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Sample records for potential angiogenesis regulatory

  1. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

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    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application.

  2. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis: The potential for engineering bone

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    JM Kanczler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopaedic challenge. Bone is a highly vascularised tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal connection between blood vessels and bone cells to maintain skeletal integrity. Angiogenesis thus plays a pivotal role in skeletal development and bone fracture repair. Current procedures to repair bone defects and to provide structural and mechanical support include the use of grafts (autologous, allogeneic or implants (polymeric or metallic. These approaches face significant limitations due to insufficient supply, potential disease transmission, rejection, cost and the inability to integrate with the surrounding host tissue.The engineering of bone tissue offers new therapeutic strategies to aid musculoskeletal healing. Various scaffold constructs have been employed in the development of tissue-engineered bone; however, an active blood vessel network is an essential pre-requisite for these to survive and integrate with existing host tissue. Combination therapies of stem cells and polymeric growth factor release scaffolds tailored to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis are under evaluation and development actively to stimulate bone regeneration. An understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions of blood vessels and bone cells will enhance and aid the successful development of future vascularised bone scaffold constructs, enabling survival and integration of bioengineered bone with the host tissue. The role of angiogenic and osteogenic factors in the adaptive response and interaction of osteoblasts and endothelial cells during the multi step process of bone development and repair will be highlighted in this review, with consideration of how some of these key mechanisms can be combined with new developments in tissue engineering to enable repair and growth of skeletal fractures. Elucidation of the processes of angiogenesis, osteogenesis and tissue engineering strategies offer

  3. Helios expression in regulatory T cells promotes immunosuppression, angiogenesis and the growth of leukemia cells in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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    Li, Xue; Li, Dong; Huang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Panpan; Shi, Qing; Zhang, Bing; Ju, Xiuli

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) are crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, FoxP3 does not function alone and Helios is considered a potential candidate for defining Treg subsets. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of Helios for identifying Tregs in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). Our results demonstrated that patients with pre-B ALL had a higher percentage of Helios + FoxP3 + CD4 + Tregs. And there was a positive correlation between the expression of Helios and the suppressive function of Tregs, the risk gradation of ALL. Helios in combination with CD4 and FoxP3 may be an effective way to detect functional Tregs in pre-B ALL by promoting the secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Furthermore, Helios + Tregs could regulate angiogenesis in the BM niche of pre-B ALL via the VEGFA/VEGFR2 pathway. We also found Helios + Tregs decreased apoptosis rate of nalm-6 cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. In summary, these data strongly imply the physiological importance of Helios expression in Tregs, and suggest that the manipulation of Helios may serve as a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90α secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

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    Song, Xiaomin; Luo, Yongzhang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90α secretion from endothelial cells. → Secreted Hsp90α localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. → Secreted Hsp90α promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90α (Hsp90α) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90α can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90α from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90α in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90α but not Hsp90β is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90α localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90α neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90α localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90α can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90α as a stimulator for wound repair.

  5. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

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    Song, Xiaomin [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Yongzhang, E-mail: yluo@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  6. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a potential biomarker of angiogenesis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

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    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Ahmad, Ajmal; Alam, Kaiser; Siddiquei, Mohammad Mairaj; Mohammad, Ghulam; Hertogh, Gert De; Mousa, Ahmed; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2017-11-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes angiogenesis through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. We investigated the expression levels of EMMPRIN and correlated these levels with VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In addition, we examined the expression of EMMPRIN in the retinas of diabetic rats and the effect of EMMPRIN on the induction of angiogenesis regulatory factors in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Vitreous samples from 40 PDR and 19 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 12 patients with PDR, retinas of rats and HRMECs were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, zymography analysis and RT-PCR. We showed a significant increase in the expression of EMMPRIN, VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared with non-diabetic controls (p EMMPRIN and the levels of VEGF (r = 0.38; p = 0.003), MMP-1 (r = 0.36; p = 0.005) and MMP-9 (r = 0.46; p = 0.003). In epiretinal membranes, EMMPRIN was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. Significant increase of EMMPRIN mRNA was detected in rat retinas after induction of diabetes. EMMPRIN induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, VEGF and MMP-1 expression in HRMEC. These results suggest that EMMPRIN/MMPs/VEGF pathway is involved in PDR angiogenesis. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. LEVELS OF ANGIOGENESIS-REGULATORY CHEMOKINES IN THE SYNOVIAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    D. A. Zhebrun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of chemokines in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has been actively investigated in recent years. Angiogenic and angiostatic chemokines are important mediators of angiogenesis in the development and extent of pannus. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid (SF is a major biomaterial in clinical and immunological studies. At the same time, it is the SF test that may yield the most informative results since that gives an idea of the processes that occur locally within a joint. Objective: to perform a comparative analysis of the levels of a number of CXC, CC, and CX3C chemokines in the SF of patients with RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and joint injuries. Subjects and methods. The multiplex analysis using xMAP technology (Luminex, USA was used to analyze levels of CXC, CC, and CX3C chemokines in SF and serum of patients with RA (n = 20, OA (n = 9 and controls (n = 9. Results and discussion. The SF levels of CCL24/eotaxin-2, as well as those of the angiostatic chemokines CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP10, CXCL11/ITAC, and CXCL13/BCA-1 were higher in the RA group than in the control and OA groups. There was a direct correlation between SF levels of CCL5/RANTES and DAS28, as well as patient global disease activity assessment on visual analogue scale, and that between the level of CCL2/MCP-1 in the SF and that of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibodies in the serum. The SF concentrations of CXCL5/ENA78 and CXCL7/NAP-2 were shown to depend on the presence of serum anti-CCP. Serum CXCL13/BCA-1 levels were higher in RA than those in OA, as that of CXCL7/NAP-2 than in the control group.

  8. Mediators of Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Are They Potential Biomarkers of the Disease?

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    Ilaria Puxeddu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU, different pathophysiological mechanisms, potentially responsible for the development of the disease, have been recently described. It is likely that the activation of skin mast cells with consequent release of histamine and other proinflammatory mediators is responsible for vasodilation in the lesional skin of CSU. However, the underlying causes of mast cell activation in the disease are largely unknown and remain to be identified. Thus, in this review, we discuss new insights in the pathogenesis of CSU, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. The understanding of these mechanisms will enable the identification of biomarkers useful for the diagnosis, follow-up, and management of CSU and will allow the development of novel, more specific, and patient-tailored therapies.

  9. Phosphorylation of Threonine 794 on Tie1 by Rac1/PAK1 Reveals a Novel Angiogenesis Regulatory Pathway.

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    Jessica L Reinardy

    Full Text Available The endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK Tie1 was discovered over 20 years ago, yet its precise function and mode of action remain enigmatic. To shed light on Tie1's role in endothelial cell biology, we investigated a potential threonine phosphorylation site within the juxtamembrane domain of Tie1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of this site (T794A in zebrafish (Danio rerio significantly disrupted vascular development, resulting in fish with stunted and poorly branched intersomitic vessels. Similarly, T794A-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells formed significantly shorter tubes with fewer branches in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. However, mutation of T794 did not alter Tie1 or Tie2 tyrosine phosphorylation or downstream signaling in any detectable way, suggesting that T794 phosphorylation may regulate a Tie1 function independent of its RTK properties. Although T794 is within a consensus Akt phosphorylation site, we were unable to identify a physiological activator of Akt that could induce T794 phosphorylation, suggesting that Akt is not the physiological Tie1-T794 kinase. However, the small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1, which is required for angiogenesis and capillary morphogenesis, was found to associate with phospho-T794 but not the non-phosphorylatable T794A mutant. Pharmacological activation of Rac1 induced downstream activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1 and T794 phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition of PAK1 abrogated T794 phosphorylation. Our results provide the first demonstration of a signaling pathway mediated by Tie1 in endothelial cells, and they suggest that a novel feedback loop involving Rac1/PAK1 mediated phosphorylation of Tie1 on T794 is required for proper angiogenesis.

  10. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

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    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  11. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

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    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases. © FASEB.

  12. Irradiation-induced angiogenesis is associated with an MMP-9-miR-494-syndecan-1 regulatory loop in medulloblastoma cells.

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    Asuthkar, S; Velpula, K K; Nalla, A K; Gogineni, V R; Gondi, C S; Rao, J S

    2014-04-10

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) represents one of the most prominent proteins associated with tumorigenesis and is a modulator of the tumor microenvironment during angiogenesis. Recently, syndecan-1 (SDC1), a transmembrane heparan sulfate-bearing proteoglycan, was also speculated to have a critical role in contributing to angiogenesis when associated with MMP-9. However, the mechanism behind their synergistic regulation is not fully understood. In the current study, we report for the first time that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced MMP-9 enhances SDC1 shedding, corroborating to tube-inducing ability of medulloblastoma (MB) cells. Furthermore, we observed that the tumor angiogenesis is associated with higher MMP-9-SDC1 interactions on both the cell surface and extracellular medium. Our results also revealed the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism where MMP-9 drives the suppression of miR-494, resulting in enhanced SDC1 shedding and angiogenesis. From the in situ hybridization analysis, we found that MMP-9-specific shRNA (shMMP-9) treatment of mouse intracranial tumors resulted in elevated expression of miR-494. This negative correlation between MMP-9 and miR-494 levels was observed to be dependent on the methylation status of a miR-494 promoter-associated CpG island region (-186 to -20), which was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis. Further, validation of MMP-9 and SDC1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) targets with luciferase reporter assay provided a more favorable result for miR-494-mediated regulation of SDC1 but not of MMP-9, suggesting that the 3'-UTR of SDC1 mRNA is a direct target of miR-494. Overall, our results indicate that angiogenesis induced by radiotherapy is associated with an MMP-9-miR-494-SDC1 regulatory loop and that MMP-9-SDC1 activity creates a negative feedback loop by regulating the expression of miR-494.

  13. Expression of Angiogenesis Regulatory Proteins and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factors in Platelets of the Breast Cancer Patients

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    Hui Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets play a role in tumor angiogenesis and growth and are the main transporters of several angiogenesis regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the levels of angiogenesis regulators and epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors sequestered by circulating platelets in breast cancer patients and age-matched healthy controls. Platelet pellets (PP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP were collected by routine protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, platelet factor 4 (PF4, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Angiogenesis-associated expression of VEGF (2.1 pg/106 platelets versus 0.9 pg/106 platelets, P < 0.001, PF4 (21.2 ng/106 platelets versus 10.2 ng/106 platelets, P < 0.001, PDGF-BB (42.9 pg/106 platelets versus 19.1 pg/106 platelets, P < 0.001, and TGF-β1 (15.3 ng/106 platelets versus 4.3 ng/106 platelets, P < 0.001 differed in the PP samples of cancer and control subjects. In addition, protein concentrations were associated with clinical characteristics (P<0.05. Circulating platelets in breast cancer sequester higher levels of PF4, VEGF, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β1, suggesting a possible target for early diagnosis. VEGF, PDGF, and TGF-β1 concentrations in platelets may be associated with prognosis.

  14. Potential role of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ1) in the regulation of ovarian angiogenesis.

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    Kuo, Shih-Wei; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lee, Ming-Ting; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2011-06-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during ovarian follicle development and luteinization. Pituitary secreted FSH was reported to stimulate the expression of endothelial mitogen VEGF in granulosa cells. And, intraovarian cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 is known to facilitate FSH-induced differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells. This intrigues us to investigate the potential role of FSH and TGFβ1 regulation of granulosa cell function in relation to ovarian angiogenesis. Granulosa cells were isolated from gonadotropin-primed immature rats and treated once with FSH and/or TGFβ1 for 48 h, and the angiogenic potential of conditioned media (granulosa cell culture conditioned media; GCCM) was determined using an in vitro assay with aortic ring embedded in collagen gel and immunoblotting. FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secreted angiogenic activity in granulosa cells (FSH + TGFβ1 > FSH ≈ TGFβ1 >control) that was partly attributed to the increased secretion of pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and PDGF-B. This is further supported by the evidence that pre-treatment with inhibitor of VEGF receptor-2 (Ki8751) or PDGF receptor (AG1296) throughout or only during the first 2-day aortic ring culture period suppressed microvessel growth in GCCM-treated groups, and also inhibited the FSH + TGFβ1-GCCM-stimulated release of matrix remodeling-associated gelatinase activities. Interestingly, pre-treatment of AG1296 at late stage suppressed GCCM-induced microvessel growth and stability with demise of endothelial and mural cells. Together, we provide original findings that both FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secretion of VEGF and PDGF-B, and that in turn up-regulated the angiogenic activity in rat ovarian granulosa cells. This implicates that FSH and TGFβ1 play important roles in regulation of ovarian angiogenesis during follicle development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Hsp90 as a Gatekeeper of Tumor Angiogenesis: Clinical Promise and Potential Pitfalls

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    J. E. Bohonowych

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor vascularization is an essential modulator of early tumor growth, progression, and therapeutic outcome. Although antiangiogenic treatments appear promising, intrinsic and acquired tumor resistance contributes to treatment failure. Clinical inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 provides an opportunity to target multiple aspects of this signaling resiliency, which may elicit more robust and enduring tumor repression relative to effects elicited by specifically targeted agents. This review highlights several primary effectors of angiogenesis modulated by Hsp90 and describes the clinical challenges posed by the redundant circuitry of these pathways. The four main topics addressed include (1 Hsp90-mediated regulation of HIF/VEGF signaling, (2 chaperone-dependent regulation of HIF-independent VEGF-mediated angiogenesis, (3 Hsp90-dependent targeting of key proangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and modulation of drug resistance, and (4 consideration of factors such as tumor microenvironment that pose several challenges for the clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy and Hsp90-targeted strategies.

  16. Defective angiogenesis delays thrombus resolution: a potential pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Panzenboeck, Adelheid; Winter, Max P; Schubert, Uwe; Voswinckel, Robert; Frey, Maria K; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Alimohammadi, Arman; Hobohm, Lukas; Mangold, Andreas; Bergmeister, Helga; Sibilia, Maria; Wagner, Erwin F; Mayer, Eckhard; Klepetko, Walter; Hoelzenbein, Thomas J; Preissner, Klaus T; Lang, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Restoration of patency is a natural target of vascular remodeling following venous thrombosis that involves vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes. Acute pulmonary emboli usually resolve within six months. However, in some instances, thrombi transform into fibrous vascular obstructions, resulting in occlusion of the deep veins, or in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We proposed that dysregulated thrombus angiogenesis may contribute to thrombus persistence. Approach and Results Mice with an endothelial-cell-specific conditional deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/kinase insert domain protein receptor (VEGF-R2/Kdr) were utilized in a model of stagnant flow venous thrombosis closely resembling human deep vein thrombosis. Biochemical and functional analyses were performed on pulmonary endarterectomy specimens from patients with CTEPH, a human model of non-resolving venous thromboembolism. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr and subsequent ablation of thrombus vascularization delayed thrombus resolution. In accordance with these findings, organized human CTEPH thrombi were largely devoid of vascular structures. Several vessel-specific genes such as KDR, vascular endothelial cadherin and podoplanin were expressed at lower levels in white CTEPH thrombi than in organizing deep vein thrombi and organizing thrombi from aortic aneurysms. In addition, red CTEPH thrombi attenuated the angiogenic response induced by VEGF. Conclusions In the present work, we propose a mechanism of thrombus non-resolution demonstrating that endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr abates thrombus vessel formation, misguiding thrombus resolution. Medical conditions associated with the development of CTEPH may be compromising early thrombus angiogenesis. PMID:24526692

  17. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

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    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

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    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long; Bao, Jin-ku

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. → ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. → ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca 2+ /Mn 2+ -dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-κB-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Ligands: Potential Pharmacological Agents for Targeting the Angiogenesis Signaling Cascade in Cancer

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    Costas Giaginis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ has currently been considered as molecular target for the treatment of human metabolic disorders. Experimental data from in vitro cultures, animal models, and clinical trials have shown that PPAR-γ ligand activation regulates differentiation and induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Tumor angiogenesis constitutes a multifaceted process implicated in complex downstream signaling pathways that triggers tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this aspect, accumulating in vitro and in vivo studies have provided extensive evidence that PPAR-γ ligands can function as modulators of the angiogenic signaling cascade. In the current review, the crucial role of PPAR-γ ligands and the underlying mechanisms participating in tumor angiogenesis are summarized. Targeting PPAR-γ may prove to be a potential therapeutic strategy in combined treatments with conventional chemotherapy; however, special attention should be taken as there is also substantial evidence to support that PPAR-γ ligands can enhance angiogenic phenotype in tumoral cells.

  20. Cytotoxic Effects and Anti-Angiogenesis Potential of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls against MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

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    Seifaddinipour, Maryam; Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2018-01-05

    Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC 50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.

  1. Disruption of tumor neovasculature by microbubble enhanced ultrasound: a potential new physical therapy of anti-angiogenesis.

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    Liu, Zheng; Gao, Shunji; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peijing; Liu, Jia; Li, Peng; Tan, Kaibin; Xie, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is of vital importance to the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The angiogenesis is featured with a defective, leaky and fragile vascular construction. Microbubble enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) cavitation is capable of mechanical disruption of small blood vessels depending on effective acoustic pressure amplitude. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation combining high-pressure amplitude pulsed ultrasound (US) and circulating microbubble could potentially disrupt tumor vasculature. A high-pressure amplitude, pulsed ultrasound device was developed to induce inertial cavitation of circulating microbubbles. The tumor vasculature of rat Walker 256 was insonated percutaneously with two acoustic pressures, 2.6 MPa and 4.8 MPa, both with intravenous injection of a lipid microbubble. The controls were treated by the ultrasound only or sham ultrasound exposure. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and histology were performed to assess tumor circulation and pathological changes. The CEUS results showed that the circulation of Walker 256 tumors could be completely blocked off for 24 hours in 4.8 MPa treated tumors. The CEUS gray scale value (GSV) indicated that there was significant GSV drop-off in both of the two experimental groups but none in the controls. Histology showed that the tumor microvasculature was disrupted into diffuse hematomas accompanied by thrombosis, intercellular edema and multiple cysts formation. The 24 hours of tumor circulation blockage resulted in massive necrosis of the tumor. MEUS provides a new, simple physical method for anti-angiogenic therapy and may have great potential for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G; Prudhomme, Kalan R; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Regulatory T Cells: Potential Target in Anticancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Mou Juang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of regulatory T cells was first described in the early 1970s, and regulatory T cells were called suppressive T cells at that time. Studies that followed have demonstrated that these suppressive T cells negatively regulated tumor immunity and contributed to tumor growth in mice. Despite the importance of these studies, there was extensive skepticism about the existence of these cells, and the concept of suppressive T cells left the center stage of immunologic research for decades. Interleukin-2 receptor α-chain, CD25, was first demonstrated in 1995 to serve as a phenotypic marker for CD4+ regulatory cells. Henceforth, research of regulatory T cells boomed. Regulatory T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, autoimmune disease, transplantation immunology, and immune tolerance in pregnancy. Recent evidence has demonstrated that regulatory T cellmediated immunosuppression is one of the crucial tumor immune evasion mechanisms and the main obstacle of successful cancer immunotherapy. The mechanism and the potential clinical application of regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy are discussed.

  4. Imaging angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Natalie; Donaldson, Stephanie; Price, Pat

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for direct imaging of effects on tumor vasculature in assessment of response to antiangiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents. Imaging tumor vasculature depends on differences in permeability of vasculature of tumor and normal tissue, which cause changes in penetration of contrast agents. Angiogenesis imaging may be defined in terms of measurement of tumor perfusion and direct imaging of the molecules involved in angiogenesis. In addition, assessment of tumor hypoxia will give an indication of tumor vasculature. The range of imaging techniques available for these processes includes positron emission tomography (PET), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), perfusion computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US).

  5. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  6. Placental growth factor enhances angiogenesis in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells via PI3K/Akt pathway: Potential implications of inflammation bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yi, E-mail: mondayzy@126.com; Tu, Chuantao, E-mail: tu.chuantao@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhao, Yuan, E-mail: zhao.yuan@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Liu, Hongchun, E-mail: liuhch@aliyun.com; Zhang, Shuncai, E-mail: zhang.shuncai@zs-hospital.sh.cn

    2016-02-19

    Background: Angiogenesis plays a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a specific regulator of pathological angiogenesis and is upregulated in the sera of IBD patients. Therefore, the role of PlGF in IBD angiogenesis was investigated here using HIMECs. Methods: The expression of PlGF and its receptors in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) and inflamed mucosa of IBD patients were examined using quantitative PCR and western blot analysis and the role of PlGF in IBD HIMECs was further explored using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine by PlGF in HIMECs was confirmed by ELISA. The capacity of PlGF to induce angiogenesis in HIMECs was tested through proliferation, cell-migration, matrigel tubule-formation assays and its underlying signaling pathway were explored by western blot analysis of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. Results: mRNA and protein expression of PlGF and its receptor NRP-1 were significantly increased in IBD HIMECs. Inflamed mucosa of IBD patients also displayed higher expression of PIGF. The production of IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of HIMECs treated with exogenous recombinant human PlGF-1 (rhPlGF-1) were increased. Furthermore, rhPlGF-1 significantly induced HIMECs migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner and knockdown of endogenous PlGF in IBD HIMECs using siRNA substantially reduced these angiogenesis activities. PlGF induced PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in HIMECs and pretreatment of PlGF-stimulated HIMECs with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) significantly inhibited the PlGF-induced cell migration and tube formation. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects of PlGF on HIMECs in IBD through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PlGF/PI3K/Akt signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target for IBD. - Highlights: • Expression of PlGF and its receptor NRP-1

  7. Therapeutic Antibody-Like Immunoconjugates against Tissue Factor with the Potential to Treat Angiogenesis-Dependent as Well as Macrophage-Associated Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that tissue factor (TF is selectively expressed in pathological angiogenesis-dependent as well as macrophage-associated human diseases. Pathological angiogenesis, the formation of neovasculature, is involved in many clinically significant human diseases, notably cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, endometriosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Macrophage is involved in the progression of a variety of human diseases, such as atherosclerosis and viral infections (human immunodeficiency virus, HIV and Ebola. It is well documented that TF is selectively expressed on angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VECs in these pathological angiogenesis-dependent human diseases and on disease-associated macrophages. Under physiology condition, TF is not expressed by quiescent VECs and monocytes but is solely restricted on some cells (such as pericytes that are located outside of blood circulation and the inner layer of blood vessel walls. Here, we summarize TF expression on angiogenic VECs, macrophages and other diseased cell types in these human diseases. In cancer, for example, the cancer cells also overexpress TF in solid cancers and leukemia. Moreover, our group recently reported that TF is also expressed by cancer-initiating stem cells (CSCs and can serve as a novel oncotarget for eradication of CSCs without drug resistance. Furthermore, we review and discuss two generations of TF-targeting therapeutic antibody-like immunoconjugates (ICON and L-ICON1 and antibody-drug conjugates that are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of some of these human diseases. If efficacy and safety are proven in current and future clinical trials, TF-targeting immunoconjugates may provide novel therapeutic approaches with potential to broadly impact the treatment regimen of these significant angiogenesis-dependent, as well as macrophage-associated, human diseases.

  8. Myeloid cells expressing VEGF and arginase-1 following uptake of damaged retinal pigment epithelium suggests potential mechanism that drives the onset of choroidal angiogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available Whilst data recognise both myeloid cell accumulation during choroidal neovascularisation (CNV as well as complement activation, none of the data has presented a clear explanation for the angiogenic drive that promotes pathological angiogenesis. One possibility that is a pre-eminent drive is a specific and early conditioning and activation of the myeloid cell infiltrate. Using a laser-induced CNV murine model, we have identified that disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and Bruch's membrane resulted in an early recruitment of macrophages derived from monocytes and microglia, prior to angiogenesis and contemporaneous with lesional complement activation. Early recruited CD11b(+ cells expressed a definitive gene signature of selective inflammatory mediators particularly a pronounced Arg-1 expression. Accumulating macrophages from retina and peripheral blood were activated at the site of injury, displaying enhanced VEGF expression, and notably prior to exaggerated VEGF expression from RPE, or earliest stages of angiogenesis. All of these initial events, including distinct VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ myeloid cells, subsided when CNV was established and at the time RPE-VEGF expression was maximal. Depletion of inflammatory CCR2-positive monocytes confirmed origin of infiltrating monocyte Arg-1 expression, as following depletion Arg-1 signal was lost and CNV suppressed. Furthermore, our in vitro data supported a myeloid cell uptake of damaged RPE or its derivatives as a mechanism generating VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ phenotype in vivo. Our results reveal a potential early driver initiating angiogenesis via myeloid-derived VEGF drive following uptake of damaged RPE and deliver an explanation of why CNV develops during any of the stages of macular degeneration and can be explored further for therapeutic gain.

  9. Angiogenesis and Its Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays critical roles in human physiology that range from reproduction and fetal growth to wound healing and tissue repair. The sophisticated multistep process is tightly regulated in a spatial and temporal manner by “on-off switch signals” between angiogenic factors, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial cells. Uncontrolled angiogenesis may lead to several angiogenic disorders, including vascular insufficiency (myocardial or critical limb ischemia and vascular overgrowth (hemangiomas, vascularized tumors, and retinopathies. Thus, numerous therapeutic opportunities can be envisaged through the successful understanding and subsequent manipulation of angiogenesis. Here, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis and discuss pro- and antiangiogenic agents that offer potential therapy for cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  10. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  11. Highly efficient local delivery of endothelial progenitor cells significantly potentiates angiogenesis and full-thickness wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggui; Wang, Qingqing; Gao, Wendong; Zhang, Zengjie; Lou, Yiting; Jin, Haiming; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo; Xu, Huazi; Mao, Cong

    2018-03-15

    Wound therapy with a rapid healing performance remains a critical clinical challenge. Cellular delivery is considered to be a promising approach to improve the efficiency of healing, yet problems such as compromised cell viability and functionality arise due to the inefficient delivery. Here, we report the efficient delivery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with a bioactive nanofibrous scaffold (composed of collagen and polycaprolactone and bioactive glass nanoparticles, CPB) for enhancing wound healing. Under the stimulation of CPB nanofibrous system, the viability and angiogenic ability of EPCs were significantly enhanced through the activation of Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling. In vivo, CPB/EPC constructs significantly enhanced the formation of high-density blood vessels by greatly upregulating the expressions of Hif-1α, VEGF, and SDF-1α. Moreover, owing to the increased local delivery of cells and fast neovascularization within the wound site, cell proliferative activity, granulation tissue formation, and collagen synthesis and deposition were greatly promoted by CPB/EPC constructs resulting in rapid re-epithelialization and regeneration of skin appendages. As a result, the synergistic enhancement of wound healing was observed from CPB/EPC constructs, which suggests the highly efficient delivery of EPCs. CPB/EPC constructs may become highly competitive cell-based therapeutic products for efficient impaired wound healing application. This study may also provide a novel strategy to develop bioactive cell therapy constructs for angiogenesis-related regenerative medicine. This paper reported a highly efficient local delivery of EPCs using bioactive glass-based CPB nanofibrous scaffold for enhancing angiogenesis and wound regeneration. In vitro study showed that CPB can promote the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of EPCs through upregulation of the Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling pathway, indicating that the bioactivity and angiogenic ability of

  12. Function of miR-146a-5p in Tumor Cells As a Regulatory Switch between Cell Death and Angiogenesis: Macrophage Therapy Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Simanovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors survive and progress by evading killing mechanisms of the immune system, and by generating a tumor microenvironment (TME that reprograms macrophages in situ to produce factors that support tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We have previously shown that by blocking the translation of the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, miR-146a-5p inhibits nitric oxide (NO production in a mouse renal carcinoma cell line (RENCA, thereby endowing RENCA cells with resistance to macrophage-induced cell death. Here, we expand these findings to the mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cell line and demonstrate that neutralizing miR-146a-5p’s activity by transfecting both RENCA and CT26 cells with its antagomir restored iNOS expression and NO production and enhanced susceptibility to macrophage-induced cell death (by 48 and 25%, respectively, p < 0.001. Moreover, miR-146a-5p suppression simultaneously inhibited the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein EMMPRIN (threefolds, p < 0.001, leading to reduced MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion (twofolds and threefolds, respectively, p < 0.05, and reduced angiogenesis, as estimated by in vitro tube formation and scratch assays. When we injected tumors with pro-inflammatory-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages together with i.v. injection of the miR-146a-5p antagomir, we found inhibited tumor growth (sixfolds, p < 0.001 and angiogenesis (twofolds, p < 0.01, and increased apoptosis (twofolds, p < 0.01. This combination therapy increased nitrites and reduced TGFβ concentrations in tumor lysates, alleviated immune suppression, and allowed enhanced infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Thus, miR-146a-5p functions as a control switch between angiogenesis and cell death, and its neutralization can manipulate the crosstalk between tumor cells and macrophages and profoundly change the TME. This strategy can be therapeutically utilized in combination with the macrophage

  13. [Markers of angiogenesis in tumor growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, N A; Kharlova, O A; Danilova, N V; Malkov, P G; Gaifullin, N M

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessels formation. The role of angiogenesis in growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours is nowdays universally recognized. Though, investigation of mechanisms of blood vessels formation and elaboration methods for assessment of tumour angiogenesis are still up-dated. Another important concern are different aspects of usage of immunohistochemical markers of blood vessels endothelium (CD31 and CD34) for assessment of tumour aggressiveness and prognosis. The problems of malignant lymphangiogenesis are also up-to-date. The focus is on methods of immunohistochemical visualization of forming lymphatic vessels, role of podoplanin, the most reliable marker of lymphatic vessels, in their identification, and formulization of the main criteria for lymphangiogenesis estimation, its correlation with metastatic activity and prognostic potential. Studying of angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis in malignant tumors is important and challenging direction for researching tumour progression and invention of antiangiogenic therapy.

  14. Analysis of regulatory structure for a potential fusion reactor industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The report is divided into eight sections. The preface describes the authors of the report, the methodology used in its preparation, and some basic legal terms. The summary describes the principal features of the proposed regulatory system and also includes two flow charts comparing our model with present NRC practices and a summary table briefly outlining the reasoning behind our recommendations. The main body of the report is divided into six sections. This part of the report discusses the existing federal and state programs for regulating electric energy, describes NRC operations and the criticisms of that agency, discusses the features of our proposed regulatory model, recommends certain steps for implementing the proposed model, and states the conclusions of the report.

  15. Angiogenesis and Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza L. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review was performed to survey the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. This is a multifactorial disease in which the development and maintenance of endometriotic implants depend on their invasive capacity and angiogenic potential. The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis is a complex suspension carrying inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, steroid hormones, proangiogenic factors, macrophages, and endometrial and red blood cells. These cells and their signaling products concur to promote the spreading of new blood vessels at the endometriotic lesions and surroundings, which contributes to the endometriotic implant survival. Experimental studies of several antiangiogenic agents demonstrated the regression of endometriotic lesions by reducing their blood supply. Further studies are necessary before these novel agents can be introduced into clinical practice, in particular the establishment of the safety of anti-angiogenic medications in women who are seeking to become pregnant.

  16. Angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Czykier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain gliomas are characterized by invasive growth and neovascularisation potential. Angiogenesis plays a major role in the progression of gliomas and its determination has a great prognostic value. The aim of the study was to assess the vascularisation of chosen brain gliomas and to estimate how it is correlated with tumour histological type, malignancy grade, location and size, and with age and sex of patients. Tumour vascularisation analysis was based on the determination of microvascular proliferation (MVP and microvessel density (MVD. Microvascular proliferation was measured with immunohistochemical methods using mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect cell proliferation antigens. The following antibodies were used Ki-67 and PCNA (DAKO. Identification of vessels was performed by CD31 antibody and anti-human von Willebrand factor (DAKO. The highest microvascular proliferation and microvascular density were observed in multiform glioblastomas and the lowest in oligodendrogliomas. Significant correlation was observed between the vascularisation and malignancy grade.

  17. An allometric approach of tumor-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Oliver; Vincze, Gyula; Szigeti, Gyula Peter; Benyo, Zoltan; Szasz, Andras

    2018-07-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the main supporting factors of tumor-progression. It is a complex set of interactions together with hypoxia and inflammation, regulating tumor growth. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of angiogenesis with an allometric approach applied to angiogenesis and the regulating factors. The results show that allometry has the potential to describe this aspect, including the sigmoid-like transport function. There are particular conditions under which the complex control maximizes the relative tumor mass. Linear growth of malignancy diameter with an allometric approach was proven. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis demonstrating tissue capillary supply is under strict control...... rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathologic) angiogenesis....

  19. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  20. Regulatory T Cells As Potential Targets for HIV Cure Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Adam J.; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Pandrea, Ivona; Chougnet, Claire A.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a key component of the immune system, which maintain a delicate balance between overactive responses and immunosuppression. As such, Treg deficiencies are linked to autoimmune disorders and alter the immune control of pathogens. In HIV infection, Tregs play major roles, both beneficial and detrimental. They regulate the immune system such that inflammation and spread of virus through activated T cells is suppressed. However, suppression of immune activation also limits viral clearance and promotes reservoir formation. Tregs can be directly targeted by HIV, thereby harboring a fraction of the viral reservoir. The vital role of Tregs in the pathogenesis and control of HIV makes them a subject of interest for manipulation in the search of an HIV cure. Here, we discuss the origin and generation, homeostasis, and functions of Tregs, particularly their roles and effects in HIV infection. We also present various Treg manipulation strategies, including Treg depletion techniques and interventions that alter Treg function, which may be used in different cure strategies, to simultaneously boost HIV-specific immune responses and induce reactivation of the latent virus.

  1. Investigations of potential below regulatory concern (de minimus) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a wide variety of waste types. Many organizations are contemplating the merits of declaring certain LLW as de minimus. The concept of de minimus has considerable support, as evidenced by the comments on NRC's rulemaking for 10 CFR Part 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Practical and philosophical considerations lend weight to the further investigation of the de minimus concept for LLW. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes the interest and efforts in the concept of de minimus. Because the term de minimus may imply a lack of concern for the risks of disposal, we use the term Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). EPA has developed technical information, cost data, and a methodology for selecting promising candidate waste streams. The NRC's breakdown of LLW, as provided in the supporting documentation for 10 CFR Part 51, serves as a starting point for evaluating individual waste streams. Waste streams may then be ranked on the basis of individual dose, population health impact, and cost/benefit. A set of waste streams consistently ranks near the top in all categories and deserves further analysis. This screening is the initial step in an overall effort to develop a basis for determining the appropriateness and form of generic BRC criteria. 14 references, 8 tables

  2. [Angiogenesis and endometriose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C M; Bartley, J; Mechsner, S; Ebert, A D

    2004-08-01

    Endometriosis is considered a chronic disease of women during their reproductive phase, which resembles many signs of malignancy. So far, therapeutic options for endometriosis-associated pain and infertility are unsatisfactory and often lead to recurrence of disease after termination of treatment. Angiogenesis seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The use of angiogenesis inhibitors may add an important new tool to well-established treatment schedules. Therefore, it is very important to thoroughly investigate the role of angiogenesis in endometriosis with respect to the female reproductive system.

  3. Cancer-suppressive potential of extracts of endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii: effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Ivana Z; Aljancić, Ivana; Vajs, Vlatka; Jadranin, Milka; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Juranić, Zorica D

    2013-09-01

    Helichrysum zivojinii Cernjavski & Soska is an endemic plant species that grows in the National Park Galicica in Macedonia. Five extracts were isolated as fractions from the aerial parts of the plant: a n-hexane extract (1), a dichloromethane extract (2), an ethyl-acetate extract (3), a n-butanol extract (4) and a methanol extract (5). A dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of the extracts on MDA-MB-231 and EA.hy926 cells was observed. Extracts exhibited more pronounced cytotoxic actions on MDA-MB-231 cells than on EA.hy926 cells. The n-hexane extract (1), at a non-toxic concentration, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration as well the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. The dichloromethane extract (2), at a non-toxic concentration, demonstrated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells invasion. Each of the five extracts applied at non-toxic concentrations inhibited migration of EA.hy926 cells. The prominent inhibitory effect of the n-hexane extract on EA.hy926 cells migration was associated with a notable anti-angiogenic action of this extract. The other four tested extracts demonstrated mild anti-angiogenic activity. Our data highlight the prominent anticancer potential of n-hexane (1) and dichloromethane (2) extracts, which could be attributed to their very pronounced and selective cytotoxic activities as well as their anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic properties.

