, comprising a potential artificial nuclease.

  3. A review of selected pumping systems in nature and engineering--potential biomimetic concepts for improving displacement pumps and pulsation damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Schmich, F; Masselter, T; Speck, T

    2015-09-03

    The active transport of fluids by pumps plays an essential role in engineering and biology. Due to increasing energy costs and environmental issues, topics like noise reduction, increase of efficiency and enhanced robustness are of high importance in the development of pumps in engineering. The study compares pumps in biology and engineering and assesses biomimetic potentials for improving man-made pumping systems. To this aim, examples of common challenges, applications and current biomimetic research for state-of-the art pumps are presented. The biomimetic research is helped by the similar configuration of many positive displacement pumping systems in biology and engineering. In contrast, the configuration and underlying pumping principles for fluid dynamic pumps (FDPs) differ to a greater extent in biology and engineering. However, progress has been made for positive displacement as well as for FDPs by developing biomimetic devices with artificial muscles and cilia that improve energetic efficiency and fail-safe operation or reduce noise. The circulatory system of vertebrates holds a high biomimetic potential for the damping of pressure pulsations, a common challenge in engineering. Damping of blood pressure pulsation results from a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the artery walls which represent a complex composite material. The transfer of the underlying functional principle could lead to an improvement of existing technical solutions and be used to develop novel biomimetic damping solutions. To enhance efficiency or thrust of man-made fluid transportation systems, research on jet propulsion in biology has shown that a pulsed jet can be tuned to either maximize thrust or efficiency. The underlying principle has already been transferred into biomimetic applications in open channel water systems. Overall there is a high potential to learn from nature in order to improve pumping systems for challenges like the reduction of pressure pulsations, increase of jet

  4. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  5. Co-electrospun blends of PU and PEG as potential biocompatible scaffolds for small-diameter vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Heyun; Feng, Yakai; Fang, Zichen; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir

    2012-01-01

    adhesion. ► The hybrid scaffolds could support HUVECs attachment and proliferation. ► The hybrid scaffold was potential candidates for tissue engineering blood vessel.

  6. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  8. Masculine Discrepancy Stress and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Implications for Behavioral and Mental Health of Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Malone, Carolyn A; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2017-01-01

    Gender role discrepancy (GRD), or nonconformity to socially prescribed gender roles, has been linked to a multitude of adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Masculine discrepancy stress (MDS), stress about being perceived not to conform to one's gender role, may explain the relationship between GRD and deleterious health outcomes. However, research on MDS has primarily been restricted to adult males. This leaves a critical gap pertaining to the potential effect of MDS on adolescent boys, who may be more malleable and susceptible to the influence and pressures of gender socialization. In the current study, data are drawn from a sample of adolescent male students ( N = 592) who completed self-report questionnaires. We employed structural equation modeling to test the effects of GRD and MDS on psychosocial maladjustment measured via sexual behavior, substance use, violence, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. In addition, we controlled for critical risk factors including sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, trauma symptoms, and neighborhood disorganization. Findings indicate significant potentiating effects of MDS on maladjustment while there were direct protective effects of GRD. These data suggest that developing prevention strategies that incorporate social norms pertaining to gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.

  9. A Clinical Decision Support Engine Based on a National Medication Repository for the Detection of Potential Duplicate Medications: Design and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yi; Lo, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Ray-Jade; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2018-01-19

    A computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system combined with a clinical decision support system can reduce duplication of medications and thus adverse drug reactions. However, without infrastructure that supports patients' integrated medication history across health care facilities nationwide, duplication of medication can still occur. In Taiwan, the National Health Insurance Administration has implemented a national medication repository and Web-based query system known as the PharmaCloud, which allows physicians to access their patients' medication records prescribed by different health care facilities across Taiwan. This study aimed to develop a scalable, flexible, and thematic design-based clinical decision support (CDS) engine, which integrates a national medication repository to support CPOE systems in the detection of potential duplication of medication across health care facilities, as well as to analyze its impact on clinical encounters. A CDS engine was developed that can download patients' up-to-date medication history from the PharmaCloud and support a CPOE system in the detection of potential duplicate medications. When prescribing a medication order using the CPOE system, a physician receives an alert if there is a potential duplicate medication. To investigate the impact of the CDS engine on clinical encounters in outpatient services, a clinical encounter log was created to collect information about time, prescribed drugs, and physicians' responses to handling the alerts for each encounter. The CDS engine was installed in a teaching affiliate hospital, and the clinical encounter log collected information for 3 months, during which a total of 178,300 prescriptions were prescribed in the outpatient departments. In all, 43,844/178,300 (24.59%) patients signed the PharmaCloud consent form allowing their physicians to access their medication history in the PharmaCloud. The rate of duplicate medication was 5.83% (1843/31,614) of prescriptions. When

  10. ON range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_u t_q=\\Omega(\\mbox{disc}^2......)$, where $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ is the worst case query time, and disc is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching...... problems. We list a few of them in the following: (1) For $d$-dimensional halfspace range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q=\\Omega(n^{1-1/d})$. This comes within an lg lg $n$ factor of the best known upper bound. (2) For orthogonal range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t...

  11. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  12. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  13. The attitude-behavior discrepancy in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

    2014-12-01

    In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

  14. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  15. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on immediate and delayed memory. Compared kindergarten and second-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures. Results suggested significantly better recall of highly discrepant…

  16. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-II. Analysis of the discrepancy of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various theoretical explanation for the recently observed experimental-theoretical discrepancy in the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift are explored. → These include a dip in the proton form factor slope, nonperturbative vacuum polarization and millicharged virtual particles, as well as process-dependent screening corrections. → Screening corrections may need to be explored further. → The need for an alternative determination of the Rydberg constant is highlighted. - Abstract: Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both 'muonic' discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predictions for electronic hydrogen, where theory and experiment currently are in excellent agreement. A process-dependent correction involving electron screening is evaluated to have the right sign and order-of-magnitude to explain the observed effect in muonic hydrogen. Additional experimental evidence from light muonic atoms and ions is needed in order to reach further clarification.

  17. Extensive characterization and comparison of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue : Potential use in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsuur, H.N.; Weijers, E.M.; Niessen, F.B.; Gefen, A.; Koolwijk, P.; Gibbs, S.; van den Broek, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells

  18. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G.; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP"E"S"R) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP"E"S"R results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm"−"1 and 1600 cm"−"1 indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of PM emission

  19. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  20. Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Fabio; De Bellis, Vincenzo; Teodosio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D simulation of a turbocharged VVA engine under knock limited operation. • Description of turbulence, combustion and knock by phenomenological models. • Comparison of EGR and ported water injection at high load for knock mitigation and fuel economy. • Virtual calibration of engine control parameters by a 1D model. - Abstract: It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition (SI) engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high load because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while the TIT control requires the enrichment of the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, two promising techniques are investigated by a 1D approach with the aim of improving the fuel economy of a turbocharged SI engine at full load knock-limited operation. The first technique is the recirculation of low-pressure cooled exhaust gas (EGR), while the second is the injection of liquid water at the intake ports. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the turbulence, combustion and knock phenomena. The effects of the above techniques are studied in six operating points at full load and different speeds for various A/F levels and inert content, by varying the EGR rate and water-to-fuel ratio. The presented results highlight that both the solutions involve significant BSFC improvements, especially in the operating conditions at medium engine speeds. In fact, the introduction of inert gas in the cylinder contributes to reduce the knock tendency, resulting in the possibility to advance the combustion phasing and reduce, or even avoid, the mixture over-fuelling. The heat subtracted by the water evaporation enhances the above effects

  1. Topical opinion paper - Apparent Discrepancies Between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John; Smith, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The differences between nuclear and conventional seismic standards are considered and their potential significance discussed. The approach to the design of nuclear facilities is appropriately both more rigorous and conservative than that required by conventional seismic standards and codes. For nuclear seismic design the requirements can be presented as assessment principles, e.g., NII SAPs or a safety guide e.g. IAEA; Seismic Design and Qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. The adoption of novel methods or designs are required to be supported by appropriate research and development with the ability to cite a precedent within the industry being a powerful endorsement. The method adopted must reliably predict the seismic response of the item to be qualified, including the seismic response of attached or supported Structures, Systems and Components. (SSC's) The traditional method adopted for seismic qualification by analysis has been based on linear elastic analyses. This is justified on the basis that the response is reliably predicted and realistic, provided that the elements remain elastic. In contrast the benefit of ductile behaviour of conventional structures within the design envelope has long been recognised and used as the basis to justify significant reductions in the seismic demand. Provided the acceptance criteria are met, the SAPs do not preclude and the IAEA safety guide specifically permits non linear behaviour within the design envelope for category 1 items. Both the current nuclear practice and the current conventional seismic standards can be classified as 'force based'. The displacement based approach, also referred to as performance based engineering (PBE), has been developed as a powerful tool in the evaluation and seismic retrofit of existing structures. This approach could be equally valid to the design of new structures and can be used to represent elastic or non linear behaviour although the full benefit will only be realised in the latter

  2. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  3. Potential for using a tyre pyrolysis oil-biodiesel blend in a diesel engine at different compression ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Murugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of operating a compression ignition engine with a non petroleum diesel fuel. • A possible solution to replace certain amount of biodiesel by tyre pyrolysis oil in a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. • The optimum compression ratio for engine fueled with biodiesel-tyre pyrolysis oil blend. - Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating effects of varying the compression ratio at optimum injection timing and nozzle opening pressure on the behaviour of a diesel engine, using a non-petroleum fuel, i.e. a blend of 80% biodiesel, and 20% oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres. The engine was subjected to one lower (16.5) and one higher (18.5) compression ratio in addition to the standard compression ratio of 17.5. At the higher compression ratio of 18.5 and full load, shorter ignition delay, maximum cylinder pressure and higher heat release rate were found for the blend, compared to those of the original compression ratio. The increase in the compression ratio from 17.5 to 18.5 for the blend improved the brake thermal efficiency by about 8% compared to that of the original compression ratio at full load. The experimental results indicated that for the blend at a higher compression ratio of 18.5, the brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbon emission (BSHC) and smoke opacity were reduced by about 10.5%, 32%, and 17.4% respectively, than those of the original compression ratio at full load

  4. Management of bimaxillary transverse discrepancy with vertical excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy reported with a complaint of severe irregularity of lower teeth and forwardly placed upper teeth. History revealed snoring as an occasional complaint. The case was diagnosed as mild class II skeletally with increased lower anterior face height, bimaxillary transverse discrepancy leading to severe crowding in the lower arch, V-shaped upper arch with increased overjet and deep bite. Three phase treatment was planned. In the first phase, bimaxillary expansion with mid-symphyseal distraction osteogenesis and rapid maxillary expansion was carried out. After this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring vanished. The second phase was 1 year of orthodontics to produce symmetric well-aligned arches in good function and aesthetics. Third, the treatment concluded with reduction-advancement genioplasty for correction of vertical excess and surgical camouflage.

  5. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess.

  6. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  7. Linking Cognition to Cognitive Dissonance through Scientific Discrepant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Rauch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.

  8. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-09-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, we do not know the parameters of each level but only the average parameters. Therefore we simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the X 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, we will survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors. 8 refs

  9. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-01-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, the parameters of each level are not known; only the average parameters. Therefore the authors simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the x 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, the authors survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors

  10. Phase change in uranium: Discrepancy between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akella, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) phase transformation and room temperature Equation of State (EOS) for some actinides and lanthanides were studied to multimegabar (megabar = 100 GPa) pressures. Experimental data are compared with the theoretically predicted crystal structural changes and the pressure-volume relationships. There is a general agreement between theory and experiment for the structural changes in the lighter actinides, however in detail there are some discrepancies still. A generalized trend for the phase transformations in the lanthanides can be seen, which again has broad agreement with theory. We conclude that an accurate and robust theoretical base for predicting the phase transformations in the f-electron metals can be developed by incorporating the DAC data

  11. [Conservative treatment of upper anterior dental discrepancy during orthodontic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; Verzì, P; Pappalardo, S

    1999-06-01

    The orthodontic therapeutic sequence used in cases with dento-dental discrepancy for reduced mesiodistal size and congenital absent lateral upper incisors, is described. The importance of correct conoid tooth replacement in the programmed space between the other teeth and its restorative treatment in order to obtain the best biomechanical control is stressed. The contemporaneous presence of the form and volume anomaly of the 12th and the missing 22nd due to agenesia demanded an interdisciplinary approach. For the restoration of the conoid tooth the authors used a microhybrid composite for the alloy properties with the grain size of the inorganic particles. In fact this type of composite responds well to mechanical stress and has a high shining capacity and good aesthetical rendering. Meanwhile the temporary dental prothesis solution of the 22nd in this case has suggested the application of the artificial element on the superior Hawley holding plaque.