  4. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  5. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  6. Benfotiamine accelerates the healing of ischaemic diabetic limbs in mice through protein kinase B/Akt-mediated potentiation of angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadau, S; Emanueli, C; Van Linthout, S; Graiani, G; Todaro, M; Meloni, M; Campesi, I; Invernici, G; Spillmann, F; Ward, K; Madeddu, P

    2006-02-01

    Benfotiamine, a vitamin B1 analogue, reportedly prevents diabetic microangiopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether benfotiamine is of benefit in reparative neovascularisation using a type I diabetes model of hindlimb ischaemia. We also investigated the involvement of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in the therapeutic effects of benfotiamine. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, given oral benfotiamine or vehicle, were subjected to unilateral limb ischaemia. Reparative neovascularisation was analysed by histology. The expression of Nos3 and Casp3 was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the activation state of PKB/Akt was assessed by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The functional importance of PKB/Akt in benfotiamine-induced effects was investigated using a dominant-negative construct. Diabetic muscles showed reduced transketolase activity, which was corrected by benfotiamine. Importantly, benfotiamine prevented ischaemia-induced toe necrosis, improved hindlimb perfusion and oxygenation, and restored endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Histological studies revealed the improvement of reparative neovascularisation and the inhibition of endothelial and skeletal muscle cell apoptosis. In addition, benfotiamine prevented the vascular accumulation of advanced glycation end products and the induction of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, while restoring proper expression of Nos3 and Akt in ischaemic muscles. The benefits of benfotiamine were nullified by dominant-negative PKB/Akt. In vitro, benfotiamine stimulated the proliferation of human EPCs, while inhibiting apoptosis induced by high glucose. In diabetic mice, the number of circulating EPCs was reduced, with the deficit being corrected by benfotiamine. We have demonstrated, for the first time, that benfotiamine aids the post-ischaemic healing of diabetic animals via PKB/Akt-mediated potentiation of angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, benfotiamine combats the diabetes-induced deficit in

  7. Demand response in Germany: Technical potential, benefits and regulatory challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Stede, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increased flexibility of the electricity demand side through demand response (DR) is an opportunity to support the integration of renewable energies. By optimising the use of the generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure, DR reduces the need for costly investments and contributes to system security. There is a significant technical DR potential for load reduction from industrial production processes in Germany, as well as from cross-cutting technologies in industry and the t...

  8. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, A R; Cattaneo, M G; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, L M; Noonan, D M; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability - through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Hyperosmotic stimulus induces reversible angiogenesis within the hypothalamic magnocellular nuclei of the adult rat: a potential role for neuronal vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anne

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, the CNS vasculature is established during the postnatal period via active angiogenesis, providing different brain regions with capillary networks of various densities that locally supply adapted metabolic support to neurons. Thereafter this vasculature remains essentially quiescent excepted for specific pathologies. In the adult rat hypothalamus, a particularly dense network of capillary vessels is associated with the supraoptic (SON and paraventricular (PVN nuclei containing the magnocellular neurons secreting vasopressin and oxytocin, two neurohormones involved in the control of the body fluid homoeostasis. In the seventies, it was reported that proliferation of astrocytes and endothelial cells occurs within these hypothalamic nuclei when strong metabolic activation of the vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons was induced by prolonged hyperosmotic stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether such proliferative response to osmotic stimulus is related to local angiogenesis and to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Results Our results provide evidence that cell proliferation occurring within the SON of osmotically stimulated adult rats corresponds to local angiogenesis. We show that 1 a large majority of the SON proliferative cells is associated with capillary vessels, 2 this proliferative response correlates with a progressive increase in density of the capillary network within the nucleus, and 3 SON capillary vessels exhibit an increased expression of nestin and vimentin, two markers of newly formed vessels. Contrasting with most adult CNS neurons, hypothalamic magnocellular neurons were found to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a potent angiogenic factor whose production was increased by osmotic stimulus. When VEGF was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment or by the local application of a blocking antibody, the angiogenic response was strongly

  10. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  11. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  12. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büning, H; Hacker, U T

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in malignant, ischemic, inflammatory, infectious and immune disorders. The increasing molecular understanding of angiogenic processes fostered the development of strategies to induce or inhibit angiogenesis for therapeutic purposes. Here, we focus on anti-angiogenic therapies, which represent a standard of care in the treatment of different cancer types and in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Specifically, strategies related to the blockade of angiogenic proteins and receptors will be outlined covering both preclinical and clinical aspects. Finally, examples of gene therapy based anti-angiogenic approaches are presented.

  13. Safeguards decision making in the public and regulatory environment, and the potential role of quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the nature of the safeguards program's objectives and constraints, and the inherent limitations on comprehensive quantification. It discusses the nature of the public and regulatory processes employed in safeguards decision making, and examines their implications regarding the potential role of quantitative approaches to safeguards policy and operational decision making

  14. Tip Cells in Angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dallinga (Marchien); S.E.M. Boas (Sonja); I. Klaassen (Ingeborg); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland); C.J.F. van Noorden; R.O. Schlingemann (Reinier)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn angiogenesis, the process in which blood vessel sprouts grow out from a pre-existing vascular network, the so-called endothelial tip cells play an essential role. Tip cells are the leading cells of the sprouts; they guide following endothelial cells and sense their environment for

  15. Nanomaterial categorization for assessing risk potential to facilitate regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hilary; Nameth, Catherine; Avery, David; Bergeson, Lynn L; Bernard, Daniel; Beryt, Elizabeth; Boyes, William; Brown, Scott; Clippinger, Amy J; Cohen, Yoram; Doa, Maria; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Holden, Patricia; Houck, Keith; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kodas, Toivo; Landsiedel, Robert; Lynch, Iseult; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Muller, Julie; Oberdorster, Gunter; Petersen, Elijah J; Pleus, Richard C; Sayre, Philip; Stone, Vicki; Sullivan, Kristie M; Tentschert, Jutta; Wallis, Philip; Nel, Andre E

    2015-01-01

    For nanotechnology to meet its potential as a game-changing and sustainable technology, it is important to ensure that the engineered nanomaterials and nanoenabled products that gain entry to the marketplace are safe and effective. Tools and methods are needed for regulatory purposes to allow rapid material categorization according to human health and environmental risk potential, so that materials of high concern can be targeted for additional scrutiny, while material categories that pose the least risk can receive expedited review. Using carbon nanotubes as an example, we discuss how data from alternative testing strategies can be used to facilitate engineered nanomaterial categorization according to risk potential and how such an approach could facilitate regulatory decision-making in the future.

  16. The Harvard angiogenesis story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan W

    2014-01-01

    I shall discuss the work of researchers at Harvard Medical School who came together in the early 1990s. Scattered across various Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research centers, these individuals were unified by their interest in ocular neovascularization. Together and separately, they investigated models of ocular neovascularization, exploring tumor angiogenesis in eye development and disease. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  18. Sorafenib blocks tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastatic potential in preclinical models of osteosarcoma through a mechanism potentially involving the inhibition of ERK1/2, MCL-1 and ezrin pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone tumour in children and young adults. Despite improved prognosis, metastatic or relapsed OS remains largely incurable and no significant improvement has been observed in the last 20 years. Therefore, the search for alternative agents in OS is mandatory. Results We investigated phospho-ERK 1/2, MCL-1, and phospho-Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (P-ERM as potential therapeutic targets in OS. Activation of these pathways was shown by immunohistochemistry in about 70% of cases and in all OS cell lines analyzed. Mutational analysis revealed no activating mutations in KRAS whereas BRAF gene was found to be mutated in 4/30 OS samples from patients. Based on these results we tested the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (BAY 43-9006 in preclinical models of OS. Sorafenib inhibited OS cell line proliferation, induced apoptosis and downregulated P-ERK1/2, MCL-1, and P-ERM in a dose-dependent manner. The dephosphorylation of ERM was not due to ERK inhibition. The downregulation of MCL-1 led to an increase in apoptosis in OS cell lines. In chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes, OS supernatants induced angiogenesis, which was blocked by sorafenib and it was also shown that sorafenib reduced VEGF and MMP2 production. In addition, sorafenib treatment dramatically reduced tumour volume of OS xenografts and lung metastasis in SCID mice. Conclusion In conclusion, ERK1/2, MCL-1 and ERM pathways are shown to be active in OS. Sorafenib is able to inhibit their signal transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, displaying anti-tumoural activity, anti-angiogenic effects, and reducing metastatic colony formation in lungs. These data support the testing of sorafenib as a potential therapeutic option in metastatic or relapsed OS patients unresponsive to standard treatments.

  19. Clinical potential of regulatory T cell therapy in liver diseases: An overview and current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Claire Jeffery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes, that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg. The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients.Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases, chronic rejection and post-transplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases (GVHD and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the autoimmune liver diseases for more than three decades; thus the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.

  20. Regulatory potential for increasing small scale grid connected photovoltaic (PV) deployment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Deepak; Horne, Ralph E.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant innovation and change in regulatory incentives to support photovoltaic deployment globally. With high fossil fuel dependency and abundant solar resource availability in Australia, grid connected photovoltaics are a viable low carbon technology option in existing electricity grids. Drawing on international examples, the potential to increase grid PV deployment through government response and regulation is explored. For each renewable energy certificate (REC) earned by small scale photovoltaics until 2012, the market provides four additional certificates under the current banded renewable targets. Our analysis indicates that REC eligibility is not accurately estimated currently, and an energy model is developed to calculate the variance. The energy model estimates as much as 26% additional REC's to be obtained by a 3 kWp PV system, when compared to the currently used regulatory method. Moreover, the provision of REC's increases benefits to PV technologies, in the process distorting CO 2 abatement (0.21 tonne/REC) by 68%, when PV displaces peaking natural gas plants. Consideration of the secondary effects of a banded structure on emissions trading market is important in the context of designing a range of initiatives intended to support a transition to a low carbon electricity sector. - Research Highlights: →Grid connected photovoltaics hedge spikes in peak demand summer electricity prices. →Nationwide feed in tariff and new building regulations needed to increase PV deployment. →Australia has transitioned from a solar rebate to a banded solar credit structure. →The currently used regulatory deeming method underestimates REC eligibility by 27%. →The banded structure can potentially distort CO 2 abatement by as much as 68%.

  1. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Not all patients with severe coronary artery disease can be treated satisfactorily with current recommended medications and revascularization techniques. Various vascular growth factors have the potential to induce angiogenesis in ischemic tissue. Clinical trials have only evaluated the effect...... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...

  2. Therapeutic potential of regulatory macrophages generated from peritoneal dialysate in adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Changqi; Wang, Xin M; Lee, Vincent W S; Zheng, Guoping; Zhao, Ye; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2018-04-01

    Cell therapy using macrophages requires large amounts of cells, which are difficult to collect from patients. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) discard huge numbers of peritoneal macrophages in dialysate daily. Macrophages can be modulated to become regulatory macrophages, which have shown great promise as a therapeutic strategy in experimental kidney disease and human kidney transplantation. This study aimed to examine the potential of using peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from peritoneal dialysate to treat kidney disease. Monocytes/macrophages accounted for >40% of total peritoneal leukocytes in both patients and mice undergoing PD. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD were more mature than peripheral monocytes/macrophages, as shown by low expression of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and morphological changes during in vitro culture. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD displayed normal macrophage function and could be modulated into a regulatory (M2) phenotype. In vivo, adoptive transfer of peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice effectively protected against kidney injury in mice with adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Importantly, the transfused peritoneal M2 macrophages maintained their M2 phenotype in kidney of AN mice. In conclusion, PMs derived from patients and mice undergoing PD exhibited conventional macrophage features. Peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice are able to reduce kidney injury in AN, suggesting that peritoneal macrophages from patients undergoing PD may have the potential for clinical therapeutic application.

  3. Diversity of radioprobes targeted to tumor angiogenesis on molecular functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xia; Zhang Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular functional imaging could visualize, characterize, and measure the bio- logical processes including tumor angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The molecular probes labeled by a variety of radionuclide used in the field of the nuclear medicine play pivotal roles in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the regulatory role of different probes in tumor angiogenesis has not been systematically illustrated. The current status of tumor angiogenesis imaging with radiolabeled probes of peptide, monoclonal antibody as well as its fragment, especially nanoparticle-based probes to gain insights into the robust tumor angiogenesis development were summarized. It was recognized that only the probes such as nanoparticle-based probes, which truly target the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells because of poor extravasation, are really tumor angiogenesis imaging agent. The research of molecular probe targeted to angiogenesis would meet its flourish just after the outstanding improvements in the in vivo stability and biocompatibility, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tumor angiogenesis imaging probes are made. Translation to clinical applications will also be critical for the maximize benefits of these novel agents. The future of tumor angiogenesis imaging lies in liable imaging probes and multiple imaging modalities, imaging of protein-protein interactions, and quantitative molecular imaging. (authors)

  4. A regulatory perspective on the abuse potential evaluation of novel stimulant drugs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Silvia N; Klein, Michael

    2014-12-01

    In the United States of America (USA), the abuse potential assessment of a drug is performed as part of the safety evaluation of a drug under development, and to evaluate if the drug needs to be subject to controls that would minimize the abuse of the drug once on the market. The assessment of the abuse potential of new drugs consists of a scientific and medical evaluation of all data related to abuse of the drug. This paper describes the regulatory framework for evaluating the abuse potential of new drugs, in general, including novel stimulants. The role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the evaluation of the abuse potential of drugs, and its role in drug control are also discussed. A definition of abuse potential, an overview of the currently accepted approaches to evaluating the abuse potential of a drug, as well as a description of the criteria that applies when recommending a specific level of control (i.e., a Schedule) for a drug under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware

  6. Potential environmental and regulatory implications of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The immense volume of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes produced annually by extracting industries throughout the world deserves to come to the attention of international and national environmental protection agencies and regulatory bodies. Although a great deal of work has been done in the fields of radiation protection and remedial actions concerning uranium and other mines, the need to dispose of diffuse NORM wastes will have environmental and regulatory implications that thus far are not fully appreciated. NORM wastes constitute, by and large, unwanted byproducts of industrial activities as diverse as thorium and uranium milling, niobium, tin and gold mining extraction, water treatment, and the production of oil, gas, phosphate fertilizer, coal fire and aluminium. The volumes of NORM wastes produced annually could reach levels so high that the existing low level radioactive waste (LLRW) facilities would be readily occupied by NORM if controlled disposal procedures were not adopted. On the other hand, NORM cannot just be ignored as being below radiological concern (BRC) or lower than exempt concentration levels (ECLs), because sometimes NORM concentrations reach levels as high as 1 x 10 3 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, and not much less for 228 Ra. Unfortunately, thus far, there is not enough information available concerning NORM wastes in key industries, though the international scientific community has been concerned, for a long time now, with technologically enhanced natural radiation exposures (TENRE). This article is written with the intention of examining, to the extent possible, the potential environmental and regulatory implications of NORM wastes being produced in selected industries. (Author)

  7. Molecular targeting of angiogenesis for imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, Simon S.; Neri, Dario; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2004-01-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the proliferation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an underlying process in many human diseases, including cancer, blinding ocular disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability to selectively target and interfere with neovascularisation would potentially be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases. This review presents the authors' views on some of the most relevant markers of angiogenesis described to date, as well as on specific ligands which have been characterised in pre-clinical animal models and/or clinical studies. Furthermore, we present an overview on technologies which are likely to have an impact on the way molecular targeting of angiogenesis is performed in the future. (orig.)

  8. Different immune regulatory potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Gim, Min Geun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2014-12-28

    It is known that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have many beneficial health effects, including antioxidative activity and immune regulation. In this study, the immune regulatory effects of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum, which are found in different types of kimchi, were evaluated. L. sakei and its lipoteichoic acid (LTA) have greater immune stimulating potential in IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α production as compared with L. plantarum in an in vitro condition. On the other hand, L. plantarum is assumed to repress the Th1 immune response in murine experiments. After being injected with LPS, L. plantarum-fed mice maintained a healthier state, and the level of TNF-α in their blood was lower than in other bacterial strainfed mice and in the LPS-only control mice. Additionally, IL-12 production was significantly decreased and the production of IL-4 was greatly increased in the splenocytes from L. plantarum-fed mice. Further experiments revealed that the pre-injection of purified LTA from L. plantarum (pLTA), L. sakei (sLTA), and S. aureus (aLTA) decreased TNF-α and IL-4 production in LPS-injected mice. Mouse IL-12, however, was significantly increased by aLTA pre-injection. In conclusion, the L. sakei and L. plantarum strains have immune regulation effects, but the effects differ in cytokine production and the regulatory effects of the Th1/Th2 immune response.

  9. Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2004-01-01

    growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured mRNA...... or VEGF mRNA was not changed with prolonged hypoxic exposure in SLR, and both genes were similarly expressed in SLR and HAN. In SLR, whole body mass, mean muscle fibre area and capillary to muscle fibre ratio remained unchanged during acclimatization. The capillary to fibre ratio was lower in HAN than...... in SLR (2.4+/-0.1 vs 3.6+/-0.2; PRNA expression and capillary density are not significantly increased by 8 weeks of exposure to high altitude and are not increased in Aymara high-altitude natives compared with sea level residents....

  10. Electricity distribution as an unsustainable natural monopoly. A potential outcome of New Zealand's regulatory regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, C.; Sharp, B.

    1999-01-01

    The ongoing reform of New Zealand's electricity supply industry has attempted to separate its potentially competitive elements from those with naturally monopolistic characteristics. Yet, some competition for distribution services is occurring, raising the question as to whether electricity distributors are natural monopolies as is typically assumed. This paper presents a simple model of a representative New Zealand distribution business, and shows that, in a true economic sense, distributors are most probably sustainable natural monopolies as expected. However, the model demonstrates that a mechanism for competition may arise because the financial principles enshrined in the Ministry of Commerce's regulatory regime can produce unsustainable cost structures and unintentionally introduce elements of contestability into the market for distribution services. 15 refs

  11. Rac1 in human diseases: The therapeutic potential of targeting Rac1 signaling regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki

    2017-07-03

    Abnormal Rac1 signaling is linked to a number of debilitating human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, Rac1 represents an attractive therapeutic target, yet the search for effective Rac1 inhibitors is still underway. Given the adverse effects associated with Rac1 signaling perturbation, cells have evolved several mechanisms to ensure the tight regulation of Rac1 signaling. Thus, characterizing these mechanisms can provide invaluable information regarding major cellular events that lead to aberrant Rac1 signaling. Importantly, this information can be utilized to further facilitate the development of effective pharmacological modulators that can restore normal Rac1 signaling. In this review, we focus on the pathological role of Rac1 signaling, highlighting the benefits and potential drawbacks of targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. Additionally, we provide an overview of available compounds that target key Rac1 regulatory mechanisms and discuss future therapeutic avenues arising from our understanding of these mechanisms.

  12. History of research on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the number of Medline publications dealing with angiogenesis has increased in a nonlinear fashion, reflecting the interest among basic scientists and clinicians in this field. Under physiological conditions, angiogenesis is regulated by the local balance between endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of this process. In tumor growth, there is an imbalance between endogenous stimulator and inhibitor levels, leading to an 'angiogenic switch'. Starting with the hypothesis formulated by Judah Folkman that tumor growth is angiogenesis-dependent, this area of research has a solid scientific foundation and inhibition of angiogenesis is a major area of therapeutic development for the treatment of cancer. This paper offers an account of the most relevant discoveries in this field of biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Regulatory, design and methodological impacts in determining tidal-in-stream power resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, Joel F.; Lawrence, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Tidal-in-Stream energy has been heralded by many as a significant potential source for clean power, a scheme where kinetic energy is extracted from tidal currents. A number of estimates have suggested that tidal power may become a sizeable fraction of overall electricity generation, however these estimates have been largely based on a resource assessment methodology that dramatically oversimplifies the physical phenomenon at play. This paper develops a model that considers the effect of energy extraction on the bulk flow, showing that tidal energy inventories that assess solely kinetic energy flux may represent both an order-of-magnitude overestimation of the resource and a significant oversimplification of regulatory impacts. The interplay between the characteristics of a flow and the regulatory and economic issues will likely limit tidal power generation to levels significantly below the physical maximums. Permitted flow reduction, turbine design and staging of development all have significant and predictable impacts on the extractible resource. Energy planners must therefore understand these relationships in order to appropriately assess the magnitude of generation that can be realistically be produced from tidal energy. - Research highlights: → Inventorying kinetic energy is not appropriate for assessing the tidal energy potential and may overestimate the resource by orders of magnitude. → The physical maximum for tidal power extraction is 38% of the total fluid power of a channel and causes a flow reduction of 42%. → Any amount of tidal power generation will reduce the flow rate in a channel. → Limiting the permitted reduction in flow significantly reduces the available resource. → Turbine efficiency is important as extraneous resistance depletes the resource without providing power generation.

  14. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  15. Angiogenesis in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Marzocchi, Barbara; Braconi, Daniela; Geminiani, Michela; Gambassi, Silvia; Laschi, Marcella; Frediani, Bruno; Galvagni, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease that affects the entire joint. Current standard of AKU treatment is palliative and little is known about its physiopathology. Neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, a family of related disorders that includes AKU. Here, we investigated the presence of neoangiogenesis in AKU synovium and healthy controls. Synovium from AKU patients, who had undergone total joint replacement or arthroscopy, or from healthy patients without any history of rheumatic diseases, who underwent surgical operation following sport trauma was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histologic grades were assigned for clinical disease activity and synovitis based on cellular content of the synovium. By immunofluorescence microscopy, using different endothelial cell markers, we observed large vascularization in AKU but not in healthy synovium. Moreover, Western blotting and quantification analyses confirmed strong expression of endothelial cell markers in AKU synovial tissues. Importantly, AKU synovium vascular endothelium expressed high levels of β-dystroglycan, a protein previously involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in osteoarthritic synovium. This is the first report providing experimental evidences that new blood vessels are formed in AKU synovial tissues, opening new perspectives for AKU therapy.

  16. Potential energy landscape and robustness of a gene regulatory network: toggle switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a multidimensional potential landscape is the key for addressing important global issues, such as the robustness of cellular networks. We have uncovered the underlying potential energy landscape of a simple gene regulatory network: a toggle switch. This was realized by explicitly constructing the steady state probability of the gene switch in the protein concentration space in the presence of the intrinsic statistical fluctuations due to the small number of proteins in the cell. We explored the global phase space for the system. We found that the protein synthesis rate and the unbinding rate of proteins to the gene were small relative to the protein degradation rate; the gene switch is monostable with only one stable basin of attraction. When both the protein synthesis rate and the unbinding rate of proteins to the gene are large compared with the protein degradation rate, two global basins of attraction emerge for a toggle switch. These basins correspond to the biologically stable functional states. The potential energy barrier between the two basins determines the time scale of conversion from one to the other. We found as the protein synthesis rate and protein unbinding rate to the gene relative to the protein degradation rate became larger, the potential energy barrier became larger. This also corresponded to systems with less noise or the fluctuations on the protein numbers. It leads to the robustness of the biological basins of the gene switches. The technique used here is general and can be applied to explore the potential energy landscape of the gene networks.

  17. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 1: Regulatory Context and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-02-01

    This article brings to the attention of drug developers the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential and provides practical suggestions about compliance with the Guidance. The Guidance areas are reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk. The Guidance provides substantial new detail on what needs to be done at all stages of drug development for central nervous system-active drugs. However, because many psychopharmacologic agents have unique preclinical and clinical features, the plan for each agent needs to be not only carefully prepared but also reviewed and approved by the FDA. Examples are provided where assumptions about interpretation of the Guidance can delay development. If the expertise and experience needed for assessing abuse potential during drug development do not exist within a company, external preclinical and clinical expert should be involved. Consultation with the FDA is encouraged and important because the specific requirements for each drug will vary.

  19. Regulatory RNPs: a novel class of ribonucleoproteins that potentially contribute to ribosome heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Poole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs, which are comprised of noncoding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP, which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here, we provide data that show that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs. Most modifications within rRNA (predominantly pseudouridylation and ribose 2′-O-methylation are conducted by small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs, and we provide evidence that the activity of at least some of these snoRNPs is under the control of regRNPs. Because modifications within rRNA can vary in different physiological or pathological situations, rRNA modifications are thought to be the major source of ribosome heterogeneity. Our identification of regRNPs thus provides a potential mechanism for how ribosome heterogeneity may be accomplished. This work also provides additional functional connections between the Cajal body and the nucleolus.

  20. Evaluation of potential regulatory function of breast cancer risk locus at 6q25.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaqiong; Ye, Chuanzhong; Guo, Xingyi; Wen, Wanqing; Long, Jirong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin

    2016-02-01

    In a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women, we identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210 at 6q25.1 for breast cancer risk. To explore a potential regulatory role for this risk locus, we measured expression levels of nine genes at the locus in breast cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue samples obtained from 67 patients recruited in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. We found that rs2046210 had a statistically significant association with the expression levels of the AKAP12 and ESR1 genes in adjacent normal breast tissues. Women who carry the AA/AG risk genotypes had higher expressions of these two genes compared to those who carry G/G genotypes (P = 0.02 and 0.04 for the AKAP12 and ESR1, respectively). However, no significant differences of SNP rs2046210 with gene expression levels were found in tumor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, the AA/AG risk genotypes of SNP rs2046210 were associated with a significantly higher expression level of the AKAP12 gene and a lower level of the ESR1 gene in tumor tissue. Functional analysis using ENCODE data revealed that SNP rs7763637, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with SNP rs2046210, is likely a potential functional variant, regulating the AKAP12 gene. Taken together, these results from our study suggest that the association between the 6q25.1 locus and breast cancer risk may be mediated through SNPs that regulate expressions of the AKAP12 gene. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  2. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    .... Ovarian cancer is angiogenesis dependent. Integrin , a key player in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, has been identified as a target for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for several highly proliferative and metastatic tumor types...

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  4. Regulation and regulatory role of WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during bovine dominant follicle selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S P Gupta

    Full Text Available Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest and F2 (second largest follicles isolated at predeviation (PD and onset of diameter deviation (OD stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM, PD, OD and early dominance (ED stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection.

  5. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2004-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States.

  6. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Chicken Eggshell Brownness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqi Li

    Full Text Available Brown eggs are popular in many countries and consumers regard eggshell brownness as an important indicator of egg quality. However, the potential regulatory proteins and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating eggshell brownness have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis with iTRAQ technology in the shell gland epithelium of hens laying dark and light brown eggs to investigate the candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms underlying variation in chicken eggshell brownness. The results indicated 147 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups, among which 65 and 82 proteins were significantly up-regulated in the light and dark groups, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that in the light group, the down-regulated iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (Iba57 would decrease the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX; furthermore, the up-regulated protein solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator, member 5 (SLC25A5 and down-regulated translocator protein (TSPO would lead to increased amounts of protoporphyrin IX transported into the mitochondria matrix to form heme with iron, which is supplied by ovotransferrin protein (TF. In other words, chickens from the light group produce less protoporphyrin IX, which is mainly used for heme synthesis. Therefore, the exported protoporphyrin IX available for eggshell deposition and brownness is reduced in the light group. The current study provides valuable information to elucidate variation of chicken eggshell brownness, and demonstrates the feasibility and sensitivity of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis in providing useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying brown eggshell pigmentation.

  7. Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkar, Pratiek N; Ariyagunarajah, Ramya; Leong-Poi, Howard; Singh, Krishna K

    2017-10-02

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis. Since the discovery of angiogenic growth factors, much research has been focused on their biological actions and their potential use as therapeutic targets for angiogenic or anti-angiogenic strategies in a context-dependent manner depending on the pathologies. It is generally accepted that these factors play an indispensable role in angiogenesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not their only role and it is likely that the angiogenic factors have important functions in a wider range of biological and pathological processes. The additional roles played by these molecules in numerous pathologies and biological processes beyond angiogenesis are discussed in this review.

  8. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  9. Nanobodies As Novel Agents for Targeting Angiogenesis in Solid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaye Arezumand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid cancers are dependent on angiogenesis for sustenance. The FDA approval of Bevacizumab in 2004 inspired many scientists to develop more inhibitors of angiogenesis. Although several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are being administered to successfully combat various pathologies, the complexity and large size of mAbs seem to narrow the therapeutic applications. To improve the performance of cancer therapeutics, including those blocking tumor angiogenesis, attractive strategies such as miniaturization of the antibodies have been introduced. Nanobodies (Nbs, small single-domain antigen-binding antibody fragments, are becoming promising therapeutic and diagnostic proteins in oncology due to their favorable unique structural and functional properties. This review focuses on the potential and state of the art of Nbs to inhibit the angiogenic process for therapy and the use of labeled Nbs for non-invasive in vivo imaging of the tumors.

  10. Angiogenesis in urinary bladder carcinoma as defined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the patients with bladder cancer, a group is still at risk of disease recurrence, progression, and death from their cancer after curative treatment. Angiogenesis is a crucial pathogenic mechanism for this type of urothelial carcinoma and is a potential therapeutic target. Objectives: To quantify tumor ...

  11. Angiogenesis as an indicator of metastatic potential in papillary thyroid carcinoma Angiogênese como indicador do potencial de metástase no carcinoma papilífero tireóideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stabenow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is new blood vessel formation, a process that can lead to tumor development. Microvessel count has been correlated to metastasis in some neoplasias. PURPOSE: To determine if measurement of microvessel density is useful in predicting metastasis to the cervical lymph node and prognosis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 30 patients that had undergone total thyroidectomy. They were divided in 2 groups of 15 patients - with and without metastatic disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of CD34 in archival paraffin-embedded papillary thyroid tumors, and microvessel density was calculated based on it. Association between microvessel density and the presence of metastasis, according to histological subtype, disease recurrence, and AMES prognostic index groups was determined through statistical analysis. RESULTS: The median microvessel density for the patient group without metastasis (200.0 microvessels/mm² was apparently, but not significantly, less than that observed among metastatic disease patients (254.4 microvessels/mm² (P = .20. When papillary carcinoma subtypes were analyzed, this difference became significant (P =.02. The follicular variant exhibited a greater microvessel density than the other subtypes, independent of metastasis presence. There was an apparent, but not significant, tendency for a larger median microvessel density in the group of patients that presented recurrence (294.4 microvessels/mm² vs 249.6 microvessels/mm², P = .11. There was no relationship between risk level and microvessel density: in the low- and high-risk groups, the median MVD was 304.0 microvessels/mm² and 229.6 microvessels/mm², respectively (P = .27. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that angiogenesis is more intense among metastatic tumors in the classic and the tall cell variants, indicating that microvessel count can be an indicator of the potential for

  12. Angiogenesis and Tissue Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Model with the Angiogenesis Inhibitor Sunitinib. American Pediatric Surgical Association – 40th Annual Meeting, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, May 2009...Res 149(1):115-9. 14 5. Ray NF, Denton WG, Thamer M, Henderson SC, Perry S (1998) Abdominal adhesiolysis: inpatient care and expenditures in the...nude mice (n¼ 9). Mice were injected with near- infrared agents and imaged using intravital fluorescence microscope at 0, 7, and 35 days to validate in

  13. Analysis of regulatory structure for a potential fusion-reactor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report is divided into eight sections. The preface describes the authors of the report, the methodology used in its preparation, and some basic legal terms. The summary describes the principal features of the proposed regulatory system and also includes two flow charts comparing our model with present NRC practices and a summary table briefly outlining the reasoning behind our recommendations. The main body of the report is divided into six sections. This part of the report discusses the existing federal and state programs for regulating electric energy, describes NRC operations and the criticisms of that agency, discusses the features of our proposed regulatory model, recommends certain steps for implementing the proposed model, and states the conclusions of the report

  14. Functional analysis of a potential regulatory K+-binding site in the Na+, K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Vilsen, Bente

    The Na+, K+-ATPase functions by actively transporting 3 Na+ ions out of and 2 K+ ions into the cell, thereby creating ion gradients crucial for many physiological processes. Recently, a combined structural and functional study of the closely related Ca2+-ATPase indicated the presence...... of a regulatory K+-binding site in the P-domain of the enzyme, identifying E732 as being of particular importance (Sorensen, Clausen et al. 2004). In addition, P709 is thought to play a significant role in the structural organization of this site. Both E732 and P709 are highly conserved among P-type ATPases (E732...... is present as either glutamic acid or aspartic acid), which supports their importance and additionally raises the question whether this site may play a general role among P-type ATPases. In Na+, K+-ATPase, K+ functions directly as a substrate for membrane binding sites, however, an additional regulatory...

  15. Gender Inequality and Reflexive Law: The Potential of different regulatory Mechanisms for making Employment Rights effective

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, S.; McLaughlin, C.; Chai, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    We review the different regulatory mechanisms which have been used in the UK context to promote gender equality in employment over the past decade, including legal enforcement based on claimant-led litigation, collective bargaining, pay audits, and shareholder pressure. Evidence is drawn from case studies examining the effects of these different mechanisms on organisations in the public and private sectors, and from econometric analysis of the impact of stock market pressures on firms' human ...

  16. New CSA guideline for the exemption or clearance from regulatory control of materials that contain, or potentially contain, nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.; Kwong, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) guideline N292.5, Guideline for the exemption or clearance from regulatory control of materials that contain, or potentially contain, nuclear substances, was recently developed to address a need for guidance on approaches for clearance of materials from facilities licensed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) consistent with Canadian and international recommendations. This guideline is also applicable to determining if an activity associated with materials that contain nuclear substances is exempt from requiring a CNSC licence. The guideline summarizes the regulatory requirements associated with the exemption and clearance of materials and provides a graded approach to designing a survey based on the risk of residual contamination being present. (author)

  17. Monitoring angiogenesis using magnetic resonance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David Alberg

    2008-01-01

    When a tumor reaches a certain size it can no longer rely on passive perfusion for nutrition. The tumor therefore emits signaling molecules which stimulating surrounding vessels to divide and grow towards the tumor, a process known as angiogenesis. Very little angiogenesis is present in healthy...... adults where it is primaily found in wound healing, pregnancy and during the menstrual cycle. This thesis focus on the negative consequences of angiogenesis in cancer. It consists of a an initial overview followed by four manuscripts. The overview gives a short introduction to the process of angiogenesis...... and the involved signaling molecules. Subsequently, a short review of contrast agents and perfusion measurements is given. Finally, methods for monitoring angiogenesis using magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed. A method for monitoring early stages of angiogenesis as well as the effect of anti...

  18. A pyruvate-buffered dialysis fluid induces less peritoneal angiogenesis and fibrosis than a conventional solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrhenen, Roos; Zweers, Machteld M.; Kunne, Cindy; de Waart, Dirk R.; van der Wal, Allard C.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids containing glucose and glucose degradation products are believed to contribute to the development of fibrosis and angiogenesis in the dialyzed peritoneum. To reduce potential negative effects of lactate, pyruvate was

  19. Hypoxia independent drivers of melanoma angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMeierjohann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor angiogenesis is a process which is traditionally regarded as the tumor`s response to low nutrient supply occurring under hypoxic conditions. However, hypoxia is not a prerequisite for angiogenesis. The fact that even single tumor cells or small tumor cell aggregates are capable of attracting blood vessels reveals the early metastatic capability of tumor cells. This review sheds light on the hypoxia independent mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis in melanoma.

  20. Medical loss ratio as a potential regulatory tool in the Israeli healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Horev, Tuvia; Kaplan, Giora

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the private health insurance sector in Western countries, which is characterized by information deficiencies and limited competition, necessitates the implementation of effective regulatory tools. One measure which is widely used is the medical loss ratio (MLR). Our objective was to analyze how MLR is applied as a regulatory measure in the Israeli voluntary health insurance (VHI) market in order to promote the protection of beneficiaries. The study will examine MLR values and the use of this tool by regulators of VHI in Israel. Descriptive analysis using 2005-2012 data from public reports of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance on VHI plans in three market segments: nonprofit health plans, group (collective) policies offered by commercial insurance companies and individual policies offered by commercial insurance companies. In 2012, 74% of the Israeli population owned VHI provided by nonprofit health plans and 43% owned VHI offered by for-profit commercial companies. At that time the MLRs of three nonprofit health plans were significantly lower than 80%, mostly in the upper layers of coverage. The MLR in the individual commercial segment was consistently low (38% in 2012). The use of MLR as a regulation tool was, and continues to be, relatively limited in all segments. The VHI in Israel covers several essential services that are not covered by the statutory benefits package as a result of budget constraints. Thus, due to the high penetration rate of VHI in Israel compared to European countries and the lower levels of MLR, in order to assure the protection of beneficiaries it may be warranted to increase the extent of regulation and adjust it to the nature of the services covered. This may include distinguishing between essential and nonessential coverages and implementation of the most suitable regulatory measures (such as an MLR threshold, limitation of services covered and adjusting the actuarial models to the beneficiaries' behavior

  1. Localizing potentially active post-transcriptional regulations in the Ewing's sarcoma gene regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyon Bernard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of techniques is now available for analyzing regulatory networks. Nonetheless, most of these techniques fail to interpret large-scale transcriptional data at the post-translational level. Results We address the question of using large-scale transcriptomic observation of a system perturbation to analyze a regulatory network which contained several types of interactions - transcriptional and post-translational. Our method consisted of post-processing the outputs of an open-source tool named BioQuali - an automatic constraint-based analysis mimicking biologist's local reasoning on a large scale. The post-processing relied on differences in the behavior of the transcriptional and post-translational levels in the network. As a case study, we analyzed a network representation of the genes and proteins controlled by an oncogene in the context of Ewing's sarcoma. The analysis allowed us to pinpoint active interactions specific to this cancer. We also identified the parts of the network which were incomplete and should be submitted for further investigation. Conclusions The proposed approach is effective for the qualitative analysis of cancer networks. It allows the integrative use of experimental data of various types in order to identify the specific information that should be considered a priority in the initial - and possibly very large - experimental dataset. Iteratively, new dataset can be introduced into the analysis to improve the network representation and make it more specific.

  2. Effect of the micronutrient iodine in thyroid carcinoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Kayla; Nucera, Carmelo

    2016-12-20

    concentrations and metabolism might have a crucial influence on thyroid carcinoma cell viability via regulation of different molecular pathways, including angiogenesis regulatory autocrine and microenvironment-mediated signals.

  3. 5' Region of the human interleukin 4 gene: structure and potential regulatory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, A; Krafft-Czepa, H; Krammer, P H

    1988-01-25

    The lymphokine Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is secreted by antigen or mitogen activated T lymphocytes. IL-4 stimulates activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and growth of T lymphocytes and mast cells. The authors isolated the human IL-4 gene from a lambda EMBL3 genomic library. As a probe they used a synthetic oligonucleotide spanning position 40 to 79 of the published IL-4 cDNA sequence. The 5' promoter region contains several sequence elements which may have a cis-acting regulatory function for IL-4 gene expression. These elements include a TATA-box, three CCAAT-elements (two are on the non-coding strand) and an octamer motif. A comparison of the 5' flanking region of the human murine IL-4 gene (4) shows that the region between position -306 and +44 is highly conserved (83% homology).

  4. pH-Regulatory Proteins as Potential Targets in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Poder

    tissues. The focus of the present PhD study is on understanding the mechanisms through which pH-regulatory transporters are regulated by the breast tumor microenvironment, and how these transporters in turn favor cancer progression. In Paper I, we summarized the recent knowledge on the dynamic...... exhibit distinct spatial organization during 3D growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By pharmacological inhibition and stable shRNA-mediated knockdown, we addressed the specific contributions of the transporters to spheroid growth and show that the specific transporters contribute to breast...... development in the more complex in vivo setting. In Paper III, we found that chemical induction of breast cancer in NBCn1 knockout (KO) mice is delayed and tumor growth rates reduced, compared to those in wildtype (WT) mice, demonstrating a causal link between NBCn1 and breast cancer development. In Paper IV...

  5. Intra-laboratory validation of a human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay for testing angiogenesis modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jertta-Riina Sarkanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis e.g. pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using 6 reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation, batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests.

  6. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J; Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-01-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  7. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J [Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A, E-mail: Shaker.mousa@acphs.ed [Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY 12208 (United States)

    2009-11-11

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  8. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Potential new regulatory options for e-cigarettes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Blakely, Tony; van der Deen, Frederieke Sanne; Crane, Julian

    2015-11-20

    While e-cigarette usage has grown rapidly in New Zealand and around the world, the scientific evidence base regarding the net benefits and risks of these types of products at the population level remains uncertain. The health-based policy experience is also minimal. Here, we analyse plausible future regulatory options for e-cigarettes that the New Zealand Government could explore, and that further research could help clarify. These options include: (1) a full free market (an option we doubt is desirable for multiple reasons); (2) controlled increased access through: (a) pharmacy only, (b) pharmacy only plus sales by prescription/ to licensed vapers; (c) additional controls through non-profit supply/distribution (eg, public hospital pharmacies); (3) increased restrictions compared with current (eg, adopting a complete ban on self-imports and use). In addition, we consider mechanisms to improve product quality and safety, and argue that policy makers should take great care when regulating e-cigarettes, given the scientific uncertainty and the role of commercial vested interests.

  10. The potential regulatory roles of NAD(+) and its metabolism in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jia-Ping; Hu, Jiong-Yu; Huang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    (Macro)autophagy mediates the bulk degradation of defective organelles, long-lived proteins and protein aggregates in lysosomes and plays a critical role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Defective autophagy processes have been found to contribute to a variety of metabolic diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy are not fully understood. Increasing data indicate that nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD(+)) homeostasis correlates intimately with autophagy. NAD(+) is a ubiquitous coenzyme that functions primarily as an electron carrier of oxidoreductase in multiple redox reactions. Both NAD(+) homeostasis and its metabolism are thought to play critical roles in regulating autophagy. In this review, we discuss how the regulation of NAD(+) and its metabolism can influence autophagy. We focus on the regulation of NAD(+)/NADH homeostasis and the effects of NAD(+) consumption by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation by sirtuins and NAD(+) metabolites on autophagy processes and the underlying mechanisms. Future studies should provide more direct evidence for the regulation of autophagy processes by NAD(+). A better understanding of the critical roles of NAD(+) and its metabolites on autophagy will shed light on the complexity of autophagy regulation, which is essential for the discovery of new therapeutic tools for autophagy-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Network Model to Explore the Effect of the Micro-environment on Endothelial Cell Behavior during Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Weinstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is an important adaptation mechanism of the blood vessels to the changing requirements of the body during development, aging, and wound healing. Angiogenesis allows existing blood vessels to form new connections or to reabsorb existing ones. Blood vessels are composed of a layer of endothelial cells (ECs covered by one or more layers of mural cells (smooth muscle cells or pericytes. We constructed a computational Boolean model of the molecular regulatory network involved in the control of angiogenesis. Our model includes the ANG/TIE, HIF, AMPK/mTOR, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PLCγ/Calcium, PI3K/AKT, NO, NOTCH, and WNT signaling pathways, as well as the mechanosensory components of the cytoskeleton. The dynamical behavior of our model recovers the patterns of molecular activation observed in Phalanx, Tip, and Stalk ECs. Furthermore, our model is able to describe the modulation of EC behavior due to extracellular micro-environments, as well as the effect due to loss- and gain-of-function mutations. These properties make our model a suitable platform for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying some pathologies. For example, it is possible to follow the changes in the activation patterns caused by mutations that promote Tip EC behavior and inhibit Phalanx EC behavior, that lead to the conditions associated with retinal vascular disorders and tumor vascularization. Moreover, the model describes how mutations that promote Phalanx EC behavior are associated with the development of arteriovenous and venous malformations. These results suggest that the network model that we propose has the potential to be used in the study of how the modulation of the EC extracellular micro-environment may improve the outcome of vascular disease treatments.

  12. Preventing High Altitude Cerebral Edema in Rats with Repurposed Anti-Angiogenesis Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarshis, Samantha; Maltzahn, Joanne; Loomis, Zoe; Irwin, David C

    2016-12-01

    High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a fulminant, deadly, and yet still unpredictable brain disease. A new prophylactic treatment for HACE and its predecessor, acute mountain sickness (AMS), needs to be developed without the contraindications or adverse effect profiles of acetazolamide and dexamethasone. Since neovascularization signals are likely key contributors to HACE/AMS, our approach was to examine already existing anti-angiogenic drugs to inhibit potential initiating HACE pathway(s). This approach can also reveal crucial early steps in the frequently debated mechanism of HACE/AMS pathogenesis. We exposed four rat cohorts to hypobaric hypoxia and one to sea level (hyperbaric) conditions. The cohorts were treated with saline controls, an anti-angiogenesis drug (motesanib), a pro-angiogenesis drug (deferoxamine), or an intraperitoneal version of the established AMS prophylaxis drug, acetazolamide (benzolamide). Brain tissue was analyzed for cerebrovascular leak using the Evans Blue Dye (EVBD) protocol. We observed significantly increased EVBD in the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis (deferoxamine) cohorts, and significantly decreased EVBD in the anti-angiogenesis (motesanib), established treatment (benzolamide), and sea-level cohorts. Anti-angiogenesis-treated cohorts demonstrated less cerebrovascular extravasation than the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis treated rats, suggesting promise as an alternative prophylactic HACE/AMS treatment. The leak exacerbation with pro-angiogenesis treatment and improvement with anti-angiogenesis treatment support the hypothesis of early neovascularization signals provoking HACE. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence to guide further investigation for VEGF- and HIF-inhibitors as HACE/AMS prophylaxis, and as elucidators of still unknown HACE pathogenesis.Tarshis S, Maltzahn J, Loomis Z, Irwin DC. Preventing high altitude cerebral edema in rats with repurposed anti-angiogenesis pharmacotherapy. Aerosp Med

  13. Nanomaterial Categorization for Assessing Risk Potential to Faciliate Regulatory Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    For nanotechnology to meet its potential as a game-changing and sustainable technology, it is important to ensure that the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and nano-enabled products that gain entry to the marketplace are safe and effective. Tools and methods are needed for regul...

  14. Inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 on DNA polymerase and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kiminori; Kayashima, Tomoko; Mori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins play essential roles in cellular reactions and maintain human health. Recent studies have revealed that some vitamins including D3, B6 and K2 and their derivatives have an anti-cancer effect. As a mechanism, their inhibitory effect on cancer-related angiogenesis has been demonstrated. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) has an anti-cancer effect in particular for hepatic cancer and inhibits angiogenesis. In the current study, we demonstrated that sole vitamin K3 (menadione) selectively inhibits the in vitro activity of eukaryotic DNA polymerase gamma, which is a mitochondrial DNA polymerase, and suppresses angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model. The anti-angiogenic effect of vitamin K3 has been shown in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with regard to HUVEC growth, tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane and chemotaxis. These results suggest that vitamin K3 may be a potential anti-cancer agent like vitamin K2.

  15. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... evaluation, but also on sensitive monitoring of microvascular changes during treatment. State-of-the-art imaging techniques have the potential to visualize and characterize angiogenesis, although the technology and methodologies employed are recent and need further validation. The aim of this series...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  16. Tumour angiogenesis pathways: related clinical issues and implications for nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiele, Christophe van de; De Winter, Olivier; Dierckx, Rudi Andre; Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Slegers, Guido; Signore, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis is essential for growth, invasion and metastasis. Retrospective studies suggest that it is an independent prognostic factor that merits prospective validation. Furthermore, as tumour blood vessels show many differences from normal vessels and are not genetically unstable, they form a key area for therapy development. However, as anti-angiogenic therapy is primarily cytostatic and not cytotoxic, novel tailor-made specific end-points for treatment monitoring are required. In this regard, suitable molecular parameters for imaging tumour angiogenesis by means of nuclear medicine are being explored. Here we review current knowledge on the multiple pathways controlling tumour angiogenesis and try to assess which are the most clinically relevant for nuclear medicine imaging. Parameters that may influence the imaging potential of radiopharmaceuticals for angiogenesis imaging such as molecular weight and structure, their targeted location within the tumour and their usefulness in terms of specificity and constancy of the targeted molecular pathway are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical and Chemical Signaling in Angiogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials describes the most recent advances in angiogenesis research at all biological length scales: molecular, cellular and tissue, in both in vivo and in vitro settings.  Angiogenesis experts from diverse fields including engineering, cell and developmental biology, and chemistry have contributed chapters which focus on the mechanical and chemical signals which affect and promote blood vessel growth. Specific emphasis is given to novel methodologies and biomaterials that have been developed and applied to angiogenesis research. 

  18. THE ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY AND ANGIOGENESIS IN COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Rachkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was a review of available data on the role of autophagy and angiogenesis in the development, progression and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Material and methods. Databases searched were Medline, Cochrane Library and Elibrary. Of 340 studies, 48 were used to write a systematic review. Results. To date, there is a variety of prognostic markers used in the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The review describes the molecular mechanisms of the participation of various proteins of autophagy and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, and the potential importance of their use in clinical practice is presented. Conclusion. Many of the existing markers can be used not only in assessing the prognosis, but also sensitivity to chemotherapy. However, the contradictory results of studies with respect to certain proteins require further study, validation, and subsequent introduction into practice. 

  19. Photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis in subdermal islet transplant sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Pawlick, Rena; Bruni, Antonio; Rafiei, Yasmin; Pepper, Andrew R.; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Choi, Min; Malcolm, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-03-01

    Exogenous insulin administration is the mainstay treatment therapy for patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, for select patients, clinical islet transplantation is an alternative therapeutic treatment. In this procedure, islets are transplanted into the hepatic portal vein, and despite improved success within the last decade, obstacles are still associated with this approach. It has been discovered that the subcutaneous space may be an effective alternative site for islet transplantation, and may provide advantages of easy access and potential for simple monitoring. The ability to monitor islet viability and the transplant microenvironment may be key to future success in islet transplantation. A subcutaneous device-less technique has been developed to facilitate angiogenesis in the islet transplant site, however, a method for monitoring the potential engraftment site have yet to be explored fully. Here we demonstrate the ability to track angiogenesis in mice with 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-catheter implant on both sides of the abdomen using a FujiFilm VisualSonics Vevo-LAZR system. Quantitative analysis on vessel densities exhibited gradual vessel growth successfully induced by catheter implantation. Our study demonstrates the ability of employing photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound imaging to track angiogenesis around the catheter site prior to islet transplantation.

  20. Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: An updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Chiu; Shen, Zan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie CM

    2006-01-01

    Since the relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth was established by Folkman in 1971, scientists have made efforts exploring the possibilities in treating cancer by targeting angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis growth factors and administration of angiogenesis inhibitors are the basics of anti-angiogenesis therapy. Transfer of anti-angiogenesis genes has received attention recently not only because of the advancement of recombinant vectors, but also because of the localized and sustained expression of therapeutic gene product inside the tumor after gene transfer. This review provides the up-to-date information about the strategies and the vectors studied in the field of anti-angiogenesis cancer gene therapy. PMID:17109514

  1. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying nanomedicine in maladaptive inflammation and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaarg, Amr; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Metselaar, Josbert M.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis drive the development and progression of multiple devastating diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Though these diseases have very different phenotypic consequences, they possess several common

  3. In vitro oxidative stress regulatory potential of Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Tania Shamim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.

  4. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBrenes-Álvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behaviour and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells. Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8, in developing heterocysts is also

  5. Regulatory roles and therapeutic potential of microRNA in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Jun; Yang, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded noncoding RNAs involved in various biological processes, including cell differentiation and development. They play multiple key roles as tumour suppressors, oncogenes or both in particular cases. This review aims to summarise current findings of the expression of miRNAs and their role in clinical oncology. Current knowledge regarding the involvement of miRNAs in different sarcoma subtypes will be assessed, in conjunction with their potential application as therapeutic targets. Relevant articles in scientific databases were identified using a combination of search terms, including "microRNA," "deregulation," "sarcoma," and "targeted therapy". These databases included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Review, Pubmed and Scopus. Aberrant miRNA expression patterns have been identified in a range of sarcoma subtypes, and differences in miRNA expression profiles between malignant cells and their normal counterparts suggests that miRNAs play key roles in sarcoma development. The identification of unique miRNA patterns in individual tumour types could possibly be used as a diagnostic tool in sarcoma. Moreover, identification of these miRNAs provides novel targets for the development of therapeutic strategies in distinct sarcoma subtypes. miRNAs hold significant potential as diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets in sarcoma. Possible future clinical applications include the use of miRNA pathways as therapeutic targets or miRNA expression profiling as a means of patient selection. The involvement miRNAs will undoubtedly contribute to the advancement of future targeted therapeutic interventions in sarcoma, and further establishment of appropriate delivery systems is vital for their use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seminar on Biogas in France and in Germany: Regulatory framework, potentials and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Boettcher, Katharina; Stolpp, Sebastian; Vincent, Eric; Chapron, Thibaut; Schuette, Andreas; Paquin, Laurent; Ingremeau, Claire; Moeller, Kurt; Trommler, Marcus; Denysenko, Velina; Bosso, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Seminar on biogas in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the characteristics of this industry, and the opportunities and technical challenges of biogas use in both countries. Differences and similarities were noticed in both countries, for instance regarding the use of energy cultures and digestates. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The French biogas in the perspective of 2020 (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Biogas Opportunities in Germany - Status January 2014 (Katharina Boettcher); 3 - Biogas market in Germany (Sebastian Stolpp); 4 - Biogas in France and Germany, Current status and development outlooks in France (Eric Vincent); 5 - Biogas use in France and Germany - a comparison (Thibaut Chapron); 6 - Alternatives to the use of maize in biogas plants - Current research results from Germany (Andreas Schuette); 7 - Inter-crops in France: analysis of the potentials (Laurent Paquin); 8 - Digestates management in France, legislative and technical advances (Claire Ingremeau); 9 - The management of digestates in Germany: Fertilizer application and status of the art (Kurt Moeller); 10 - Status quo of Biomethane in Germany - Development, Technology and Costs (Marcus Trommler); 11 - GrDF's views and actions on biogas. Biomethane injection in France: state-of-the-art and first status (Valerie Bosso)

  7. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway.

  8. Oridonin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis through anti-angiogenesis by blocking the Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Dong

    Full Text Available While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases.

  9. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  10. Immobilization of defense high-level waste: an assessment of technological strategies and potential regulatory goals. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    An investigation was made of the high-level radioactive waste immobilization technology programs in the U.S. and Europe, and of the associated regulatory programs and waste management perspectives in the countries studied. Purpose was to assess the ability of those programs to satisfy DOE waste management needs and U.S. regulatory requirements. This volume includes: introduction, immobilization strategies in the context of waste isolation program needs, high-level waste management as an integrated system, regulatory goals, engineered-barrier characteristics, barrier technology, high-level waste disposal programs, analysis of HLW immobilization technology in the context of policy and regulatory requirements, and waste immobilization program option

  11. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  12. Hypoxia and Angiogenesis in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Horrée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia, triggering biologic events associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Methods: Expression of HIF-1α and proteins in the HIF-1α pathway (Glut-1, CAIX, VEGF in paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 17, premalignant (n = 17 and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 39 was explored by immunohistochemistry, in relation to microvessel density (MVD. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was absent in inactive endometrium but present in hyperplasia (61% and carcinoma (87%, with increasing expression in a perinecrotic fashion pointing to underlying hypoxia. No membranous expression of Glut-1 and CAIX was noticed in inactive endometrium, in contrast with expression in hyperplasia (Glut-1 0%, CAIX 61%, only focal and diffuse and carcinoma (Glut-1 94.6%, CAIX 92%, both mostly perinecrotically. Diffuse HIF-1α was accompanied by activation of downstream targets. VEGF was significantly higher expressed in hyperplasias and carcinomas compared to inactive endometrium. MVD was higher in hyperplasias and carcinomas than in normal endometrium (p < 0.001. Conclusion: HIF-1α and its downstream genes are increasingly expressed from normal through premalignant to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes and increased angiogenesis. This underlines the potential importance of hypoxia and its key regulator HIF-1α in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  13. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 3. Evaluation of potential for pipe breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-01

    The Executive Director for Operations (EDO) in establishing the Piping Review Committee concurred in its overall scope that included an evaluation of the potential for pipe breaks. The Pipe Break Task Group has responded to this directive. This report summarizes a review of regulatory documents and contains the Task Group's recommendations for application of the leak-before-break (LBB) approach to the NRC licensing process. The LBB approach means the application of fracture mechanics technology to demonstrate that high energy fluid piping is very unlikely to experience double-ended ruptures or their equivalent as longitudinal or diagonal splits. The Task Group's reommendations and discussion are founded on current and ongoing NRC staff actions as presented in Section 3.0 of this report. Additional more detailed comments and discussion are presented in Section 5.0 and in Appendices A and B. The obvious issues are the reexamination of the large pipe break criteria and the implications of any changes in the criteria as they influence items such as jet loads and pipe whip. The issues have been considered and the Task Group makes the following recommendations.

  14. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 3. Evaluation of potential for pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The Executive Director for Operations (EDO) in establishing the Piping Review Committee concurred in its overall scope that included an evaluation of the potential for pipe breaks. The Pipe Break Task Group has responded to this directive. This report summarizes a review of regulatory documents and contains the Task Group's recommendations for application of the leak-before-break (LBB) approach to the NRC licensing process. The LBB approach means the application of fracture mechanics technology to demonstrate that high energy fluid piping is very unlikely to experience double-ended ruptures or their equivalent as longitudinal or diagonal splits. The Task Group's reommendations and discussion are founded on current and ongoing NRC staff actions as presented in Section 3.0 of this report. Additional more detailed comments and discussion are presented in Section 5.0 and in Appendices A and B. The obvious issues are the reexamination of the large pipe break criteria and the implications of any changes in the criteria as they influence items such as jet loads and pipe whip. The issues have been considered and the Task Group makes the following recommendations

  15. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D.; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti‐angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551–559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium‐derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration. PMID:27499862

  16. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  18. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.; Guerrero, P.; Alarcon, T.; Maini, P. K.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis: Molecular and Cellular Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N.; Levy, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    Summary Angiogenesis characterizes embryonic development, but also occurs in adulthood in physiological situations such as adaptation to muscle exercise, and in pathological conditions like cancer. Major advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, largely due to the use of “knock-out mice”, i.e. mice in which the gene coding for the protein under investigation has been inactivated. Interestingly, the same growth factors and their receptors are equally involved in the different aspects of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during development and in adulthood. This review aims to describe in detail their respective roles and how interactions between them lead to a newly formed vessel. PMID:20591248

  20. A Role for PPAR/ in Ocular Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bishop-Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The uses of highly selective PPAR/ ligands and PPAR/ knockout mice have shown a direct ability of PPAR/ to regulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo in animal models. PPAR/ ligands induce the proangiogenic growth factor VEGF in many cells and tissues, though its actions in the eye are not known. However, virtually, all tissue components of the eye express PPAR/. Both angiogenesis and in particular VEGF are not only critical for the development of the retina, but they are also a central component in many common pathologies of the eye, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, the most common causes of blindness in the Western world. This review, therefore, will discuss the recent evidence of PPAR/-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF release in the context of ocular disorders.

  1. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  2. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Seung Hyeok [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Experimental Animals, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K. [Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  3. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases

  4. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  5. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer : onset, progression and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; Mischi, M.; Scheepens, W.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, H.

    2012-01-01

    Today, angiogenesis is known to play a key role in cancer growth and development. Emerging cancer treatments are based on the suppression of angiogenesis, and modern imaging techniques investigate changes in the microvasculature that are caused by angiogenesis. As for other forms of cancers,

  6. Angiogenesis in calcium phosphate scaffolds by inorganic copper ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barralet, Jake; Gbureck, Uwe; Habibovic, Pamela; Vorndran, Elke; Gerard, Catherine; Doillon, Charles J

    2009-07-01

    Angiogenesis in a tissue-engineered device may be induced by incorporating growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), genetically modified cells, and=or vascular cells. It represents an important process during the formation and repair of tissue and is essential for nourishment and supply of reparative and immunological cells. Inorganic angiogenic factors, such as copper ions, are therefore of interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their low cost, higher stability, and potentially greater safety compared with recombinant proteins or genetic engineering approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare tissue responses to 3D printed macroporous bioceramic scaffolds implanted in mice that had been loaded with either VEGF or copper sulfate. These factors were spatially localized at the end of a single macropore some 7 mm from the surface of the scaffold. Controls without angiogenic factors exhibited only poor tissue growth within the blocks; in contrast, low doses of copper sulfate led to the formation of microvessels oriented along the macropore axis. Further, wound tissue ingrowth was particularly sensitive to the quantity of copper sulfate and was enhanced at specific concentrations or in combination with VEGF. The potential to accelerate and guide angiogenesis and wound healing by copper ion release without the expense of inductive protein(s) is highly attractive in the area of tissue-engineered bone and offers significant future potential in the field of regenerative biomaterials.

  7. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds.

  8. Their function on angiogenesis and cellular signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studieshave reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate coppertrafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in ...

  9. The effects of CD147 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haoyuan; Shao, Ying; Chen, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) on glioma proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from 101 glioma cases while normal brain tissues were obtained from 30 brain injury cases. Immunohistochemical assay was performed to detect the expressions of CD147, CD34, and VEGF in tissue samples. QRT-PCR was performed to detect the relative expression of CD147 mRNA in human glioma cell lines. CD147 siRNA was transfected into glioma cell line U251. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis were tested by MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell assay, and vasculogenic mimicry assay, respectively. Expressions of relative proteins were analyzed with western blot. CD147 was positively expressed with the percentage of 0, 37.5, 44.8, 67.9, and 85.7 % in normal tissues and glioma tissues with WHO grades I-IV, respectively, and the scores of MVDand VEGF were associated with the expression of CD147. CD147 was significantly upregulated in the human glioma cell lines (P CD147 suppressed cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle, induced apoptosis, inhibited cell invasion and angiogenesis in glioma cells in vitro. The expression of CD147 was significantly associated with WHO tumor grade and angiogenesis; silencing of CD147 contributed to inhibition of glioma proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Our study provided firm evidence that CD 147 is a potential glioma target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  10. High-grade ovarian cancer secreting effective exosomes in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huan; Ye, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological cancer, related closely to tumor stage. High-grade ovarian cancer always results in a late diagnose and high recurrence, which reduce survival within five years. Until recently, curable therapy is still under research and anti-angiogenesis proves a promising way. Tumor-derived exosomes are essential in tumor migration and metastases such as angiogenesis is enhanced by exosomes. In our study, we have made comparison between high-grade and unlikely high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells on exosomal function of endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tube formation. Exosomes derived from high-grade ovarian cancer have a profound impact on angiogenesis with comparison to unlikely high-grade ovarian cancer. Proteomic profiles revealed some potential proteins involved in exosomal function of angiogenesis such as ATF2, MTA1, ROCK1/2 and so on. Therefore, exosomes plays an influential role in angiogenesis in ovarian serous cancer and also function more effectively in high-grade ovarian cancer cells.

  11. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Ajayan, Pulickel; Linhardt, Robert J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2009-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (Pcancer and inflammatory diseases.

  12. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  13. Potential regulatory molecules in the human trabecular meshwork of patients with glaucoma: immunohistochemical profile of a number of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurone, Samanta; Ripandelli, Guido; Pacella, Elena; Bianchi, Enrica; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; De Vito, Stefania; Plateroti, Pasquale; Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Glaucoma occurs when there are imbalances between the production and the drainage of the eye liquid. The vast majority of the aqueous humor leaves the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM). The cause of hypertonicity may be due to an alteration in the thickness of the TM. In the majority of cases the molecular changes that determine primary open‑angle glaucoma (POAG) are unclear. However, it has been hypothesized that the significant increase in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the fibrillary bands in the TM is associated with possible inflammatory conditions. In this study the tissue distribution of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑1β, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF‑β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‑α) was analyzed in TM samples from patients with POAG by immunohistochemistry. Seven specimens from patients with POAG and three control tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies against these cytokines. Morphological changes in the TM, such as increased cell content, macrophages, fibrosis and accumulation of neutrophils, were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In human TM tissues, an evident immunoreactivity for IL‑6, IL‑1β and TNF‑α was observed in patients with POAG when compared with the control subjects, indicating that these cytokines may be correlated with disease activity. TM endothelial cells secrete a number of factors and cytokines that modulate the functions of the cells and the ECM of the conventional outflow pathway. In the TM in glaucoma, macrophages produce cytokines, including IL‑6, IL‑1β and TNF‑α, leading to an acute inflammatory response and recruitment of other immune cells, including T lymphocytes. In addition, TGF‑β1 regulates and induces the expression of IL‑6 in TM that indirectly induces angiogenesis by stimulating VEGF expression. The present results support previous evidence that suggests that growth factors and cytokines

  14. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases...

  15. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.

  16. Uncaria rhynchophylla induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Do-Young; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Cho, Eun-Mi; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Yang, Ha-Ru; Cho, Yoon-Je; Kim, Kang-Il; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Park, Dong-Suk

    2005-12-01

    Angiogenesis consists of the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells, and angiogenic factors and matrix protein interactions modulate this process. The aim of this study was to determine the angiogenic properties of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by monoclonal antibody suppressed the Uncaria rhynchophylla stimulatory effect on proliferation. In addition, Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly increased chemotactic-migration on gelatin and tubular structures on Matrigel of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, Uncaria rhynchophylla dose-dependently increased VEGF, and bFGF gene expression and protein secretion of HUVEC. The angiogenic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla was confirmed using an in vivo Matrigel angiogenesis model, showing promotion of blood vessel formation. These results suggest that Uncaria rhynchophylla could potentially used to accelerate vascular wound healing or to promote the growth of collateral blood vessel in ischemic tissues.

  17. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga inhibits angiogenesis through tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Ekowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tumors express on their receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor activity associated with angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis through reduction of tyrosine kinase activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to determine the mechanism and potency of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC isolated from Kaempferia galanga as angiogenesis inhibitor. Methods A laboratory experimental study was conducted using chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs of nine-day old chicken eggs induced by 60ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC potency was determined at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and compared with celecoxib 60 mg as reference drug and one negative bFGF-induced control group. Neovascularization and endothelial cell count in CAM blood vessels were evaluated. To predict the antiangiogenic mechanism of EPMC, a docking study was performed with the Molegro Virtual Docker program on tyrosine kinase as receptor (PDB 1XKK. Results Angiogenesis stimulation by bFGF was prevented significantly (p<0.05 by EPMC at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and this activity was dose dependent. Molecular docking showed interaction between EPMC functional groups and tyrosine kinase amino acids at Met766, Met793, Thr854, Thr790, Gln791 and Ala743. There was an association between EPMC antiangiogenic activity and docking study results. Conclusions Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is a potential new angiogenesis inhibitor through interaction with tyrosine kinase. EPMC could be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  18. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); He, Xiao-dong [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jun, Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Wang, Ju [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Li-jing, E-mail: wanglijing62@163.com [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  19. Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhong-Xiu-Zi [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Huang, Da-Yong [Department of Oncology, The Second Clinical Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Li, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Na; Lv, Yan-Hong; Cui, Hai-Dong [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Zheng, Jin-Hua, E-mail: jhzhenghrbmu@yahoo.cn [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} It has been shown that scutellarin exhibits a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilator as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemia protective effects, indicating beneficial vascular effects of scutellarin. Therefore, it is speculated that scutellarin may be able to stimulate angiogenesis, which could be beneficial in the treatment of ischemic disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. {yields} The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the direct angiogenic actions of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. {yields} Our results showed that scutellarin to directly induce in vitro angiogenesis, which is closely correlated with upregulated MMP-2 expression, suggesting a potential for increasing angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarin's effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarin's angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly

  20. Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhong-Xiu-Zi; Huang, Da-Yong; Li, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Na; Lv, Yan-Hong; Cui, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → It has been shown that scutellarin exhibits a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilator as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemia protective effects, indicating beneficial vascular effects of scutellarin. Therefore, it is speculated that scutellarin may be able to stimulate angiogenesis, which could be beneficial in the treatment of ischemic disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. → The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the direct angiogenic actions of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. → Our results showed that scutellarin to directly induce in vitro angiogenesis, which is closely correlated with upregulated MMP-2 expression, suggesting a potential for increasing angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarin's effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarin's angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly induced MMP-2 activation and m

  1. Gli3 Regulation of Myogenesis Is Necessary for Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie-Ange; Vandierdonck, Soizic; Chapouly, Candice; Yu, Yang; Qin, Gangjian; Metras, Alexandre; Couffinhal, Thierry; Losordo, Douglas W.; Yao, Qinyu; Reynaud, Annabel; Jaspard-Vinassa, Béatrice; Belloc, Isabelle; Desgranges, Claude; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A better understanding of the mechanism underlying skeletal muscle repair is required to develop therapies that promote tissue regeneration in adults. Hedgehog signaling has been shown previously to be involved in myogenesis and angiogenesis: 2 crucial processes for muscle development and regeneration. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the role of the hedgehog transcription factor Gli3 in the crosstalk between angiogenesis and myogenesis in adults. Methods and Results Using conditional knockout mice, we found that Gli3 deficiency in endothelial cells did not affect ischemic muscle repair, whereas in myocytes, Gli3 deficiency resulted in severely delayed ischemia-induced myogenesis. Moreover, angiogenesis was also significantly impaired in HSA-CreERT2; Gli3Flox/Flox mice, demonstrating that impaired myogenesis indirectly affects ischemia-induced angiogenesis. The role of Gli3 in myocytes was then further investigated. We found that Gli3 promotes myoblast differentiation through myogenic factor 5 regulation. In addition, we found that Gli3 regulates several proangiogenic factors, including thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietin-1 both in vitro and in vivo, which indirectly promote endothelial cell proliferation and arteriole formation. In addition, we found that Gli3 is upregulated in proliferating myoblasts by the cell cycle–associated transcription factor E2F1. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that Gli3-regulated postnatal myogenesis is necessary for muscle repair–associated angiogenesis. Most importantly, it implies that myogenesis drives angiogenesis in the setting of skeletal muscle repair and identifies Gli3 as a potential target for regenerative medicine. PMID:24044950

  2. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future

  3. Marine Compound Catunaregin Inhibits Angiogenesis through the Modulation of Phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xiu Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. Excessive or uncontrolled angiogenesis is a major contributor to many pathological conditions whereas inhibition of aberrant angiogenesis is beneficial to patients with pathological angiogenesis. Catunaregin is a core of novel marine compound isolated from mangrove associate. The potential anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and zebrafish. HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of catunaregin in the presence or absence of VEGF. The angiogenic phenotypes including cell invasion cell migration and tube formation were evaluated following catunaregin treatment in HUVECs. The possible involvement of AKT, eNOS and ERK1/2 in catunaregin-induced anti-angiogenesis was explored using Western blotting. The anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was further tested in the zebrafish embryo neovascularization and caudal fin regeneration assays. We found that catunaregin dose-dependently inhibited angiogenesis in both HUVECs and zebrafish embryo neovascularization and zebrafish caudal fin regeneration assays. In addition, catunaregin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The present work demonstrates that catunaregin exerts the anti-angiogenic activity at least in part through the regulation of the Akt and eNOS signaling pathways.

  4. Angiogenesis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Góralczyk, Barbara; Drela, Ewelina; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Szczypiorska, Anna; Rość, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a very important process that occurs in both physiological and pathological states. The new blood vessels formation is characteristic for cancers, ischemic diseases and inflammatory diseases. The process is controlled by factors that stimulate and inhibit neovascularization. The next stages of the neovascularization are known as well as the role of the extracellular matrix, cells and cytokines/factors growth modulating this process. The cells of the endothelium and proangiogen...

  5. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, M.; Sips, P.; Khin, E.; Rotival, M.; Sun, X.; Ahmed, R.; Widjaja, A. A.; Schafer, S.; Yusoff, P.; Choksi, P. K.; Ko, N. S. J.; Singh, M. K.; Epstein, D.; Guan, Y.; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Mikell, B.; Tan, J.; Pesce, F.; Kolář, František; Bottolo, L.; Mancini, M.; Hubner, N.; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, E.; MacRae, C.; Cook, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jul (2016), s. 12061 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Wars2 mutant gene * angiogenesis * coronary flow * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  6. Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Glioma Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Takano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.