  12. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  13. Application of bioethanol/RME/diesel blend in a Euro5 automotive diesel engine: Potentiality of closed loop combustion control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, Chiara; Beatrice, Carlo; Napolitano, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of a bioethanol/biodiesel/diesel blend on Euro5 diesel engine. ► Potentiality of combustion control technology with alternative fuels. ► Strong smoke and NOx emissions reduction. ► No power penalties burning bioethanol blend by means of combustion control activation. -- Abstract: The latest European regulations require the use of biofuels by at least 10% as energy source in transport by 2020. This goal could be reached by means of the use of different renewable fuels; bioethanol (BE) is one of the most interesting for its low production cost and availability. BE usually replaces gasoline in petrol engines but it can be also blended in low concentrations to feed diesel engines. In this paper the results of an experimental activity aimed to study the impact of a BE/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions in a last generation automotive diesel engine are presented. The tests were performed in steady-state in eight partial load engine conditions and at 2500 rpm in full load. Two fuel blends have been compared: the Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)/diesel with 10% of biodiesel by volume (B10), and the BE/RME/diesel with 20% of BE and 10% of biodiesel by volume (E20B10). The experimental campaign was carried out on a 2.0 L diesel engine compliant with Euro5 regulation. The engine features the closed loop combustion control (CLCC), which enables individual and real-time control of injection phasing and cylinder inner torque by means of in-cylinder pressure sensors connected with the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As expected, the results showed a strong smoke emissions reduction for E20B10 in all tested conditions, mainly due to the high oxygen content of BE. Also a reduction of NOx emissions were observed with BE addiction. The results confirm that the CLCC adoption enables a significant improvement in the robustness of the engine performance and emissions when blends with low heat content and very low cetane number (as BE

  14. Engineered carbon (biochar) prepared by direct pyrolysis of Mg-accumulated tomato tissues: characterization and phosphate removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Ming; Inyang, Mandu; Li, Yuncong; Alva, Ashok; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-06-01

    An innovative method was developed to produce engineered biochar from magnesium (Mg) enriched tomato tissues through slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment. Tomato plants treated with 25mM Mg accumulated much higher level of Mg in tissue, indicating Mg can be substantially enriched in tomato plants, and pyrolysis process further concentrated Mg in the engineered biochar (8.8% Mg). The resulting Mg-biochar composites (MgEC) showed better sorption ability to phosphate (P) in aqueous solutions compared to the other four tomato leaves biochars. Statistical analysis showed a strong and significant correlation between P removal rate and biochar Mg content (R(2)=0.78, and p<0.001), indicating the enriched Mg in the engineered biochar is the main factor controlling its P removal ability. SEM-EDX, XRD and XPS analyses showed that nanoscale Mg(OH)2 and MgO particles were presented on the surface of MgEC, which serve as the main adsorption sites for aqueous P. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Creating a knowledge-based economy in the United Arab Emirates: realising the unfulfilled potential of women in the science, technology and engineering fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal Aswad, Noor; Vidican, Georgeta; Samulewicz, Diana

    2011-12-01

    As the United Arab Emirates (UAE) moves towards a knowledge-based economy, maximising the participation of the national workforce, especially women, in the transformation process is crucial. Using survey methods and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their degree programme and their attitudes towards science, technology and engineering (STE). The findings point to the importance of adapting mainstream policies to the local context and the need to better understand the effect of culture and society on the individual and the economy. There is a need to increase interest in STE by raising awareness of what the fields entail, potential careers and their suitability with existing cultural beliefs. Also suggested is the need to overcome negative stereotypes of engineering, implement initiatives for further family involvement at the higher education level, as well as the need to ensure a greater availability of STE university programmes across the UAE.

  16. A conceptual framework for the design and analysis of first-person shooter audio and its potential use for game engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Schott, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and describe a new conceptual framework for the design and analysis of audio for immersive first-person shooter games, and discuss its potential implications for the development of the audio component of game engines. The framework was created in order to illustrate and acknowledge...... the direct role of in-game audio in shaping player-player interactions and in creating a sense of immersion in the game world. Furthermore, it is argued that the relationship between player and sound is best conceptualized theoretically as an acoustic ecology. Current game engines are capable of game world...... spatiality through acoustic shading, but the ideas presented here provide a framework to explore other immersive possibilities for game audio through realtime synthesis....

  17. The potential of 3-dimensional construct engineered from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/fibrin hybrid scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for in vitro cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Rozlin; Mohamad Sukri, Norhamiza; Md Nazir, Noorhidayah; Ahmad Radzi, Muhammad Aa'zamuddin; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Che Ahmad, Aminudin; Hashi, Abdurezak Abdulahi; Abdul Rahman, Suzanah; Sha'ban, Munirah

    2015-08-01

    Articular cartilage is well known for its simple uniqueness of avascular and aneural structure that has limited capacity to heal itself when injured. The use of three dimensional construct in tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating cartilage defects. This study evaluated the in vitro cartilaginous tissue formation using rabbit's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-seeded onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA/fibrin and PLGA scaffolds. The in vitro cartilaginous engineered constructs were evaluated by gross inspection, histology, cell proliferation, gene expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production at week 1, 2 and 3. After 3 weeks of culture, the PLGA/fibrin construct demonstrated gross features similar to the native tissue with smooth, firm and glistening appearance, superior histoarchitectural and better cartilaginous extracellular matrix compound in concert with the positive glycosaminoglycan accumulation on Alcian blue. Significantly higher cell proliferation in PLGA/fibrin construct was noted at day-7, day-14 and day-21 (ptissue engineered cartilage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring Urban Heat Island Through Google Earth Engine: Potentialities and Difficulties in Different Cities of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Cirigliano, R. V.; Di Rico, C.; Monti, P.; Crespi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to exploit the large-scale analysis capabilities of the innovative Google Earth Engine platform in order to investigate the temporal variations of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon as a whole. A intuitive methodology implementing a largescale correlation analysis between the Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover alterations was thus developed.The results obtained for the Phoenix MA are promising and show how the urbanization heavily affects the magnitude of the UHI effects with significant increases in LST. The proposed methodology is therefore able to efficiently monitor the UHI phenomenon.

  19. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Rashid; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Shaari, Amiruddin; Afaq, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA

  20. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Hydrology of the solid waste burial ground as related to potential migration of radionuclides, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Jack T.; Robertson, J.B.; Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made (1970-1974) to evaluate the geohydrologic and geochemical controls on subsurface migration of radionuclides from pits and trenches in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) solid waste burial ground and to determine the existence and extent of radionuclide migration from the burial ground. A total of about 1,700 sediment, rock, and water samples were collected from 10 observation wells drilled in and near the burial ground of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS). Within the burial ground area, the subsurface rocks are composed principally of basalt. Wind- and water-deposited sediments occur at the surface and in beds between the thicker basalt zones. Two principal sediment beds occur at about 110 feet and 240 feet below the land surface. The average thickness of the surficial sedimentary layer is about 15 feet while that of the two principal subsurface layers is 13 and 14 feet, respectively. The water table in the aquifer beneath the burial ground is at a depth of about 580 feet. Fission, activation, and transuranic elements were detected in some of the samples from the 110- and 240-foot sedimentary layers. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Lin; Luo Dongmei; Xu Songmei; Wang Xiaoliang; Li Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 μm, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  5. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  6. Carcinogenic potential of noxious emissions of diesel engines; Potencial cancerigeno de emisiones nocivas en motores a diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Lopez, Alejandro F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The carcinogenic effects of the solid particles of carbonaceous nature, generated during the combustion process in the diesel engines, has been a concern of public and private entities in the developed countries, specially during the two last decades. This paper includes a short revision of the recent and preceding publications, found in the technical bibliography. The engine manufacturing enterprises have carried out spectacular changes in the internal design of the diesel engines, to diminish as much as possible, the solid particle generation inside the engine itself. The effort can not come from one part only, also the fuel producing enterprises in developed countries have carried out substantial efforts to improve the fuels as well as the lubricants. The goal of this measures is to practically eliminate the sulfur content, specially in the fuel, since the formation of solid particles linearly depends, among other factors, of this noxious element content in the diesel fuel. Finally, a short discussion is included of some exhaust gases post-treatment systems, that seems to be unavoidable in order to attain the strict standards that for year 1994 and the following years have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA. The Mexican legislation is also analyzed through the Normas Tecnicas Ecologicas (NTE) (Ecological Technical Standards), emitted by the Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), now Secretaria de Desarrolo Economico y Social (SEDESOL), simply to have a comparison reference with the international legislation. [Espanol] Los efectos cancerigenos de las particulas solidas de caracter carbonaceo, generadas durante el proceso de combustion de los motores diesel, ha sido preocupacion de organismos publicos y privados en los paises desarrollados, en especial durante las ultimas dos decadas. El trabajo incluye una revision breve de publicaciones recientes y anteriores, que se encuentran en la literatura tecnica. Las

  7. Examining the need & potential for biomedical engineering to strengthen health care delivery for displaced populations & victims of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Devika; Elhajj, Imad; Dawy, Zaher; Ghattas, Hala; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2017-01-01

    Conflict and the subsequent displacement of populations creates unique challenges in the delivery of quality health care to the affected population. Equitable access to quality care demands a multi-pronged strategy with a growing need, and role, for technological innovation to address these challenges. While there have been significant contributions towards alleviating the burden of conflict via data informatics and analytics, communication technology, and geographic information systems, little has been done within biomedical engineering. This article elaborates on the causes for gaps in biomedical innovation for refugee populations affected by conflict, tackles preconceived notions, takes stock of recent developments in promising technologies to address these challenges, and identifies tangible action items to create a stronger and sustainable pipeline for biomedical technological innovation to improve the health and well-being of an increasing group of vulnerable people around the world.

  8. Carcinogenic potential of noxious emissions of diesel engines; Potencial cancerigeno de emisiones nocivas en motores a diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Lopez, Alejandro F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The carcinogenic effects of the solid particles of carbonaceous nature, generated during the combustion process in the diesel engines, has been a concern of public and private entities in the developed countries, specially during the two last decades. This paper includes a short revision of the recent and preceding publications, found in the technical bibliography. The engine manufacturing enterprises have carried out spectacular changes in the internal design of the diesel engines, to diminish as much as possible, the solid particle generation inside the engine itself. The effort can not come from one part only, also the fuel producing enterprises in developed countries have carried out substantial efforts to improve the fuels as well as the lubricants. The goal of this measures is to practically eliminate the sulfur content, specially in the fuel, since the formation of solid particles linearly depends, among other factors, of this noxious element content in the diesel fuel. Finally, a short discussion is included of some exhaust gases post-treatment systems, that seems to be unavoidable in order to attain the strict standards that for year 1994 and the following years have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA. The Mexican legislation is also analyzed through the Normas Tecnicas Ecologicas (NTE) (Ecological Technical Standards), emitted by the Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), now Secretaria de Desarrolo Economico y Social (SEDESOL), simply to have a comparison reference with the international legislation. [Espanol] Los efectos cancerigenos de las particulas solidas de caracter carbonaceo, generadas durante el proceso de combustion de los motores diesel, ha sido preocupacion de organismos publicos y privados en los paises desarrollados, en especial durante las ultimas dos decadas. El trabajo incluye una revision breve de publicaciones recientes y anteriores, que se encuentran en la literatura tecnica. Las

  9. In vitro evaluation of biomimetic chitosan–calcium phosphate scaffolds with potential application in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, C E; Popa, M I; Sartoris, A; Unger, R E; Kirkpatrick, C J; Verestiuc, L

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the physicochemical properties and in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of chitosan–calcium phosphate (Cs–CP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, which were synthesized by a novel biomimetic co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the porous morphology of the scaffolds and the amorphous nature of the inorganic phase with different crystallite sizes and the formation of various forms of calcium phosphate. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the Young's modulus of the biomaterials is in the range of human trabecular bone. In vitro tests were performed on the biomaterials for up to 14 days to study the behavior of the osteoblast-like human cell line (MG63), primary human osteoblasts (HOS) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTS assay for cell metabolism and the detection of membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase-LDH release). An expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the cell supernatants was quantified by ELISA. Cell viability gave values close to untreated controls for MG63 and HOS, while in the case of HDMEC the viability after 2 weeks in the cell culture was between 80–90%. The cytotoxicity induced by the Cs–CP scaffolds on MG63, HOS and HDMEC in vitro was evaluated by the amount of LDH released, which is a sensitive and accurate marker for cellular toxicity. The increased levels of VEGF obtained in the osteoblast culture highlights its important role in the regulation of vascularization and bone remodeling. The biological responses of the Cs–CP scaffolds demonstrate a similar proliferation and differentiation characteristics of the cells comparable to the controls. These results reveal that biomimetic Cs–CP composite scaffolds are promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering; their in vivo response remains to be tested. (paper)

  10. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  12. Enabling area-selective potential-energy engineering in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by post-growth intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-03-19

    We report on a unique area-selective, post-growth approach in engineering the quantum-confined potential-energy profile of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) utilizing metal/dielectric-coating induced intermixing process. This led to simultaneous realization of adjacent regions with peak emission of 2.74 eV and 2.82 eV with a high spatial resolution (~1 μm) at the coating boundary. The potential profile softening in the intermixed QW light-emitting diode (LED) was experimentally and numerically correlated, shedding light on the origin of alleviated efficiency droop from 30.5% to 16.6% (at 150 A/cm2). The technique is advantageous for fabricating high efficiency light-emitters, and is amenable to monolithic integration of nitride-based photonic devices.