  7. Statins and angiogenesis: Is it about connections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Wang, Wenze; Khan, Junaid A.; Kang, Bum-Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2009-01-01

    Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have been shown to induce both angiogenic and angiostatic responses. We attempted to resolve this controversy by studying the effects of two different statins, rosuvastatin and simvastatin, in two different assay systems. In the matrigel angiogenesis assay, both statins enhanced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, p < 0.01 vs. control). In the ex vivo mouse aortic ring sprouting assay, both statins virtually abolished new vessel formation (p < 0.01). As a basic difference between the two models of angiogenesis is dispersed state of endothelial cells vs. compact monolayer, we analyzed influence of statins on endothelial junction proteins. RT-PCR analysis and cytoimmunostaining of HUVECs treated with simvastatin revealed increased expression of VE-cadherin (p < 0.05). The blockade of VE-cadherin with a specific antibody reversed simvastatin-induced tube formation (p < 0.002). These data suggest that statins through VE-cadherin stimulation modulate cell-cell adhesion and diminish the ability of cells to proliferate and migrate. The observations of reduced angiogenesis in the intact vessel may relate to anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects of statins, and provide a feasible explanation for conflicting data under different experimental conditions.

  8. The Multiple Roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in Normal and Pathological Placental Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Alfaidy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placentation is associated with several steps of vascular adaptations throughout pregnancy. These vascular changes occur both on the maternal and fetal sides, consisting of maternal uterine spiral arteries remodeling and placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process for efficient fetomaternal exchanges and placental development. This process is finely controlled throughout pregnancy, and it involves ubiquitous and pregnancy-specific angiogenic factors. In the last decade, endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF, also called prokineticin 1 (PROK1, has emerged as specific placental angiogenic factor that controls many aspects of normal and pathological placental angiogenesis such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL, gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD, fetal growth restriction (FGR, and preeclampsia (PE. This review recapitulates EG-VEGF mediated-angiogenesis within the placenta and at the fetomaternal interface and proposes that its deregulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of several placental diseases including FGR and PE. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.

  9. The multiple roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in normal and pathological placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaidy, Nadia; Hoffmann, Pascale; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Benharouga, Mohamed; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Brouillet, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Placentation is associated with several steps of vascular adaptations throughout pregnancy. These vascular changes occur both on the maternal and fetal sides, consisting of maternal uterine spiral arteries remodeling and placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process for efficient fetomaternal exchanges and placental development. This process is finely controlled throughout pregnancy, and it involves ubiquitous and pregnancy-specific angiogenic factors. In the last decade, endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also called prokineticin 1 (PROK1), has emerged as specific placental angiogenic factor that controls many aspects of normal and pathological placental angiogenesis such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preeclampsia (PE). This review recapitulates EG-VEGF mediated-angiogenesis within the placenta and at the fetomaternal interface and proposes that its deregulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of several placental diseases including FGR and PE. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.

  10. The National Radiation Protection Authority and its regulatory programme. Potential benefits of the CTBT and thoughts on cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the past years Ethiopia became an active participant in the scientific and political development as well as supporter of the CTBT. This paper describes the designated institution for the CTBT implementation in the area of Radionuclides in Ethiopia and its scientific and regulatory program as well as main activities concerning application techniques. The second part of the paper accounts for the links between the objectives of the national institute with the CTBT. It draws substantive details about benefits that could arise from participating in CTBT implementation and summarizes the discussion by suggesting modalities for building partnership and cooperation

  11. Interprovincial regulatory barriers to procurement in western Canada's oil and gas sector : potential standardization-based solutions : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.; Godin, M.; Josty, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviewed the regulatory environment related to the oil and gas industry in western Canada in order to identify factors limiting the procurement of goods and services required by the industry. The aim of the study was to identify solutions based on the development of voluntary industry standards. Literature and reports related to interprovincial trade and standards were reviewed. The procurement divisions of oil and gas companies and suppliers to the oil and gas industry were consulted in addition to government official and industry experts. A review of provincial technical regulations was completed. The study identified 3 candidates for specific action within the standards system: (1) modular transport platforms; (2) regulatory conformance procedures; and (3) the mobility of skilled workers. Results of the study indicated that the development of service standards for technical and inspection activities of importance to the petroleum industry will help to facilitate the increased mobility of skilled workers, while initiatives to develop a standard information disclosure and exchange format for all federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions will address the conflicting regimes to which oil and gas products and services are subjected. 40 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Minocycline promotes the generation of dendritic cells with regulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Narae; Park, Chan-Su; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lee, Jae-Hee; Park, Young-Jun; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2016-08-16

    Minocycline, which has long been used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, also exhibits non-antibiotic properties such as inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis. In this study, we show that minocycline significantly enhances the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells when used together with GM-CSF and IL-4. DCs generated from BM cells in the presence of minocycline (Mino-DCs) demonstrate the characteristics of regulatory DCs. Compared with control DCs, Mino-DCs are resistant to subsequent maturation stimuli, impaired in MHC class II-restricted exogenous Ag presentation, and show decreased cytokine secretion. Mino-DCs also show decreased ability to prime allogeneic-specific T cells, while increasing the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, pretreatment with MOG35-55 peptide-pulsed Mino-DCs ameliorates clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalitis induced by MOG peptide injection. Our study identifies minocycline as a new pharmacological agent that could be potentially used to increase the production of regulatory DCs for cell therapy to treat autoimmune disorders, allergy, and transplant rejection.

  13. Ionizing radiation modulates the exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope within collagen type IV during angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Peter C.; Roth, Jennifer M.; Lymberis, Stella C.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Broek, Daniel; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of the research on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation has focused on the impact of radiation on cells in terms of gene expression, DNA damage, and cytotoxicity. In comparison, little information is available concerning the direct effects of radiation on the extracellular microenvironment, specifically the extracellular matrix and its main component, collagen. We have developed a series of monoclonal antibodies that bind to cryptic epitopes of collagen Type IV that are differentially exposed during matrix remodeling and are key mediators of angiogenesis. We have hypothesized that ionizing radiation might affect the process of angiogenesis through a direct effect on the extracellular matrix and specifically on collagen Type IV. Methods and Materials: Angiogenesis was induced in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model; 24 h later, a single-dose treatment with ionizing radiation (0.5, 5, and 20 cGy) was administered. Angiogenesis was assessed, and the exposure of two cryptic regulatory epitopes within collagen Type IV (HUI77 and HUIV26) was studied in vitro by solid-phase ELISA and in vivo by immunofluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent reduction of angiogenesis with maximum inhibition (85%-90%) occurring at 20 cGy was demonstrated in the CAM model. Exposure of the cryptic HUIV26 site, an angiogenesis control element, was inhibited both in vitro and in vivo by the same radiation dose, whereas little if any change was observed for the HUI77 cryptic epitope. Conclusions: A dose-dependent alteration of the functional exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope is induced by radiation in vitro and in the CAM model in vivo. This radiation-induced change in protein structure and function may contribute to the inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation on new blood vessel growth and warrants further studies in other models

  14. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  15. Role and mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a wide spread carcinogen associated with several kinds of cancers including skin, lung, bladder, and liver cancers. Lung is one of the major targets of arsenic exposure. Angiogenesis is the pivotal process during carcinogenesis and chronic pulmonary diseases, but the role and mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study we show that short time exposure of arsenic induces angiogenesis in both human immortalized lung epithelial cells BEAS-2B and adenocarcinoma cells A549. To study the molecular mechanism of arsenic-inducing angiogenesis, we find that arsenic induces reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which activates AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Inhibition of ROS production suppresses angiogenesis by decreasing AKT and ERK activation and HIF-1 expression. Inhibition of ROS, AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways is sufficient to attenuate arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. HIF-1 and VEGF are downstream effectors of AKT and ERK1/2 that are required for arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. These results shed light on the mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis, and are helpful to develop mechanism-based intervention to prevent arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in the future.

  16. Quercetin suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression and angiogenesis through inactivation of P300 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic bioflavonoid, possesses multiple pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, the precise action mechanisms of quercetin remain unclear. Here, we reported the regulatory actions of quercetin on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, an important mediator in inflammation and tumor promotion, and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin significantly suppressed COX-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin (PG E(2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter activation in breast cancer cells. Quercetin also significantly inhibited COX-2-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro streptavidin-agarose pulldown assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that quercetin considerably inhibited the binding of the transactivators CREB2, C-Jun, C/EBPβ and NF-κB and blocked the recruitment of the coactivator p300 to COX-2 promoter. Moreover, quercetin effectively inhibited p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity, thereby attenuating the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB. Treatment of cells with p300 HAT inhibitor roscovitine was as effective as quercetin at inhibiting p300 HAT activity. Addition of quercetin to roscovitine-treated cells did not change the roscovitine-induced inhibition of p300 HAT activity. Conversely, gene delivery of constitutively active p300 significantly reversed the quercetin-mediated inhibition of endogenous HAT activity. These results indicate that quercetin suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting the p300 signaling and blocking the binding of multiple transactivators to COX-2 promoter. Our findings therefore reveal a novel mechanism of action of quercetin and suggest a potential use for quercetin in the treatment of COX-2-mediated diseases such as breast cancers.

  17. Microvesicles in Atherosclerosis and Angiogenesis: From Bench to Bedside and Reverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Badimon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis (AT is a progressive chronic disease involving lipid accumulation, fibrosis, and inflammation in medium and large-sized arteries, and it is the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD. AT is caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite lipid-lowering drugs have shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs, there is a significant burden of AT-related morbidity and mortality. Identification of subjects at increased risk for CVE as well as discovery of novel therapeutic targets for improved treatment strategies are still unmet clinical needs in CVD. Microvesicles (MVs, small extracellular plasma membrane particles shed by activated and apoptotic cells have been widely linked to the development of CVD. MVs from vascular and resident cells by facilitating exchange of biological information between neighboring cells serve as cellular effectors in the bloodstream and play a key role in all stages of disease progression. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of MVs in AT and CVD. Attention is focused on novel aspects of MV-mediated regulatory mechanisms from endothelial dysfunction, vascular wall inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis to coagulation and thrombosis in the progression and development of atherothrombosis. MV contribution to vascular remodeling is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on the effect of MVs on the crosstalk between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and their role regulating the active process of AT-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization. This review also highlights the latest findings and main challenges on the potential prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic value of cell-derived MVs in CVD. In summary, MVs have emerged as new regulators of biological functions in atherothrombosis and might be instrumental in cardiovascular precision medicine; however, significant efforts are still needed to translate into

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for predicting potential ecological hazard of organic chemicals for use in regulatory risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Mike H I; Walker, John D; Watts, Chris; Hermens, Joop

    2003-08-01

    The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for deriving the predicted no-effect concentration of discrete organic chemicals for the purposes of conducting a regulatory risk assessment in Europe and the United States is described. In the United States, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) use SARs to estimate the hazards of existing and new chemicals. Within the Existing Substances Regulation in Europe, QSARs may be used for data evaluation, test strategy indications, and the identification and filling of data gaps. To illustrate where and when QSARs may be useful and when their use is more problematic, an example, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), is given and the predicted and experimental data are compared. Improvements needed for new QSARs and tools for developing and using QSARs are discussed.

  19. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  20. Evaluation of radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and myocardial angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimastromatteo, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary events are mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture or erosion. However, at present, there is no noninvasive tool available for the detection of vulnerable plaques. The first part of thesis is about evaluation of new radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. 99m Tc-B2702p, 20 derivatives, 99m Tc-VP and 99m Tc-VINP28 were evaluated in an experimental model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/- mice with left carotid artery ligation). 99m Tc- B2702p1 is a potentially useful radiotracer for the in vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial angiogenesis is an important post infarction phenomenon. Angiogenic therapy improves experimentally cardiac parameters. However, clinical trials using the same therapy are more controversial. At present, clinical imaging tools don't allow us to assess angiogenesis therapy. The second part of thesis is about validation of 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD in the detection of myocardial angiogenesis. 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD allow us to perform noninvasive molecular imaging of myocardial angiogenesis in an experimental model. (author)

  1. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junfang; Yang, Eun Ju; Head, Sarah A; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Baoyuan; Wu, Changjie; Li, Ruo-Jing; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Chen; Dang, Yongjun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun O; Shim, Joong Sup

    2017-11-28

    Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Cepharanthine inhibited the endolysosomal trafficking of free-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in HUVEC by binding to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) protein and increasing the lysosomal pH. The blockade of cholesterol trafficking led to a cholesterol-dependent dissociation of mTOR from the lysosomes and inhibition of its downstream signaling. Cepharanthine inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC and in zebrafish in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, cepharanthine suppressed tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis and it enhanced the antitumor activity of the standard chemotherapy cisplatin in lung and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Altogether, these results strongly support the idea that cholesterol trafficking is a viable drug target for anti-angiogenesis and that the inhibitors identified among existing drugs, such as cepharanthine, could be potential anti-angiogenic and antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 in Physiological and Pathophysiological Angiogenesis: Applications and Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimna, Agnieszka; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular system ensures the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, tissues, and organs. Under extended exposure to reduced oxygen levels, cells are able to survive through the transcriptional activation of a series of genes that participate in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and cell proliferation. The oxygen-sensitive transcriptional activator HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is a key transcriptional mediator of the response to hypoxic conditions. The HIF-1 pathway was found to be a master regulator of angiogenesis. Whether the process is physiological or pathological, HIF-1 seems to participate in vasculature formation by synergistic correlations with other proangiogenic factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), PlGF (placental growth factor), or angiopoietins. Considering the important contributions of HIF-1 in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, it should be considered a promising target for treating ischaemic diseases or cancer. In this review, we discuss the roles of HIF-1 in both physiological/pathophysiological angiogenesis and potential strategies for clinical therapy. PMID:26146622

  3. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ, bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  4. Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis: Perspectives for the treatment of solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Collen, A.; Koolwijk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones. Many solid tumors depend on an extensive newly formed vascular network to become nourished and to expand. Tumor cells induce the formation of an extensive but aberrant vascular network by the secretion of angiogenic factors. A

  5. Mature and progenitor endothelial cells perform angiogenesis also under protease inhibition: the amoeboid angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Biagioni, Alessio; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella; Laurenzana, Anna

    2018-04-03

    Controlling vascular growth is a challenging aim for the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. The amoeboid and mesenchymal types of invasiveness are two modes of migration interchangeable in cancer cells: the Rac-dependent mesenchymal migration requires the activity of proteases; the Rho-ROCK-dependent amoeboid motility is protease-independent and has never been described in endothelial cells. A cocktail of physiologic inhibitors (Ph-C) of serine-proteases, metallo-proteases and cysteine-proteases, mimicking the physiological environment that cells encounter during their migration within the angiogenesis sites was used to induce amoeboid style migration of Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and mature endothelial cells (ECs). To evaluate the mesenchymal-ameboid transition RhoA and Rac1 activation assays were performed along with immunofluorescence analysis of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization. Cell invasion was studied in Boyden chambers and Matrigel plug assay for the in vivo angiogenesis. In the present study we showed in both ECFCs and ECs, a decrease of activated Rac1 and an increase of activated RhoA upon shifting of cells to the amoeboid conditions. In presence of Ph-C inhibitors both cell lines acquired a round morphology and Matrigel invasion was greatly enhanced with respect to that observed in the absence of protease inhibition. We also observed that the urokinase-plasminogen-activator (uPAR) receptor silencing and uPAR-integrin uncoupling with the M25 peptide abolished both mesenchymal and amoeboid angiogenesis of ECFCs and ECs in vitro and in vivo, indicating a role of the uPAR-integrin-actin axis in the regulation of amoeboid angiogenesis. Furthermore, under amoeboid conditions endothelial cells seem to be indifferent to VEGF stimulation, which induces an amoeboid signaling pattern also in mesenchymal conditions. Here we first provide a data set disclosing that endothelial cells can move and differentiate into vascular

  6. Signaling and molecular basis of bone marrow niche angiogenesis in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirzad, R.; Shahrabi, S.; Ahmadzadeh, A.; Kampen, K. R.; Shahjahani, M.; Saki, N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of blood vessel formation, is necessary for tissue survival in normal and pathologic conditions. Increased angiogenesis in BM niche is correlated with leukemia progression and resistance to treatment. Angiogenesis can interfere with disease progression and several

  7. VEGF selectively induces Down syndrome critical region 1 gene expression in endothelial cells: a mechanism for feedback regulation of angiogenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.-G; Duh, Elia J.

    2004-01-01

    The Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) gene (also known as MCIP1, Adapt78) encodes a regulatory protein that binds to calcineurin catalytic A subunit and acts as a regulator of the calcineurin-mediated signaling pathway. We show in this study that DSCR1 is greatly induced in endothelial cells in response to VEGF, TNF-α, and A23187 treatment, and that this up-regulation is inhibited by inhibitors of the calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling pathway as well as by PKC inhibition and a Ca 2+ chelator. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of DSCR1 gene expression in endothelial cells could act as an endogenous feedback inhibitor for angiogenesis by regulating the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. Our transient transfection analyses confirm that the overexpression of DSCR1 abrogates the up-regulation of reporter gene expression driven by both the cyclooxygenase 2 and DSCR1 promoters in response to stimulators. Our results indicate that DSCR1 up-regulation may represent a potential molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of angiogenic genes activated by the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in endothelial cells

  8. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    endothelial compartments of bone metastases and calcified neoplasms at a single administration. This new approach of co-delivery of two synergistic drugs may have clinical utility as a potential therapy for angiogenesis-dependent cancers such as osteosarcoma and bone metastases.

  9. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Lai-Sheung [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Poon, Po-Ying [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun, E-mail: rnswong@hkbu.edu.hk [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-09-15

    decreasing miR-23a expression. • Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) is a direct regulatory target of miR-23a. • Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET through miR-23a.

  10. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  11. Cell-Oriented Modeling of Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Guidolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant involvement in various physiological and pathological conditions, angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature represents an important area of the actual biological research and a field in which mathematical modeling proved particularly useful in supporting the experimental work. In this paper, we focus on a specific modeling strategy, known as “cell-centered” approach. This type of mathematical models work at a “mesoscopic scale,” assuming the cell as the natural level of abstraction for computational modeling of development. They treat cells phenomenologically, considering their essential behaviors to study how tissue structure and organization emerge from the collective dynamics of multiple cells. The main contributions of the cell-oriented approach to the study of the angiogenic process will be described. From one side, they have generated “basic science understanding” about the process of capillary assembly during development, growth, and pathology. On the other side, models were also developed supporting “applied biomedical research” for the purpose of identifying new therapeutic targets and clinically relevant approaches for either inhibiting or stimulating angiogenesis.

  12. Cell-oriented modeling of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Diego; Rebuffat, Piera; Albertin, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Due to its significant involvement in various physiological and pathological conditions, angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature) represents an important area of the actual biological research and a field in which mathematical modeling proved particularly useful in supporting the experimental work. In this paper, we focus on a specific modeling strategy, known as "cell-centered" approach. This type of mathematical models work at a "mesoscopic scale," assuming the cell as the natural level of abstraction for computational modeling of development. They treat cells phenomenologically, considering their essential behaviors to study how tissue structure and organization emerge from the collective dynamics of multiple cells. The main contributions of the cell-oriented approach to the study of the angiogenic process will be described. From one side, they have generated "basic science understanding" about the process of capillary assembly during development, growth, and pathology. On the other side, models were also developed supporting "applied biomedical research" for the purpose of identifying new therapeutic targets and clinically relevant approaches for either inhibiting or stimulating angiogenesis.

  13. Human embryo-conditioned medium stimulates in vitro endometrial angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, K.; Koolwijk, P.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Nieuw Amerongen, G. van; Plaisier, M.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Successful implantation and placentation depend on the interaction between the endometrium and the embryo. Angiogenesis is crucial at this time. In this article we investigate the direct influence of the human embryo on in vitro endometrial angiogenesis. Design: In vitro study. Setting:

  14. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  15. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2016-09-29

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9\\'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  16. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark; Koschmieder, Julian; Wuest, Florian; Schaub, Patrick; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Timmer, Jens; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  17. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mark; Koschmieder, Julian; Wuest, Florian; Schaub, Patrick; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Timmer, Jens; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals. PMID:27811075

  18. Aloe Gel Enhances Angiogenesis in Healing of Diabetic Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanggan Sargowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic micro and macroangiophathy lead to the incident of diabetic foot ulcers characterized by an increased number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs and decreased function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. This fact is correlated with ischemia and diabetic wound healing failure. Aloe vera gel is known to be able to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and activity by enhancing nitric oxide (NO production as a result of nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme activity. Aloe vera is a potential target to enhancing angiogenesis in wound healing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the major role of Aloe vera gel in wound healing of diabetic ulcers by increasing the level of EPCs, VEGF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as well as by reducing the level of CECs involved in angiogenesis process of diabetic ulcers healing. METHODS: The experimental groups was divided into five subgroups consisting of non diabetic wistar rats, diabetic rats without oral administration of aloe gel, and treatment subgroup (diabetic rats with 30, 60 and 120 mg/day of aloe gel doses for 14 days. All subgroups were wounded and daily observation was done on the wounds areas. Measurement of the number of EPCs (CD34, and CECs (CD45 and CD146 was done by flow cytometry, followed by measurement of VEGF and eNOS expression on dermal tissue by immunohistochemical method on day 0 and day 14 after treatment. The quantitative data were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Linear Regression, with a confidence interval 5% and significance level (p<0.05 using SPSS 16 software to compare the difference and correlation between wound diameters, number of EPCs and CECs as well as the levels of VEGF and eNOS. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that aloe gel oral treatment in diabetic wistar rats was able to accelerate the wound healing process. It was shown by significant reduction of wound diameter (0.27±0.02; the

  19. CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Chen, Po-Chen; Yang, Wei-Hung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25301739

  20. Silencing cathepsin S gene expression inhibits growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qi; Wang, Xuedi; Zhang, Hanguang; Li, Chuanwei; Fan, Junhua; Xu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cat S is highly expressed in HCC cells with high metastatic potential. ► Knockdown of Cat S inhibits growth and invasion of HCC cells. ► Knockdown of Cat S inhibits HCC-associated angiogenesis. ► Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy. -- Abstract: Cathepsin S (Cat S) plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis by its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Our previous study suggested there could be a potential association between Cat S and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. The present study was designed to determine the role of Cat S in HCC cell growth, invasion and angiogenesis, using RNA interference technology. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences for the Cat S gene were synthesized and transfected into human HCC cell line MHCC97-H. The Cat S gene targeted siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cat S expression, leading to potent suppression of MHCC97-H cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These data suggest that Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

  1. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  2. A novel peptide derived from human apolipoprotein E is an inhibitor of tumor growth and ocular angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha S Bhattacharjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a hallmark of tumor development and metastasis and now a validated target for cancer treatment. We previously reported that a novel dimer peptide (apoEdp derived from the receptor binding region of human apolipoprotein E (apoE inhibits virus-induced angiogenesis. However, its role in tumor anti-angiogenesis is unknown. This study demonstrates that apoEdp has anti-angiogenic property in vivo through reduction of tumor growth in a mouse model and ocular angiogenesis in a rabbit eye model. Our in vitro studies show that apoEdp inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and capillary tube formation. We document that apoEdp inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced Flk-1 activation as well as downstream signaling pathways that involve c-Src, Akt, eNOS, FAK, and ERK1/2. These in vitro data suggest potential sites of the apoE dipeptide inhibition that could occur in vivo.This is the first evidence that a synthetic dimer peptide mimicking human apoE has anti-angiogenesis functions and could be an anti-tumor drug candidate.

  3. Influence of Levamisole and Other Angiogenesis Inhibitors on Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Morphology in Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Larsen, Line S.; Houen, Gunnar, E-mail: gh@ssi.dk [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology and Genetics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-06-24

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity

  4. Positron emission tomography tracers for imaging angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, Roland; Beer, Ambros J.; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Position emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis may provide non-invasive insights into the corresponding molecular processes and may be applied for individualized treatment planning of antiangiogenic therapies. At the moment, most strategies are focusing on the development of radiolabelled proteins and antibody formats targeting VEGF and its receptor or the ED-B domain of a fibronectin isoform as well as radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or α v β 3 integrin antagonists. Great efforts are being made to develop suitable tracers for different target structures. All of the major strategies focusing on the development of radiolabelled compounds for use with positron emission tomography are summarized in this review. However, because the most intensive work is concentrated on the development of radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging α v β 3 expression, which has successfully made its way from bench to bedside, these developments are especially emphasized. (orig.)

  5. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  6. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  7. Identification of Target Genes Involved in Wound Healing Angiogenesis of Endothelial Cells with the Treatment of a Chinese 2-Herb Formula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chor Wing Tam

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is vitally important in diabetic wound healing. We had previously demonstrated that a Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3 significantly stimulated angiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. However, the molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In line with this, global expression profiling of NF3-treated HUVEC was performed so as to assess the regulatory role of NF3 involved in the underlying signaling pathways in wound healing angiogenesis. The microarray results illustrated that different panels of differentially expressed genes were strictly governed in NF3-treated HUVEC in a time-regulated manner. The microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR and western blotting verification of NF3-treated HUVEC at 6 h revealed the involvement of various genes in diverse biological process, e.g., MAP3K14 in anti-inflammation; SLC5A8 in anti-tumorogenesis; DNAJB7 in protein translation; BIRC5, EPCAM, INSL4, MMP8 and NPR3 in cell proliferation; CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1 and MMP8 in migration; CXCR7, EPCAM and MMP8 in tubular formation; and BIRC5, CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1, MMP8 and UBD in angiogenesis. After 16 h incubation of NF3, other sets of genes were shown with differential expression in HUVEC, e.g., IL1RAPL2 and NR1H4 in anti-inflammation; miR28 in anti-tumorogenesis; GRIN1 and LCN1 in anti-oxidation; EPB41 in intracellular signal transduction; PRL and TFAP2A in cell proliferation; miR28, PRL and SCG2 in cell migration; PRL in tubular formation; and miR28, NR1H4 and PRL in angiogenesis. This study provided concrete scientific evidence in support of the regulatory role of NF3 on endothelial cells involved in wound healing angiogenesis.

  8. Identification of Target Genes Involved in Wound Healing Angiogenesis of Endothelial Cells with the Treatment of a Chinese 2-Herb Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jacqueline Chor Wing; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Cheng, Zhang; Lok, Wong Hing; Lau, Ching Po; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Chan, Wai Yee; Lau, Clara Bik San

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is vitally important in diabetic wound healing. We had previously demonstrated that a Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) significantly stimulated angiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. However, the molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In line with this, global expression profiling of NF3-treated HUVEC was performed so as to assess the regulatory role of NF3 involved in the underlying signaling pathways in wound healing angiogenesis. The microarray results illustrated that different panels of differentially expressed genes were strictly governed in NF3-treated HUVEC in a time-regulated manner. The microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR and western blotting verification of NF3-treated HUVEC at 6 h revealed the involvement of various genes in diverse biological process, e.g., MAP3K14 in anti-inflammation; SLC5A8 in anti-tumorogenesis; DNAJB7 in protein translation; BIRC5, EPCAM, INSL4, MMP8 and NPR3 in cell proliferation; CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1 and MMP8 in migration; CXCR7, EPCAM and MMP8 in tubular formation; and BIRC5, CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1, MMP8 and UBD in angiogenesis. After 16 h incubation of NF3, other sets of genes were shown with differential expression in HUVEC, e.g., IL1RAPL2 and NR1H4 in anti-inflammation; miR28 in anti-tumorogenesis; GRIN1 and LCN1 in anti-oxidation; EPB41 in intracellular signal transduction; PRL and TFAP2A in cell proliferation; miR28, PRL and SCG2 in cell migration; PRL in tubular formation; and miR28, NR1H4 and PRL in angiogenesis. This study provided concrete scientific evidence in support of the regulatory role of NF3 on endothelial cells involved in wound healing angiogenesis.

  9. Contrasting exome constancy and regulatory region variation in the gene encoding CYP3A4: an examination of the extent and potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemer, Olivia J; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Ekong, Rosemary; Tarekegn, Ayele; Plaster, Christopher; Bains, Ripudaman K; Itan, Yuval; Bekele, Endashaw; Bradman, Neil

    2016-06-01

    CYP3A4 expression varies up to 100-fold among individuals, and, to date, genetic causes remain elusive. As a major drug-metabolizing enzyme, elucidation of such genetic causes would increase the potential for introducing personalized dose adjustment of therapies involving CYP3A4 drug substrates. The foetal CYP3A isoform, CYP3A7, is reported to be expressed in ∼10% of European adults and may thus contribute towards the metabolism of endogenous substances and CYP3A drug substrates. However, little is known about the distribution of the variant expressed in the adult. We resequenced the exons, flanking introns, regulatory elements and 3'UTR of CYP3A4 in five Ethiopian populations and incorporated data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Using bioinformatic analysis, we assessed likely consequences of observed CYP3A4 genomic variation. We also conducted the first extensive geographic survey of alleles associated with adult expression of CYP3A7 - that is, CYP3A7*1B and CYP3A7*1C. Ethiopia contained 60 CYP3A4 variants (26 novel) and more variants (>1%) than all non-African populations combined. No nonsynonymous mutation was found in the homozygous form or at more than 2.8% in any population. Seventy-nine per cent of haplotypes contained 3'UTR and/or regulatory region variation with striking pairwise population differentiation, highlighting the potential for interethnic variation in CYP3A4 expression. Conversely, coding region variation showed that significant interethnic variation is unlikely at the protein level. CYP3A7*1C was found at up to 17.5% in North African populations and in significant linkage disequilibrium with CYP3A5*3, indicating that adult expression of the foetal isoform is likely to be accompanied by reduced or null expression of CYP3A5.

  10. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF ANGIOGENESIS IN THE CHICKEN CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE (CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blacher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM provides a suitable in vivo model to study angiogenesis and evaluate several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and compounds. In the present work, new developments in image analysis are used to quantify CAM angiogenic response from optical microscopic observations, covering all vascular components, from the large supplying and feeding vessels down to the capillary plexus. To validate our methodology angiogenesis is quantified during two phases of CAM development (day 7 and 13 and after treatment with an antiangiogenic modulator of the angiogenesis. Our morphometric analysis emphasizes that an accurate quantification of the CAM vasculature needs to be performed at various scales.

  12. Suppression of tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human gastric cancer by adenovirus-mediated expression of NK4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; van Beusechem, Victor W.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Craanen, Mikael E.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Derksen, Patrick W. B.; de Bruin, Michiel; Witlox, M. Adhiambo; Molenaar, Bonnie; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Gerritsen, Winald R.

    2004-01-01

    Background To improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer it is important to develop novel treatment modalities targeting the malignant behavior of tumor cells. Concerning this, NK4, which acts as HGF-antagonist and angiogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric

  13. CD13-positive bone marrow-derived myeloid cells promote angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Barbu, Elena M; Hosoya, Hitomi; St John, Lisa S; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2013-12-17

    Angiogenesis is fundamental to tumorigenesis and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention against cancer. We have recently demonstrated that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) expressed by nonmalignant host cells of unspecified types regulate tumor blood vessel development. Here, we compare CD13 wild-type and null bone marrow-transplanted tumor-bearing mice to show that host CD13(+) bone marrow-derived cells promote cancer progression via their effect on angiogenesis. Furthermore, we have identified CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells as the immune subpopulation directly regulating tumor blood vessel development. Finally, we show that these cells are specifically localized within the tumor microenvironment and produce proangiogenic soluble factors. Thus, CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells constitute a population of bone marrow-derived cells that promote tumor progression and metastasis and are potential candidates for the development of targeted antiangiogenic drugs.

  14. Centchroman regulates breast cancer angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGFR2 signalling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Jayant; Kaushik, Shweta; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Balapure, Anil K

    2018-01-15

    Angiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of cancer which promotes cancer cell progression and metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis to attenuate cancer growth is becoming desirable strategy for breast cancer management. The present study is aimed to investigate the antiangiogenic efficacy of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator Centchroman (CC) on human breast cancer cells. Effect of CC on cell viability was evaluated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Endothelial cell proliferation, wound healing, Boyden chamber cell invasion, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays were performed to assess the effect of CC on migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3/7 and intracellular calcium ion level were measured through flow cytometry. Expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, AKT and ERK were assessed by western blot analysis. CC selectively induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells without affecting non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. Moreover, it inhibits migratory, invasive and mammosphere forming potential of breast cancer. Furthermore, CC also inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. CC effectively inhibited neovasculature formation in chicken CAM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CC inhibited expression of HIF-1α and its downstream target VEGF. Interestingly, CC also suppressed VEGFR2 phosphorylation and consequently attenuated AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that CC downregulates VEGF-induced angiogenesis by modulating HIF-1α/VEGFR2 pathway and recommend it (CC) as a potential therapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing of Genomic DNA Fragments Bound to a Transcription Factor in Vitro Reveals Its Regulatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Kurihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several transcription factors (TFs coordinate to regulate expression of specific genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana it is estimated that approximately 10% of all genes encode TFs or TF-like proteins. It is important to identify target genes that are directly regulated by TFs in order to understand the complete picture of a plant’s transcriptome profile. Here, we investigate the role of the LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5 transcription factor that acts as a regulator of photomorphogenesis. We used an in vitro genomic DNA binding assay coupled with immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (gDB-seq instead of the in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-based methods. The results demonstrate that the HY5-binding motif predicted here was similar to the motif reported previously and that in vitro HY5-binding loci largely overlapped with the HY5-targeted candidate genes identified in previous ChIP-chip analysis. By combining these results with microarray analysis, we identified hundreds of HY5-binding genes that were differentially expressed in hy5. We also observed delayed induction of some transcripts of HY5-binding genes in hy5 mutants in response to blue-light exposure after dark treatment. Thus, an in vitro gDNA-binding assay coupled with sequencing is a convenient and powerful method to bridge the gap between identifying TF binding potential and establishing function.

  16. Surgical revascularization induces angiogenesis in orthotopic bone allograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Wouter F.; Kremer, Thomas; Friedrich, Patricia; Bishop, Allen T.

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling of structural bone allografts relies on adequate revascularization, which can theoretically be induced by surgical revascularization. We developed a new orthotopic animal model to determine the technical feasibility of axial arteriovenous bundle implantation and resultant angiogenesis. We

  17. Angiogenesis and Therapeutic Approaches to NF1 Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muir, David F

    2007-01-01

    .... Invivo and in vitro models were used to firmly conclude that Nf1 haploinsufficiency in endothelial cells results inexaggerated proliferation and angiogenesis in response to key pro-angiogenic factors...

  18. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.

  19. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that ...

  20. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1 thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2 Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3 ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of

  1. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  2. Apatinib Inhibits Angiogenesis Via Suppressing Akt/GSK3β/ANG Signaling Pathway in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and there is no efficient method to slow its process. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma patients. However, the effects of Apatinib in ATC are still unknown. Methods: In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of Apatinib on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vitro in ATC cells. Angiogenesis antibodies array was utilized to detect the expression of angiogenesis-related genes after Apatinib treatment in ATC cells. In addition, we used Akt activator, Akt inhibitor and GSK3β inhibitor to further study the mechanism for how Apatinib suppressed angiogenesis. Results: Apatinib treatment could suppress the growth of ATC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Apatinib treatment decreased the expression of angiogenin (ANG and inhibited angiogenesis of ATC cells in vitro and in vitro. We further confirmed that recombinant human ANG (rhANG significantly abrogated Apatinib-mediated anti-angiogenic ability in ATC cells. Additionally, Apatinib treatment decreased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK3β. Moreover, the Apatinib-mediated decrease of ANG and anti-angiogenic ability were partly reversed when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib can be enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, and the inhibition of GSK3β attenuated the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Apatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth, and Apatinib-induced suppression of Akt/GSK3β/ANG signaling pathway may play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis in ATC, supporting a potential therapeutic approach for using Apatinib in the treatment of ATC.

  3. Enhancement of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis using a novel type of injectable scaffolds of hydroxyapatite-polymer nanocomposite microspheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Mima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with severe ischemic diseases; however, their success remains limited. Maintaining transplanted cells in place are expected to augment the cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis. We have reported that nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp coating on medical devices shows marked cell adhesiveness. Using this nanotechnology, HAp-coated poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA microspheres, named nano-scaffold (NS, were generated as a non-biological, biodegradable and injectable cell scaffold. We investigate the effectiveness of NS on cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC and NS or control PLLA microspheres (LA were intramuscularly co-implanted into mice ischemic hindlimbs. When BMNC derived from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-transgenic mice were injected into ischemic muscle, the muscle GFP level in NS+BMNC group was approximate fivefold higher than that in BMNC or LA+BMNC groups seven days after operation. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that NS+BMNC markedly prevented hindlimb necrosis (P<0.05 vs. BMNC or LA+BMNC. NS+BMNC revealed much higher induction of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues and collateral blood flow confirmed by three-dimensional computed tomography angiography than those of BMNC or LA+BMNC groups. NS-enhanced therapeutic angiogenesis and arteriogenesis showed good correlations with increased intramuscular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2. NS co-implantation also prevented apoptotic cell death of transplanted cells, resulting in prolonged cell retention. CONCLUSION: A novel and feasible injectable cell scaffold potentiates cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis, which could be extremely useful for the treatment of severe ischemic disorders.

  4. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  5. Melatonin as an angiogenesis inhibitor to combat cancer: Mechanistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Moloudizargari, Milad; Negahdari, Babak; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    Melatonin, a pineal indolamine, participates in different body functions and is shown to possess diverse biological activities such as anti-tumor action. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its oncostatic effects. Increased angiogenesis is a major feature of tumor progression, thus angiogenesis inhibition is a critical step in cancer therapy. Melatonin employs a variety of mechanisms to target nutrients and oxygen supply to cancer cells. At the transcriptional level, hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the genes under its control, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the main targets of melatonin for inhibition of angiogenesis. Melatonin prevents translocation of HIF-1α into the nucleus thereby hindering VEGF expression and also prevents the formation of HIF-1α, phospho-STAT3 and CBP/p300 complex which is involved in the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. Angiostatic properties of melatonin could be also due to its ability to inhibit VEGFR2's activation and expression. Other angiostatic mechanisms of melatonin include the inhibition of endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. In the present study, we have reviewed the molecular anti-angiogenesis pathways mediated by melatonin and the responsible mechanisms in various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fascin 1 is dispensable for developmental and tumour angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ma

    2013-09-01

    The actin bundling protein fascin 1 is not expressed in adult epithelial tissues, but during development it is transiently expressed in many different cell types, and later in adults it is expressed in a subset of immune cells, nervous tissues, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. In contrast to the wealth of knowledge about the role of fascin 1 in cancer cell migration and invasion, little is known about the involvement of fascin 1 in angiogenesis. We speculated that as angiogenesis involves migration and invasion of tissues by endothelial cells, fascin 1 might have a role in both normal and tumour angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of fascin 1 causes relatively minor reductions to angiogenesis during embryonic, postnatal and cancerous development by examining E12.5 hindbrains, postnatal retinas and B16F0 tumour cell allografts in fascin 1-null mice. We also find that in fascin 1 null tissues, endothelial cells display reduced filopodia formation during sprouting. We thus propose that fascin 1 expression promotes angiogenesis via filopodia formation, but is largely dispensable for both normal and tumour angiogenesis.

  7. Tumor angiogenesis in advanced stage ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, H C; Kohn, E C; Steinberg, S M; Rothenberg, M L; Merino, M J

    1995-07-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been found to have prognostic significance in many tumor types for predicting an increased risk of metastasis. We assessed tumor vascularity in 43 cases of advanced stage (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stages III and IV) ovarian cancer by using the highly specific endothelial cell marker CD34. Microvessel counts and stage were associated with disease-free survival and with overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The plots show that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x (200x avg) and 400x (400x avg) magnification and highest vessel count at 400x (400x high) magnification confer a worse prognosis for disease-free survival. Average vessel count of less than 16 (400x avg, P2 = 0.01) and less than 45 (200x avg, P2 = 0.026) suggested a better survival. Similarly, a high vessel count of less than 20 (400x high, P2 = 0.019) conferred a better survival as well. The plots suggest that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x and 400x, and highest vessel count at 200x and 400x show a trend to worse overall survival as well. With the Cox proportional hazards model, stage was the best predictor of overall survival, however, the average microvessel count at 400x was found to be the best predictor of disease-free survival. These results suggest that analysis of neovascularization in advanced stage ovarian cancer may be a useful prognostic factor.

  8. Mast cells and angiogenesis in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed A; Seliet, Iman A; Ehsan, Nermin A; Megahed, Mohamed A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of mast cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a mediator of angiogenesis to promote wound healing in surgical and pathological scars. The study was carried out on 40 patients who presented with active scar lesions. They were subdivided into 4 groups. They included granulation tissue (10 cases), surgical scar (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (10 cases), and keloid scar (10 cases). Also 10 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex were selected as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken from the patients and the control group. Skin biopsies from clinically assessed studied groups were processed for routine histology and embedded in paraffin. Four sections were prepared from each paraffin block. The first section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. The second and third sections were processed for immunostaining of mast cells that contain chymase (MCCs) and mast cells that contain tryptase (MCTs). The fourth section was processed for immunostaining of VEGF. MCCs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue, and surgical, hypertrophic and keloid scars. MCTs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue and keloid, whereas moderate expression was exhibited in hypertrophic and surgical scars. VEGF expression was absent in normal tissue, mild in keloid, surgical and hypertrophic scars, and moderate in keloids and granulation tissue. Mast cell expression variation among different scar types signals the pathological evolution of the lesion, and hence may guide the need for therapeutic intervention.

  9. VASCULAR REMODELING IN HYPERTENSION: ANGIOGENESIS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Haisheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — cross-sectional study of changes in various segments of the vascular bed in arterial hypertension (AH, defining the role of inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis in these processes.Materials and methods. The study included 99 patients with arterial hypertension of I–II degree, average age of 63.2 ± 2.6 years, diseaseduration 9.2 ± 7.2 years.Results. It was found that patients with arterial hypertension have disorders in all segments of vascular bed: endothelial dysfunction (highvWF, microcirculatory disorders, and increased pulse wave velocity (PWV of elastic-type vessels. The level of angioginesis factors doesnot depend on such parameters as gender, age, body mass index. Smoking and duration of hypertension influence on vascular endothelialgrowth factor raise and endostatin levels are higher in patients with family history of cardiovascular diseases. Duration of disease is directlycorrelated with microcirculatory disorders and the PWV, correlation between microcirculatory disorders and pulse wave velocity indicatetheir common processes.

  10. Upregulation of angiogenesis in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassiny, A; Friedlander, L T; Parachuru, V P B; Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M

    2018-02-01

    As angiogenesis is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders, this study investigated the expression of various vascular markers in oral lichen planus and non-specific oral mucosal inflammatory tissues. Archival specimens of oral lichen planus (n = 15) and inflamed tissues (n = 13) were stained using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and vasohibin. Nine representative sites at the epithelial-connective tissue junction and through the fibrous connective tissue were selected, and automated analysis techniques were used to determine the extent of positivity expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Significance was denoted when P lichen planus samples compared with inflamed controls. A higher level of CD34 was observed in the deeper parts of the connective tissue of Oral lichen planus (OLP) (P = .04), whereas VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions were higher all through the tissues (respectively, P lichen planus in all sites evaluated (P oral lichen planus compared with inflamed controls, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and decreased anti-angiogenic expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo; Komiya, Eriko; Dang, Nam H.; Iwao, Noriaki; Ohnuma, Kei; Morimoto, Chikao

    2016-01-01

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.

  12. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Komiya, Eriko [Department of Therapy Development and Innovation for Immune Disorders and Cancers, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road- Box 100278, Room MSB M410A, Gainesville, FL, 32610 (United States); Iwao, Noriaki [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Ohnuma, Kei, E-mail: kohnuma@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Morimoto, Chikao [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan)

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.

  13. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a pharmacological and therapeutic approach to accelerate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckaers, Annelies; Hilkens, Petra; Martens, Wendy; Gervois, Pascal; Ratajczak, Jessica; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2014-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have initially captured attention in the scientific world because of their differentiation potential into osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes and possible transdifferentiation into neurons, glial cells and endothelial cells. This broad plasticity was originally hypothesized as the key mechanism of their demonstrated efficacy in numerous animal models of disease as well as in clinical settings. However, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that the beneficial effects of MSCs are predominantly caused by the multitude of bioactive molecules secreted by these remarkable cells. Numerous angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines have been discovered in the MSC secretome, all have been demonstrated to alter endothelial cell behavior in vitro and induce angiogenesis in vivo. As a consequence, MSCs have been widely explored as a promising treatment strategy in disorders caused by insufficient angiogenesis such as chronic wounds, stroke and myocardial infarction. In this review, we will summarize into detail the angiogenic factors found in the MSC secretome and their therapeutic mode of action in pathologies caused by limited blood vessel formation. Also the application of MSC as a vehicle to deliver drugs and/or genes in (anti-)angiogenesis will be discussed. Furthermore, the literature describing MSC transdifferentiation into endothelial cells will be evaluated critically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatocellular hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in experimental biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, O; Wendum, D; Corpechot, C; Galy, B; Sebbagh, N; Raleigh, J; Housset, C; Poupon, R

    1999-10-01

    We tested the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the angiogenesis associated with experimental liver fibrogenesis induced by common bile duct ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal rats, VEGF and FGF-2 immunoreactivities were restricted to less than 3% of hepatocytes. One week after bile duct ligation, hypoxia was demonstrated by the immunodetection of pimonidazole adducts unevenly distributed throughout the lobule. After 2 weeks, hypoxia and VEGF expression were detected in >95% of hepatocytes and coexisted with an increase in periportal vascular endothelial cell proliferation, as ascertained by Ki67 immunolabeling. Subsequently, at 3 weeks the density of von Willebrand-labeled vascular section in fibrotic areas significantly increased. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that VEGF(120) and VEGF(164) transcripts, that correspond to secreted isoforms, increased within 2 weeks, while VEGF(188) transcripts remained unchanged. FGF-2 mainly consisting of a 22-kd isoform, according to Western blot, was identified by immunohistochemistry in 49% and 100% of hepatocytes at 3 and 7 weeks, respectively. Our data provide evidence that in biliary-type liver fibrogenesis, angiogenesis is stimulated primarily by VEGF in response to hepatocellular hypoxia while FGF-2 likely contributes to the maintenance of angiogenesis at later stages.

  15. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Accelerates Human Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Stimulated Cutaneous Wound Healing and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Wook; Kwon, Yang Woo; Park, Gyu Tae; Do, Eun Kyoung; Yoon, Jung Won; Kim, Seung-Chul; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jae Ho

    2018-05-26

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a powerful vasodilating peptide secreted by cardiac muscle cells, and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to stimulate cutaneous wound healing by mediating angiogenesis. To determine whether ANP can promote the EPC-mediated repair of injured tissues, we examined the effects of ANP on the angiogenic properties of EPCs and on cutaneous wound healing. In vitro, ANP treatment enhanced the migration, proliferation, and endothelial tube-forming abilities of EPCs. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of natriuretic peptide receptor-1, which is a receptor for ANP, abrogated ANP-induced migration, tube formation, and proliferation of EPCs. In a murine cutaneous wound model, administration of either ANP or EPCs had no significant effect on cutaneous wound healing or angiogenesis in vivo, whereas the co-administration of ANP and EPCs synergistically potentiated wound healing and angiogenesis. In addition, ANP promoted the survival and incorporation of transplanted EPCs into newly formed blood vessels in wounds. These results suggest ANP accelerates EPC-mediated cutaneous wound healing by promoting the angiogenic properties and survival of transplanted EPCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Tumor Angiogenesis Therapy Using Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel to the Vasculature of Breast Cancer Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer aberrantly expresses tissue factor (TF in cancer tissues and cancer vascular endothelial cells (VECs. TF plays a central role in cancer angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis and, as such, is a target for therapy and drug delivery. TF is the cognate receptor of factor VIIa (fVIIa. We have coupled PTX (paclitaxel, also named Taxol with a tripeptide, phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine chloromethyl ketone (FFRck and conjugated it with fVIIa. The key aim of the work is to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of PTX-FFRck-fVIIa against a PTX-resistant breast cancer cell line. Matrigel mixed with VEGF and MDA-231 was injected subcutaneously into the flank of athymic nude mice. Animals were treated by tail vein injection of the PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate, unconjugated PTX, or PBS. The PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate significantly reduces microvessel density in matrigel (p<0.01–0.05 compared to PBS and unconjugated PTX. The breast cancer lung metastasis model in athymic nude mice was developed by intravenous injection of MDA-231 cells expressing luciferase. Animals were similarly treated intravenously with the PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate or PBS. The conjugate significantly inhibits lung metastasis as compared to the control, highlighting its potential to antagonize angiogenesis in metastatic carcinoma. In conclusion, PTX conjugated to fVIIa is a promising therapeutic approach for improving selective drug delivery and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  17. Pachymic acid modified carbon nanoparticles reduced angiogenesis via inhibition of MMP-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Jun; Lu, Chun-Wei; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel generation, which is consistently and robustly correlated with tumor formation, growth, and metastasis. The disruption of angiogenesis, and the imbalanced endothelial remodeling and regression, are the main pathogenesis of malignant tumor. Recently, multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) have been proposed as a new tool for drug delivery in cancer treatment, which also displayed anti-angiogenic property. In the present study, we modified MWNTs with pachymic acid (PA) extracted from Heterosmilax chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine used for cancer treatment, and compared their effects on blood vessel development. MWNTs and PA/MWNTs were evaluated for their influences on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vessel morphology and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression, a crucial proteinase associated with tumor metastasis. MWNTs functioned as an inhibitor of forming branch while PA was not able to promote this inhibition. Subsequently, MWNTs suppressed the endothelial cell maturation, accounting for the ceased elongation of CAM blood vessel, while PA/MWNTs increased the suppressive effect, indicating the potential roles of PA in preventing angiogenesis. PA/MWNTs also showed greater anti-angiogenic property as MMP-3 expression in CAM tissue was significantly decreased by PA/MWNTs compared to MWNTs. These results emphasize the anti-angiogenic activities of PA, supporting a new promising therapy for cancer from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine.

  18. Butein Inhibits Angiogenesis of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via the Translation Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hu Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can contribute to postnatal neovascularization and tumor angiogenesis. EPCs have been shown to play a “catalytic” role in metastatic progression by mediating the angiogenic switch. Understanding the pharmacological functions and molecular targets of natural products is critical for drug development. Butein, a natural chalcone derivative, has been reported to exert potent anticancer activity. However, the antiangiogenic activity of butein has not been addressed. In this study, we found that butein inhibited serum- and vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human EPCs in a concentration dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, butein markedly abrogated VEGF-induced vessels sprouting from aortic rings and suppressed microvessel formation in the Matrigel implant assay in vivo. In addition, butein concentration-dependently repressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and the major downstream effectors, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eIF4E in EPCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein exhibits the antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo by targeting the translational machinery. Butein is a promising angiogenesis inhibitor with the potential for treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases.

  19. Depolymerized products of lambda-carrageenan as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Lin, Jing; Wang, Feng; Xu, Weifeng

    2007-08-22

    Since angiogenesis is involved in initiating and promoting several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis of low-molecular-weight (LMW), highly sulfated lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides (lambda-CO) obtained by carrageenan depolymerization, by CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Significant inhibition of vessel growth was observed at 200 microg/pellet. A histochemistry assay also revealed a decrease of capillary plexus and connective tissue in lambda-CO treated samples. lambda-CO inhibited the viability of cells at the high concentration of 1 mg/mL, whereas it affected the cell survival slightly (>95%) at a low concentration (lambda-CO among three kinds of cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of lambda-CO was also observed in the endothelial cell invasion and migration at relatively low concentration (150-300 microg/mL), through down-regulation of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2) expression on endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lambda-CO is a potential angiogenesis inhibitor with combined effects of inhibiting invasion, migration, and proliferation.

  20. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  1. TIE2-expressing monocytes as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tokuhiro; Kanto, Tatsuya; Kuroda, Shoko; Yoshio, Sachiyo; Higashitani, Koyo; Kakita, Naruyasu; Miyazaki, Masanori; Sakakibara, Mitsuru; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kasahara, Akinori; Tomimaru, Yoshito; Tomokuni, Akira; Nagano, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical step in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Myeloid lineage cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, have been reported to regulate angiogenesis in mouse tumor models. TIE2, a receptor of angiopoietins, conveys pro-angiogenic signals and identifies a monocyte/macrophage subset with pro-angiogenic activity. Here, we analyzed the occurrence and kinetics of TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) in HCC patients. This study enrolled 168 HCV-infected patients including 89 with HCC. We examined the frequency of TEMs, as defined as CD14+CD16+TIE2+ cells, in the peripheral blood and liver. The localization of TEMs in the liver was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Micro-vessel density in the liver was measured by counting CD34+ vascular structures. We found that the frequency of circulating TEMs was significantly higher in HCC than non-HCC patients, while being higher in the liver than in the blood. In patients who underwent local radio-ablation or resection of HCC, the frequency of TEMs dynamically changed in the blood in parallel with HCC recurrence. Most TEMs were identified in the perivascular areas of tumor tissue. A significant positive correlation was observed between micro-vessel density in HCC and frequency of TEMs in the blood or tumors, suggesting that TEMs are involved in HCC angiogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed the superiority of TEM frequency to AFP, PIVKA-II and ANG-2 serum levels as diagnostic marker for HCC. TEMs increase in patients with HCC and their frequency changes with the therapeutic response or recurrence. We thus suggest that TEM frequency can be used as a diagnostic marker for HCC, potentially reflecting angiogenesis in the liver. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-06-30

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma.

  3. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël M Martino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of extracellular matrix to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  4. Nanoparticles of carbon allotropes inhibit glioblastoma multiforme angiogenesis in ovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzik M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marta Grodzik1, Ewa Sawosz1, Mateusz Wierzbicki1, Piotr Orlowski1, Anna Hotowy2, Tomasz Niemiec1, Maciej Szmidt3, Katarzyna Mitura4, André Chwalibog21Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Histology and Embryology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, PolandAbstract: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of carbon nanoparticles produced by different methods on the growth of brain tumor and the development of blood vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme cells were cultured on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo and after 7 days of incubation, were treated with carbon nanoparticles administered in ovo to the tumor. Both types of nanoparticles significantly decreased tumor mass and volume, and vessel area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulated fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at the messenger ribonucleic acid level. The present results demonstrate antiangiogenic activity of carbon nanoparticles, making them potential factors for anticancer therapy.Keywords: cancer, nanoparticle, embryo, angiogenesis, FGF-2, VEGF

  5. Probiotic yeast inhibits VEGFR signaling and angiogenesis in intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb can protect against intestinal injury and tumor formation, but how this probiotic yeast controls protective mucosal host responses is unclear. Angiogenesis is an integral process of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and required for mucosal remodeling during restitution. The aim of this study was to determine whether Sb alters VEGFR (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling, a central regulator of angiogenesis.HUVEC were used to examine the effects of Sb on signaling and on capillary tube formation (using the ECMatrix™ system. The effects of Sb on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis were examined in vivo using an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A(164 in the ears of adult nude mice (NuNu. The effects of Sb on blood vessel volume branching and density in DSS-induced colitis was quantified using VESsel GENeration (VESGEN software.1 Sb treatment attenuated weight-loss (p<0.01 and histological damage (p<0.01 in DSS colitis. VESGEN analysis of angiogenesis showed significantly increased blood vessel density and volume in DSS-treated mice compared to control. Sb treatment significantly reduced the neo-vascularization associated with acute DSS colitis and accelerated mucosal recovery restoration of the lamina propria capillary network to a normal morphology. 2 Sb inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the mouse ear model. 3 Sb also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro in the capillary tube assay in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. 4 In HUVEC, Sb reduced basal VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in response to VEGF as well as activation of the downstream kinases PLCγ and Erk1/2.Our findings indicate that the probiotic yeast S boulardii can modulate angiogenesis to limit intestinal inflammation and promote mucosal tissue repair by regulating VEGFR signaling.

  6. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Essential roles of Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation in growth factor-mediated signaling and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Xu, Suowen; Yin, Meimei; Jin, Zheng Gen

    2015-02-15

    Growth factors and their downstream receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediate a number of biological processes controlling cell function. Adaptor (docking) proteins, which consist exclusively of domains and motifs that mediate molecular interactions, link receptor activation to downstream effectors. Recent studies have revealed that Grb2-associated-binders (Gab) family members (including Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3), when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, provide binding sites for multiple effector proteins, such as Src homology-2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit p85, thereby playing important roles in transducing RTKs-mediated signals into pathways with diversified biological functions. Here, we provide an up-to-date overview on the domain structure and biological functions of Gab1, the most intensively studied Gab family protein, in growth factor signaling and biological functions, with a special focus on angiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Decidualization and angiogenesis in early pregnancy: unravelling the functions of DC and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Klapp, Burghard F; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2011-03-01

    Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells and formation of new maternal blood vessels at the time of embryo implantation are critical for the establishment and maintenance of gestation. The regulatory functions of decidual leukocytes during early pregnancy, particularly dendritic cells (DC) and NK cells, may be important not only for the generation of maternal immunological tolerance but also in the regulation of stromal cell differentiation and the vascular responses associated with the implantation process. However, the specific contributions of DC and NK cells during implantation are still difficult to dissect mainly due to reciprocal regulatory interactions established between them within the decidualizing microenvironment. The present review article discusses current evidence on the regulatory pathways driving decidualization in mice, suggesting that NK cells promote uterine vascular modifications that assist decidual growth but DC directly control stromal cell proliferation, angiogenesis and the homing and maturation of NK cell precursors in the pregnant uterus. Thus, successful implantation appears to result from an interplay between cellular components of the decidualizing endometrium involving immunoregulatory and pro-angiogenic functions of DC and NK cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hacking macrophage-associated immunosuppression for regulating glioblastoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Morales, Renee-Tyler Tan; Qian, Weiyi; Wang, Haoyu; Gagner, Jean-Pierre; Dolgalev, Igor; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Zagzag, David; Cimmino, Luisa; Snuderl, Matija; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Weiqiang

    2018-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary adult brain tumor and its pathology is hallmarked by distorted neovascularization, diffuse tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, and potent immunosuppression. Reconstituting organotypic tumor angiogenesis models with biomimetic cell heterogeneity and interactions, pro-/anti-inflammatory milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics is critical for preclinical anti-angiogenic therapeutic screening. However, current in vitro systems do not accurately mirror in vivo human brain tumor microenvironment. Here, we engineered a three-dimensional (3D), microfluidic angiogenesis model with controllable and biomimetic immunosuppressive conditions, immune-vascular and cell-matrix interactions. We demonstrate in vitro, GL261 and CT-2A GBM-like tumors steer macrophage polarization towards a M2-like phenotype for fostering an immunosuppressive and proangiogenic niche, which is consistent with human brain tumors. We distinguished that GBM and M2-like immunosuppressive macrophages promote angiogenesis, while M1-like pro-inflammatory macrophages suppress angiogenesis, which we coin "inflammation-driven angiogenesis." We observed soluble immunosuppressive cytokines, predominantly TGF-β1, and surface integrin (α v β 3 ) endothelial-macrophage interactions are required in inflammation-driven angiogenesis. We demonstrated tuning cell-adhesion receptors using an integrin (α v β 3 )-specific collagen hydrogel regulated inflammation-driven angiogenesis through Src-PI3K-YAP signaling, highlighting the importance of altered cell-ECM interactions in inflammation. To validate the preclinical applications of our 3D organoid model and mechanistic findings of inflammation-driven angiogenesis, we screened a novel dual integrin (α v β 3 ) and cytokine receptor (TGFβ-R1) blockade that suppresses GBM tumor neovascularization by simultaneously targeting macrophage-associated immunosuppression, endothelial-macrophage interactions, and

  11. Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in the molecular control of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, J H W; Hirth, A; Kurowska-Stolarska, M; Gay, R E; Gay, S; Distler, O

    2003-09-01

    The vascular system that ensures an adequate blood flow is required to provide the cells with sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. Two different mechanisms of the formation of new vessels can be distinguished: vasculogenesis, the formation of the first primitive vascular plexus de novo and angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from preexisting ones. Both processes are regulated by a delicate balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Physiologically, angiostatic mediators outweigh the angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis does not occur. Under certain conditions such as tumor formation or wound healing, the positive regulators of angiogenesis predominate and the endothelium becomes activated. Angiogenesis is initiated by vasodilatation and an increased permeability. After destabilization of the vessel wall, endothelial cells proliferate, migrate and form a tube, which is finally stabilized by pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines and proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules strictly control this multi-step process. The properties and interactions of angiogenic molecules such as VEGFs, FGFs, angiopoietins, PDGF, angiogenin, angiotropin, HGF, CXC chemokines with ELR motif, PECAM-1, integrins and VE-cadherin as well as angiostatic key players such as angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondin, CXC chemokines without ELR motif, PEDF are discussed in this review with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis.

  12. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34 immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, placental growth factor (PLGF, and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, progesterone (P4, and estradiol (E2 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor α (ERα were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone.

  13. Angiogenesis-Related Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer

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    Aristotle Bamias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian Cancer represents the most fatal type of gynecological malignancies. A number of processes are involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, especially within the tumor microenvironment. Angiogenesis represents a hallmark phenomenon in cancer, and it is responsible for tumor spread and metastasis in ovarian cancer, among other tumor types, as it leads to new blood vessel formation. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Growth factors have been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis and, thus, the formation of new blood vessels that assist in “feeding” cancer. Such molecules include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and the angiopoietin/Tie2 receptor complex. These proteins are key players in complex molecular pathways within the tumor cell and they have been in the spotlight of the development of anti-angiogenic molecules that may act as stand-alone therapeutics, or in concert with standard treatment regimes such as chemotherapy. The pathways involved in angiogenesis and molecules that have been developed in order to combat angiogenesis are described in this paper.

  14. Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, derived from various adult tissues, are able to differentiate into different cell types such as endothelial cells and fat cells. Although it is still under debate whether MSCs could give rise to functional corneal cells, recent results from different study groups showed that MSCs could improve corneal disease recovery through suppression of inflammation and modulation of immune cells. Thus, MSCs could become a promising tool for ocular surface disorders. In this review, we discussed how angiogenesis and inflammation are orchestrated in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. We overviewed and updated the knowledge of MSCs and then summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs via control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response in the treatment of ocular surface disease.

  15. Gamabufotalin, a major derivative of bufadienolide, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis by suppressing VEGFR-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Shi, Lei; Yu, Zhenlong; Dong, Peipei; Wang, Chao; Huo, Xiaokui; Zhang, Baojing; Huang, Shanshan; Deng, Sa; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Tonghui; Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Lijun; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2016-01-19

    Gamabufotalin (CS-6), a main active compound isolated from Chinese medicine Chansu, has been shown to strongly inhibit cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. However, its effects on angiogenesis have not been known yet. Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of CS-6 on signaling mechanisms during angiogenesis. Our present results fully demonstrate that CS-6 could significantly inhibit VEGF triggered HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tubulogenesis in vitro and blocked vascularization in Matrigel plugs impregnated in C57/BL6 mice as well as reduced vessel density in human lung tumor xenograft implanted in nude mice. Computer simulations revealed that CS-6 interacted with the ATP-binding sites of VEGFR-2 using molecular docking. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that CS-6 inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 kinase and suppressed the activity of VEGFR-2-mediated signaling cascades. Therefore, our studies demonstrated that CS-6 inhibited angiogenesis by inhibiting the activation of VEGFR-2 signaling pathways and CS-6 could be a potential candidate in angiogenesis-related disease therapy.

  16. Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aditi; Zhou, Cindy Q.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A., E-mail: mchellaiah@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties.

  17. β-Elemene-Attenuated Tumor Angiogenesis by Targeting Notch-1 in Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are involved in tumor angiogenesis. The Notch signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators of these processes. β-Elemene, a naturally occurring compound extracted from Curcumae Radix, has been used as an antitumor drug for various cancers in China. However, its underlying mechanism in the treatment of gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that CD44+ gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs showed enhanced proliferation capacity compared to their CD44− counterparts, and this proliferation was accompanied by the high expression of Notch-1 (in vitro. These cells were also more superior in spheroid colony formation (in vitro and tumorigenicity (in vivo and positively associated with microvessel density (in vivo. β-Elemene was demonstrated to effectively inhibit the viability of GCSCs in a dose-dependent manner, most likely by suppressing Notch-1 (in vitro. β-Elemene also contributed to growth suppression and attenuated the angiogenesis capacity of these cells (in vivo most likely by interfering with the expression of Notch-1 but not with Dll4. Our findings indicated that GCSCs play an important role in tumor angiogenesis, and Notch-1 is one of the most likely mediators involved in these processes. β-Elemene was effective at attenuating angiogenesis by targeting the GCSCs, which could be regarded as a potential mechanism for its efficacy in gastric cancer management in the future.

  18. The expression of miR-125b regulates angiogenesis during the recovery of heat-denatured HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Situo; Zhang, Pihong; Liang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-06-01

    In previous studies we found that miR-125b was down-regulated in denatured dermis of deep partial thickness burn patients. Moreover, miR-125b inhibited tumor-angiogenesis associated with the decrease of ERBB2 and VEGF expression in ovarian cancer cells and breast cancer cells, etc. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns and roles of miR-125b during the recovery of denatured dermis and heat-denatured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Deep partial thickness burns in Sprague-Dawley rats and the heat-denatured cells (52°C, 35 s) were used for analysis. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR were applied to evaluate the expression of miR-125b and ERBB2 and VEGF. The ability of angiogenesis in heat-denatured HUVECs was analyzed by scratch wound healing and tube formation assay after pri-miR-125b or anti-miR-125b transfection. miR-125b expression was time-dependent during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and HUVECs. Moreover, miR-125b regulated ERBB2 mRNA and Protein Expression and regulated angiogenesis association with regulating the expression of VEGF in heat-denatured HUVECs. Taken together our results show that the expression of miR-125b is time-dependent and miR-125b plays a regulatory role of angiogenesis during wound healing after burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemokine receptor CXCR7 regulates the invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

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    Li Fan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic measures, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients remains poor. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what factors are involved in promoting development of HCC. Evidence is accumulating that members of the chemokine receptor family are viewed as promising therapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. More recent studies have revealed that chemokine receptor CXCR7 plays an important role in cancer development. However, little is known about the effect of CXCR7 on the process of HCC cell invasion and angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of CXCR7 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines and to evaluate the role of CXCR7 in tumor growth, angiogenesis and invasion of HCC cells. Methods We constructed CXCR7 expressing shRNA, and CXCR7shRNA was subsequently stably transfected into human HCC cells. We evaluated the effect of CXCR7 inhibition on cell invasion, adhesion, VEGF secretion, tube formation and tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry was done to assess the expression of CXCR7 in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and CD31 in tumor of mice. We also evaluated the effect of VEGF stimulation on expression of CXCR7. Results CXCR7 was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. We showed that high invasive potential HCC cell lines express high levels of CXCR7. In vitro, CXCL12 was found to induce invasion, adhesion, tube formation, and VEGF secretion in SMMC-7721 cells. These biological effects were inhibited by silencing of CXCR7 in SMMC-7721 cells. In addition, we also found that VEGF stimulation can up-regulate CXCR7 expression in SMMC-7721 cells and HUVECs. More importantly, enhanced expression of CXCR7 by VEGF was founctional. In vivo, tumor growth and angiogenesis were suppressed by knockdown of CXCR7 in SMMC-7721 cells. However, silencing of CXCR7 did not affect metastasis of tumor in vivo

  20. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  1. Angiogenesis in Schistosoma haematobium-associated urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematei, Anderson; Fernandes, Rúben; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. During infection, eggs are deposited in the bladder causing an intense inflammatory reaction. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is recognized as a key event in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and spread of malignant lesions. A growing amount of evidence points to angiogenesis playing a key role in schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Thus, identifying biomarkers of this process plays an important role in the study of cancer. Here, we review recent findings on the role of angiogenesis in bladder cancer and the growth factors that induce and assist in their development, particularly SCC of the bladder associated to urogenital schistosomiasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Das, Mrinmoy; Prakhar, Praveen; Sharma, Varun K; Singh, Vikas; Rabin, Magalie; Trinath, Jamma; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Bolgert, Francis; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-03-20

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (T reg ) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0.4 g/kg for three to five consecutive days. Clinical evaluation for muscular weakness was performed by Medical Research Council (MRC) and modified Rankin scoring (MRS) system. Heparinized blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 4-5 weeks post-IVIG therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for surface CD4 and intracellular Foxp3, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-33 and prostaglandin E2 in the plasma were measured by ELISA. The fold changes in plasma IL-33 at week 1 showed no correlation with the MRC and MRS scores at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Clinical recovery following IVIG therapy appears to be associated with T reg cell response. Contrary to murine study, there was no association between the fold changes in IL-33 at week 1 and T reg cell frequency at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. T reg cell-mediated clinical response to IVIG therapy in GBS patients was associated with reciprocal regulation of effector T cells-expressing TNF-α. T reg cell expansion by IVIG in patients with autoimmune diseases lack correlation with IL-33. T reg cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to IVIG therapy.

  3. Syndecan-4 shedding impairs macrovascular angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ran; Xie, Jun; Wu, Han; Li, Guannan; Chen, Jianzhou; Chen, Qinhua; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao, E-mail: xubiao@medmail.com.cn

    2016-05-20

    Purpose: Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan cell surface receptor that modulates cell proliferation, migration, mechanotransduction, and endocytosis. The extracellular domain of synd4 sheds heavily in acute inflammation, but the shedding of synd4 in chronic inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), is still undefined. We investigated the alterations of synd4 endothelial expression in DM and the influence of impaired synd4 signaling on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), diabetic rats, synd4 null mice, and db/db mice. Material and methods: HUVECs were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Western blot analysis was used to determine synd4 protein expression and ELISA was used to detect soluble synd4 fragments. The concentration of synd4 in the aortic endothelia of diabetic rats was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Aortic ring assays were performed to study the process of angiogenesis in the diabetic rats and in synd4 null and db/db mice. Recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene or null were constructed to enhance synd4 aortic expression in db/db mice. Results: Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the synd4 extracellular domain in HUVECs, and ELISA detected increased soluble fragments of synd4 in the media. Synd4 endothelial expression in the aortas of diabetic rats was decreased. Aortic ring assay indicated impaired angiogenesis in synd4 null and db/db mice, which was partially reversed by synd4 overexpression in db/db mice. Conclusion: Synd4 shedding from vascular endothelial cells played an important role in the diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Synd4 shedding from endothelial cells is accelerated under the stimulation of AGEs. •Extracellular domain of synd4 is diminished in the endothelium of DM rats. •Aortic rings of synd4 null mice showed impaired angiogenesis. •Overexpression of synd4 partly rescues macrovascular

  4. Prognostic implication of apoptosis and angiogenesis in cervical uteri cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S.; El Naggar, Mervat; El Deeb, Amany; Khaled, Hussein; Mokhtar, Nadia

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the relationship between spontaneous apoptosis and angiogenesis uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma patients. The prognostic value of each (and both) of these biologic parameters was also tested. Methods and Materials: The pathologic materials of 40 cervical uteri squamous cell carcinoma patients were examined and immunohistochemically stained to determine the tumor angiogenesis (tumor microvascular score), using factor VIII-related antigen, and their tumor apoptotic index (AI), using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Three patients were Stage I, 18 were Stage II, 15 were Stage III, and 4 were Stage IV (FIGO classification). All patients were treated with radical radiotherapy and all had follow-up for more than 2 years. Results: The mean AI was 15.1 ± 12.8, with a median of 8.3. The mean tumor microvascular score was 3 9.7 ± 14.4, with a median of 3 8. The patients' age and tumor grade did not seem to significantly affect the prognosis. On the other hand, AI and angiogenesis (tumor microvascular score) were of high prognostic significance. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate for the patients having AI above the median was 78% (confidence interval [CI] 69-87%), compared to 32% (CI 22-42%) for those having AI below the median. The DFS was 18% (CI 9-27%) for patients having an angiogenesis score above the median, while it was 86% (CI 78-94%) for those patients having a score below the median. Conclusion: Determination of both tumor microvascular score and AI can identify patients with the best prognosis of 100% DFS (with low angiogenesis score and high AI). Women with a high score and low AI had the worst prognosis (DFS = 3%, CI 1-5%). Moreover, high AI can compensate partially for the aggressive behavior of tumors showing a high rate of angiogenesis.