  13. Enabling area-selective potential-energy engineering in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by post-growth intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a unique area-selective, post-growth approach in engineering the quantum-confined potential-energy profile of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) utilizing metal/dielectric-coating induced intermixing process. This led to simultaneous realization of adjacent regions with peak emission of 2.74 eV and 2.82 eV with a high spatial resolution (~1 μm) at the coating boundary. The potential profile softening in the intermixed QW light-emitting diode (LED) was experimentally and numerically correlated, shedding light on the origin of alleviated efficiency droop from 30.5% to 16.6% (at 150 A/cm2). The technique is advantageous for fabricating high efficiency light-emitters, and is amenable to monolithic integration of nitride-based photonic devices.

  14. Report of the 2nd RCM on nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions for which, due to their characteristics, radiation techniques are uniquely suited. Accordingly, many of the IAEA Member States (MS) have interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. In seeking new knowledge to advance the field and tackle this specific problem, to collaborate to enhance the quality of the scientific research and improve their efficiency and effectiveness, MS had requested the support of the IAEA for such collaboration. Based on these requests, and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant's meeting on Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes, held on 10-14 December 2007, the present CRP was formulated and started in 2009. The first RCM was held in 30 March – 3 April 2009, in Vienna, where the work plan for both individual participants and collaborations were discussed and accepted, as reported in the Meeting Report published as IAEA Working Material (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/iachem/working{sub m}aterials.html). The second RCM was held on 15-19 November 2010, Paris, France, and was attended by 17 participants (chief scientific investigators or team members) and one cost-free observer from Brazil. The participants presented their research achievements since the first RCM, centred on the main expected outputs of this CRP: a. Methodologies to prepare and characterize nanogels; nanoparticles and nanoporous membranes, as well as to synthesize and modify nanoparticle surfaces by attaching organic ligands by radiation; b. Methodologies to radiation

  15. Report of the 2nd RCM on nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions for which, due to their characteristics, radiation techniques are uniquely suited. Accordingly, many of the IAEA Member States (MS) have interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. In seeking new knowledge to advance the field and tackle this specific problem, to collaborate to enhance the quality of the scientific research and improve their efficiency and effectiveness, MS had requested the support of the IAEA for such collaboration. Based on these requests, and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant's meeting on Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes, held on 10-14 December 2007, the present CRP was formulated and started in 2009. The first RCM was held in 30 March – 3 April 2009, in Vienna, where the work plan for both individual participants and collaborations were discussed and accepted, as reported in the Meeting Report published as IAEA Working Material (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/iachem/working_materials.html). The second RCM was held on 15-19 November 2010, Paris, France, and was attended by 17 participants (chief scientific investigators or team members) and one cost-free observer from Brazil. The participants presented their research achievements since the first RCM, centred on the main expected outputs of this CRP: a. Methodologies to prepare and characterize nanogels; nanoparticles and nanoporous membranes, as well as to synthesize and modify nanoparticle surfaces by attaching organic ligands by radiation; b. Methodologies to radiation synthesize

  16. Hydropower and Environmental Resource Assessment (HERA): a computational tool for the assessment of the hydropower potential of watersheds considering engineering and socio-environmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T. M.; Kelman, R.; Metello, M.; Ciarlini, A.; Granville, A. C.; Hespanhol, P.; Castro, T. L.; Gottin, V. M.; Pereira, M. V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The hydroelectric potential of a river is proportional to its head and water flows. Selecting the best development alternative for Greenfield projects watersheds is a difficult task, since it must balance demands for infrastructure, especially in the developing world where a large potential remains unexplored, with environmental conservation. Discussions usually diverge into antagonistic views, as in recent projects in the Amazon forest, for example. This motivates the construction of a computational tool that will support a more qualified debate regarding development/conservation options. HERA provides the optimal head division partition of a river considering technical, economic and environmental aspects. HERA has three main components: (i) pre-processing GIS of topographic and hydrologic data; (ii) automatic engineering and equipment design and budget estimation for candidate projects; (iii) translation of division-partition problem into a mathematical programming model. By integrating an automatic calculation with geoprocessing tools, cloud computation and optimization techniques, HERA makes it possible countless head partition division alternatives to be intrinsically compared - a great advantage with respect to traditional field surveys followed by engineering design methods. Based on optimization techniques, HERA determines which hydro plants should be built, including location, design, technical data (e.g. water head, reservoir area and volume, engineering design (dam, spillways, etc.) and costs). The results can be visualized in the HERA interface, exported to GIS software, Google Earth or CAD systems. HERA has a global scope of application since the main input data area a Digital Terrain Model and water inflows at gauging stations. The objective is to contribute to an increased rationality of decisions by presenting to the stakeholders a clear and quantitative view of the alternatives, their opportunities and threats.

  17. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we report investigations of structural and electronic properties of ZnO in wurtzite (WZ), rock salt (RS) and zinc-blende (ZB) phases. Calculations have been done with full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method developed within the frame work of Density Functional Theory (DFT). For structural properties investigations, Perdew and Wang proposed local density approximations (LDA) and Perdew et al. proposed generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA and GGA; however, in RS phase, energy gap is significantly overestimated compared to experimental measurements. The Zn-d band was found to be more narrower with mBJ potential than that of LDA and GGA. On the other hand, our evaluated crystal field splitting energy values overestimate the experimental values. © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

  18. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining NT3-overexpressing MSCs and PLGA microcarriers for brain tissue engineering: A potential tool for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Hanieh; Keshvari, Hamid; Fasehee, Hamidreza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Faghihi, Shahab

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that characterized by destruction of substantia nigrostriatal pathway due to the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Regardless of substantial efforts for treatment of PD in recent years, an effective therapeutic strategy is still missing. In a multidisciplinary approach, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are genetically engineered to overexpress neurotrophin-3 (nt-3 gene) that protect central nervous system tissues and stimulates neuronal-like differentiation of BMSCs. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcarriers are designed as an injectable scaffold and synthesized via double emulsion method. The surface of PLGA microcarriers are functionalized by collagen as a bioadhesive agent for improved cell attachment. The results demonstrate effective overexpression of NT-3. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in transfected BMSCs reveal that NT-3 promotes the intracellular signaling pathway of DA neuron differentiation. It is also shown that transfected BMSCs are successfully attached to the surface of microcarriers. The presence of dopamine in peripheral media of cell/microcarrier complex reveals that BMSCs are successfully differentiated into dopaminergic neuron. Our approach that sustains presence of growth factor can be suggested as a novel complementary therapeutic strategy for treatment of Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TRAC-PF1 analyses of potential pressurized-thermal-shock transients at a Combustion-Engineering PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.E.; Spriggs, G.D.; Smith, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Los Alamos is participating in a program to assess the risk of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) to a reactor vessel. Our role is to provide best-estimate thermal-hydraulic analyses of 12 postulated overcooling transients using TRAC-PF1. These transients are hypothetical and include multiple operator/equipment failures. Calvert Cliffs/Unit-1, a Combustion-Engineering plant, is the pressurized water reactor modeled for this study. The utility and the vendor supplied information for the comprehensive TRAC-PF1 model. Secondary and primary breaks from both hot-zero-power and full-power conditions were simulated for 7200 s (2 h). Low bulk temperatures and loop-flow stagnation while the system was at a high pressure were of particular interest for PTS analysis. Three transients produced primary temperatures below 405 K (270 0 F - the NRC screening criterion) with system repressurization. Six transients indicated flow stagnation would occur in one loop but not both. One transient showed flow stagnation might occur in both loops. Oak Ridge National Laboratory will do fracture-mechanics analysis using these TRAC-PF1 results and make the final determination of the risk of PTS

  1. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z X; Li, H F; Sun, Z Z; Zheng, W; Zheng, Y F

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of the Acquisition Process for Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Contracts and Its Potential Impact on Contractor Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heaps, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) contract's main purpose is to expedite contract award of civil engineer requirements through the issuance of individual delivery orders...

  3. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  4. The biological basis of treating jaw discrepancies: An interplay of mechanical forces and skeletal configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamesinis, Konstantinos; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2018-05-01

    Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances. Condylar cartilage and sutures exhibit a remarkable plasticity due to the mechano-responsiveness of the chondrocytes and the multipotent mesenchymal cells of the sutures. The tissues respond biologically and adapt to mechanical force application by a variety of signaling pathways and a final interplay between the proliferative activity and the differentiation status of the cells involved. These targeted therapeutic functional alterations within temporo-mandibular joint ultimately result in the enhancement or restriction of mandibular growth, while within the periodontal ligament lead to bone remodeling and change of its architectural structure. Depending on the form of the malrelation presented, the above treatment approaches, in conjunction or separately, lead to the total correction of jaw discrepancies and the achievement of facial harmony and function. Overall, the treatment of craniofacial and jaw anomalies can be seen as an interplay of mechanical forces and adaptations occurring within temporo-mandibular joint and alveolar bone. The aim of the present review is to present up-to-date knowledge on the mechano-biology behind jaw growth modification and alveolar bone remodeling. Furthermore, future molecular targeted therapeutic strategies are discussed aiming at the improvement of mechanically-driven chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control. - Highlights: ► Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA). ► Amino groups of HA-EDA allow the reaction with α-elastin and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE). ► Chemical scaffolds of HA-EDA-graft-α-elastin/EGDGE have been characterized. ► The presence of α-elastin affects porosity, swelling and enzymatic degradation of scaffolds. ► The presence of α-elastin improves attachment, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells

  7. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Pitarresi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.pitarresi@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Institute of Biophysics at Palermo, Italian National Research Council, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Fiorica, Calogero [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Biologia Cellulare, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze ed. 16, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Giammona, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); IBIM-CNR, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control. - Highlights: ► Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA). ► Amino groups of HA-EDA allow the reaction with α-elastin and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE). ► Chemical scaffolds of HA-EDA-graft-α-elastin/EGDGE have been characterized. ► The presence of α-elastin affects porosity, swelling and enzymatic degradation of scaffolds. ► The presence of α-elastin improves attachment, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.

  8. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, H.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Z.Z. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, W., E-mail: zhengwei@hrbeu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ca-P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting Ca-P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  9. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Z.X.; Li, H.F.; Sun, Z.Z.; Zheng, W.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: ► Ca–P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. ► Ca–P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. ► The Ca–P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. ► Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. ► The resulting Ca–P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  10. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Foerst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and

  11. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being.

  12. Discrepâncias na imagem corporal e na dieta de obesos Self-discrepancy in body image and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kanno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a discrepância entre a imagem real e a imagem ideal de indivíduos obesos e procurou relacionar possíveis alterações no comportamento alimentar na busca desse corpo ideal. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 25 sujeitos, sendo 76% do sexo feminino e idade média de 39,24 (desviopadrão=5,01 anos. Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: a Escala de Aparência Física, cuja análise fatorial extraiu um único fator "Aparência Física" com precisão de α=0,74 para mulheres e α=0,73 para homens e o Questionário de Prioridade Alimentar elaborado para agrupar itens nas categorias que compõem a Pirâmide Alimentar. Foram realizados testes t pareados para comparar diferenças entre as imagens real e ideal e para comparar os comportamentos alimentares real e ideal. RESULTADOS: Os resultados apresentaram diferenças entre as imagens ideal e real, sendo a primeira representada de forma mais positiva que a última. Com relação ao comportamento alimentar, os resultados demonstraram diminuição no consumo de carnes e café preto e aumento no consumo de frutas e vegetais para atingir o corpo ideal. Porém, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação ao consumo de cereais, laticínios, óleos e gorduras, doces e refrigerantes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora os resultados apresentem diferenças na percepção da imagem corporal, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação às categorias do topo da pirâmide alimentar.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the discrepancy between actual and ideal body images of obese individuals and listed changes in the dietary behaviors used to achieve this ideal body image. METHODS: The sample was composed of 25 obese individuals with a mean age of 39.24 years (standard deviation=5.01 where 76% were females. Two instruments were used for this end: the Physical Appearance Scale whose factorial analysis extracted a single factor "Physical Appearance" with an accuracy of α=0.74 for women and

  13. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. Results: A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6% were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%. The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (p<0.001. In both groups, the most frequent reconciliation error was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%. Lipid-lowering (12.4% and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17

  14. Mean composite fire severity metrics computed with Google Earth Engine offer improved accuracy and expanded mapping potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Voss, Morgan; Loehman, Rachel A.; Robinson, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Landsat-based fire severity datasets are an invaluable resource for monitoring and research purposes. These gridded fire severity datasets are generally produced with pre-and post-fire imagery to estimate the degree of fire-induced ecological change. Here, we introduce methods to produce three Landsat-based fire severity metrics using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform: the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR), the relativized delta normalized burn ratio (RdNBR), and the relativized burn ratio (RBR). Our methods do not rely on time-consuming a priori scene selection and instead use a mean compositing approach in which all valid pixels (e.g. cloud-free) over a pre-specified date range (pre- and post-fire) are stacked and the mean value for each pixel over each stack is used to produce the resulting fire severity datasets. This approach demonstrates that fire severity datasets can be produced with relative ease and speed compared the standard approach in which one pre-fire and post-fire scene are judiciously identified and used to produce fire severity datasets. We also validate the GEE-derived fire severity metrics using field-based fire severity plots for 18 fires in the western US. These validations are compared to Landsat-based fire severity datasets produced using only one pre- and post-fire scene, which has been the standard approach in producing such datasets since their inception. Results indicate that the GEE-derived fire severity datasets show improved validation statistics compared to parallel versions in which only one pre-fire and post-fire scene are used. We provide code and a sample geospatial fire history layer to produce dNBR, RdNBR, and RBR for the 18 fires we evaluated. Although our approach requires that a geospatial fire history layer (i.e. fire perimeters) be produced independently and prior to applying our methods, we suggest our GEE methodology can reasonably be implemented on hundreds to thousands of fires, thereby increasing opportunities

  15. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  16. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... request the consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  17. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1 Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  18. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  19. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  20. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  1. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  2. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, H.M.; Creemers, H.E.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  3. Discrepancies between sources providing the medication histories of acutely hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkov, Louise Lindved; Schytte-Hansen, Simon; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2010-01-01

    practitioner (GP) and the in-home care provider. A discrepancy was defined as any disagreement or omission of information between the four sources concerning name, form, strength and dose for each drug with which the patient was being treated. Main outcome measure The number of discrepancies between the data...