  5. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  6. Inhibition of VEGF: a novel mechanism to control angiogenesis by Withania somnifera's key metabolite Withaferin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential

  7. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 as Regulator of Angiogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis - Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J.; Molema, G.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). The site and extent of inflammation and subsequent joint destruction in the rheumatoid synovium is dependent on the development of new vasculature. Inhibition of angiogenesis,

  8. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Su [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yun [Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyo-Jin [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  9. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  10. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Warren, Nicholas D; Laitinen, Juha; van Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with information on possible determinants of exposure. These data and information, together with some non-RISKOFDERM data were used to derive default values for potential dermal exposure of the hands for so-called 'TGD exposure scenarios'. TGD exposure scenarios have similar values for some very important determinant(s) of dermal exposure, such as amount of substance used. They form narrower bands within the so-called 'RISKOFDERM scenarios', which cluster exposure situations according to the same purpose of use of the products. The RISKOFDERM scenarios in turn are narrower bands within the so-called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units) that were defined in the RISKOFDERM project to cluster situations with similar exposure processes and exposure routes. Default values for both reasonable worst case situations and typical situations were derived, both for single datasets and, where possible, for combined datasets that fit the same TGD exposure scenario. The following reasonable worst case potential hand exposures were derived from combined datasets: (i) loading and filling of large containers (or mixers) with large amounts (many litres) of liquids: 11,500 mg per scenario (14 mg cm(-2) per scenario with surface of the hands assumed to be 820 cm(2)); (ii) careful mixing of small quantities (tens of grams in default values are considered useful for estimating exposure for similar substances in similar situations with low uncertainty. Several other default values based on single datasets can also be used, but lead to estimates with a higher uncertainty, due to their more limited basis. Sufficient analogy in all described parameters of the scenario, including duration, is needed

  11. 3D discrete angiogenesis dynamic model and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic 3D model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution 3D stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of dynamic sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Padi2 as a novel angiogenesis-regulating gene by genome association studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavi, Mehrdad; Zhou, Yi; Birsner, Amy E; Bazinet, Lauren; Rosa Di Sant, Amanda; Schiffer, Alex J; Rogers, Michael S; Krishnaji, Subrahmanian Tarakkad; Hu, Bella; Nguyen, Vy; Zon, Leonard; D'Amato, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that growth factor-driven angiogenesis is markedly influenced by genetic variation. This variation in angiogenic responsiveness may alter the susceptibility to a number of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here, we utilized the genetic diversity available in common inbred mouse strains to identify the loci and candidate genes responsible for differences in angiogenic response. The corneal micropocket neovascularization assay was performed on 42 different inbred mouse strains using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) pellets. We performed a genome-wide association study utilizing efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) mapping using the induced vessel area from all strains. Our analysis yielded five loci with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 15 and 16. We further refined the mapping on chromosome 4 within a haplotype block containing multiple candidate genes. These genes were evaluated by expression analysis in corneas of various inbred strains and in vitro functional assays in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Of these, we found the expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II (Padi2), known to be involved in metabolic pathways, to have a strong correlation with a haplotype shared by multiple high angiogenic strains. In addition, inhibition of Padi2 demonstrated a dosage-dependent effect in HMVECs. To investigate its role in vivo, we knocked down Padi2 in transgenic kdrl:zsGreen zebrafish embryos using morpholinos. These embryos had disrupted vessel formation compared to control siblings. The impaired vascular pattern was partially rescued by human PADI2 mRNA, providing evidence for the specificity of the morphant phenotype. Taken together, our study is the first to indicate the potential role of Padi2 as an angiogenesis-regulating gene. The characterization of Padi2 and other genes in associated pathways may provide new understanding of angiogenesis regulation and novel targets for diagnosis and

  13. Identification of Padi2 as a novel angiogenesis-regulating gene by genome association studies in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khajavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings indicate that growth factor-driven angiogenesis is markedly influenced by genetic variation. This variation in angiogenic responsiveness may alter the susceptibility to a number of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here, we utilized the genetic diversity available in common inbred mouse strains to identify the loci and candidate genes responsible for differences in angiogenic response. The corneal micropocket neovascularization assay was performed on 42 different inbred mouse strains using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF pellets. We performed a genome-wide association study utilizing efficient mixed-model association (EMMA mapping using the induced vessel area from all strains. Our analysis yielded five loci with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 15 and 16. We further refined the mapping on chromosome 4 within a haplotype block containing multiple candidate genes. These genes were evaluated by expression analysis in corneas of various inbred strains and in vitro functional assays in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Of these, we found the expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II (Padi2, known to be involved in metabolic pathways, to have a strong correlation with a haplotype shared by multiple high angiogenic strains. In addition, inhibition of Padi2 demonstrated a dosage-dependent effect in HMVECs. To investigate its role in vivo, we knocked down Padi2 in transgenic kdrl:zsGreen zebrafish embryos using morpholinos. These embryos had disrupted vessel formation compared to control siblings. The impaired vascular pattern was partially rescued by human PADI2 mRNA, providing evidence for the specificity of the morphant phenotype. Taken together, our study is the first to indicate the potential role of Padi2 as an angiogenesis-regulating gene. The characterization of Padi2 and other genes in associated pathways may provide new understanding of angiogenesis regulation and novel targets for

  14. MicroRNA-939 governs vascular integrity and angiogenesis through targeting γ-catenin in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Shiqiang; Fang, Ming; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang; Li, Xinming

    2017-01-01

    Coronary collateral circulation (CCC) functions as a natural bypass in the event of coronary obstruction, which markedly improves prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including angiogenesis involved in CCC growth. The roles that miRNA-939 (miR-939) plays in angiogenesis remain largely unknown. We conducted this study to explore the expression of miR-939 in CAD patients and its role in angiogenesis. For the first time, our results indicated that the expression of circulating miR-939 was down-regulated in patients with sufficient CCC compared with patients with poor CCC. Overexpression of miR-939 in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly inhibited the proliferation, adhesion and tube formation, but promoted the migration of cells. In contrast, miR-939 knockdown exerted reverse effects. We further identified that γ-catenin was a novel target of miR-939 by translational repression, which could rescue the effects of miR-939 in HUVECs. In summary, this study revealed that the expression of circulating miR-939 was down-regulated in CAD patients with sufficient CCC. MiR-939 abolished vascular integrity and repressed angiogenesis through directly targeting γ-catenin. It provided a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for CAD. - Highlights: • Circulating miR-939 is decreased in sufficient coronary collateral circulation. • MiR-939 abolishes vascular integrity in endothelial cells. • MiR-939 represses angiogenesis. • γ-catenin is a novel target of miR-939.

  15. EMMPRIN promotes angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion and resistance to sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma, and its level predicts patient outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mototaka; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakata, Wataru; Yoshida, Takahiro; Hatano, Koji; Kawashima, Atsunari; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Uemura, Motohide; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nonomura, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been reported to play crucial roles, including in angiogenesis, in several carcinomas. However, the correlation between EMMPRIN levels and angiogenesis expression profile has not been reported, and the role of EMMPRIN in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association of EMMPRIN with angiogenesis, its value in prognosis, and its roles in RCC. EMMPRIN expression was examined in 50 RCC patients treated with radical nephrectomy. Angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion activity were evaluated using EMMPRIN knockdown RCC cell lines. The size of EMMPRIN-overexpressing xenografts was measured and the degree of angiogenesis was quantified. EMMPRIN expression was evaluated in RCC patients who received sunitinib therapy and in sunitinib-resistant cells. Further, the relation between EMMPRIN expression and sensitivity to sunitinib was examined. EMMPRIN score was significantly associated with clinicopathological parameters in RCC patients, as well as being significantly correlated with microvessel area (MVA) in immature vessels and with prognosis. Down-regulation of EMMPRIN by siRNA led to decreased VEGF and bFGF expression, cell proliferation, and invasive potential. EMMPRIN over-expressing xenografts showed accelerated growth and MVA of immature vessels. EMMPRIN expression was significantly increased in patients who received sunitinib therapy as well as in sunitinib-resistant 786-O cells (786-suni). EMMPRIN-overexpressing RCC cells were resistant to sunitinib. Our findings indicate that high expression of EMMPRIN in RCC plays important roles in tumor progression and sunitinib resistance. Therefore, EMMPRIN could be a novel target for the treatment of RCC.

  16. EMMPRIN promotes angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion and resistance to sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma, and its level predicts patient outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mototaka Sato

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN has been reported to play crucial roles, including in angiogenesis, in several carcinomas. However, the correlation between EMMPRIN levels and angiogenesis expression profile has not been reported, and the role of EMMPRIN in renal cell carcinoma (RCC is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association of EMMPRIN with angiogenesis, its value in prognosis, and its roles in RCC.EMMPRIN expression was examined in 50 RCC patients treated with radical nephrectomy. Angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion activity were evaluated using EMMPRIN knockdown RCC cell lines. The size of EMMPRIN-overexpressing xenografts was measured and the degree of angiogenesis was quantified. EMMPRIN expression was evaluated in RCC patients who received sunitinib therapy and in sunitinib-resistant cells. Further, the relation between EMMPRIN expression and sensitivity to sunitinib was examined.EMMPRIN score was significantly associated with clinicopathological parameters in RCC patients, as well as being significantly correlated with microvessel area (MVA in immature vessels and with prognosis. Down-regulation of EMMPRIN by siRNA led to decreased VEGF and bFGF expression, cell proliferation, and invasive potential. EMMPRIN over-expressing xenografts showed accelerated growth and MVA of immature vessels. EMMPRIN expression was significantly increased in patients who received sunitinib therapy as well as in sunitinib-resistant 786-O cells (786-suni. EMMPRIN-overexpressing RCC cells were resistant to sunitinib.Our findings indicate that high expression of EMMPRIN in RCC plays important roles in tumor progression and sunitinib resistance. Therefore, EMMPRIN could be a novel target for the treatment of RCC.

  17. Deficient retinoid-driven angiogenesis may contribute to failure of adult human lung regeneration in emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Blichfeldt, John-Poul; Alçada, Joana; Montero, M Angeles; Dean, Charlotte H; Griesenbach, Uta; Griffiths, Mark J; Hind, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema. The role of RA signalling in alveolar epithelial repair was investigated with a scratch assay using an alveolar cell line (A549) and primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells from resected lung, and the role in angiogenesis using a tube formation assay with human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). Localisation of RA synthetic (RALDH-1) and degrading (cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 A1 (CYP26A1)) enzymes in human lung was determined by immunofluorescence. Regulation of RA pathway components was investigated in emphysematous and control human lung tissue by quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis. RA stimulated HLMVEC angiogenesis in vitro; this was partially reproduced with a RAR-α agonist. RA induced mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFR2. RA did not modulate AT2 repair. CYP26A1 protein was identified in human lung microvasculature, whereas RALDH-1 partially co-localised with vimentin-positive fibroblasts. CYP26A1 mRNA and protein were increased in emphysema. RA regulates lung microvascular angiogenesis; the endothelium produces CYP26A1 which is increased in emphysema, possibly leading to reduced RA availability. These data highlight a role for RA in maintenance of the human pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. roots inhibits inflammation-induced angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant’s hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant’s roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Methods We first performed phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of the hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa roots ethanolic extract (ACRH) and its quinone-rich fraction (QRF). The anti-inflammatory properties of ACRH and QRF were tested using the Miles vascular permeability assay and the murine air pouch granuloma model following oral administration at various doses. Results Preliminary phytochemical screening of ACRH revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenes, and tannins. The QRF was separated from ACRH (38.38% w/w) by column chromatography, and was isolated to yield a benzoquinonoid compound. The ACRH and QRF were quantified by HPLC. The LD50 value of ACRH was 617.02 mg/kg. In the Miles vascular permeability assay, the lowest dose of ACRH (10 mg/kg) and all doses of QRF significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced hyperpermeability, when compared with the vehicle control. In the murine air pouch granuloma model, ACRH and QRF both displayed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, without granuloma weight. ACRH and QRF significantly reduced the vascular index, but not granuloma tissue weight. Conclusions In conclusion, both ACRH and QRF showed potential anti-inflammatory properties in a model of inflammation-induced angiogenesis model, demonstrating their potential anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:23298265

  19. Protein Structure in Context: The Molecular Landscape of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Elise A.; Goodsell, David S.; Ramchandran, Ramani; Franzen, Margaret A.; Herman, Tim; Sem, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    A team of students, educators, and researchers has developed new materials to teach cell signaling within its cellular context. Two nontraditional modalities are employed: physical models, to explore the atomic details of several of the proteins in the angiogenesis signaling cascade, and illustrations of the proteins in their cellular environment,…

  20. Angiogenesis in calcium phosphate scaffolds by inorganic copper ion release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barralet, Jake E.; Gbureck, Uwe; Habibovic, Pamela; Vorndran, Elke; Gerard, Catherine; Doillon, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis in a tissue-engineered device may be induced by incorporating growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), genetically modified cells, and/or vascular cells. It represents an important process during the formation and repair of tissue and is essential for

  1. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are downregulated in primary breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberg, E-M; Legler, D F; Hoefer, M M; Öhlschlegel, C; Steininger, H; Füzesi, L; Beer, G M; Dupont-Lampert, V; Otto, F; Senn, H-J; Fürstenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Background: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are considered to play key roles in tumour growth, progression and metastasis. However, targeting tumour angiogenesis in clinical trials showed only modest efficacy. We therefore scrutinised the concept of tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by analysing the expression of crucial markers involved in these processes in primary breast cancer. Methods: We analysed the expression of angiogenic, lymphangiogenic or antiangiogenic factors, their respective receptors and specific markers for endothelial and lymphendothelial cells by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in primary breast cancer and compared the expression profiles to non-cancerous, tumour-adjacent tissues and breast tissues from healthy women. Results: We found decreased mRNA amounts of major angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors in tumour compared to healthy tissues, whereas antiangiogenic factors were upregulated. Concomitantly, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic receptors were downregulated in breast tumours. This antiangiogenic, antilymphangiogenic microenvironment was even more pronounced in aggressive tumours and accompanied by reduced amounts of endothelial and lymphatic endothelial cell markers. Conclusion: Primary breast tumours are not a site of highly active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Selection for tumour cells that survive with minimal vascular supply may account for this observation in clinical apparent tumours. PMID:19672262

  2. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  3. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Visualising and quantifying angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour growth and dissemination. We have recently shown that blood vessel density, determined by image analysis based on microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) in situ hybridization (ISH) in the primary tumours of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), is predictive...

  5. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Ley, Carsten Dan; Søgaard, Lise Vejby

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical process in tumour development and presents an important target for the development of a range of anti-cancer agents . To assess the in vivo efficacy of these ‘angiotherapeutics', a simple and reproducible in vivo model would be of significant value. Here we show...

  6. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witmer, A. N.; Vrensen, G. F. J. M.; van Noorden, C. J. F.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of growth factors controls pathological angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability in important eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this review is to develop new insights

  8. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  11. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  12. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Yu, Chi-Ho; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2010-01-01

    Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS). Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD) being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns) were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for various statistical analyses. The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8%) and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%). All SE cases (8/8, 100%) were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%), 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%), and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7%) types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated vascular parameter. Although

  13. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Hyuk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE and spermatocytic seminoma (SS. Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8% and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%. All SE cases (8/8, 100% were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%, 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%, and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7% types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels

  14. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  15. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  16. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  17. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzen, Brian; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Houghton, Peter J; Pierson, Christopher R; Powell, Kimerly; Bratasz, Anna; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric brain tumor. Although numerous factors influence patient survival rates, more than 30% of all cases will ultimately be refractory to conventional therapies. Current standards of care are also associated with significant morbidities, giving impetus for the development of new treatments. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virotherapy is effective against medulloblastoma, leading to significant prolongation of survival and even cures in mouse xenograft models of localized and metastatic disease. Because medulloblastomas are known to be highly vascularized tumors, we reasoned that the addition of angiogenesis inhibitors could further enhance the efficacy of oncolytic measles virotherapy. Toward this end, we have engineered an oncolytic measles virus that express a fusion protein of endostatin and angiostatin, two endogenous and potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Oncolytic measles viruses encoding human and mouse variants of a secretable endostatin/angiostatin fusion protein were designed and rescued according to established protocols. These viruses, known as MV-hE:A and MV-mE:A respectively, were then evaluated for their anti-angiogenic potential and efficacy against medulloblastoma cell lines and orthotopic mouse models of localized disease. Medulloblastoma cells infected by MV-E:A readily secrete endostatin and angiostatin prior to lysis. The inclusion of the endostatin/angiostatin gene did not negatively impact the measles virus’ cytotoxicity against medulloblastoma cells or alter its growth kinetics. Conditioned media obtained from these infected cells was capable of inhibiting multiple angiogenic factors in vitro, significantly reducing endothelial cell tube formation, viability and migration compared to conditioned media derived from cells infected by a control measles virus. Mice that were given a single intratumoral injection of MV-E:A likewise showed reduced numbers of tumor-associated blood

  18. {sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H.; Tohme, Michel; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammed H.; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex; Laug, Walter E.; Conti, Peter S. E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

    2004-02-01

    Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain {epsilon}-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([{sup 18}F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations.

  19. IQGAP1 is involved in post-ischemic neovascularization by regulating angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Urao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neovascularization is an important repair mechanism in response to ischemic injury and is dependent on inflammation, angiogenesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS. IQGAP1, an actin-binding scaffold protein, is a key regulator for actin cytoskeleton and motility. We previously demonstrated that IQGAP1 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced ROS production and migration of cultured endothelial cells (ECs; however, its role in post-ischemic neovascularization is unknown.Ischemia was induced by left femoral artery ligation, which resulted in increased IQGAP1 expression in Mac3(+ macrophages and CD31(+ capillary-like ECs in ischemic legs. Mice lacking IQGAP1 exhibited a significant reduction in the post-ischemic neovascularization as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow, capillary density and α-actin positive arterioles. Furthermore, IQGAP1(-/- mice showed a decrease in macrophage infiltration and ROS production in ischemic muscles, leading to impaired muscle regeneration and increased necrosis and fibrosis. The numbers of bone marrow (BM-derived cells in the peripheral blood were not affected in these knockout mice. BM transplantation revealed that IQGAP1 expressed in both BM-derived cells and tissue resident cells, such as ECs, is required for post-ischemic neovascularization. Moreover, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophage recruitment and ROS production were inhibited in IQGAP1(-/- mice. In vitro, IQGAP1(-/- BM-derived macrophages showed inhibition of migration and adhesion capacity, which may explain the defective macrophage recruitment into the ischemic tissue in IQGAP1(-/- mice.IQGAP1 plays a key role in post-ischemic neovascularization by regulating, not only, ECs-mediated angiogenesis but also macrophage infiltration as well as ROS production. Thus, IQGAP1 is a potential therapeutic target for inflammation- and angiogenesis-dependent ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

  20. MRI monitoring of tumor response following angiogenesis inhibition in an experimental human breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, Karl; Preda, Anda; Shames, David M.; Novikov, Viktor; Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Fu, Yanjun; Brasch, Robert C.; Floyd, Eugenia; Carter, Wayne O.; Wood, Jeanette M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced by macromolecular contrast agents to monitor noninvasively the therapeutic effect of an anti-angiogenesis VEGF receptor kinase inhibitor in an experimental cancer model. MDA-MB-435, a poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell line, was implanted into the mammary fat pad in 20 female homozygous athymic rats. Animals were assigned randomly to a control (n=10) or drug treatment group (n=10). Baseline dynamic MRI was performed on sequential days using albumin-(GdDTPA) 30 (6.0 nm diameter) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles (30 nm diameter). Subjects were treated either with PTK787/ZK 222584, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or saline given orally twice daily for 1 week followed by repeat MRI examinations serially using each contrast agent. Employing a unidirectional kinetic model comprising the plasma and interstitial water compartments, tumor microvessel characteristics including fractional plasma volume and transendothelial permeability (K PS ) were estimated for each contrast medium. Tumor growth and the microvascular density, a histologic surrogate of angiogenesis, were also measured. Control tumors significantly increased (P PS ) based on MRI assays using both macromolecular contrast media. In contrast, tumor growth was significantly reduced (P PS values declined slightly. Estimated values for the fractional plasma volume did not differ significantly between treatment groups or contrast agents. Microvascular density counts correlated fairly with the tumor growth rate (r=0.64) and were statistically significant higher (P PS ), using either of two macromolecular contrast media, were able to detect effects of treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor on tumor vascular permeability. In a clinical setting such quantitative MRI measurements could be used to monitor tumor anti-angiogenesis therapy. (orig.)

  1. Human Genetic Variation, Sport and Exercise Medicine, and Achilles Tendinopathy: Role for Angiogenesis-Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Masouda; El Khoury, Louis Y; Raleigh, Stuart M; Ribbans, William J; Posthumus, Michael; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2016-09-01

    Sport and Exercise Medicine is one of the important subspecialties of 21st century healthcare contributing to improving the physical function, health, and vitality of populations while reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases. Moreover, sport and exercise are associated with injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy, which is a common tendon injury. The angiogenesis-associated signaling pathway plays a key role in extracellular matrix remodeling, with increased levels of angiogenic cytokines reported after cyclic stretching of tendon fibroblasts. We investigated the variants in angiogenesis genes in relation to the risk of Achilles tendinopathy in two population samples drawn independently from South Africa (SA) and the United Kingdom (UK). The study sample comprised 120 SA and 130 UK healthy controls, and 108 SA and 87 UK participants with Achilles tendinopathy. All participants were genotyped for five functional polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor, A isoform (VEGFA) (rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963) and kinase insert-domain receptor (KDR) genes (rs1870377, rs2071559). The VEGFA A-G-G inferred haplotype was associated with an increased risk of Achilles tendinopathy in the SA group (15% in controls vs. 20% in cases, p = 0.048) and the combined SA+UK group (14% in controls vs. 20% in cases, p = 0.009). These new findings implicate the VEGFA gene with Achilles tendinopathy risk, while highlighting the potential biological significance of the angiogenesis signaling pathway in the etiology of Achilles tendinopathy. The evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to the susceptibility of sustaining a tendon injury is growing. We anticipate that high-throughput and multi-omics approaches, building on genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, may soon uncover the pathophysiology of many diseases in the field of Sports and Exercise Medicine, as a new frontier of global precision medicine.

  2. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  3. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  4. 64Cu-NODAGA-c(RGDyK) Is a Promising New Angiogenesis PET Tracer: Correlation between Tumor Uptake and Integrin αvβ3 Expression in Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxbøl, Jytte; Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina; El Ali, Henrik H.

    2012-01-01

    727) were administered (64)Cu-NODAGA-c(RGDyK) i.v. for study of biodistribution as well as for dynamic PET. Gene expression of angiogenesis markers integrin α(V), integrin β(3), and VEGF-A were analyzed using QPCR and correlated to the tracer uptake in the tumors (%ID/g). From biodistribution data......Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a new PET tracer (64)Cu-NODAGA-c(RGDyK) for imaging of tumor angiogenesis using gene expression of angiogenesis markers as reference and to estimate radiation dosimetry for humans. Procedures. Nude mice with human neuroendocrine tumor xenografts (H...... was estimated to be 0.038 and 0.029 mSv/MBq for females and males, respectively, with highest absorbed dose in bladder wall. Conclusion. (64)Cu-NODAGA-c(RGDyK) is a promising new angiogenesis PET tracer with potential for human use....

  5. The controversial origin of pericytes during angiogenesis - Implications for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis and cell-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocki, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Jung, Friedrich; Raghunath, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Pericytes reside within the basement membrane of small vessels and are often in direct cellular contact with endothelial cells, fulfilling important functions during blood vessel formation and homeostasis. Recently, these pericytes have been also identified as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells, and especially their specialized subpopulation of pericytes, represent promising candidates for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, and have already been widely applied in pre-clinical and clinical trials. However, cell-based therapies of ischemic diseases (especially of myocardial infarction) have not resulted in significant long-term improvement. Interestingly, pericytes from a hematopoietic origin were observed in embryonic skin and a pericyte sub-population expressing leukocyte and monocyte markers was described during adult angiogenesis in vivo. Since mesenchymal stem cells do not express hematopoietic markers, the latter cell type might represent an alternative pericyte population relevant to angiogenesis. Therefore, we sourced blood-derived angiogenic cells (BDACs) from monocytes that closely resembled hematopoietic pericytes, which had only been observed in vivo thus far. BDACs displayed many pericytic features and exhibited enhanced revascularization and functional tissue regeneration in a pre-clinical model of critical limb ischemia. Comparison between BDACs and mesenchymal pericytes indicated that BDACs (while resembling hematopoietic pericytes) enhanced early stages of angiogenesis, such as endothelial cell sprouting. In contrast, mesenchymal pericytes were responsible for blood vessel maturation and homeostasis, while reducing endothelial sprouting.Since the formation of new blood vessels is crucial during therapeutic angiogenesis or during integration of implants into the host tissue, hematopoietic pericytes (and therefore BDACs) might offer an advantageous addition or even an alternative for cell-based therapies.

  6. Nano-fibrin stabilized CaSO4 crystals incorporated injectable chitin composite hydrogel for enhanced angiogenesis & osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2016-04-20

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), an excellent biodegradable bone forming agent that is an ideal choice as additive in gels, however, its disadvantage being poor gel rheology and angiogenesis. Here, we have synthesized chitin-CaSO4-nano-fibrin based injectable gel system which shows improved rheology and angiogenic potential. Rheological studies showed that the composite gel was a shear thinning gel with elastic modulus of 15.4±0.275kPa; a 1.67 fold increase over chitin control. SEM and XRD analyses revealed the effect of nano-fibrin (nFibrin) in transforming CaSO4 crystal shape from needle to hexagonal. It also masked the retarding effect of CaSO4 towards in vitro early cell attachment and angiogenesis using rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) and HUVECs, respectively. rASCs osteogenesis was confirmed by spectrophotometric endpoint assay, which showed 6-fold early increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and immuno-cytochemistry analysis. These in vitro results highlight the potential of injectable chitin-CaSO4-nFibrin gel for osteo-regeneration via enhanced angiogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ovarian cancer stem-like cells differentiate into endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis through autocrine CCL5 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu; Xiang, Tong; Huang, Shuo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zhongyu; Xie, Rongkai; Long, Haixia; Zhu, Bo

    2016-06-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are well known for their self-regeneration and tumorigenesis potential. In addition, the multi-differentiation potential of CSCs has become a popular issue and continues to attract increased research attention. Recent studies demonstrated that CSCs are able to differentiate into functional endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we found that ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) activate the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways through autocrine CCL5 signaling and mediate their own differentiation into endothelial cells (ECs). Our data demonstrate that CSLCs differentiate into ECs morphologically and functionally. Anti-CCL5 antibodies and CCL5-shRNA lead to markedly inhibit EC differentiation and the tube formation of CSLCs, both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant human-CCL5 significantly promotes ovarian CSLCs that differentiate into ECs and form microtube network. The CCL5-mediated EC differentiation of CSLCs depends on binding to receptors, such as CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. The results demonstrated that CCL5-CCR1/CCR3/CCR5 activates the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways, subsequently mediating the differentiation of CSLCs into ECs. Therefore, this study was conducted based on the theory that CSCs improve tumor angiogenesis and provides a novel strategy for anti-angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  9. Regulation of Angiogenesis by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Mirando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their canonical roles in translation the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs have developed secondary functions over the course of evolution. Many of these activities are associated with cellular survival and nutritional stress responses essential for homeostatic processes in higher eukaryotes. In particular, six ARSs and one associated factor have documented functions in angiogenesis. However, despite their connection to this process, the ARSs are mechanistically distinct and exhibit a range of positive or negative effects on aspects of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. This variability is achieved through the appearance of appended domains and interplay with inflammatory pathways not found in prokaryotic systems. Complete knowledge of the non-canonical functions of ARSs is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological regulation of angiogenesis.

  10. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Ding, Lan-Bao; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasilis, Vasilis; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Tsanou, Elena; Kitsou, Evangelia; Kalofonos, Haralambos; Fountzilas, George; Fotsis, Theodore; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options. We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets. Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%). The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data. VEGF expression was detected in all cases and was strong in 83%. Stromal expression of TSP-1 was seen in 80% of cases and was strong in 20%. The expression of both proteins was not associated with any clinical or pathological parameters. Tumor MVD was higher in tumors classified as unfavorable compared to more favorable and was positively associated with VEGF and negatively with TSP-1. Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary. These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting

  12. Targeting Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Role of Aflibercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, we have progressively observed an improvement in therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC treatment with a progressive prolongation of survival. mCRC prognosis still remains poor with low percentage of 5-year survival. Targeted agents have improved results obtained with standard chemotherapy. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in colorectal cancer growth, proliferation, and metastasization and it has been investigated as a potential target for mCRC treatment. Accordingly, novel antiangiogenic targeted agents bevacizumab, regorafenib, and aflibercept have been approved for mCRC treatment as the result of several phase III randomized trials. The development of a tumor permissive microenvironment via the aberrant expression by tumor cells of paracrine factors alters the tumor-stroma interactions inducing an expansion of proangiogenic signals. Recently, the VELOUR study showed that addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy for mCRC improved significantly OS, PFS, and RR. This molecule represents a valid second-line therapeutic option and its peculiar ability to interfere with placental growth factor (PlGF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 axis makes it effective in targeting angiogenesis, inflammatory cells and in overcoming resistances to anti-angiogenic first-line treatment. Here, we discuss about Aflibercept peculiar ability to interfere with tumor microenvironment and angiogenic pathway.

  13. PCA-1/ALKBH3 contributes to pancreatic cancer by supporting apoptotic resistance and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Sho, Masayuki; Shimada, Keiji; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Ueda, Yuko; Yasuda, Satoshi; Shigi, Naoko; Konishi, Noboru; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2012-09-15

    The PCA-1/ALKBH3 gene implicated in DNA repair is expressed in several human malignancies but its precise contributions to cancer remain mainly unknown. In this study, we have determined its functions and clinical importance in pancreatic cancer. PCA-1/ALKBH3 functions in proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis were evaluated in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Further, PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression in 116 patients with pancreatic cancer was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. siRNA-mediated silencing of PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression induced apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation. Conversely, overexpression of PCA-1/ALKBH3 increased anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness. In addition, PCA-1/ALKBH3 silencing downregulated VEGF expression and inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression was abundant in pancreatic cancer tissues, where it correlated with advanced tumor status, pathological stage and VEGF intensity. Importantly, patients with low positivity of PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression had improved postoperative prognosis compared with those with high positivity. Our results establish PCA-1/ALKBH3 as important gene in pancreatic cancer with potential utility as a therapeutic target in this fatal disease.

  14. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China); Ding, Lan-Bao [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Xi, E-mail: modelmap@139.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China)

    2015-10-09

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Solena amplexicaulis induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in hepatocarcinoma cells and HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Xu, Yuan Yuan; Jiang, He Fei; Yang, Meng; Huang, Qian Hui; Yang, Jie; Hu, Kun; Wei, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (SA) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of dysentery, multiple abscess, gastralgia, urethritis, and eczema in the minority area of China. This study was aimed to examine the cell proliferation inhibitory activity of the SA extract (SACE) and its mechanism of action in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and evaluate its anti-angiogenesis activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). SACE could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FCM analysis showed that SACE could induce G2/M phase arrest, cell apoptosis, the mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm) and increase the production of intracellular ROS of HepG2 cells. After treatment with SACE, topical morphological changes of apoptotic body formation, obvious increase of apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3, PARP-1, and decrease of Bcl-2, procaspase-9 protein expressions were observed at the same time. Moreover, SACE caused the significant inhibition of endothelial cell migration and tube formation in HUVEC cells. The results suggested that SACE could act as an angiogenesis inhibitor and induce cell apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, SACE could be a potent candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer.

  16. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  17. Transforming growth factor β-regulated microRNA-29a promotes angiogenesis through targeting the phosphatase and tensin homolog in endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Youliang; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ying; Lan, Yu; Yang, Xiao

    2013-04-12

    The TGF-β pathway plays an important role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 18- to 25-nucleotide, small, noncoding RNAs that function by regulating gene expression. A number of miRNAs have been found to be regulated by the TGF-β pathway. However, the role of endothelial miRNAs in the TGF-β-mediated control of angiogenesis is still largely unknown. Here we investigated the regulation of endothelial microRNA-29a (miR-29a) by TGF-β signaling and the potential role of miR-29a in angiogenesis. MiR-29a was directly up-regulated by TGF-β/Smad4 signaling in human and mice endothelial cells. In a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, miR-29a overexpression promoted the formation of new blood vessels, and miR-29a suppression completely blocked TGF-β1-stimulated angiogenesis. Consistently, miR-29a overexpression increased tube formation and migration in endothelial cultures. Mechanistically, miR-29a directly targeted the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in endothelial cells, leading to activation of the AKT pathway. PTEN knockdown recapitulated the role of miR-29a in endothelial migration, whereas AKT inhibition completely attenuated the stimulating role of miR-29a in angiogenesis. Taken together, these results reveal a crucial role of a TGF-β-regulated miRNA in promoting angiogenesis by targeting PTEN to stimulate AKT activity.

  18. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 is a marker of the endothelial lineage and active angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambino, Kathryn; Lacko, Lauretta A; Hajjar, Katherine A; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2014-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (Egfl7) expression in the developing embryo is largely restricted to sites of mesodermal progenitors of angioblasts/hemangioblasts and the vascular endothelium. We hypothesize that Egfl7 marks the endothelial lineage during embryonic development, and can be used to define the emergence of endothelial progenitor cells, as well as to visualize newly-forming vasculature in the embryo and during the processes of physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis in the adult. We have generated a transgenic mouse strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a minimal Egfl7 regulatory sequence (Egfl7:eGFP). Expression of the transgene recapitulated that of endogenous Egfl7 at sites of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the allantois, yolk sac, and in the embryo proper. The transgene was not expressed in the quiescent endothelium of most adult organs. However, the uterus and ovary, which undergo vascular growth and remodeling throughout the estrus cycle, expressed high levels of Egfl7:eGFP. Importantly, expression of the Egfl7:eGFP transgene was induced in adult neovasculature. We also found that increased Egfl7 expression contributed to pathologic revascularization in the mouse retina. To our knowledge, this is the first mouse model that enables monitoring of endothelial cells at sites of active vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. This model also facilitated the isolation and characterization of EGFL7(+) endothelial cell populations by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Together, our results demonstrate that the Egfl7:eGFP reporter mouse is a valuable tool that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms by which blood vessels form during development and under pathologic circumstances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Angiogenesis in the degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    David, Gh; Ciurea, AV; Iencean, SM; Mohan, A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to show the histological and biochemical changes that indicate the angiogenesis of the intervertebral disc in lumbar intervertebral disc hernia and the existence of epidemiological correlations between these changes and the risk factors of lumbar intervertebral disc hernia, as well as the patient's quality of life (QOL). We have studied 50 patients aged between 18 and 73 years old, who have undergone lumbar intervertebral disc hernia surgery, making fibroblast growth ...

  20. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  1. Examining cerebral angiogenesis in response to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Kiersten L; Kay, Jacob J M; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-01

    Capillary growth and expansion (angiogenesis) is a prerequisite for many forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. It is commonly observed in both brain and muscle of aerobically exercising animals. As such, several histological methods have been used to quantify capillary density, including perfusion with India ink, various Nissl stains, and immunohistochemistry. In this chapter, we will describe these histological procedures and describe the stereological analysis used to quantify vessel growth in response to aerobic exercise.

  2. An IP-10 (CXCL10)-Derived Peptide Inhibits Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Binder, Cecelia C.; Rodgers, Margaret; Jaynes, Jesse; Wells, Alan; Bodnar, Richard J.; Turner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in processes such as organ development, wound healing, and tumor growth. It requires well-orchestrated integration of soluble and matrix factors and timely recognition of such signals to regulate this process. Previous work has shown that newly forming vessels express the chemokine receptor CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) and, activation by its ligand IP-10 (CXCL10), both inhibits development of new vasculature and causes regression of newly formed vessels. To identify and develop new therapeutic agents to limit or reverse pathological angiogenesis, we identified a 21 amino acid fragment of IP-10, spanning the α-helical domain residues 77–98, that mimic the actions of the whole IP-10 molecule on endothelial cells. Treatment of the endothelial cells with the 22 amino acid fragment referred to as IP-10p significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial motility and tube formation in vitro, properties critical for angiogenesis. Using a Matrigel plug assay in vivo, we demonstrate that IP-10p both prevented vessel formation and induced involution of nascent vessels. CXCR3 neutralizing antibody was able to block the inhibitory effects of the IP-10p, demonstrating specificity of the peptide. Inhibition of endothelial function by IP-10p was similar to that described for IP-10, secondary to CXCR3-mediated increase in cAMP production, activation of PKA inhibiting cell migration, and inhibition of VEGF-mediated m-calpain activation. IP-10p provides a novel therapeutic agent that inhibits endothelial cell function thus, allowing for the modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22815829

  3. Standardization of a method to study angiogenesis in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID FEDER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult organism, angiogenesis is restricted to a few physiological conditions. On the other hand, uncontrolled angiogenesis have often been associated to angiogenesis-dependent pathologies. A variety of animal models have been described to provide more quantitative analysis of in vivo angiogenesis and to characterize pro- and antiangiogenic molecules. However, it is still necessary to establish a quantitative, reproducible and specific method for studies of angiogenesis factors and inhibitors. This work aimed to standardize a method for the study of angiogenesis and to investigate the effects of thalidomide on angiogenesis. Sponges of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm were implanted in the back of mice groups, control and experimental (thalidomide 200 mg/K/day by gavage. After seven days, the sponges were removed. The dosage of hemoglobin in sponge and in circulation was performed and the ratio between the values was tested using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results have shown that sponge-induced angiogenesis quantitated by ratio between hemoglobin content in serum and in sponge is a helpful model for in vivo studies on angiogenesis. Moreover, it was observed that sponge-induced angiogenesis can be suppressed by thalidomide, corroborating to the validity of the standardized method.

  4. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  5. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  6. Dendritic cells regulate angiogenesis associated with liver fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Piccioni, Flavia; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Moschansky, Petra; Lloyd, Rodrigo; Hensel-Wiegel, Karin; Rose, Matthias; Garcia, Mariana G; Alaniz, Laura D; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    During liver fibrogenesis the immune response and angiogenesis process are fine-tuned resulting in activation of hepatic stellate cells that produce an excess of extracellular matrix proteins. Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role modulating the liver immunity and have recently been implicated to favour fibrosis regression; although their ability to influence the development of fibrogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we explored whether the depletion of DC during early stages of liver injury has an impact in the development of fibrogenesis. Using the CD11c.DTR transgenic mice, DC were depleted in two experimental models of fibrosis in vivo. The effect of anti-angiogenic therapy was tested during early stages of liver fibrogenesis. DC depletion accelerates the development of fibrosis and as a consequence, the angiogenesis process is boosted. We observed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors together with an enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bioavailability, mainly evidenced by the decrease of anti-angiogenic VEGF receptor 1 (also known as sFlt-1) levels. Interestingly, fibrogenesis process enhanced the expression of Flt-1 on hepatic DC and administration of sFlt-1 was sufficient to abrogate the acceleration of fibrogenesis upon DC depletion. Thus, DC emerge as novel players during the development of liver fibrosis regulating the angiogenesis process and thereby influencing fibrogenesis.

  7. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21......-localized with the hypoxia- and angiogenesis-associated markers HIF-1α (p=0.0020) and VEGF (p=0.0096), whereas the putative miR-21 target, PTEN, was expressed independently of miR-21. Expression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2 and CD133 was not associated with miR-21. In six glioblastoma cultures, miR-21 did not correlate...... with the six markers. These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics....

  8. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kazama, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  10. Modulation of ephrinB2 leads to increased angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium and endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansson-Broberg, Agneta; Siddiqui, Anwar J.; Genander, Maria; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik; Hao Xiaojin; Andersson, Agneta B.; Waerdell, Eva; Sylven, Christer; Corbascio, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Eph/ephrin signaling is pivotal in prenatal angiogenesis while its potential role in postnatal angiogenesis largely remains to be explored. Therefore its putative angiogenic and therapeutic effects were explored in endothelium and in myocardial ischemia. In culture of human aortic endothelial cells the fusion protein ephrinB2-Fc induced cell proliferation (p < 0.0005) and in the murine aortic ring model ephrinB2-Fc induced increased sprouting (p < 0.05). Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mouse. During the following 2 weeks mRNA of the receptor/ligand pair EphB4/ephrinB2 was expressed dichotomously (p < 0.05) and other Eph/ephrin pairs were expressed to a lesser degree. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal administration of ephrinB2-Fc it was detected in abundance throughout the myocardium along capillaries, showing signs of increased mitosis. After 4 weeks the capillary density was increased 28% in the periinfarcted area (p < 0.05) to a level not different from healthy regions of the heart where no change was observed. These results implicate that EphB4/ephrinB2 is an important signaling pathway in ischemic heart disease and its modulation may induce therapeutic angiogenesis

  11. Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    During tumor progression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by regulating the transcription of several genes in response to a hypoxic environment and changes in growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cinnamic aldehyde (CA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying CA's anti-angiogenic activities. We found that CA administration inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c mice. In addition, CA treatment decreased HIF-1α protein expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse tumors and Renca cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Interestingly, CA treatment did not affect the stability of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-associated HIF-1α and CA attenuated the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-angiogenic activity of CA is, at least in part, regulated by the mTOR pathway-mediated suppression of HIF-1α protein expression and these findings suggest that CA may be a potential drug for human cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Junghwa [Chemical Genomics National Research Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Jin [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asansi, Chungnam 330-150 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin [National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  13. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders

  14. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-β1 from prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Gwenaelle; Harvey, Kevin; Slivova, Veronika; Jiang Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used as a home remedy for the general promotion of health and longevity in East Asia. The dried powder of G. lucidum, which was recommended as a cancer chemotherapy agent in traditional Chinese medicine, is currently popularly used worldwide in the form of dietary supplements. We have previously demonstrated that G. lucidum induces apoptosis, inhibits cell proliferation, and suppresses cell migration of highly invasive human prostate cancer cells PC-3. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on the prostate cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of G. lucidum on angiogenesis related to prostate cancer. We found that G. lucidum inhibits the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells. These effects are caused by the inhibition of constitutively active AP-1 in prostate cancer cells, resulting in the down-regulation of secretion of VEGF and TGF-β1 from PC-3 cells. Thus, G. lucidum modulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt kinases in PC-3 cells, which in turn inhibits the activity of AP-1. In summary, our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer

  15. Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Yang, Wende; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuhao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Ding, Hui; Qin, Li; Pan, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize

  16. Evidence that polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrate into the developing corpus luteum and promote angiogenesis with interleukin-8 in the cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After ovulation in the cow, the corpus luteum (CL rapidly develops within a few days with angiogenesis and progesterone production. CL formation resembles an inflammatory response due to the influx of immune cells. Neutrophils play a role in host defense and inflammation, and secrete chemoattractants to stimulate angiogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that neutrophils infiltrate in the developing CL from just after ovulation and may play a role in angiogenesis of the CL. Methods and Results Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN were detected in CL tissue by Pas-staining, and interleukin-8 (IL-8, a neutrophil-specific chemoattractant was measured in supernatant of the CL tissue culture: considerable amounts of PMNs and the high level of IL-8 were observed during the early luteal phase (days 1-4 of the estrous cycle. PMNs and IL-8 were low levels in the mid and late luteal phases, but IL-8 was increased during luteal regression. The PMN migration in vitro was stimulated by the supernatant from the early CL but not from the mid CL, and this activity was inhibited by neutralizing with an anti-IL-8 antibody, indicating the major role of IL-8 in inducing active PMN migration in the early CL. Moreover, IL-8 stimulated proliferation of CL-derived endothelial cells (LECs, and both the supernatant of activated PMNs and IL-8 stimulated formation of capillary-like structures of LECs. Conclusion PMNs migrate into the early CL partially due to its major chemoattractant IL-8 produced at high levels in the CL, and PMNs is a potential regulator of angiogenesis together with IL-8 in developing CL in the cow.

  17. Anthelmintic drug ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis, growth and survival of glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingying; Fang, Shanshan; Sun, Qiushi; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most vascular brain tumour and highly resistant to current therapy. Targeting both glioblastoma cells and angiogenesis may present an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. In our work, we show that an anthelmintic drug, ivermectin, is active against glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and also targets angiogenesis. Ivermectin significantly inhibits growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in U87 and T98G glioblastoma cells. It induces apoptosis in these cells through a caspase-dependent manner. Ivermectin significantly suppresses the growth of two independent glioblastoma xenograft mouse models. In addition, ivermectin effectively targets angiogenesis through inhibiting capillary network formation, proliferation and survival in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC). Mechanistically, ivermectin decreases mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP levels and increases mitochondrial superoxide in U87, T98G and HBMEC cells exposed to ivermectin. The inhibitory effects of ivermectin are significantly reversed in mitochondria-deficient cells or cells treated with antioxidants, further confirming that ivermectin acts through mitochondrial respiration inhibition and induction of oxidative stress. Importantly, we show that ivermectin suppresses phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal S6 in glioblastoma and HBMEC cells, suggesting its inhibitory role in deactivating Akt/mTOR pathway. Altogether, our work demonstrates that ivermectin is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for glioblastoma. Our work also highlights the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in glioblastoma. - Highlights: • Ivermectin is effective in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis. • Ivermectin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. • Ivermectin deactivates Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  18. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Jiaojie, Zhou [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiaoyi, Yan, E-mail: xiaoyiyan163@163.com [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiujun, Cai, E-mail: xiujuncaomaj@163.com [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  19. Reconstruction of the gene regulatory network involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway with a potential role in early development of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is crucial for pattern formation in early central nervous system development. By systematically analyzing high-throughput in situ hybridization data of E11.5 mouse brain, we found that Shh and its receptor Ptch1 define two adjacent mutually exclusive gene expression domains: Shh+Ptch1- and Shh-Ptch1+. These two domains are associated respectively with Foxa2 and Gata3, two transcription factors that play key roles in specifying them. Gata3 ChIP-seq experiments and RNA-seq assays on Gata3-knockdown cells revealed that Gata3 up-regulates the genes that are enriched in the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. Important Gata3 targets include Slit2 and Slit3, which are involved in the process of axon guidance, as well as Slc18a1, Th and Qdpr, which are associated with neurotransmitter synthesis and release. By contrast, Foxa2 both up-regulates the genes expressed in the Shh+Ptch1- domain and down-regulates the genes characteristic of the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. From these and other data, we were able to reconstruct a gene regulatory network governing both domains. Our work provides the first genome-wide characterization of the gene regulatory network involved in the Shh pathway that underlies pattern formation in the early mouse brain.

  20. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  1. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  2. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  3. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Clinical trial regulation in Argentina: overview and analysis of regulatory framework, use of existing tools, and researchers' perspectives to identify potential barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren; Ortiz, Zulma; Cuervo, Luis G; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2011-11-01

    To review and analyze the regulatory framework of clinical trial registration, use of existing tools (publicly accessible national/international registration databases), and users' perspectives to identify possible barriers to registration compliance by sponsors and researchers in Argentina. Internationally registered trials recruiting patients in Argentina were found through clincialtrials.gov and the International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (ICTRP) and compared with publically available clinical trials registered through the National Administration of Drugs, Foods, and Medical Devices (ANMAT). A questionnaire addressing hypothesized attitudinal, knowledge-related, idiomatic, technical, economic, and regulatory barriers that could discourage or impede registration of clinical trials was developed, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of researchers (investigators, sponsors, and monitors) in Argentina. A response rate of 74.3% (n = 29) was achieved, and 27 interviews were ultimately used for analysis. Results suggested that the high proportion of foreign-sponsored or multinational trials (64.8% of all protocols approved by ANMAT from 1994-2006) may contribute to a communication gap between locally based investigators and foreign-based administrative officials. A lack of knowledge about available international registration tools and limited awareness of the importance of registration were also identified as limiting factors for local investigators and sponsors. To increase compliance and promote clinical trial registration in Argentina, national health authorities, sponsors, and local investigators could take the following steps: implement a grassroots educational campaign to improve clinical trial regulation, support local investigator-sponsor-initiated clinical trials, and/or encourage local and regional scientific journal compliance with standards from the International Committee of Medical Journal

  6. Regulatory-associated protein of TOR (RAPTOR) alters the hormonal and metabolic composition of Arabidopsis seeds, controlling seed morphology, viability and germination potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Li, Yan; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a positive regulator of growth and development in all eukaryotes, which positively regulates anabolic processes like protein synthesis, while repressing catabolic processes, including autophagy. To better understand TOR function we decided to analyze its role in seed development and germination. We therefore performed a detailed phenotypic analysis using mutants of the REGULATORY-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF TOR 1B (RAPTOR1B), a conserved TOR interactor, acting as a scaffold protein, which recruits substrates for the TOR kinase. Our results show that raptor1b plants produced seeds that were delayed in germination and less resistant to stresses, leading to decreased viability. These physiological phenotypes were accompanied by morphological changes including decreased seed-coat pigmentation and reduced production of seed-coat mucilage. A detailed molecular analysis revealed that many of these morphological changes were associated with significant changes of the metabolic content of raptor1b seeds, including elevated levels of free amino acids, as well as reduced levels of protective secondary metabolites and storage proteins. Most of these observed changes were accompanied by significantly altered phytohormone levels in the raptor1b seeds, with increases in abscisic acid, auxin and jasmonic acid, which are known to inhibit germination. Delayed germination and seedling growth, observed in the raptor1b seeds, could be partially restored by the exogenous supply of gibberellic acid, indicating that TOR is at the center of a regulatory hub controlling seed metabolism, maturation and germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Role of Catecholamine in Tumor Angiogenesis Linked to Capacitance Relaxation Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue SHI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the CgA level during metastasis linked with Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in cancer cell. CgA co-stored and correlated by exocytosis with catecholamines is a precursor to peptides that exert feedback regulatory control on catecholamine secretion. It is to be noted that CgA was the most sensitive marker for detecting patients with tumor angiogenesis. The progressive rise in CgA increases with the tumor size and this fact has been correlated with the Capacitance relaxation phenomenon (T. K. Basak, US patent No. 5691178, 1997 in different stages. The experimental results of Capacitance relaxation phenomenon were given as inputs to a model for correlation with the CgA level. This model is a control system model, the output of which is the CgA level. It is to be noted that the model is simulated in MATLAB. The expression of tumorogenisis in prostate and liver is also linked to Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in respect of its correlation with the CgA level.

  8. SiO2 and ZnO dopants in three-dimensionally printed tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds enhance osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Gary; Bose, Susmita

    2013-11-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds with three-dimensionally-interconnected pores play an important role in mechanical interlocking and biological fixation in bone implant applications. CaPs alone, however, are only osteoconductive (able to guide bone growth). Much attention has been given to the incorporation of biologics and pharmacologics to add osteoinductive (able to cause new bone growth) properties to CaP materials. Because biologics and pharmacologics are generally delicate compounds and also subject to increased regulatory scrutiny, there is a need to investigate alternative methods to introduce osteoinductivity to CaP materials. In this study silica (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been incorporated into three-dimensional printed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds to investigate their potential to trigger osteoinduction in vivo. Silicon and zinc are trace elements that are common in bone and have also been shown to have many beneficial properties, from increased bone regeneration to angiogenesis. Implants were placed in bicortical femur defects introduced to a murine model for up to 16 weeks. The addition of dopants into TCP increased the capacity for new early bone formation by modulating collagen I production and osteocalcin production. Neovascularization was found to be up to three times more than the pure TCP control group. The findings from this study indicate that the combination of SiO2 and ZnO dopants in TCP may be a viable alternative to introducing osteoinductive properties to CaPs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IL-17B Can Impact on Endothelial Cellular Traits Linked to Tumour Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Sanders

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-17B is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family which have been implicated in inflammatory response and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The founding member of this family, IL-17 (or IL-17A, has also been implicated in promoting tumour angiogenesis through the induction of other proangiogenic factors. Here we examine the potential of recombinant human IL-17B to contribute to the angiogenic process. In vitro rhIL-17B was able to inhibit HECV endothelial cell-matrix adhesion and cellular migration and also, at higher concentrations, could substantially reduce tubule formation compared to untreated HECV cells in a Matrigel tubule formation assay. This data suggests that IL-17B may act in an antiangiogenic manner.

  10. A hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3α splicing variant, HIF-3α4 impairs angiogenesis in hypervascular malignant meningiomas with epigenetically silenced HIF-3α4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Hitoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Natsume, Atsushi, E-mail: anatsume@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Iwami, Kenichiro; Ohka, Fumiharu [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi (Japan); Saito, Kiyoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Sugita, Sachi; Hoshino, Tsuneyoshi [MICRON Inc.Medical Facilities Support Department, Aichi (Japan); Wakabayashi, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► HIF-3α4 is silenced by DNA methylation in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired proliferation and oxygen-dependent metabolism. -- Abstract: Hypoxia inducible factor is a dominant regulator of adaptive cellular responses to hypoxia and controls the expression of a large number of genes regulating angiogenesis as well as metabolism, cell survival, apoptosis, and other cellular functions in an oxygen level-dependent manner. When a neoplasm is able to induce angiogenesis, tumor progression occurs more rapidly because of the nutrients provided by the neovasculature. Meningioma is one of the most hypervascular brain tumors, making anti-angiogenic therapy an attractive novel therapy for these tumors. HIF-3α has been conventionally regarded as a dominant-negative regulator of HIF-1α, and although alternative HIF-3α splicing variants are extensively reported, their specific functions have not yet been determined. In this study, we found that the transcription of HIF-3α4 was silenced by the promoter DNA methylation in meningiomas, and inducible HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis, proliferation, and metabolism/oxidation in hypervascular meningiomas. Thus, HIF-3α4 could be a potential molecular target in meningiomas.

  11. A hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3α splicing variant, HIF-3α4 impairs angiogenesis in hypervascular malignant meningiomas with epigenetically silenced HIF-3α4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Natsume, Atsushi; Iwami, Kenichiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Ito, Kengo; Saito, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Sachi; Hoshino, Tsuneyoshi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► HIF-3α4 is silenced by DNA methylation in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired proliferation and oxygen-dependent metabolism. -- Abstract: Hypoxia inducible factor is a dominant regulator of adaptive cellular responses to hypoxia and controls the expression of a large number of genes regulating angiogenesis as well as metabolism, cell survival, apoptosis, and other cellular functions in an oxygen level-dependent manner. When a neoplasm is able to induce angiogenesis, tumor progression occurs more rapidly because of the nutrients provided by the neovasculature. Meningioma is one of the most hypervascular brain tumors, making anti-angiogenic therapy an attractive novel therapy for these tumors. HIF-3α has been conventionally regarded as a dominant-negative regulator of HIF-1α, and although alternative HIF-3α splicing variants are extensively reported, their specific functions have not yet been determined. In this study, we found that the transcription of HIF-3α4 was silenced by the promoter DNA methylation in meningiomas, and inducible HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis, proliferation, and metabolism/oxidation in hypervascular meningiomas. Thus, HIF-3α4 could be a potential molecular target in meningiomas

  12. Oxalomalate reduces expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in the retinal pigment epithelium and inhibits angiogenesis: Implications for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hwan Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations indicate a critical role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, in pathological angiogenesis and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. RPE-mediated VEGF expression, leading to angiogenesis, is a major signaling mechanism underlying ocular neovascular disease. Inhibiting this signaling pathway with a therapeutic molecule is a promising anti-angiogenic strategy to treat this disease with potentially fewer side effects. Oxalomalate (OMA is a competitive inhibitor of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, which plays an important role in cellular signaling pathways regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of OMA on the expression of VEGF, and the associated underlying mechanism of action, using in vitro and in vivo RPE cell models of AMD. We found that OMA reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF in RPE cells, and consequently inhibited CNV formation. This function of OMA was linked to its capacity to activate the pVHL-mediated HIF-1α degradation in these cells, partly via a ROS-dependent ATM signaling axis, through inhibition of IDH enzymes. These findings reveal a novel role for OMA in inhibiting RPE-derived VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and suggest unique therapeutic strategies for treating pathological angiogenesis and AMD development.

  13. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  14. Angiogenesis concept in odontogenic keratocyst: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Sadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recent reports have indicated that angiogenesis possibly affects the biologic behavior of the lesions. Aim: Given the different clinical behaviors of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the concept of angiogenesis in pathogenesis and clinical behavior of OKC. Setting and Design: This experimental study was carried out on 22 and 24 samples of OKCs and dentigerous cysts (DCs, respectively. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was approached using CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies. The expression of VEGF was first reported by determining the counts of stained cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, followed by the percentage of stained cells in each sample based on a 0–2 scoring system. The counts of CD34+ cells were reported in each group in the form of means ± standard deviations. In addition, the patterns of blood vessels in the samples prepared from the walls of both cysts were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-squared test, and t-test were used for analysis of data, and statistical significance was defined at p < 0.05. Results: The expression percentage and scores of VEGF and the mean expression rate of CD34 were significantly higher in OKCs than DCs (p = 0.045, 0.000, and < 0.001. No significant difference was detected in the vascular patterns of these lesions (p = 0.58. Finally, there was a strong correlation between the expressions of the two markers in the samples (Correlation coefficient = 0.766. Conclusion: The present results indicate the angiogenesis may play an important role in the pathogenesis and the unique clinical behavior of OKC.

  15. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  16. CMTM3 (CKLF-Like Marvel Transmembrane Domain 3) Mediates Angiogenesis by Regulating Cell Surface Availability of VE-Cadherin in Endothelial Adherens Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrifi, Ihsan; Louzao-Martinez, Laura; Brandt, Maarten; van Dijk, Christian G M; Burgisser, Petra; Zhu, Changbin; Kros, Johan M; Duncker, Dirk J; Cheng, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1 + endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development. Using a 3-dimensional coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and pericytes-RFP (red fluorescent protein), we demonstrated that siRNA-mediated CMTM3 silencing in human umbilical vein endothelial cells impairs angiogenesis. In vivo CMTM3 inhibition by morpholino injection in developing zebrafish larvae confirmed that CMTM3 expression is required for vascular sprouting. CMTM3 knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells does not affect proliferation or migration. Intracellular staining demonstrated that CMTM3 colocalizes with early endosome markers EEA1 (early endosome marker 1) and Clathrin + vesicles and with cytosolic VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Adenovirus-mediated CMTM3 overexpression enhances endothelial endocytosis, shown by an increase in Clathrin + , EEA1 + , Rab11 + , Rab5 + , and Rab7 + vesicles. CMTM3 overexpression enhances, whereas CMTM3 knockdown decreases internalization of cell surface VE-cadherin in vitro. CMTM3 promotes loss of endothelial barrier function in thrombin-induced responses, shown by transendothelial electric resistance measurements in vitro. In this study, we have identified a new regulatory function for CMTM3 in angiogenesis. CMTM3 is involved in VE-cadherin turnover and is a regulator of the cell surface pool of VE-cadherin. Therefore, CMTM

  17. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  18. Brassinosteroids inhibit in vitro angiogenesis in human endothelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rárová, L.; Zahler, S.; Liebl, J.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Sedlák, David; Bartůněk, Petr; Kohout, Ladislav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 13 (2012), s. 1502-1509 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Angiogenesis * Human umbilical vein endothelial cells * Migration Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  19. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.; Byrne, H. M.; Chen, T.; Estrella, V.; Alarcó n, T.; Lapin, A.; Gatenby, R. A.; Gillies, R. J.; Lloyd, M. C.; Maini, P. K.; Reuss, M.; Owen, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  20. Toxicity management of angiogenesis inhibitors: resolution of expert panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel O. Rumiantsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 22 June 2017 in St. Petersburg the expert panel was held on the topic “Management of toxicity of angiogenesis inhibitors”, which discussed current issues of systemic therapy of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer resistant to radioactive iodine therapy, advanced kidney cancer and questions of efficacy and safety of new target drugs in the treatment of these diseases. The reports and discussions of experts raised the following questions: 1. Own experience of using lenvatinib in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to therapy with radioactive iodine and kidney cancer. 2. Profile of efficacy and safety of modern targeted therapy with multikinase inhibitors. 3. Prophylaxis and management of predictable toxicity.

  1. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Wu, Dan; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using 1 H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  2. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lv, Lei [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Dan [College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cen, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbcenalan@vip.sina.com [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  3. Endothelial juxtaposition of distinct adult stem cells activates angiogenesis signaling molecules in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Elham; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Siavashi, Vahid; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis needs a comprehensive understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function and biological factors and cells that interplay with ECs. Stem cells are considered the key components of pro- and anti-angiogenic milieu in a wide variety of physiopathological states, and interactions of EC-stem cells have been the subject of controversy in recent years. In this study, the potential effects of three tissue-specific adult stem cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs) and rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), on the endothelial activation of key angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF, Ang-2, VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and Tie2-pho, were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMECs) were cocultured with the stem cells or incubated with the stem cell-derived conditioned media on Matrigel. Following HUVEC-stem cell coculture, CD31-positive ECs were flow sorted and subjected to western blotting to analyze potential changes in the expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules. Elongation and co-alignment of the stem cells were seen along the EC tubes in the EC-stem cell cocultures on Matrigel, with cell-to-cell dye communication in the EC-rBMSC cocultures. Moreover, rBMSCs and rADSCs significantly improved endothelial tubulogenesis in both juxtacrine and paracrine manners. These two latter stem cells dynamically up-regulated VEGF, Ang-2, VREGR-2, and Tie-2 but down-regulated Tie2-pho and the Tie2-pho/Tie-2 ratio in HUVECs. Induction of pro-angiogenic signaling in ECs by marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs further indicates the significance of stem cell milieu in angiogenesis dynamics.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, He [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Otani, Atsushi, E-mail: otan@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  5. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a 137 Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that bone

  6. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the brachyury gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Edwards, Diana S; Kerner, Pierre; Kugler, Jamie E; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2011-07-01

    The notochord is the distinctive characteristic of chordates; however, the knowledge of the complement of transcription factors governing the development of this structure is still incomplete. Here we present the expression patterns of seven transcription factor genes detected in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis at various stages of embryonic development. Four of these transcription factors, Fos-a, NFAT5, AFF and Klf15, have not been directly associated with the notochord in previous studies, while the others, including Spalt-like-a, Lmx-like, and STAT5/6-b, display evolutionarily conserved expression in this structure as well as in other domains. We examined the hierarchical relationships between these genes and the transcription factor Brachyury, which is necessary for notochord development in all chordates. We found that Ciona Brachyury regulates the expression of most, although not all, of these genes. These results shed light on the genetic regulatory program underlying notochord formation in Ciona and possibly other chordates. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Bifidobacterium infantis Potentially Alleviates Shrimp Tropomyosin-Induced Allergy by Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell-Dependent Induction of Regulatory T Cells and Alterations in Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish is one of the major allergen sources worldwide, and tropomyosin (Tm is the predominant allergic protein in shellfish. Probiotics has been appreciated for its beneficial effects on the host, including anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, although the underlying mechanisms were not fully understood. In this study, oral administration of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium infantis 14.518 (Binf effectively suppressed Tm-induced allergic response in a mouse model by both preventive and therapeutic strategies. Further results showed that Binf stimulated dendritic cells (DCs maturation and CD103+ tolerogenic DCs accumulation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which subsequently induced regulatory T cells differentiation for suppressing Th2-biased response. We also found that Binf regulates the alterations of gut microbiota composition. Specifically, the increase of Dorea and decrease of Ralstonia is highly correlated with Th2/Treg ratio and may contribute to alleviating Tm-induced allergic responses. Our findings provide molecular insight into the application of Binf in alleviating food allergy and even gut immune homeostasis.

  8. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  9. TGF-β1 exerts opposing effects on grass carp leukocytes: implication in teleost immunity, receptor signaling and potential self-regulatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    Full Text Available In fish immunity, the regulatory role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 has not been fully characterized. Here we examined the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in grass carp peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and head kidney leukocytes (HKL. It is interesting that TGF-β1 consistently stimulated the cell viability and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnfα and Ifnγ and T/B cell markers [Cd4-like (Cd4l, Cd8α, Cd8β and Igμ] in PBL, which contrasted with its inhibitory tone in HKL. Further studies showed that grass carp TGF-β1 type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5, was indispensable for the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in PBL and HKL. Notably, TGF-β1 persistently attenuated ALK5 expression, whereas immunoneutralization of endogenous grass carp TGF-β1 could increase ALK5 mRNA and protein levels. It is consistent with the observation that TGF-β1 decreased the number of ALK5(+ leukocytes in PBL and HKL, revealing a negative regulation of TGF-β1 signaling at the receptor level. Moreover, transient treatment with TGF-β1 for 24 h was sufficient to induce similar cellular responses compared with the continuous treatment. This indicated a possible mechanism by which TGF-β1 triggered the down-regulation of ALK5 mRNA and protein, leading to the desensitization of grass carp leukocytes toward TGF-β1. Accordingly, our data revealed a dual role of TGF-β1 in teleost immunity in which it can serve as a positive or negative control device and provided additional mechanistic insights as to how TGF-β1 controls its signaling in vertebrate leukocytes.

  10. MicroRNA-9 Couples Brain Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Madelaine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression. This untimely increase of neuronal VEGF-A signal leads to the thickening of blood vessels at the expense of the normal formation of the neurovascular network in the brain and retina. Thus, this conserved transcriptional cascade is critical for proper brain development in vertebrates. Because of this dual role on neural stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis, miR-9 and its downstream targets are promising factors for cellular regenerative therapy following stroke and for brain tumor treatment.

  11. ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Berretta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis inhibitors have become an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. The achievement of Sorafenib in prolonging overall survival of patients with HCC makes therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis a fundamental element of the treatment of HCC. Considering the heterogeneous aspects of HCC and to enhance therapeutic efficacy, overcome drug resistance and reduce toxicity, the combination of antiangiogenic drugs with antiblastic chemotherapy (AC, radiotherapy or other targeted drugs have been evaluated. The issue is further complicated by the combination of antiangiogenesis with other AC or biologic drugs. To date, there is no planned approach to determine which patients are more responsive to a given type of antiangiogenic treatment. Conclusion: Large investments in the clinical research are essential to improve treatment response and minimize toxicities for patients with HCC. Future investigations will need to focus on utilizing patterns of genetic information to classify HCC into groups that display similar prognosis and treatment sensitivity, and combining targeted therapies with AC producing enhanced anti-tumor effect. In this review the current panel of available antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of HCC have been analyzed. In addition current clinical trials are also reported herein.

  12. WNT Signaling Is Required for Peritoneal Membrane Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwal, Manreet Kaur; Cheng, Genyang; Liu, Limin; Boivin, Felix J; Gangji, Azim; Brimble, Kenneth Scott; Bridgewater, Darren; Margetts, Peter J

    2018-01-24

    The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. In a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) mediated animal model of peritoneal fibrosis, we evaluated regulation of the WNT pathway and the effect of WNT inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis. WNT1 and WNT2 gene expression were positively correlated with peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. In the mouse peritoneum, TGFΒ-induced peritoneal fibrosis was associated with increased expression of WNT2 and WNT4. Peritoneal b-catenin protein was significantly upregulated after infection with AdTGFB along with elements of the WNT signaling pathway. Treatment with a b-catenin inhibitor (ICG-001) in mice with AdTGFB-induced peritoneal fibrosis resulted in attenuation of peritoneal angiogenesis and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor. Similar results were also observed with the WNT antagonist Dickkopf related protein (DKK) 1. In addition to this, DKK-1 blocked epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. We provide evidence that WNT signaling is active in the setting of experimental peritoneal fibrosis and WNT1 correlates with patient peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. Intervention in this pathway is a possible therapy for peritoneal membrane injury.

  13. Abnormalities in the Regulators of Angiogenesis in Patients with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUMMERS, LAURA K.; HALL, AMY; WIGLEY, FREDRICK M.; SIMONS, MICHAEL

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine plasma levels of regulators of angiogenesis in patients with scleroderma and to correlate those levels with manifestations of scleroderma-related vascular disease. Methods Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), endostatin, pro-MMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and FGF-4 were examined by ELISA in a cross-sectional study of 113 patients with scleroderma and 27 healthy controls. Simple and multivariate regression models were used to look for associations between factor levels and clinical disease characteristics. Results There were marked differences in the levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors between patients with scleroderma and controls, with significant elevations of VEGF, PDGF, FGF-2, and PlGF among patients with scleroderma (p scleroderma patients compared to controls (MMP-9 and pro-MMP-1) (p scleroderma, but had a positive correlation with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) as measured by echocardiogram (p scleroderma (p scleroderma. The levels of some factors correlate with measures of vascular disease among patients with scleroderma. Dysregulated angiogenesis may play a role in the development of scleroderma vascular disease. PMID:19228661

  14. BAG3 controls angiogenesis through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Festa, M; Basile, A; Rosati, A; Pascale, M; Florenzano, F; Nori, S L; Nicolin, V; Di Benedetto, M; Vecchione, M L; Arra, C; Barbieri, A; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2012-12-13

    BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence we have proposed BAG3 as a target of antineoplastic therapies. Here we identify a novel role for BAG3 in regulation of neo-angiogenesis and show that its downregulation results in reduced angiogenesis therefore expanding the role of BAG3 as a therapeutical target. In brief we show that BAG3 is expressed in endothelial cells and is essential for the interaction between ERK and its phosphatase DUSP6, as a consequence its removal results in reduced binding of DUSP6 to ERK and sustained ERK phosphorylation that in turn determines increased levels of p21 and p15 and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase.

  15. Serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and matrix hyaluronan promote angiogenesis in fibrotic lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Zudaire, Enrique; Trempus, Carol S; Hollingsworth, John W; Jiang, Dianhua; Lancaster, Lisa H; Richardson, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Lisheng; Cuttitta, Frank; Brown, Kevin K; Noble, Paul W; Kimata, Koji; Schwartz, David A

    2008-11-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of angiogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is poorly understood. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (IaI) is a serum protein that can bind to hyaluronan (HA) and may contribute to the angiogenic response to tissue injury. To determine whether IaI promotes HA-mediated angiogenesis in tissue injury. An examination was undertaken of angiogenesis in IaI-sufficient and -deficient mice in the bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis and in angiogenesis assays in vivo and in vitro. IaI and HA in patients with IPF were examined. IaI significantly enhances the angiogenic response to short-fragment HA in vivo and in vitro. lal deficiency Ieads to decreased angiogenesis in the matrigel model, and decreases lung angiogenesis after bleomycin exposure in mice. IaI is found in fibroblastic foci in IPF, where it colocalizes with HA. The colocalization is particularly strong in vascular areas around fibroblastic foci. Serum levels of IaI and HA are significantly elevated in patients with IPF compared with control subjects. High serum IaI and HA levels are associated with decreased lung diffusing capacity, but not FVC. Our findings indicate that serum IaI interacts with HA, and promotes angiogenesis in lung injury. IaI appears to contribute to the vascular response to lung injury and may lead to aberrant angiogenesis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00016627).

  16. Serum Inter–α-Trypsin Inhibitor and Matrix Hyaluronan Promote Angiogenesis in Fibrotic Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Zudaire, Enrique; Trempus, Carol S.; Hollingsworth, John W.; Jiang, Dianhua; Lancaster, Lisa H.; Richardson, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Lisheng; Cuttitta, Frank; Brown, Kevin K.; Noble, Paul W.; Kimata, Koji; Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology and pathogenesis of angiogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is poorly understood. Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IaI) is a serum protein that can bind to hyaluronan (HA) and may contribute to the angiogenic response to tissue injury. Objectives: To determine whether IaI promotes HA-mediated angiogenesis in tissue injury. Methods: An examination was undertaken of angiogenesis in IaI-sufficient and -deficient mice in the bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis and in angiogenesis assays in vivo and in vitro. IaI and HA in patients with IPF were examined. Measurements and Main Results: IaI significantly enhances the angiogenic response to short-fragment HA in vivo and in vitro. lal deficiency Ieads to decreased angiogenesis in the matrigel model, and decreases lung angiogenesis after bleomycin exposure in mice. IaI is found in fibroblastic foci in IPF, where it colocalizes with HA. The colocalization is particularly strong in vascular areas around fibroblastic foci. Serum levels of IaI and HA are significantly elevated in patients with IPF compared with control subjects. High serum IaI and HA levels are associated with decreased lung diffusing capacity, but not FVC. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that serum IaI interacts with HA, and promotes angiogenesis in lung injury. IaI appears to contribute to the vascular response to lung injury and may lead to aberrant angiogenesis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00016627). PMID:18703791

  17. Angiogenesis in Balb/c mice under beta-carotene supplementation in diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razny, U.; Polus, P.; Kiec-wilk, B.; Wator, L.; Hartwich, J.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones. The most important steps in angiogenesis include detachment, proliferation, migration, homing and differentiation of vascular wall cells, which are mainly endothelial cells and their progenitors. The study focused on the

  18. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  19. Effects of amelogenins on angiogenesis-associated processes of endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, S; Kleinman, H K; Werthén, M

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay.......To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay....