  4. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H.; Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  5. Computing half-plane and strip discrepancy of planar point sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.

    1996-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for two problems concerning the discrepancy of a set S of n points in the unit square in the plane. First, we describe an algorithm for maintaining the half-plane discrepancy of S under insertions and deletions of points. The algorithm runs in O(nlogn) worst-case time

  6. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  7. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  8. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  9. Predicting Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Discrepancies in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R

    2018-05-15

    Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.

  10. In vitro analysis of the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of stainless steel crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Riaan; Medhat, Rasha; Mohamed, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of SSC’s. Differences in adaptation and discrepancy between the four surfaces (mesial, lingual, distal, and buccal) were evaluated. Methods: The placement of stainless steel crowns were completed on a phantom head in accordance with the clinical technique. The ideal tooth preparation was made and this ‘master tooth’ duplicated to achieve a sample size of 15. The stainless steel crowns were placed, trimmed, and cemented as per the clinical technique. The cemented stainless crowns were analyzed under 100× stereomicroscope magnification. The marginal adaptation and discrepancy of each specimen was measured every 2 µm. Results: All the specimens showed marginal adaptation and discrepancy. The lingual margin had a significantly better adaptation (p steel crown adaptation and discrepancy is an essential clinical step. PMID:29536024

  11. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  12. Innovation in Photovoltaic Science, Engineering, and Policy: A Potential Trillion-Dollar Global Industry for Sustainable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology was an expensive niche energy source only for satellite applications, hallmarked by the Bell Lab's launch of the Telstar satellite with PV cells in 1962. Over the past decades, the accumulation of vast amount of effort across various disciplines in science, engineering, and policy has enabled the phenomenal growth of the solar PV industry into a global enterprise with about 140 gigawatt (GW) of cumulative installations by the end of 2013. Further cost reduction through innovation holds the promise in deploying terawatt (TW)-scale solar PV systems globally in both developed and developing countries, meeting growing energy demand and mitigating climate change. Chapter 1 presents a big picture view of the unsustainable path, heavily relying on fossil fuels, in the current global energy landscape. The main body of the dissertation examines the solar PV technology from a holistic and interdisciplinary perspective: from the basic research, to innovations in manufacturing and installing PV modules, to the driving energy policies. Chapter 2 offers a fundamental understanding of the PV technology and a review on recent scientific advances in improving PV efficiency (W/m 2). Chapter 3 reviews the state-of-the-art process flow in manufacturing commercial PV modules. In the context of pursuing further reduction in manufacturing cost (/m2), the thin Si film concept and its recent research effort are reviewed. Aiming to explore novel ways to produce high-quality seed crystals for thin Si film deposition, the key findings of the laser crystallization experiment is presented in Chapter 4. The fundamental thermophysics of nucleation and crystal growth is first reviewed, which highlights the importance of temperature evolution and heat transport in modelling the ultrafast laser crystallization process. Laser crystallization of a range of Si nanostructures are then carried out to study the nucleation and crystal growth behavior under some novel

  13. Disposal facility building also is mining engineering. Germany can tap into this expertise and planning potential; Endlagerbergbau ist auch Bergbau. Erfahrungs- und Planungspotential in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucke, Andreas; Kohl, Nadine; Scior, Carsten; Gutberlet, Daniela [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The conventional mining industry has a rich tradition and as mining is practised all over the world under a whole range of different conditions the industry has witnessed all kinds of technical developments aimed at controlling strata behaviour and winning the target mineral as efficiently as possible. The proposed use of deep geological deposits as disposal facilities for nuclear waste has transformed the role of the mining Industry and instead of extracting material from the ground mining engineers are now focussing more on how to store waste material safely deep below the earth's surface. Nevertheless, this new remit retains many of the key aspects of conventional mining and the experience that the industry has built up over the years Is still of vital importance when it comes to selecting a suitable disposal site and planning a final waste disposal facility in deep geological formations. These processes benefit from the support of specialists with a mining engineering background, as this can help to avoid unnecessary delays, additional costs and potential damage to public image. The following paper describes some of the expertises and methods developed by the conventional extraction industry that are also of relevance for the construction of disposal facilities.

  14. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cogels of Hyaluronic Acid and Acellular Matrix for Cultivation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Potential Application for Vocal Fold Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering has been one of the potential promising therapies in the research on the repair of tissue diseases including the vocal fold. Decellularized extracellular matrix (DCM as a promising scaffold has be used widely in tissue engineering; however, it remained to be an important issue in vocal fold regeneration. Here, we applied the hydrogels (hyaluronic acid [HA], HA-collagen [HA-Col], and HA-DCM to determine the effects of hydrogel on the growth and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs into superficial lamina propria fibroblasts. hADSCs were isolated and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The results indicated that HA-DCM hydrogel enhanced cell proliferation and prolonged cell morphology significantly compared to HA and HA-Col hydrogel. Importantly, the differentiation of hADSCs into fibroblasts was also promoted by cogels of HA-Col and HA-DCM significantly. The differentiation of hADSCs towards superficial lamina propria fibroblasts was accelerated by the secretion of HGF, IL-8, and VEGF, the decorin and elastin expression, and the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate significantly. Therefore, the cogel of HA-DCM hydrogel was shown to be outstanding in apparent stimulation of hADSCs proliferation and differentiation to vocal fold fibroblasts through secretion of important growth factors and synthesis of extracellular matrix.

  16. Biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles with ultrahigh porosity and surface area imply potential drug delivery and cell engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Buitrago, Jennifer O; Yang, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-09-15

    Here we communicate the generation of biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles and the potential properties applicable for drug delivery and cell/tissue engineering. Ion releasing nanoparticulates of bioglass (85%SiO 2 -15%CaO) in a mineralizing medium show an intriguing dynamic phenomenon - aggregation, mineralization to apatite, integration and growth into micron-sized (1.5-3μm) spheres. During the progressive ionic dissolution/precipitation reactions, nano-to-micro-morphology, glass-to-crystal composition, and the physico-chemical properties (porosity, surface area, and charge) change dynamically. With increasing reaction period, the apatite becomes more crystallized with increased crystallinity and crystal size, and gets a composition closer to the stoichiometry. The developed microspheres exhibit hierarchical surface nanostructure, negative charge (ς-potential of -20mV), and ultrahigh mesoporosity (mesopore size of 6.1nm, and the resultant surface area of 63.7m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.153cm 3 /g) at 14days of mineralization, which are even higher than those of its precursor bioglass nanoparticles. Thanks to these properties, the biomimetic mineral microspheres take up biological molecules effectively, i.e., loading capacity of positive-charged protein is over 10%. Of note, the release is highly sustainable at a constant rate, i.e., profiling almost 'zero-order' kinetics for 4weeks, suggesting the potential usefulness as protein delivery systems. The biomimetic mineral microspheres hold some remnant Si in the core region, and release calcium, phosphate, and silicate ions over the test period, implying the long-term ionic-related therapeutic functions. The mesenchymal stem cells favour the biomimetic spheres with an excellent viability. Due to the merit of sizes (a few micrometers), the spheres can be intercalated into cells, mediating cellular interactions in 3D cell-spheroid engineering, and also can stimulate osteogenic

  17. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  18. Green engineering of biomolecule-coated metallic silver nanoparticles and their potential cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracts of four medicinal plants (Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Alstonia scholaris (A. scholaris), Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) and Centella asiatica (C. asiatica)). The bio-conjugates were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential. This analysis confirmed that UV-Vis spectral peaks at 375 nm, 380 nm, 420 nm and 380 nm are corresponding to A. marmelos, A. scholaris, A. paniculata and C. asiatica mediated AgNPs, respectively. SEM images revealed that all the obtained four AgNPs are predominantly spherical, fibres and rectangle in shape with an average size of 36-97 nm. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of elemental AgNPs in crystalline form for all the four nanoparticle samples. The phytochemicals of various medicinal plant extracts with different functional groups were responsible for reduction of Ag+ to AgNPs, which act as capping and stabilizing agent. Among four types of AgNPs tested for anticancer activity, the Ap mediated AgNPs had shown enhanced activity against HepG2 cells (27.01 µg ml-1) and PC3 cells (32.15 µg ml-1).

  19. Potential feasibility of dental stem cells for regenerative therapies: stem cell transplantation and whole-tooth engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Taka

    2011-07-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow are expected to be a somatic stem cell source for the development of new cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, dental clinicians are unlikely to carry out autologous cell/tissue collection from patients (i.e., marrow aspiration) as a routine procedure in their clinics; hence, the utilization of bone marrow stem cells seems impractical in the dental field. Dental tissues harvested from extracted human teeth are well known to contain highly proliferative and multipotent stem cell compartments and are considered to be an alternative autologous cell source in cell-based medicine. This article provides a short overview of the ongoing studies for the potential application of dental stem cells and suggests the utilization of 2 concepts in future regenerative medicine: (1) dental stem cell-based therapy for hepatic and other systemic diseases and (2) tooth replacement therapy using the bioengineered human whole tooth, called the "test-tube dental implant." Regenerative therapies will bring new insights and benefits to the fields of clinical medicine and dentistry.

  20. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-yang; Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang; Li, Juan; Wang, He-zhong; Xing, Geng-mei; Yan, Feng-ming; Tai, Fu-ju; He, Rui

    2016-11-01

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  1. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-yang; Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang; Li, Juan; Wang, He-zhong; Xing, Geng-mei; Yan, Feng-ming; Tai, Fu-ju; He, Rui

    2016-01-01

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution "1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  2. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu-yang [Henan Agricultural University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Life Science (China); Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Li, Juan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab. for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang, He-zhong [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Xing, Geng-mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab. for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Yan, Feng-ming [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Tai, Fu-ju, E-mail: taifj2008@163.com [Henan Agricultural University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Life Science (China); He, Rui, E-mail: herui@henau.edu.cn [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China)

    2016-11-15

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n}, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n} as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n} as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  3. Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Rose Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against Botrytis cinerea, which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO NPs, ferric oxide (Fe2O3 NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO2 NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of B. cinerea and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea, but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and Fe2O3 showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent B. cinerea infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.

  4. Bioreactor-Based Online Recovery of Human Progenitor Cells with Uncompromised Regenerative Potential: A Bone Tissue Engineering Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Sonnaert

    Full Text Available The use of a 3D perfusion culture environment for stem cell expansion has been shown to be beneficial for maintenance of the original cell functionality but due to several system inherent characteristics such as the presence of extracellular matrix, the continued development and implementation of 3D perfusion bioreactor technologies is hampered. Therefore, this study developed a methodology for harvesting a progenitor cell population from a 3D open porous culture surface after expansion in a perfusion bioreactor and performed a functional characterization of the expanded cells. An initial screening showed collagenase to be the most interesting reagent to release the cells from the 3D culture surface as it resulted in high yields without compromising cell viability. Subsequently a Design of Experiment approach was used to obtain optimized 3D harvest conditions by assessing the interplay of flow rate, collagenase concentration and incubation time on the harvest efficiency, viability and single cell fraction. Cells that were recovered with the optimized harvest protocol, by perfusing a 880 U/ml collagenase solution for 7 hours at a flow rate of 4 ml/min, were thereafter functionally analyzed for their characteristics as expanded progenitor cell population. As both the in vitro tri-lineage differentiation capacity and the in vivo bone forming potential were maintained after 3D perfusion bioreactor expansion we concluded that the developed seeding, culture and harvest processes did not significantly compromise the viability and potency of the cells and can contribute to the future development of integrated bioprocesses for stem cell expansion.

  5. Hydrology of the solid waste burial ground, as related to the potential migration of radionuclides, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, J.T.; Robertson, J.B.; Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1976-08-01

    This report describes a study conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey with the following objectives: to evaluate the hydrologic, radiologic and geochemical variables that control the potential for subsurface migration of waste radionuclides from the burial trenches to the Snake River Plain aquifer; to determine the extent of radionuclide migration, if any; and, to construct monitoring wells into the aquifer. Statistically significant trace amounts of radioactivity were found in about one-half of the 44 sedimentary samples from the six holes core drilled inside the burial ground and from all water samples from one hole tapping a perched water table. These very low levels of radioactivity are detectable only with the most sensitive of analytical equipment and techniques. The levels of radioactivity detected were, in most cases, less than the amounts found in surface soils in this region resulting from world-wide fallout. This radioactivity found in the cores could have been introduced naturally by migration by infiltrating water which had made contact with buried waste or could have been introduced artificially during drilling and sampling. The available data from the four peripheral monitoring wells do not indicate that radionuclide constituents from the burial ground have migrated into the underlying Snake River Plain aquifer. The low concentrations of radionuclides detected in samples taken from the sedimentary layers are not expected to migrate to the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples from the peripheral wells and one core hole inside the burial ground will continue to be collected and analyzed for radioactivity semi-annually

  6. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  7. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  8. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  9. Comparison of clinical causes of deth with autopsy diagnosis using discrepancy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, K.; Alamgir, W.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non classifiable. (author)

  10. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  11. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...... discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...

  14. Impacto da discrepância de desejo sexual e relacional masculina

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago José da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia O desejo sexual é descrito como um dos fatores que mais contribui para a satisfação sexual e relacional. Num casal os níveis de desejo podem estar mais, ou menos, sincronizados, ou pode acontecer uma situação de discrepância. A discrepância de desejo existente pode ser suficiente para potenciar um problema, nomeadamente ao nível da satisfação sexual e relacional. Este estudo teve como objetivo perceber se a discrepância de desejo ...

  15. L_p- and S_{p,q}^rB-discrepancy of (order 2) digital nets

    OpenAIRE

    Markhasin, Lev

    2014-01-01

    Dick proved that all order $2$ digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $L_2$-discrepancy. We give an alternative proof for this fact using Haar bases. Furthermore, we prove that all digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $S_{p,q}^r B$-discrepancy for a certain parameter range and enlarge that range for order $2$ digitals nets. $L_p$-, $S_{p,q}^r F$- and $S_p^r H$-discrepancy is considered as well.

  16. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  17. Measurements in Los Alamos benchmark criticals and the central reactivity discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.; Hansen, G.E.; Koelling, J.J.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements in seven Los Alamos fast critical facilities are described; all are related to elucidating the causes of the central reactivity discrepancy in fast reactors. Specific capabilities of these specialized assemblies permit measurements well-above delayed critical and these confirm the validity of the delayed neutron data used for calibration; there is therefore no reactivity-scale error. Reactivity measurements in these homogeneous assemblies exhibit no discrepancy. It is concluded that nuclear data should not be adjusted to eliminate the discrepancy found in other, heterogeneous assemblies

  18. Extraction and characterization of collagen from Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic squid and its potential application in hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui C G; Marques, Ana L P; Oliveira, Sara M; Diogo, Gabriela S; Pirraco, Rogério P; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Xavier, José C; Reis, Rui L; Silva, Tiago H; Mano, João F

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals and it exhibits a low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability when compared with others natural polymers. For this reason, it has been explored for the development of biologically instructive biomaterials with applications for tissue substitution and regeneration. Marine origin collagen has been pursued as an alternative to the more common bovine and porcine origins. This study focused on squid (Teuthoidea: Cephalopoda), particularly the Antarctic squid Kondakovia longimana and the Sub-Antarctic squid Illex argentinus as potential collagen sources. In this study, collagen has been isolated from the skins of the squids using acid-based and pepsin-based protocols, with the higher yield being obtained from I. argentinus in the presence of pepsin. The produced collagen has been characterized in terms of physicochemical properties, evidencing an amino acid profile similar to the one of calf collagen, but exhibiting a less preserved structure, with hydrolyzed portions and a lower melting temperature. Pepsin-soluble collagen isolated from I. argentinus was selected for further evaluation of biomedical potential, exploring its incorporation on poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) 3D printed scaffolds for the development of hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering, exhibiting hierarchical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A dual-application poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-chitosan composite scaffold for potential use in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Yamina; Qutachi, Omar; Scurr, David J; Morris, Andrew P; Doughty, Stephen W; Billa, Nashiru

    2017-11-01

    The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p < 0.05). The formulation also sintered at 37 °C following injection through a needle, demonstrating its injectable potential. The scaffolds demonstrated cytocompatibility, with increased cell numbers observed over an 8-day study period. Von Kossa and immunostaining of the hMSC-scaffolds confirmed their osteogenic potential with the ability to sinter at 37 °C in situ.

  20. Comments on the discrepancies found in running NJOY and LINEAR - RECENT - GROUPIE for some actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.P.; Moraes, M. de.

    1986-08-01

    Some discrepancies encountered between the two processing codes NJOY and RECENT-GROUPIE were analysed. It was found that they are due to different interpretation of inadequate representation of the evaluated date. (author) [pt

  1. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  2. Interpretation of images and discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings and symptomatology in temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Sano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings on images and symptomatology can sometimes be problematic in clinical work. In this article, we focus on osteoarthritis and related entities on images, and especially on MR images.

  3. An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2D images with discrepancy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenchao; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Jupeng

    2018-06-04

    An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2-dimension images with discrepancy structures was proposed in this paper. Atlas was utilized for complementing the discrepancy structure information in multimodal medical images. The scheme includes three steps: floating image to atlas registration, atlas to reference image registration, and field-based deformation. To evaluate the performance, a frame model, a brain model, and clinical images were employed in registration experiments. We measured the registration performance by the squared sum of intensity differences. Results indicate that this method is robust and performs better than the direct registration for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. We conclude that the proposed method is suitable for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. Graphical Abstract An Atlas-based multimodal registration method schematic diagram.

  4. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. . Interparental violence; similarities and discrepancies between narratives of mothers and their children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.B.; van der Schuur, W.; Mak, J.; Steketee, M.; Pels, T.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies and intervention programs on interparental violence have relied largely on reports either solely from parents or solely from children. Nevertheless, the literature and the theoretical background provide indications of the existence of discrepancies between the narratives of parents

  6. Processing Discrepancy Reports Against Foreign Military Sales Shipments (Supplementation is Permitted at all Levels)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Gary

    1991-01-01

    ...) shipments are processed. It provides for the basic documents required to support adjustment of property and financial inventory accounting records, notification to shippers of the type of discrepancies, required corrective...

  7. Discrepancies Between Planned and Actual Operating Room Turnaround Times at a Large Rural Hospital in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Morgenegg

    2018-01-01

    retrospective study examined the OR turnaround data of 875 elective surgery cases scheduled at the Marienhospital, Vechta, Germany, between July and October 2014. The frequency distributions of planned and actual OR turnaround times were compared and correlations between turnaround times and various factors were established, including the time of day of the procedure, patient age and the planned duration of the surgery. Results: There was a significant difference between mean planned and actual OR turnaround times (0.32 versus 0.64 hours; P <0.001. In addition, significant correlations were noted between actual OR turnaround times and the time of day of the surgery, patient age, actual duration of the procedure and staffing changes affecting the surgeon or the medical specialty of the surgery (P <0.001 each. The quotient of actual/planned OR turnaround times ranged from 1.733–3.000. Conclusion: Significant discrepancies between planned and actual OR turnaround times were noted during the study period. Such findings may be potentially used in future studies to establish a tool to improve OR planning, measure OR management performance and enable benchmarking.

  8. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  9. Discrepancies between beliefs and behavior: a prospective study into immunosuppressive medication adherence after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Tielen, Mirjam; Laging, Mirjam; Timman, Reinier; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem

    2015-02-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplantation is a behavioral issue and as such it is important to understand the psychological factors that influence this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which goal cognitions, illness perceptions, and treatment beliefs were related to changes in self-reported immunosuppressive medication adherence up to 18 months after transplantation. Interviews were conducted with patients in the outpatient clinic 6 weeks (T1; n=113), 6 months (T2; n=106), and 18 months (T3; n=84) after transplantation. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale Interview. Psychological concepts were measured using the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and questions on the importance of adherence as a personal goal, conflict with other goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. Nonadherence significantly increased over time to 31% at T3. Perceived necessity of medication, perceived impact of transplant on life (consequences) and emotional response to transplantation significantly decreased over time. Participants who reported low importance of medication adherence as a personal goal were more likely to become nonadherent over time. Illness perceptions can be described as functional and supportive of adherence which is inconsistent with the pervasive and increasing nonadherence observed. There appears therefore to be a discrepancy between beliefs about adherence and actual behavior. Promoting (intrinsic) motivation for adherence goals and exploring the relative importance in comparison to other personal goals is a potential target for interventions.

  10. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  11. Inertia: the discrepancy between individual and common good in dispersal and prospecting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María del Mar; Ratikainen, Irja I; Kokko, Hanna

    2011-08-01

    The group selection debate of the 1960s made it clear that evolution does not necessarily increase population performance. Individuals can be selected to have traits that diminish a common good and make population persistence difficult. At the extreme, the discrepancy between levels of selection is predicted to make traits evolve towards values at which a population can no longer persist (evolutionary suicide). Dispersal and prospecting are prime examples of traits that have a strong influence on population persistence under environmental and demographic stochasticity. Theory predicts that an 'optimal' dispersal strategy from a population point of view can differ considerably from that produced by individual-level selection. Because dispersal is frequently risky or otherwise costly, individuals are often predicted to disperse less than would be ideal for population performance (persistence or size). We define this discrepancy as 'inertia' and examine current knowledge of its occurrence and effects on population dynamics in nature. We argue that inertia is potentially widespread but that a framework is currently lacking for predicting precisely the extent to which it has a real influence on population persistence. The opposite of inertia, 'hypermobility' (more dispersal by individuals than would maximize population performance) remains a possibility: it is known that highest dispersal rates do not lead to best expected population performance, and examples of such high dispersal evolving exist at least in the theoretical literature. We also show, by considering prospecting behaviour, that similar issues arise in species with advanced cognitive and learning abilities. Individual prospecting strategies and the information acquired during dispersal are known to influence the decisions and therefore the fate of individuals and, as a corollary, populations. Again, the willingness of individuals to sample environments might evolve to levels that are not optimal for

  12. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  13. Comparison of clinical causes of death with autopsy diagnosis using discrepency classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Khalil; Alamgir, Wasim

    2006-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. An observational study. Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, a tertiary care hospital, from January 2001 to December 2003. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non-classifiable. This study showed the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of the diagnosis and management of the disease by showing only a minority of cases with discrepant diagnosis of the cause of death.

  14. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  15. Body Image, Self-Esteem, Media, Disordered Eating and Actual Ideal Weight Discrepancy: Findings in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Argyrides

    2017-02-01

    discrepancy. No differences were found concerning age, socioeconomic status and place of upbringing and residence. The results of this study offer important additional information to the body image and disordered eating literature regarding a construct (actual ideal weight discrepancy never examined before in Cyprus. This information could be used by Cypriot and European mental health professionals when working with children and teenagers who are at risk for or exhibit symptoms related to eating disorders and in developing prevention interventions.

  16. Discrepancies in the half-lives of 90Sr, 137Cs and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Mac Mahon, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have pointed out that significant discrepancies exist in published half-life data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 252 Cr, amongst others. These discrepancies make the estimation of evaluated half-lives for these isotopes difficult and contentious. This paper reviews the current situation, takes into account recently available data and attempts to derive recommended half-lives and associated uncertainties for the three isotopes. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  18. The efficacy of a modified general hip technique in the treatment of leg length discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Dip.Tech. Functional leg length discrepancies, as distinct from anatomical discrepancies, are often associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This may result in back pain and discomfort. Chiropractors usually treat this condition using a side posture sacroiliac adjustment, but in some cases, an adjustment may not be indicated. This study aims to determine whether a Modified General Hip technique would be an acceptable alternative treatment. For this study, 30 patients who suffered fr...

  19. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Eliot; Groleau, Georgina; Reiner, Bruce; Stair, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP’s). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from...

  20. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  1. Cost and quality implications of discrepancies between admitting and discharge diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Robert; Johnson, Tricia; Kane, Jason; Ackerman, Mariel; Odwazny, Richard; Bardhan, Jaydeep

    2012-01-01

    Presenting and discharge diagnoses of hospitalized patients may differ as a result of patient complexity, diagnostic dilemmas, or errors in clinical judgment at the time of primary assessment. When diagnoses at admission and discharge are not in agreement, this discrepancy may indicate more complex processes of care and resultant costs. It is unclear whether surrogate measures reflecting quality of care are impacted by discrepant diagnoses. To assess whether an association exists between admitting and discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and other quality markers including hospital length of stay, total cost of care, and 30-day readmission rate. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of general internal medicine patients aged 18 years and older. Diagnosis discrepancy was defined as a difference between the 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at admission and the principal 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at discharge. Sixty-eight percent of patients had a diagnosis discrepancy. Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with a 0.41-day increase in length of stay (P < .001), $663 increase in direct costs (P < .001), and a 1.55 times greater odds of readmission within 30 days (P < .001). Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with hospital quality outcome measures. This finding likely reflects variations in patients' diagnostic complexity.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  3. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dealing with Historical Discrepancies: The Recovery of National Research Experiment (NRX) Reactor Fuel Rods at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) - 13324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickerd, Meggan

    2013-01-01

    Following the 1952 National Research Experiment (NRX) Reactor accident, fuel rods which had short irradiation histories were 'temporarily' buried in wooden boxes at the 'disposal grounds' during the cleanup effort. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), strategically retrieves legacy waste and restores lands affected by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) early operations. Thus under this program the recovery of still buried NRX reactor fuel rods and their relocation to modern fuel storage was identified as a priority. A suspect inventory of NRX fuels was compiled from historical records and various research activities. Site characterization in 2005 verified the physical location of the fuel rods and determined the wooden boxes they were buried in had degraded such that the fuel rods were in direct contact with the soil. The fuel rods were recovered and transferred to a modern fuel storage facility in 2007. Recovered identification tags and measured radiation fields were used to identify the inventory of these fuels. During the retrieval activity, a discrepancy was discovered between the anticipated number of fuel rods and the number found during the retrieval. A total of 32 fuel rods and cans of cut end pieces were recovered from the specified site, which was greater than the anticipated 19 fuel rods and cans. This discovery delayed the completion of the project, increased the associated costs, and required more than anticipated storage space in the modern fuel storage facility. A number of lessons learned were identified following completion of this project, the most significant of which was the potential for discrepancies within the historical records. Historical discrepancies are more likely to be resolved by comprehensive historical record searches and site characterizations. It was also recommended that a complete review of the wastes generated, and the total affected lands as a result of this historic

  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL NOX REDUCTION POTENTIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PARTIAL HCCI APPLICATION, ON A HIGH PRESSURE FUEL INJECTION EQUIPPED DIESEL ENGINE BY IMPLEMENTING FUMIGATION OF GASOLINE PORT INJECTION

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENÇ, Alp Tekin; YÜKSEK, Levent; ÖZENER, Orkun; IŞIN, Övün

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of partial HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) application on today's modern diesel engine tail pipe NOx emissions. Gasoline fumigation is supplied via a port fuel injection system located in the intake port of DI(Direct injection) diesel engine to maintain partial HCCI conditions and also diesel fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber before TDC(Top dead center). A single cylinder direct injection diesel research engine equipped w...

  6. Thermodynamic potential of the spray-guided combustion system for gasoline engines at Mercedes-Benz; Thermodynamisches Potenzial beim strahlgefuehrten Brennverfahren fuer Ottomotoren bei Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaupp, U.; Bertsch, D.; Schaub, R.; Schmolla, W.; Winter, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    From the beginning of the nineteen's the development of DI engines for reducing fuel consumption was reinforced. The focus in studies by Mercedes-Benz was located in the development of a robust stratified operation mode (leaner than stoichiometric {lambda}>>1). To reach the targets the spray guided Mercedes-Benz combustion system with Piezo injection technology was developed and went into series production in the CLS 350 CGI in 2006. Main focus of the development was the control of the spray guided combustion system under mass production requirements by keeping-up the consumption- and emission-potentials. The advantage in fuel consumption in the NEDC of the CLS 350 CGI is 10% in comparison to the basic PFI technology. Besides the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber geometry a new ignition system offers an additional option for a further increase of the combustion efficiency. This article describes how this new ignition system can be used advantageously, how to get a bigger robustness window and how to open up additional reduction of fuel consumption and better untreated emissions. (orig.)

  7. Review of Studies of Clay Minerals as Significant Component of Potential Host Rocks or Engineering Barriers for Radioactive Waste Disposals Performed at Comenius University in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Uhlik; Vladimir, Sucha; Maria, Caplovicova; Igor, Stricek

    2013-01-01

    About 50 % of electric power is produced by nuclear power plants in Slovakia. In spite of the significant production of nuclear waste, Slovakia has not defined basic strategy of radioactive-waste isolation. However, some pilot projects and studies have been carried out. Five areas were determined as prospective sites for construction of deep geological repository (DGR). Two of them are situated in the south of Slovakia. Szecseny schlier (mixture of siltstones and Clay-stones) of Lucenec Formation (Egerian) is one of the most prospective host rocks from lithological, structural and spatial perspective. Besides the investigation of potential host rock for DGR the studies of bentonite properties as important part of engineering barriers for radioactive waste disposals were performed. Detailed mineral and structural analyses of smectites from the bentonitic material exposed to laboratory Mock-Up test were realised. Particular interest has been focused on interaction between Fe and smectites. Other field of interest is investigation of sorption of Cs and Sr on natural and modified bentonites, including irradiation. Purpose of this work is to present a short review of other studies done by our group with partial focusing to interaction of organic dye (Rhoda-mine 6G) with smectite that is connected with changes of layer charge after treatment; possibilities to measure preferential orientation of clays after compaction by TEM and to effort to use X-ray micro-tomography for inner structure of sediments. (authors)

  8. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianyun; Wang, Yingjun; Wu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  9. Developing marketing system for civil engineering firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper intention was to reveal insufficient connection between theory and practice in civil engineering as indispose condition for more efficient solving problems which products unstable environment of engineering firms. Successful connection between theory and practice, when we talk about marketing in civil engineering, did not develop at satisfied way. Civil engineering is, in aspect of implementation of modern philosophy of marketing, in big residue related to the other spices of economy. In that order we want to appoint on possibility to resolve this discrepancy.

  10. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3 Samina Nazir,2 Alia Nazir,1 Saeeda Munir,3 Tariq Mahmood,2 Muhammad Afzal,1 Farzana Latif Ansari,4 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE, 4Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17–25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R2 relaxivity (225 mM-1 s-1. Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa cells. The bio-SPIONs developed

  11. A conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H. S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developd engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  12. A conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H. S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-05-01

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developd engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  13. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  14. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  15. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education: Creating Additional Peer-Guided Learning Opportunities in Difficult Compulsory Courses for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) can be an efficient way of improving student success in difficult courses. Here, a study is made on SI attached to difficult first-year engineering courses. The results show that both the percentage of students passing a difficult first-year engineering course, and scores on the course exams are considerably higher…

  17. Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1998-01-01

    We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented

  18. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  19. Cycle Engine Modelling Of Spark Ignition Engine Processes during Wide-Open Throttle (WOT) Engine Operation Running By Gasoline Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, M F Abdul; Rahman, M M; Bakar, R A

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional engine model is developed to simulate spark ignition engine processes in a 4-stroke, 4 cylinders gasoline engine. Physically, the baseline engine is inline cylinder engine with 3-valves per cylinder. Currently, the engine's mixture is formed by external mixture formation using piston-type carburettor. The model of the engine is based on one-dimensional equation of the gas exchange process, isentropic compression and expansion, progressive engine combustion process, and accounting for the heat transfer and frictional losses as well as the effect of valves overlapping. The model is tested for 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm of engine speed and validated using experimental engine data. Results showed that the engine is able to simulate engine's combustion process and produce reasonable prediction. However, by comparing with experimental data, major discrepancy is noticeable especially on the 2000 and 4000 rpm prediction. At low and high engine speed, simulated cylinder pressures tend to under predict the measured data. Whereas the cylinder temperatures always tend to over predict the measured data at all engine speed. The most accurate prediction is obtained at medium engine speed of 3000 rpm. Appropriate wall heat transfer setup is vital for more precise calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. More heat loss to the wall can lower cylinder temperature. On the hand, more heat converted to the useful work mean an increase in cylinder pressure. Thus, instead of wall heat transfer setup, the Wiebe combustion parameters are needed to be carefully evaluated for better results.

  20. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  1. Exploring disadvantageous inequality aversion in children: How cost and discrepancy influence decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWilliams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.

  2. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, Sergey A.; Chechev, Valery P.

    2012-01-01

    A new, Mandel–Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors. - Highlights: ► A new statistical procedure for processing one-parametric discrepant experimental data has been presented. ► Procedure estimates a contribution of unrecognized errors in the total experimental uncertainty. ► Procedure was applied for processing half-life discrepant experimental data. ► Results of the calculations are compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations.

  3. Interdisciplinary Discrepancies Between Parenteral Nutrition Macronutrient Prescribing and Recommendations: Is Body Mass Index a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katie L; Kandiah, Jay; Walroth, Todd A

    2017-07-01

    Formal nutrition training in medical schools and residencies is lacking and needed. Registered dietitians (RDs) are formally trained in nutrition support and considered experts in the nutrition field. Our purpose was to examine prescribing and recommending discrepancies of parenteral nutrition macronutrients between medical residents (MRs) and RDs and compare results with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines. We also looked at discrepancies among obese patients, due to their increased risk of mortality. The primary end point of this retrospective review was discrepancies in nonprotein calories (NPCs) and grams of protein (PRO) between MRs and RDs. The secondary end point was discrepancies in NPCs and PRO between MRs and RDs among patients stratified by body mass index category. MRs prescribed 300 NPCs more versus RDs ( P < .001). When compared with RDs, MRs prescribed fewer NPCs for underweight patients and more for obese patients ( P < .001). The same analysis found that the PRO discrepancies significantly varied by body mass index classification as well ( P = .022). When these results were compared with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines, RDs adhered closer to the guidelines than did MRs in terms of permissive underfeeding of obese patients. It is widely accepted that MRs are in need of increased formal training, and the results of our study confirm this need and suggest a short-term solution of increasing order-writing privileges for the RD. RDs with this privilege may adhere more closely to clinical care guidelines and therefore increase patient safety.

  4. Degradation pattern of porous CaCO3 and hydroxyapatite microspheres in vitro and in vivo for potential application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwei; Li, Wenhua; Su, Xiuping; Li, Geng; Zhou, Ying; Kundu, Subhas C; Yao, Juming; Cai, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    Despite superior clinical handling, excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation property of calcium phosphate needs to be improved to coincide with the rate of new bone formation. In this study, spherical CaCO3 are fabricated in the presence of the silk sericin and then transformed into porous hydroxyapatite (HAP) microspheres via hydrothermal method. The degradation behavior of obtained CaCO3, HAP and their mixture is first investigated in vitro. The result demonstrates that the weight loss of HAP microspheres are almost 24.3% after immersing in pH 7.40 Tris-HCl buffer solution for 12 weeks, which is far slower than that of spherical CaCO3 (97.5%). The degradation speed of the mixtures depends on the proportion of CaCO3 and HAP. The mixture with higher content of CaCO3 possesses a quicker degradation speed. The obtained CaCO3 and HAP microspheres are injected into subcutaneous tissue of ICR mice with the assistance of sodium alginate. The result in vivo also shows an obvious difference of degradation speed between the obtained CaCO3 and HAP microspheres, implying it is feasible to modulate the degradation property of the mixture through changing the proportion of CaCO3 and HAP The good cytocompatibility of the two kinds of microspheres is proved and a mild inflammation response is observed only at early stage of implantation. The job offers a simple method to modify the degradation properties of biomaterial for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xianyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Gang, E-mail: imwugang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xianyun; Wang Yingjun; Wu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. ► Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. ► Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ε-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1 H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  7. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  8. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study of around 200,000 dwellings comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets. - Highlights: ► Actual gas consumption in Dutch dwellings is lower than the theoretical. ► In the dwellings with label A–B, theoretical gas consumption is lower than actual gas consumption. ► In less efficient dwellings, theoretical gas consumption is much higher than the actual. ► Most current energy reduction targets are unachievable if modelled with actual instead of theoretical energy consumption

  9. Computer Aided Theragnosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopy and Maximum Mean Discrepancy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J; Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Tran, William T; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    A noninvasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early therapeutic cancer response assessment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The proposed CAT system was based on multi-parametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopic methods in conjunction with advanced machine learning techniques. Specifically, a kernel-based metric named maximum mean discrepancy (MMD), a technique for learning from imbalanced data based on random undersampling, and supervised learning were investigated with response-monitoring data from LABC patients. The CAT system was tested on 56 patients using statistical significance tests and leave-one-subject-out classification techniques. Textural features using state-of-the-art local binary patterns (LBP), and gray-scale intensity features were extracted from the spectral parametric maps in the proposed CAT system. The system indicated significant differences in changes between the responding and non-responding patient populations as well as high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in discriminating between the two patient groups early after the start of treatment, i.e., on weeks 1 and 4 of several months of treatment. The proposed CAT system achieved an accuracy of 85%, 87%, and 90% on weeks 1, 4 and 8, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of developed CAT system for the same times was 85%, 95%, 90% and 85%, 85%, 91%, respectively. The proposed CAT system thus establishes a noninvasive framework for monitoring cancer treatment response in tumors using clinical ultrasound imaging in conjunction with machine learning techniques. Such a framework can potentially facilitate the detection of refractory responses in patients to treatment early on during a course of therapy to enable possibly switching to more efficacious treatments.

  10. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  11. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Burak

    2018-02-01

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Using Emotionally Focused Therapy to Treat Sexual Desire Discrepancy in Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Abby; Woolley, Scott R

    2017-11-17

    Couples in committed relationships encounter a multitude of issues. According to Metz and McCarthy (2010), when couples report high sexual satisfaction, it accounts for 15% to 20% of their overall relationship satisfaction. However, when couples report low sexual satisfaction, it contributes 50% to 70% of their overall satisfaction with their partner. Issues of sexual desire, currently referred to as sexual desire discrepancy, are among the most difficult to treat. Although there are many factors contributing to the issue of sexual desire discrepancy, current literature highlights the importance of emotional intimacy as an outcome and predictor of increased sexual desire. Given the complex nature of sexual desire, clinicians often lack the understanding and treatment options that are systemic. By viewing sexual desire discrepancy as a relational problem that can be treated using emotionally focused therapy, clinicians are better equipped to work with emotional and sexual factors that impact desire and couple distress.

  13. Culture-Led Discrepancies and Negotiating Conflicts in Strategic Outsourcing Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing and alliance collaboration have become prominent features of the global economy. Empirical studies demonstrate that outsourcing alliances are often not as successful as their initiators expect them to be. National cultural differences are frequently viewed as a crucial factor when...... such alliances fail. While empirical studies are abundant, theoretical frameworks that explicate the role of national cultural differences in shaping the dynamics of outsourcing alliances are rare. This article builds on Kumar and Nti's (1998) discrepancy model to specify how culture affects the dynamics...... of outsourcing alliances. We suggest that national cultural differences give rise to process and outcome discrepancies in outsourcing alliances. Notably, outsourcing alliances evolve through three stages–formation, operation and outcome–with discrepancies arising in each of these stages (Das & Teng, 2002). We...

  14. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 effective capture integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry; Grandotto-Biettoli, Marc; Vanuxeem, Jacqueline

    1979-02-01

    Up to now, there was a discrepancy between the computed value and the measured value of the uranium 238 effective capture integral. The former has been always greater than the latter. For this reason, the reactor physicists have used an adjustment of the computed value. Nowadays the accuracy of the cross sections knowledge is increased and the reactors computation codes are almost exact. Such an adjustment is no more justified. Recently several new measurements of the resonance parameters were carried out and the use of a multilevel formalism was suggested to compute the uranium 238 cross sections. It is shown in this work that the simultaneous use of recent parameters and Reich and Moore formalism explain the discrepancy. For the thermal neutron reactors, two thirds of this discrepancy are explained by the neutron data and the last third by the multilevel formalism [fr

  15. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  16. Cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy in ceramic laminate veneering materials: A SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  17. Potential applications of three-dimensional structure of silk fibroin/poly(ester-urethane) urea nanofibrous scaffold in heart valve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Zhu, Tonghe; Yu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jingjing; Sun, Changbing; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Sihao; Wang, Jihu; Guo, Xuran

    2018-07-01

    Tissue engineering heart valves (TEHV) are thought to have many advantages in low immunogenicity, good histocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, we reported the fabrication and characterization of a novel composite nanofibrous scaffold consisting of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(ester-urethane) urea (LDI-PEUU) by using electrospinning. Chemical and physical properties of scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, biodegradation test and tensile strength analysis. We determined that the composite scaffolds supported the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). The results of cell proliferation and cell morphology indicate that SF/LDI-PEUU nanofibers promoted cell viability, which supporting the application in tissue engineering. All results clarified that SF/LDI-PEUU (40:60) nanofibrous scaffolds meet the required specifications for tissue engineering and could be used as a promising construct for heart valve tissue engineering.

  18. Potential susceptibility inhibitory effect of Ag and ZnO engineered nanoparticles on bacterial strains: effect of pH and temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mboyi, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and social benefits of metallic silver (n-Ag) and zinc oxide (n-ZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) applications in medical, technological, environmental remediation, consumer products, among other have widely been demonstrated...

  19. Reconciling discrepant findings for P3 brain response in criminal psychopathy through reference to the concept of externalizing proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    We sought to address inconsistencies in the literature on amplitude of P3 brain potential response in offenders diagnosed with psychopathy. These inconsistencies contrast with the reliable finding of reduced P3 in relation to externalizing tendencies, which overlap with impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy, as distinguished from the affective-interpersonal features. Employing a sample of incarcerated male offenders (N = 154) who completed the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised along with a three-stimulus visual oddball task, we tested the hypothesis that impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy would selectively exhibit an inverse relationship with P3 amplitude. Clear support for this hypothesis was obtained. Our findings clarify the discrepant findings regarding psychopathy and P3, and establish P3 as a neurophysiological point of contact between psychopathy and externalizing proneness from the broader psychopathology literature. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Multiformity of the tropical cyclone wind–pressure relationship in the western North Pacific: discrepancies among four best-track archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of tropical cyclone intensity estimates for the western North Pacific is assessed in the context of wind–pressure relationships. Four best-track datasets compiled in the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) are compared to assess the data consistency. Over the past 20 yr period (1991–2010), apparent interagency discrepancies in the archived tropical cyclone intensities are found. Heavy reliance upon operational wind–pressure relationships may reduce subjective biases at the cost of potential loss of tropical cyclone natural variability. Given that the intercomparisons are performed based upon a set of identical tropical cyclones, the differences in operational wind–pressure relationships and in the mapping of satellite tropical cyclone intensity classification for these relationships are presumably critical causes of the interagency discrepancies. This result calls for imperative refinement of current satellite-based tropical cyclone intensity estimates and reanalysis of historical tropical cyclone best-track archives for the basin. (letter)

  1. 76 FR 11940 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Model Arriel 1E2, 1S, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... discrepancies led to a ``one-off'' abnormal evolution of gas generator (NG) rating during engine starting. In... No. 292 73 0826, Version A. In all three cases, the discrepancies led to a ``one-off'' abnormal..., anyone can find and read the comments in any of our dockets, including, if provided, the name of the...

  2. Cross-modal discrepancies in coarticulation and the integration of speech information: the McGurk effect with mismatched vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K P; Gerdeman, A

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of a discrepancy in vowel quality between the auditory and visual modalities on the perception of a syllable-initial consonant. One experiment examined the effect of such a discrepancy on the McGurk effect by cross-dubbing auditory /bi/ tokens onto visual /ga/ articulations (and vice versa). A discrepancy in vowel category significantly reduced the magnitude of the McGurk effect and changed the pattern of responses. A 2nd experiment investigated the effect of such a discrepancy on the speeded classification of the initial consonant. Mean reaction times to classify the tokens increased when the vowel information was discrepant between the 2 modalities but not when the vowel information was consistent. These experiments indicate that the perceptual system is sensitive to cross-modal discrepancies in the coarticulatory information between a consonant and its following vowel during phonetic perception.

  3. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  4. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  5. Discrepancy in Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise in Rural Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2017-11-01

    We explored the extent to which discrepancy between motivation for weight loss and exercise is related to obesity among rural patients with chronic disease, and identified the psychosocial correlates of this discrepancy. 497 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited from a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers in the rural South and completed a battery of assessments. Most persons in the sample (83.1%) were overweight and 65.0% were obese. For motivation for change, 70.8% reported being in the Action stage or higher for weight loss, whereas only 24.9% reported being in the Action stage or higher for motivation for exercise. When controlling for age, education level, income, sex, and race/ethnicity, individuals who were motivated for weight loss but not exercise were twice as likely to be obese (p = .005). Race and sex were significantly associated with this discrepancy, with African-American patients 1.7 times as likely (p = .05) and women 2.3 times as likely to be discrepant (p = .001). Findings underscore the importance of focusing not simply on weight loss among rural patients with chronic disease, but rather to incorporate specific activities designed to build simultaneous motivation for engaging in exercise.

  6. 12 CFR 334.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address... section applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief. (1...

  7. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding... a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  8. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Stephanie; Jaquiery, Ben; Hatch, Burt; Healey, Matthew; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Healey, Dione

    2018-01-01

    An attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis requires symptoms to be present across two or more settings, thus requiring information from multiple informants. Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parents and teachers; however, the mechanisms underlying these discrepancies remain unclear. This study examined…

  9. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  10. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  11. Development and Factor Structure of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ashley J.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2018-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale (HPWDS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the HPWDS; (b) review statistical analyses procedures used to develop the HPWDS; and (c) offer implications for counselors, other helping professionals, and future research.

  12. Discrepancy between Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and NS4-Based Serotypes: Association with Their Subgenomic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Nwe Win

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4 region and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results. Deep sequencing was also performed for the corresponding HCV NS4 regions. Seventeen out of 18 discrepant samples could be sequenced by the Sanger method. Both HCV core and NS4 sequences were concordant with that of genotyping in the 5′-UTR in all 17 samples. In cloning analysis of the HCV NS4 region, there were several amino acid variations, but each sequence was much closer to the peptide with the same genotype. Deep sequencing revealed that minor clones with different subgenotypes existed in two of the 17 samples. Genotyping by genome amplification showed high consistency, while several false reactions were detected by serotyping. The deep sequencing method also provides accurate genotyping results and may be useful for analyzing discrepant cases. HCV genotyping should be correctly determined before antiviral treatment.

  13. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz ...

  14. Postmortem CT versus forensic autopsy: frequent discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Schwendener, Nicole; Brencicova, Eva; Schuster, Frederick; Lombardo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In their daily forensic casework, the authors experienced discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings between postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy to an extent previously unnoticed in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate such discrepancies in routine forensic cases. A total of 327 cases that underwent PMCT prior to routine forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated for tracheal and bronchial contents according to PMCT and autopsy findings. Hounsfield unit (HU) values of tracheobronchial contents, causes of death, and presence of pulmonary edema were assessed in mismatching and matching cases. Comparing contents in PMCT and autopsy in each of the separately evaluated compartments of the respiratory tract low positive predictive values were assessed (trachea, 38.2%; main bronchi, 40%; peripheral bronchi, 69.1%) indicating high discrepancy rates. The majority of tracheobronchial contents were viscous stomach contents in matching cases and low radiodensity materials (i.e., HU autopsy occur in a considerable number of cases. Discrepancies may be explained by the runoff of contents via nose and mouth during external examination and the flow back of tracheal and main bronchial contents into the lungs caused by upright movement of the respiratory tract at autopsy.

  15. Discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive behavior in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, Evelien; Maters, Gemma A; Wempe, Johan B; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Sanderman, Robbert

    2012-06-01

    The literature on chronic diseases indicates that partner support, as perceived by patients, contributes to well-being of patients in either a positive or a negative way. Previous studies indicated that patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior are only moderately related. Our aim was (1) to investigate whether discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of two types of unsupportive partner behavior-overprotection and protective buffering-were associated with the level of distress reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) to evaluate whether the direction of the differences between patients' and partners' perceptions was associated with distress (i.e., whether patient distress was associated with greater patient or greater partner reports of unsupportive partner behavior). A cross-sectional study was performed using the data of a sample of 68 COPD patients and their spouses. Distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior were assessed with a questionnaire measuring overprotection and protective buffering. Distress was independently associated with patients' perceptions of protective buffering and discrepancies in spouses' perceptions of overprotection. Regarding the direction of the discrepancy, we found that greater partner reports of overprotection as compared with patient reports were related to more distress in COPD patients. Our study showed that patients' distress was associated not only with patients' perceptions, but also with discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the…

  17. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  18. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered

  19. Social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of an extension of Self-Discrepancy Theory (SDT) to the social aspect of the self (A. Bizman, Y. Yinon, & S. Krotman, 2001), the authors examined the relationships between social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem. The authors assessed perceptions of actual, ideal, and ought attributes of Israelis from own and other standpoints; perceived importance of others' evaluation of Israel; and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) among 114 Israelis. The results revealed that the association of the discrepancy between actual Israelis and ideal Israelis from the other standpoint with the public Collective Self-Esteem (CSE) subscale was negative among participants with high perceived importance and positive among those with low perceived importance. In addition, the discrepancy between actual and ideal Israelis from the own standpoint was related to the private, public, and membership CSE subscales. Overall, the findings suggest that the SDT distinction between the own and other standpoints on the self is applicable to the social self.

  20. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  1. Loaded dice in Monte Carlo : importance sampling in phase space integration and probability distributions for discrepancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, Andreas Ferdinand Willem van

    2001-01-01

    Discrepancies play an important role in the study of uniformity properties of point sets. Their probability distributions are a help in the analysis of the efficiency of the Quasi Monte Carlo method of numerical integration, which uses point sets that are distributed more uniformly than sets of

  2. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement ...

  3. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  4. Dietary restraint, life satisfaction and self-discrepancy by gender in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Socio-demographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.

  5. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  6. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  7. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  8. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  9. Impact of aldosterone-producing cell clusters on diagnostic discrepancies in primary aldosteronism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Mitsuhiro; Yoneda, Takashi; Aono, Daisuke; Karashima, Shigehiro; Demura, Masashi; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu

    2018-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subtype diagnosis. Gene mutations or pathological characteristics may be related to lateralization by AVS. This study aimed to compare the rate of diagnostic discrepancy by AVS pre- versus post-ACTH stimulation and to investigate the relationship between this discrepancy and findings from immunohistochemical and genetic analyses of PA. We evaluated 195 cases of AVS performed in 2011–2017. All surgical specimens were analyzed genetically and immunohistochemically. Based on the criteria, AVS was successful in 158 patients both pre- and post-ACTH; of these patients, 75 showed diagnostic discrepancies between pre- and post-ACTH. Thus, 19 patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, of whom 16 had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) that was positive for CYP11B2 immunostaining. Of them, 10 patients had discordant lateralization between pre- and post-ACTH. In the genetic analysis, the rate of somatic mutations was not significantly different between APA patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. In the immunohistochemical analysis, CYP11B2 levels and the frequency of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in APAs were almost identical between patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. However, both the number and summed area of APCCs in APAs were significantly smaller in patients with concordant results than in those whose diagnosis changed to bilateral PA post-ACTH stimulation. In conclusion, lateralization by AVS was affected by APCCs in the adjacent gland, but not by APA-related factors such as somatic gene mutations. PMID:29899838

  10. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  11. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  14. Continuous injection rate-shaping for passenger-car diesel engines. Potential, limits and feasibility; Kontinuierliche Einspritzverlaufsformung in Pkw-Dieselmotoren. Potenziale, Grenzen und Realisierungschancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predelli, Oliver; Gratzke, Ralf; Sommer, Ansgar; Marohn, Ralf [Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Atzler, Frank; Schuele, Harry; Kastner, Oliver; Nozeran, Nicolas [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Injection-rate shaping for passenger-car diesel engines is a technique on the verge of a breakthrough. In addition to reducing particulate emission, the method is capable of significantly cutting combustion noise, the Achilles heel of the DI diesel combustion process. As a result, injection-rate shaping shows clear advantages over alternative lowemission combustion processes, such as PCCI, which, although also capable of improving raw emissions in relation to NO{sub x} and soot, are less convincing from the aspect of diesel knock and the emission of CO and CO{sub 2}. Of the modern Common-Rail injection systems, only two permit continuous injection-rate shaping in addition to the hitherto customary strategy of multiple injection. One of them is the Continental PCR NG system. This uses piezo-actuated Common-Rail injectors with direct actuation of the injector nozzle needle. The electronic engine control system provides the capability of determining how far the injector nozzle needle opens. The ability to control the injection curve of each individual injection event gives the engine developer new degrees of freedom in optimizing the combustion process. This paper investigates the way in which the operating behavior of a passenger-car diesel engine is affected by an injection-rate that can be shaped flexibly across broad ranges. Injection-rate shaping aims to use high injection pressures at part load without affecting acoustics and with a view to achieving a significant improvement in emission behavior. The investigation also points out this technique's limits in individual operating points. It furthermore demonstrates approaches suitable for use in mass production with regard to controlling injection-rate shaping in real time in the engine control unit as a way of providing combustion-process stability over the life of the engine. (orig.)

  15. Visual study of capabilities of managing IC engine filling degree vs engine ecological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Szymon; Ligus, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    The operation of an internal combustion engine in a transient state is related to constant changes in cylinder filling degree. Managing a steady course of engine torque demands constant corrections in the volume of air delivered to the engine. In this work, different engine throttle management strategies were analyzed. The effect of throttle velocity on emissions was depicted. The research has shown that the greatest value of work density is reached by the IC engine for relatively low values of throttle angle. For shown values, disturbances in air flow in engine intake which may adversely affect emissions due to uneven cylinder filling were researched with the use of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The conducted research has shown significant unevennes in air supply to individual cylinders in the engine. This effect may cause discrepancies in air excess ratio for each cylinder, and result in heightened harmful substance emission.

  16. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available engineering screening methodology that could be used to screen potential systems engineers. According to their design, this can be achieved by defining a system engineering profile according to specific psychological attributes, and using this profile...

  17. Objective environmental risks - subjective risk perception in the public - an unsolvable discrepancy? Presentation by a comparison of the final disposal of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, proposals for overcoming this problem, questions of realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, D.

    2005-01-01

    The main results of a BMU research project are presented, comprising comparisons of quantities of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, of the respective hazardous potentials, of the regulatory requirements and safety standards, of the costs, and of the discrepancy between objective risk and risk perception in the public. (orig.)

  18. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between

  19. Discrepancies in assessing home care workers' working conditions in a Norwegian home care service: differing views of stakeholders at three organizational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2015-07-25

    The present study is a follow-up study of factors contributing to an undesirable quality of work environment and sick leave rate in the home care services in a Norwegian municipality. The underlying assumption is that organizational discrepancies in the perceptions and appraisals of significant factors and processes in an organization have detrimental effects on the management of the organization and on work environment conditions. Thus, the study aim is to explore potential organizational discrepancies in the appraisals of factors relating to home care workers' working conditions. The study, using a mixed-methods design, comprised six home care units. It included survey responses of home care workers (80 respondents, response rate 54 %) and qualitative descriptions of stakeholders' appraisals of organizational issues gathered through semi-structured interviews (33 interviews with stakeholders at three organizational levels). Employees at different organizational levels in the home care services expressed divergent appraisals of factors related to the working conditions of home care workers, including impact of organizational measures (i.e. time pressure, work tasks, a new work program, organizational changes, budget model, budget allocation and coping strategies). Survey responses supported interview descriptions by home care workers. Results suggest that organizational discrepancy serve as an important barrier to a sustainable, well-functioning organization in general and to quality-enhancing changes to work procedures in particular. It is recommended to improve communication channels and facilitate the exchange of information across levels to ensure a common understanding of matters significant to the organization of the home care services and to the work environment of home care workers. The prevalence and impact of organizational discrepancy should be included in organization research, particularly when exploring explanatory factors of an unhealthy

  20. Self-Discrepancies and Involvement Moderate the Effects of Positive and Negative Message Framing in Persuasive Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Schakenraad, Roos; Menninga, Karin; Buunk, Abraham P.; Siero, Frans

    2009-01-01

    One individual difference that is conceptually closely related to the positive and negative framing of outcomes in persuasive communications is the person's self-discrepancy. It was expected that a match between a person's self-discrepancy and framing will lead to more persuasion, under the

  1. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  2. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  3. Predictors of the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Ott, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The poor relationship between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (BD) is well-established. However, beyond simple correlation, this has not been explored further using a methodology that quantifies the degree and direction of the discrepancy. This study...... aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. METHODS: Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self......-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life. Cognitive symptom 'sensitivity' scores were calculated using a novel methodology, with positive scores reflecting disproportionately more subjective complaints than objective impairment and negative values...

  4. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic camouflage in a class III adult patient with a severe transverse discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracco, Antonio; Finotti, Marco; Bruno, Giovanni; de Stefani, Alberto

    2018-04-06

    A 25-year-old man presented with a maxillary transverse discrepancy, posterior cross bite, anterior open bite, molar and canine class III. Treatment included a corticotomy in the upper lateral and posterior teeth, a palatal expansor and a sectional archwire to assist the expansion. The following treatment phase included bonding with Incognito System lingual appliance, interproximal reduction to solve the crowding and bite blocks to control the verticality. Two months after the bonding intermaxillary class III elastics were used to solve the sagittal discrepancy and eight months after the bonding vertical elastics were used in order to solve the anterior open bite until the end of the treatment. A Boston splint was applied for the upper arch, an essix splint was applied for the lower arch. The patient compliance was an essential aspect in the success of the orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Factors associated with diagnostic discrepancy for left ventricular hypertrophy between electrocardiography and echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager Petersen, Søren; Reinholdt Pedersen, Line; Pareek, Manan

    2017-01-01

    (absolute value/cut-off value for LVH) were used as outcome variables in order to identify explanatory variables associated with diagnostic discrepancies between ECG and echocardiography. RESULTS: Of the 1382 subjects included, 77% did not display any signs of LVH, 6% had LVH defined by ECG only, 13% had...... LVH defined by echocardiography only, and 5% had LVH on both ECG and echocardiography. Older subjects and those with higher blood pressure and RWT were more likely to have a relatively greater LVMI on echocardiography than that predicted on ECG (odds ratio: 1.65 per 10 years (95% confidence interval...... and odds ratio: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06-1.87), p = .02), but FPG did not independently influence discrepancy between ECG and echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Age, blood pressure, female sex, greater RWT and use of antihypertensive medication were associated with a greater risk of non-consistency between LVH...

  6. Conceptualizing body dissatisfaction in eating disorders within a self-discrepancy framework: a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Elin L; Gaspar, Monika E; DiTore, Rebecca; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine

    2018-02-09

    Body dissatisfaction, the negative subjective evaluation of one's body, is associated with many negative psychological and physical health consequences. One conceptualization of body dissatisfaction includes an experience of discrepancy between perceived actual and ideal body shapes. This paper reviews the literature on three facets of body dissatisfaction from the framework of self-discrepancy theory: perceptions of current weight, ideal body weight, and the relative importance of conforming to ideals. We review components of body dissatisfaction among healthy individuals and eating-disordered individuals. We also address the conceptualization's relationship among body dissatisfaction, weight history, and dieting to expand the impact of body dissatisfaction research and to provide more information on the nature and treatment of eating disorders.

  7. Analysis of discrepancies in Dalitz plot parameters in η→3π decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesár, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Dalitz plot parameters of η→3π decay in the framework of resummed chiral perturbation theory. This approach allows us to keep the uncertainties in the NNLO and higher orders under better control and estimate their influence. We cannot confirm the suspected discrepancy in the case of the charged decay parameter b, where even small uncertainties in higher orders could accommodate the difference. On the other hand, we find the experimental value of the neutral decay parameter α incompatible with an assumption of good convergence properties in the center of the Dalitz plot. We calculate ππ rescattering bubble corrections up to three loops and show that these might explain the discrepancy, especially for a low value of the pseudoscalar decay constant in the chiral limit. However, that could indicate a failure of convergence of the chiral series in this channel already at low energies around 500MeV.

  8. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women (N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner’s alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner’s physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners’ alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples. PMID:26478657

  9. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  10. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  11. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  12. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  13. Facts and Findings on the Statistical Discrepancies of the Korean Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Joo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea experienced drastic increases in the statistical discrepancy in balance of payments since 1997. In general, the expansion and complexity of external transactions induced by contributing capital account liberalization has contributed to this fact. The abolition of the export/import approval system seems to have accelerated the mismeasurement and omissions in external transactions. Of course, the influence of currency crisis occurred cannot be ruled out. Among economic factors, Won/dollar exchange rate volatility is found to have significant explanatory power on the magnitude of statistical discrepancy, while exchange rate returns have not. WE interpret this as the demand for relatively safe currency rising in presence of the uncertainty in domestic currency values.

  14. A potential study on clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate as diesel fuel bio-additives and their performance on one cylinder engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadarohman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potency of essential oils as diesel fuel bio-additives has been reported. It also has been found out that clove oil has a better performance than turpentine oil on decreasing Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduces the exhaust emissions of the engine. Clove oil is essential oil the content of which is made of eugenol acting as the main component. Eugenol has a bulky structure, two oxygen atoms and can form eugenyl acetate from ester reaction. Eugenyl acetate has a bulkier structure and higher oxygen content than eugenol which leads to optimizing the process of fuel combustion. This experiment can give information about the potency of the bio-additive based on clove oil and eugenol and about the influence of oxygen enrichment with eugenol on the performance of the diesel fuel bio-additive. In general, this experiment covered three stages. The first step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive using a GCMS and FTIR spectrophotometer. The second step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive and composition optimization. The final step is conducting a diesel fuel bio-additive performance test on one cylinder engine on a laboratory scale. The results of the carried out experiment show that clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate can decrease Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduce the exhaust emissions of the engine as well as oxygen enrichment can help in reaching optimal fuel combustion.

  15. Relationship and significance of gait deviations associated with limb length discrepancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrepancies between calculated and observed Fe XVII and Ni XIX solar coronal lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loulergue, M [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France); Nussbaumer, H [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1975-12-01

    The 36-levels model atom Fe/sup +16/ of Loulergue and Nussbaumer (1973) is extended to a 51-levels atom including n=4 configuration. The earlier conclusion that relative intensities among the Fe XVII lines are not sufficiently sensitive to variations in electron densities and electron temperature to deduce these parameters from observed intensity ratios still holds. Discrepancies between calculated and observed relative intensities in Fe XVII and Ni XIX are attributed to blends or misidentifications.

  17. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent–Child Discrepancy on Children’s Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Uccula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents’ difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent’s attributional accuracy on their children’s body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children’s perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children’s body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children’s parents show a greater correlation with children’s actual weight rather than with their children’s perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children’s body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children’s internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent–child attachment relationship.

  19. Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satko, S G; Burkart, J M; Bleyer, A J; Jordan, J R; Manning, T

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD.

  20. An Analysis of the Discrepancies between MODIS and INSAT-3D LSTs in High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Alavipanah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In many disciplines, knowledge on the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST as an input is of great importance. One of the most efficient methods in LST evaluation is cross validation. Well-documented and validated polar satellites with a high spatial resolution can be used as references for validating geostationary LST products. This study attempted to investigate the discrepancies between a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and Indian National Satellite (INSAT-3D LSTs for high temperatures, focusing on six deserts with sand dune land cover in the Middle East from 3 March 2015 to 24 August 2016. Firstly, the variability of LSTs in the deserts of the study area was analyzed by comparing the mean, Standard Deviation (STD, skewness, minimum, and maximum criteria for each observation time. The mean value of the LST observations indicated that the MYD-D observation times are closer to those of diurnal maximum and minimum LSTs. At all times, the LST observations exhibited a negative skewness and the STD indicated higher variability during times of MOD-D. The observed maximum LSTs from MODIS collection 6 showed higher values in comparison with the last versions of LSTs for hot spot regions around the world. After the temporal, spatial, and geometrical matching of LST products, the mean of the MODIS—INSAT LST differences was calculated for the study area. The results demonstrated that discrepancies increased with temperature up to +15.5 K. The slopes of the mean differences were relatively similar for all deserts except for An Nafud, suggesting an effect of View Zenith Angle (VZA. For modeling the discrepancies between two sensors in continuous space, the Diurnal Temperature Cycles (DTC of both sensors were constructed and compared. The sample DTC models approved the results from disc