  20. Endothelial-Rac1 is not required for tumor angiogenesis unless alphavbeta3-integrin is absent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela D'Amico

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell migration is an essential aspect of tumor angiogenesis. Rac1 activity is needed for cell migration in vitro implying a requirement for this molecule in angiogenesis in vivo. However, a precise role for Rac1 in tumor angiogenesis has never been addressed. Here we show that depletion of endothelial Rac1 expression in adult mice, unexpectedly, has no effect on tumor growth or tumor angiogenesis. In addition, repression of Rac1 expression does not inhibit VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in vivo or ex vivo, nor does it affect chemotactic migratory responses to VEGF in 3-dimensions. In contrast, the requirement for Rac1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis becomes important when endothelial beta3-integrin levels are reduced or absent: the enhanced tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and VEGF-mediated responses in beta3-null mice are all Rac1-dependent. These data indicate that in the presence of alphavbeta3-integrin Rac1 is not required for tumor angiogenesis.

  1. Canonical hedgehog signaling augments tumor angiogenesis by induction of VEGF-A in stromal perivascular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Tracy; Eastham-Anderson, Jeff; Dunlap, Debra; Alicke, Bruno; Nannini, Michelle; Gould, Stephen; Yauch, Robert; Modrusan, Zora; DuPree, Kelly J.; Darbonne, Walter C.; Plowman, Greg; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Callahan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical to the patterning and development of a variety of organ systems, and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hh pathway activation are known to promote tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that in tumors promoted by Hh ligands, activation occurs within the stromal microenvironment. Testing whether ligand-driven Hh signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis, we found that Hh antagonism reduced the vascular density of Hh-producing LS180 and SW480 xenografts. In addition, ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog in low-Hh–expressing DLD-1 xenografts increased tumor vascular density, augmented angiogenesis, and was associated with canonical Hh signaling within perivascular tumor stromal cells. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying Hh-mediated tumor angiogenesis, we established an Hh-sensitive angiogenesis coculture assay and found that fibroblast cell lines derived from a variety of human tissues were Hh responsive and promoted angiogenesis in vitro through a secreted paracrine signal(s). Affymetrix array analyses of cultured fibroblasts identified VEGF-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and PDGF-C as candidate secreted proangiogenic factors induced by Hh stimulation. Expression studies of xenografts and angiogenesis assays using combinations of Hh and VEGF-A inhibitors showed that it is primarily Hh-induced VEGF-A that promotes angiogenesis in vitro and augments tumor-derived VEGF to promote angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:21597001

  2. Angiogenesis is not impaired in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) knock-out mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph; Lambert, Vincent; van Treslong-de Groot, Henny Bloys; Lyons, Karen M.; Agostini, Hans-Jürgen T.; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2007-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and

  3. A flexible regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory reform of the Finnish electricity market meant opening up potentially competitive parts of the electricity sector to competition and eliminating all unnecessary forms of regulation covering generation, wholesale supply, retail supply, and foreign trade in electricity. New types of control and regulatory mechanisms and institutions were set up for those parts of the electricity industry that were excluded from competition, such as network operations. Network activities now have to be licensed, whereas no licence is needed for generation or supply. A new sector-specific regulatory authority was established in 1995 to coincide with the implementation of the Electricity Market Act, known as the Electricity Market Authority. This is responsible for regulating network activities and retail supply to captive customers. The core function of the authority, which employs some 14 people, is to promote the smooth operation of the Finnish electricity market and to oversee the implementation of the Electricity Market Act and its provisions. Its most important duties are linked to overseeing the process by which network companies price their electricity. As price regulation no longer exists, all the companies in the electricity sector set their tariffs independently, even network companies. The job of controlling the pricing of network services is handed by the Electricity Market Authority, following the principles of competition control. Pricing control takes place ex post - after a pricing system has been adopted by a company and concentrates on individual cases and companies. There is no ex ante system of setting or approving prices and tariffs by the regulator. The tariffs and pricing of network services can be evaluated, however, by both the Electricity Market Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority, which have overlapping powers as regards the pricing of network activities. The Finnish regulatory framework can be described as a system of light

  4. Enhancing tissue integration and angiogenesis of a novel nanocomposite polymer using plasma surface polymerisation, an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle F; Palgrave, Robert G; Seifalian, Alexander M; Butler, Peter E; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2016-01-01

    Current surgical reconstruction of facial defects including nose or ear involves harvesting patient's own autologous tissue, causing donor site morbidity and is limited by tissue availability. The use of alternative synthetic materials is also limited due to complications related to poor tissue integration and angiogenesis, which lead to extrusion of implants and infection. We intend to meet this clinical challenge by using a novel nanocomposite called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), which has already been successfully taken to the clinical bench-side as a replacement for trachea, tear duct and vascular by-pass graft. In this study, we aimed to enhance tissue integration and angiogenesis of POSS-PCU using an established surface treatment technique, plasma surface polymerisation (PSP), functionalising the surface using NH2 and COOH chemical groups. Physical characterisation of scaffolds was achieved by using a number of techniques, including water contact angle, SEM, AFM and XPS to study the effects of PSM modification on the POSS-PCU nanocomposite in detail, which has not been previously documented. Wettability evaluation confirmed that scaffolds become hydrophilic and AFM analysis confirmed that nano topographical alterations resulted as a consequence of PSP treatment. Chemical functionalisation was confirmed using XPS, which suggested the presence of NH2 and COOH functional groups on the scaffolds. The modified scaffolds were then tested both in vitro and in vivo to investigate the potential of PSP modified POSS-PCU scaffolds on tissue integration and angiogenesis. In vitro analysis confirmed that PSM modification resulted in higher cellular growth, proliferation and ECM production as assessed by biochemical assays and immunofluorescence. Subcutaneous implantation of modified POSS-PCU scaffolds was then carried out over 12-weeks, resulting in enhanced tissue integration and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). This study

  5. Evaluation of Functionalized Porous Titanium Implants for Enhancing Angiogenesis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Roland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Implant constructs supporting angiogenesis are favorable for treating critically-sized bone defects, as ingrowth of capillaries towards the center of large defects is often insufficient. Consequently, the insufficient nutritional supply of these regions leads to impaired bone healing. Implants with specially designed angiogenic supporting geometry and functionalized with proangiogenic cytokines can enhance angiogenesis. In this study, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 were used for incorporation into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL-coated porous titanium implants. Bioactivity of released factors and influence on angiogenesis of functionalized implants were evaluated using a migration assay and angiogenesis assays. Both implants released angiogenic factors, inducing migration of endothelial cells. Also, VEGF-functionalized PCL-coated titanium implants enhanced angiogenesis in vitro. Both factors were rapidly released in high doses from the implant coating during the first 72 h.

  6. Thymic B cell development is controlled by the B potential of progenitors via both hematopoietic-intrinsic and thymic microenvironment-intrinsic regulatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Xiao

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs derived from birth through adult possess differing differentiation potential for T or B cell fate in the thymus; neonatal bone marrow (BM cells also have a higher potential for B cell production in BM compared to adult HSCs. We hypothesized that this hematopoietic-intrinsic B potential might also regulate B cell development in the thymus during ontogeny.Foxn1lacZ mutant mice are a model in which down regulation of a thymic epithelial cell (TEC specific transcription factor beginning one week postnatal causes a dramatic reduction of thymocytes production. In this study, we found that while T cells were decreased, the frequency of thymic B cells was greatly increased in these mutants in the perinatal period. We used this model to characterize the mechanisms in the thymus controlling B cell development.Foxn1lacZ mutants, T cell committed intrathymic progenitors (DN1a,b were progressively reduced beginning one week after birth, while thymic B cells peaked at 3-4 weeks with pre-B-II progenitor phenotype, and originated in the thymus. Heterochronic chimeras showed that the capacity for thymic B cell production was due to a combination of higher B potential of neonatal HSCs, combined with a thymic microenvironment deficiency including reduction of DL4 and increase of IL-7 that promoted B cell fate.Our findings indicate that the capacity and time course for thymic B-cell production are primarily controlled by the hematopoietic-intrinsic potential for B cells themselves during ontogeny, but that signals from TECs microenvironment also influence the frequency and differentiation potential of B cell development in the thymus.

  7. T- and NK-cell populations with regulatory phenotype and markers of apoptosis in circulating lymphocytes of patients with CIN3 or microcarcinoma of the cervix: evidence for potential mechanisms of immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmyshkina, Olga V; Kovchur, Pavel I; Schegoleva, Ludmila V; Volkova, Tatyana O

    2017-01-01

    Processes and mechanisms responsible for systemic immune suppression in early-stage cervical cancer remain substantially underinvestigated. In this work, we focused on studying the frequencies of circulating regulatory T (CD4 and CD8 Tregs) and NK (NKregs) cells in parallel with assessment of apoptotic markers expression in T cells from patients with preinvasive and microinvasive cervical cancer, with the aim to determine whether up-regulation of apoptosis-associated markers in Т lymphocytes accompanies cervical cancer development and correlates with the change in percentages of regulatory cell populations at systemic level during the initial stages of invasive cervical cancer progression. Fourty two women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, including carcinoma in situ) or cervical cancer (stage IA) and 30 healthy women (control) were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were taken immediately before surgery or any treatment and immediately subjected to multicolor flow cytometry. Analysis of a combination of CD4/CD8, CD25, CD127, and FoxP3 markers revealed a statistically significant increase in the frequencies of Tregs within both the CD4 and CD8 subsets of circulating lymphocytes in patients with CIN3 and stage IA cancer. In contrast, lower numbers of NKregs (defined as CD16 dim/neg CD56 bright subpopulation) and increased CD56 dim /CD56 bright NK ratio were found in patients compared to controls, with the percentage of CD16 bright CD56 dim cells (major subtype of circulating NKs) showing no difference. Patients also exhibited an increased expression of CD95 in total peripheral blood T lymphocytes, along with increased level of Annexin V binding to CD95-positive cells, suggesting higher susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis and potential involvement of CD95-dependent pathway in early-stage cervical cancer. Differential analysis of CD4 and CD8 T cells revealed different trends in the change of CD95

  8. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  9. Tracer kinetic modelling of tumour angiogenesis based on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Griebel, Juergen [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian [RWTH-Aachen University, Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Aachen (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Technical developments in both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have helped to reduce scan times and expedited the development of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging techniques. Since the temporal change of the image signal following the administration of a diffusible, extracellular contrast agent (CA) is related to the local blood supply and the extravasation of the CA into the interstitial space, DCE imaging can be used to assess tissue microvasculature and microcirculation. It is the aim of this review to summarize the biophysical and tracer kinetic principles underlying this emerging imaging technique offering great potential for non-invasive characterization of tumour angiogenesis. In the first part, the relevant contrast mechanisms are presented that form the basis to relate signal variations measured by serial CT and MRI to local tissue concentrations of the administered CA. In the second part, the concepts most widely used for tracer kinetic modelling of concentration-time courses derived from measured DCE image data sets are described in a consistent and unified manner to highlight their particular structure and assumptions as well as the relationships among them. Finally, the concepts presented are exemplified by the analysis of representative DCE data as well as discussed with respect to present and future applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Depending on the specific protocol used for the acquisition of DCE image data and the particular model applied for tracer kinetic analysis of the derived concentration-time courses, different aspects of tumour angiogenesis can be quantified in terms of well-defined physiological tissue parameters. DCE imaging offers promising prospects for improved tumour diagnosis, individualization of cancer treatment as well as the evaluation of novel therapeutic concepts in preclinical and early-stage clinical trials. (orig.)

  10. Effects of Neuropeptide Y on Stem Cells and Their Potential Applications in Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity. Stem cell-based therapy has been demonstrated effective and considered as one of the most promising treatments for specific diseases. However, several limitations still hamper its application, such as poor survival and low differentiation and integration rates of transplanted stem cells. The regulatory effects of NPY on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may be helpful to overcome these limitations and facilitate the application of stem cell-based therapy. In this review, we summarized the regulatory effects of NPY on stem cells and discussed their potential applications in disease therapy.

  11. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- b -poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG- b -PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle could

  12. Notch-1 mediates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sweeney, Catherine; Connolly, Mary; Kennedy, Aisling; Ng, Chin Teck; McCormick, Jennifer; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of hypoxia on Notch-1 signaling pathway components and angiogenesis in inflammatory arthritis. The expression and regulation of Notch-1, its ligand delta-like protein 4 (DLL-4) and downstream signaling components (hairy-related transcription factor 1 [HRT-1], HRT-2), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (1-3%) were assessed in synovial tissue specimens from patients with inflammatory arthritis and controls and in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) by immunohistology, dual immunofluorescence staining (Notch-1/factor VIII), Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo synovial tissue oxygen levels (tissue PO2) were measured under direct visualization at arthroscopy. HDMEC activation under hypoxic conditions in the presence of Notch-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, or dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) was assessed by Matrigel tube formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 zymography. Expression of Notch-1, its ligand DLL-4, and HRT-1 was demonstrated in synovial tissue, with the strongest expression localized to perivascular/vascular regions. Localization of Notch-1 to synovial endothelium was confirmed by dual immunofluorescence staining. Notch-1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression was significantly higher in synovial tissue from patients with tissue PO2 of PO2 of >20 mm Hg (>3% O2). Exposure of HDMECs to 3% hypoxia induced HIF-1α and NICD protein expression and DLL-4, HRT-1, and HRT-2 messenger RNA expression. DMOG directly induced NICD expression, while Notch-1 siRNA inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression, suggesting that Notch-1/HIF-1α signaling is bidirectional. Finally, 3% hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration, endothelial cell invasion, and proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities were inhibited by Notch-1 siRNA and/or the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Our

  13. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  14. Contrasting exome constancy and regulatory region variation in the gene encoding CYP3A4: an examination of the extent and potential implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Creemer, O. J.; Ansari-Pour, N.; Ekong, R.; Tarekegn, A.; Plaster, C.; Bains, R. K.; Itan, Y.; Bekele, E.; Bradman, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: CYP3A4 expression varies up to 100-fold among individuals, and, to date, genetic causes remain elusive. As a major drug-metabolizing enzyme, elucidation of such genetic causes would increase the potential for introducing personalized dose adjustment of therapies involving CYP3A4 drug substrates. The foetal CYP3A isoform, CYP3A7, is reported to be expressed in ∼10% of European adults and may thus contribute towards the metabolism of endogenous substances and CYP3A drug substrates. H...

  15. RNA-Seq transcriptomics and pathway analyses reveal potential regulatory genes and molecular mechanisms in high- and low-residual feed intake in Nordic dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, M. S.; Mazzoni, G.; Höglund, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    -throughput RNA sequencing data of liver biopsies from 19 dairy cows were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-FE groups of cows (based on Residual Feed Intake or RFI). Subsequently, a profile of the pathways connecting the DEGs to FE was generated, and a list of candidate...... genes and biomarkers was derived for their potential inclusion in breeding programmes to improve FE. The bovine RNA-Seq gene expression data from the liver was analysed to identify DEGs and, subsequently, identify the molecular mechanisms, pathways and possible candidate biomarkers of feed efficiency....... On average, 57 million reads (short reads or short mRNA sequences ...

  16. Curcumin and turmeric attenuate arsenic-induced angiogenesis in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Panayotis; Varman, Aarthi; Simpson-Durand, Cindy; Thorpe, Jessica; Ramalingam, Satish; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Houchen, Courtney; Ihnat, Michael; Anant, Shrikant; Ramanujam, Rama P

    2010-01-01

    Trivalent arsenic [As(III)] is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic and acute leukemias. However, As(III) has also demonstrated damaging effects on human health, including development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Further, As(III) is a potent angiogenic agent. In this context, curcumin, an active ingredient in the dietary agent turmeric, has demonstrated potent antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. In this report, we have shown that both curcumin and turmeric inhibit expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells exposed to As(III). Further, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay model, treatment with low As(III) concentrations results in extensive increase in blood vessel density, which, however, is reduced in the presence of curcumin or turmeric. Collectively, the findings reported here strongly suggest that turmeric and curcumin can dramatically attenuate the process of angiogenesis induced by low As(III) concentrations.

  17. Coupling growth-factor engineering with nanotechnology for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Roy, Rituparna; Soni, Shivani; Harfouche, Rania; Vasudevan, Pooja R; Holmes, Oliver; de Jonge, Hugo; Rowe, Arthur; Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Hentschel, Dirk M; Chirgadze, Dimitri; Blundell, Tom L; Gherardi, Ermanno; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-08-03

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is an emerging paradigm for the management of ischemic pathologies. Proangiogenic Therapy is limited, however, by the current inability to deliver angiogenic factors in a sustained manner at the site of pathology. In this study, we investigated a unique nonglycosylated active fragment of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, 1K1, which acts as a potent angiogenic agent in vitro and in a zebrafish embryo and a murine matrigel implant model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nanoformulating 1K1 for sustained release temporally alters downstream signaling through the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and amplifies the angiogenic outcome. Merging protein engineering and nanotechnology offers exciting possibilities for the treatment of ischemic disease, and furthermore allows the selective targeting of downstream signaling pathways, which translates into discrete phenotypes.

  18. Metastatic papillary craniopharyngioma: case study and study of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, Lhan; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Sav, Aydin; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Vidal, Sergio; Kovacs, Kalman; Scheithauer, Bernd W.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma metastatic to the temporoparietal region 2 years after its initial resection. The literature documents examples of craniopharyngioma recurrences along the surgical tract, as well as remote ipsi- and contralateral metastases via cerebrospinal fluid seeding. Ours is the second report of a craniopharyngioma of papillary type to exhibit metastatic behavior. The tumor spread opposite the side of craniotomy. Although a rare occurrence, it confirms the limited capacity of histologically benign craniopharyngiomas to undergo meningeal seeding, likely the result of surgical manipulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of increased microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, as well as a high vascular endothelial growth receptor (VEGFR2) signal by in situ hybridization, suggests that tumor vascularity facilitated angiogenesis and may have been involved in the establishment and growth of the metastatic deposit. PMID:11916504

  19. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    -blind placebo-controlled trials could not confirm the initial high efficacy of either the growth factor protein or the gene therapy approaches observed in earlier small trials. The clinical studies so far have all been without any gene-related serious adverse events. Future trials will focus on whether...... an improvement in clinical results can be obtained with a cocktail of growth factors or by a combination of gene and stem cell therapy in patients with severe coronary artery disease, which cannot be treated effectively with current treatment strategies....... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...

  20. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche

  1. Overexpression of angiopoietin 2 promotes the formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Li, Q; Cai, Y; He, Y; Lan, X; Wang, W; Liu, J; Wang, S; Zhu, G; Fan, J; Zhou, Y; Sun, R

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer of the head and neck and is associated with a high rate of lymph node metastasis. The initial step in the metastasis and transition of tumors is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-induced angiogenesis, which can be mediated by angiopoietin 2 (ANG2), a key regulatory factor in angiogenesis. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR) were used to measure the expression of ANG2 in OSCC tissues. Plasmids encoding ANG2 mRNA were used for increased ANG2 expression in the OSCC cell line TCA8113. The short interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting ANG2 mRNA sequences were used to inhibit ANG2 expression in TCA8113 cells. Subsequently, transwell assays were performed to examine the effects of ANG2 on TCA8113 cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, in vivo assays were performed to assess the effect of ANG2 on tumor growth. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and immunohistochemistry were used to examine cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in tumor tissues, respectively. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tumor formation-related proteins in OSCC tissues. We found that protein expression of ANG2 was remarkably upregulated in OSCC tissues. Overexpression of ANG2 increased the migration and invasion of TCA8113 cells by regulating EMT. Further investigations showed that overexpression of ANG2 increased tumor growth in nude mice, and angiogenesis of OSCC tissues increased in the presence of ANG2 overexpression. Overexpression of ANG2 also reduced cell apoptosis in tumor tissue cells. Finally, we found that overexpression of ANG2 resulted in changes in the expression of tumor formation-related proteins including vimentin, E-cadherin, Bim, PUMA, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyclin D1, PCNA and CD31. Our findings show that ANG2 has an important role in the migration and invasion of OSCC. More importantly, further

  2. Essential Role of Endothelial Notch1 in Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbourg, Florian P.; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Radtke, Freddy; Bronson, Roderick T.; Chin, Michael T.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch signaling influences binary cell fate decisions in a variety of tissues. The Notch1 receptor is widely expressed during embryogenesis and is essential for embryonic development. Loss of global Notch1 function results in early embryonic lethality, but the cell type responsible for this defect is not known. Here, we identify the endothelium as the primary target tissue affected by Notch1 signaling. Methods and Results We generated an endothelium-specific deletion of Notch1 using Tie2Cre and conditional Notch1flox/flox mice. Mutant embryos lacking endothelial Notch1 died at approximately embryonic day 10.5 with profound vascular defects in placenta, yolk sac, and embryo proper, whereas heterozygous deletion had no effect. In yolk sacs of mutant embryos, endothelial cells formed a primary vascular plexus indicative of intact vasculogenesis but failed to induce the secondary vascular remodeling required to form a mature network of well-organized large and small blood vessels, which demonstrates a defect in angiogenesis. These vascular defects were also evident in the placenta, where blood vessels failed to invade the placental labyrinth, and in the embryo proper, where defective blood vessel maturation led to pericardial and intersomitic hemorrhage. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 was detected in endothelial and neural cells of mutant mice, which resulted in enhanced apoptotic degeneration of somites and the neural tube. Conclusions These findings recapitulate the vascular phenotype of global Notch1-/- mutants and indicate an essential cell-autonomous role of Notch1 signaling in the endothelium during vascular development. These results may have important clinical implications with regard to Notch1 signaling in adult angiogenesis. PMID:15809373

  3. Molecular profiling of angiogenesis in hypericin mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT involves the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug, which is activated by light of specific wavelength in the presence of molecular oxygen thus generating reactive oxygen species that is toxic to the tumor cells. PDT selectively destroys photosensitized tissue leading to various cellular and molecular responses. The present study was designed to examine the angiogenic responses at short (0.5 h and long (6 h drug light interval (DLI hypericin-PDT (HY-PDT treatment at 24 h and 30 days post treatment in a human bladder carcinoma xenograft model. As short DLI targets tumor vasculature and longer DLI induces greater cellular damage, we hypothesized a differential effect of these treatments on the expression of angiogenic factors. Results Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed minimal CD31 stained endothelium at 24 h post short DLI PDT indicating extensive vascular damage. Angiogenic proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor necrosis growth factor-α (TNF-α, interferon-α (IFN-α and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were expressed to a greater extent in cellular targeting long DLI PDT compared to vascular mediated short DLI PDT. Gene expression profiling for angiogenesis pathway demonstrated downregulation of adhesion molecules – cadherin 5, collagen alpha 1 and 3 at 24 h post treatment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and Ephrin-A3 (EFNA3 were upregulated in all treatment groups suggesting a possible activation of c-Met and Ephrin-Eph signaling pathways. Conclusion In conclusion, long DLI HY-PDT induces upregulation of angiogenic proteins. Differential expression of genes involved in the angiogenesis pathway was observed in the various groups treated with HY-PDT.

  4. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  5. Crude Fucoidan Extracts Impair Angiogenesis in Models Relevant for Bone Regeneration and Osteosarcoma via Reduction of VEGF and SDF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlu Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine origin polysaccharide fucoidan combines multiple biological activities. As demonstrated by various studies in vitro and in vivo, fucoidans show anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties, although the detailed molecular action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of crude fucoidan extracts, on the formation of vascular structures in co-culture models relevant for bone vascularization during bone repair and for vascularization processes in osteosarcoma. The co-cultures consisted of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, respectively the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, and human blood derived outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC. The concentration dependent effects on the metabolic activity on endothelial cells and osteoblast cells were first assessed using monocultures of OEC, MSC and MG63 suggesting a concentration of 100 µg/mL as a suitable concentration for further experiments. In co-cultures fucoidan significantly reduced angiogenesis in MSC/OEC but also in MG63/OEC co-cultures suggesting a potential application of fucoidan to lower the vascularization in bone tumors such as osteosarcoma. This was associated with a decrease in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor and SDF-1 (stromal derived factor-1 on the protein level, both related to the control of angiogenesis and furthermore discussed as crucial factors in osteosarcoma progression and metastasis. In terms of bone formation, fucoidan slightly lowered on the calcification process in MSC monocultures and MSC/OEC co-cultures. In summary, these data suggest the suitability of lower fucoidan doses to limit angiogenesis for instance in osteosarcoma.

  6. Crude Fucoidan Extracts Impair Angiogenesis in Models Relevant for Bone Regeneration and Osteosarcoma via Reduction of VEGF and SDF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanlu; Schmidt, Harald; Pavleska, Dijana; Wermann, Thees; Seekamp, Andreas; Fuchs, Sabine

    2017-06-20

    The marine origin polysaccharide fucoidan combines multiple biological activities. As demonstrated by various studies in vitro and in vivo, fucoidans show anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties, although the detailed molecular action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of crude fucoidan extracts, on the formation of vascular structures in co-culture models relevant for bone vascularization during bone repair and for vascularization processes in osteosarcoma. The co-cultures consisted of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, respectively the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, and human blood derived outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC). The concentration dependent effects on the metabolic activity on endothelial cells and osteoblast cells were first assessed using monocultures of OEC, MSC and MG63 suggesting a concentration of 100 µg/mL as a suitable concentration for further experiments. In co-cultures fucoidan significantly reduced angiogenesis in MSC/OEC but also in MG63/OEC co-cultures suggesting a potential application of fucoidan to lower the vascularization in bone tumors such as osteosarcoma. This was associated with a decrease in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and SDF-1 (stromal derived factor-1) on the protein level, both related to the control of angiogenesis and furthermore discussed as crucial factors in osteosarcoma progression and metastasis. In terms of bone formation, fucoidan slightly lowered on the calcification process in MSC monocultures and MSC/OEC co-cultures. In summary, these data suggest the suitability of lower fucoidan doses to limit angiogenesis for instance in osteosarcoma.

  7. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth by Eugenia jambolana, Musa paradisiaca, and Coccinia indica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Harsha Raj; Ghosh, Debidas; Banerjee, Rita; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2017-12-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic therapies are effective strategies for cancer treatment. Medicinal plants, namely, Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae), and Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae), have not been greatly investigated for their anticancer potential. We investigated the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic efficacy of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (NB) extracts of E. jambolana (seeds), EA extracts of M. paradisiaca (roots) and C. indica (leaves) with respect to mammary neoplasia. Effect of extracts (2-200 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis were evaluated by MTT, 3 [H]thymidine uptake and EC tube formation assays, respectively. In vivo tumour proliferation, VEGF secretion and angiogenesis were assessed using the Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) model followed by rat corneal micro-pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Apoptosis induction was assessed by morphological and cell cycle analysis. EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC 50 25 and 60 μg/mL), inhibited cell proliferation (up to 81%), and tube formation (83% and 76%). In vivo treatment reduced body weight (50%); cell number (16.5- and 14.7-fold), secreted VEGF (∼90%), neoangiogenesis in rat cornea (2.5- and 1.5-fold) and CAM (3- and 1.6-fold) besides EAT cells accumulation in sub-G1 phase (20% and 18.38%), respectively. Considering the potent anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic properties, lead molecules from EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca can be developed into anticancer drugs.

  8. Pentocin MQ1: A Novel, Broad-Spectrum, Pore-Forming Bacteriocin From Lactobacillus pentosus CS2 With Quorum Sensing Regulatory Mechanism and Biopreservative Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson B. Wayah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus are major food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Emergence of antibiotic resistance and consumer demand for foods containing less of chemical preservatives led to a search for natural antimicrobials. A study aimed at characterizing, investigating the mechanism of action and regulation of biosynthesis and evaluating the biopreservative potential of pentocin from Lactobacillus pentosus CS2 was conducted. Pentocin MQ1 is a novel bacteriocin isolated from L. pentosus CS2 of coconut shake origin. The purification strategy involved adsorption-desorption of bacteriocin followed by RP-HPLC. It has a molecular weight of 2110.672 Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and a molar extinction value of 298.82 M−1 cm−1. Pentocin MQ1 is not plasmid-borne and its biosynthesis is regulated by a quorum sensing mechanism. It has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, exhibited high chemical, thermal and pH stability but proved sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. It is potent against M. luteus, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes at micromolar concentrations. It is quick-acting and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against its targets. Target killing was mediated by pore formation. We report for the first time membrane permeabilization as a mechanism of action of the pentocin from the study against Gram-positive bacteria. Pentocin MQ1 is a cell wall-associated bacteriocin. Application of pentocin MQ1 improved the microbiological quality and extended the shelf life of fresh banana. This is the first report on the biopreservation of banana using bacteriocin. These findings place pentocin MQ1 as a potential biopreservative for further evaluation in food and medical applications.

  9. Endogenous Sonic Hedgehog limits inflammation and angiogenesis in the ischaemic skeletal muscle of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradu, Caroline; Guy, Alexandre; James, Chloé; Reynaud, Annabel; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Renault, Marie-Ange

    2018-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signalling has been shown to be re-activated in ischaemic tissues and participate in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is upregulated by more than 80-fold in the ischaemic skeletal muscle, however its specific role in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of endogenous Shh in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. To this aim, we used inducible Shh knock-out (KO) mice and unexpectedly found that capillary density was significantly increased in re-generating muscle of Shh deficient mice 5 days after hind limb ischaemia was induced, demonstrating that endogenous Shh does not promote angiogenesis but more likely limits it. Myosin and MyoD expression were equivalent in Shh deficient mice and control mice, indicating that endogenous Shh is not required for ischaemia-induced myogenesis. Additionally, we observed a significant increase in macrophage infiltration in the ischaemic muscle of Shh deficient mice. Our data indicate that this was due to an increase in chemokine expression by myoblasts in the setting of impaired Hh signalling, using tissue specific Smoothened conditional KO mice. The increased macrophage infiltration in mice deficient for Hh signalling in myocytes was associated with increased VEGFA expression and a transiently increased angiogenesis, demonstrating that Shh limits inflammation and angiogenesis indirectly by signalling to myocytes. Although ectopic administration of Shh has previously been shown to promote ischaemia-induced angiogenesis, the present study reveals that endogenous Shh does not promote ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. On the contrary, the absence of Shh leads to aberrant ischaemic tissue inflammation and a transiently increased angiogenesis.

  10. Tumor necrosis is an important hallmark of aggressive endometrial cancer and associates with hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredholt, Geir; Mannelqvist, Monica; Stefansson, Ingunn M; Birkeland, Even; Bø, Trond Hellem; Øyan, Anne M; Trovik, Jone; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Jonassen, Inge; Salvesen, Helga B; Wik, Elisabeth; Akslen, Lars A

    2015-11-24

    Tumor necrosis is associated with aggressive features of endometrial cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated gene expression patterns and potential treatment targets related to presence of tumor necrosis in primary endometrial cancer lesions. By DNA microarray analysis, expression of genes related to tumor necrosis reflected multiple tumor-microenvironment interactions like tissue hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation pathways. A tumor necrosis signature of 38 genes and a related patient cluster (Cluster I, 67% of the cases) were associated with features of aggressive tumors such as type II cancers, estrogen receptor negative tumors and vascular invasion. Further, the tumor necrosis signature was increased in tumor cells grown in hypoxic conditions in vitro. Multiple genes with increased expression are known to be activated by HIF1A and NF-kB. Our findings indicate that the presence of tumor necrosis within primary tumors is associated with hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation responses. HIF1A, NF-kB and PI3K/mTOR might be potential treatment targets in aggressive endometrial cancers with presence of tumor necrosis.

  11. Systemic administration of thrombin peptide TP508 enhances VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis and attenuates effects of chronic hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska-Pazdrak, Barbara; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    Revascularization of chronic wounds and ischemic tissue is attenuated by endothelial dysfunction and the inability of angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis. We recently showed that TP508, a nonproteolytic thrombin peptide, increases perfusion and NO-dependent vasodilation in hearts with chronic ischemia and stimulates NO production by endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated systemic in vivo effects of TP508 on VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis in vitro using aortic explants in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Mice were injected with saline or TP508 and 24h later aortas were removed and cultured to quantify endothelial sprouting. TP508 injection increased endothelial sprouting and potentiated the in vitro response to VEGF. Exposure of control explants to hypoxia inhibited basal and VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell sprouting. This effect of hypoxia was significantly prevented by TP508 injection. Thus, TP508 systemic administration increases responsiveness of aortic endothelial cells to VEGF and diminishes the effect of chronic hypoxia on endothelial cell sprouting. Studies using human endothelial cells in culture suggest that protective effects of TP508 during hypoxia may involve stimulation of endothelial cell NO production. These data suggest potential clinical benefit of using a combination of systemic TP508 and local VEGF as a therapy for revascularization of ischemic tissue. PMID:23594718

  12. Stimulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis and regeneration by side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Ryo; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Murakami, Masashi; Yamamoto, Tsubasa; Fukuta, Osamu; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell therapy in various experimental disease models. However, the regenerative potential of MSCs from different tissue sources and the influence of the tissue niche have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the regenerative potential of dental pulp, bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived CD31(-) side population (SP) cells isolated from an individual porcine source. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells expressed the highest levels of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and had the highest migration activity. Conditioned medium from pulp CD31(-) SP cells produced potent anti-apoptotic activity and neurite outgrowth, compared to those from bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Transplantation of pulp CD31(-) SP cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model produced higher blood flow and capillary density than transplantation of bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Motor function recovery and infarct size reduction were greater with pulp CD31(-) SP cells. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells induced maximal angiogenesis, neurogenesis and pulp regeneration in ectopic transplantation models compared to other tissue sources. These results demonstrate that pulp stem cells have higher angiogenic, neurogenic and regenerative potential and may therefore be superior to bone marrow and adipose stem cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumor cell-macrophage interactions increase angiogenesis through secretion of EMMPRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Chen eAmit-Cohen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor macrophages are generally considered to be alternatively/M2 activated to induce secretion of pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMPs. EMMPRIN (CD147, basigin is overexpressed in many tumor types, and has been shown to induce fibroblasts and endothelial cell expression of MMPs and VEGF. We first show that tumor cell interactions with macrophages resulted in increased expression of EMMPRIN and induction of MMP-9 and VEGF. Human A498 renal carcinoma or MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines were co-cultured with the U937 monocytic-like cell line in the presence of TNFalpha (1 ng/ml. Membranal EMMPRIN expression was increased in the co-cultures (by 3-4 folds, p<0.01, as was the secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF (by 2-5 folds for both MMP-9 and VEGF, p<0.01, relative to the single cultures with TNFalpha. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms, we show that EMMPRIN was post-translationally regulated by miR-146a, as no change was observed in the tumoral expression of EMMPRIN mRNA during co-culture, expression of miR-146a was increased and its neutralization by its antagomir inhibited EMMPRIN expression. The secretion of EMMPRIN was also enhanced (by 2-3 folds, p<0.05, only in the A498 co-culture via shedding off of the membranal protein by a serine protease that is yet to be identified, as demonstrated by the use of wide range protease inhibitors. Finally, soluble EMMPRIN enhanced monocytic secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF, as inhibition of its expression levels by neutralizing anti-EMMPRIN or siRNA in the tumor cells lead to subsequent decreased induction of these two pro-angiogenic proteins. These results reveal a mechanism whereby tumor cell-macrophage interactions promote angiogenesis via an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

  14. Expression and Regulatory Network Analysis of miR-140-3p, a New Potential Serum Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cirnigliaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Given its prevalence and social impact, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is drawing much interest. Molecular basis of ASD is heterogeneous and only partially known. Many factors, including disorders comorbid with ASD, like TS (Tourette Syndrome, complicate ASD behavior-based diagnosis and make it vulnerable to bias. To further investigate ASD etiology and to identify potential biomarkers to support its precise diagnosis, we used TaqMan Low Density Array technology to profile serum miRNAs from ASD, TS, and TS+ASD patients, and unaffected controls (NCs. Through validation assays in 30 ASD, 24 TS, and 25 TS+ASD patients and 25 NCs, we demonstrated that miR-140-3p is upregulated in ASD vs.: NC, TS, and TS+ASD (Tukey's test, p-values = 0.03, = 0.01, < 0.0001, respectively. ΔCt values for miR-140-3p and YGTSS (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale scores are positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.33; Benjamini-Hochberg p = 0.008 and show a linear relationship (p = 0.002. Network functional analysis showed that nodes controlled by miR-140-3p, especially CD38 and NRIP1 which are its validated targets, are involved in processes convergingly dysregulated in ASD, such as synaptic plasticity, immune response, and chromatin binding. Biomarker analysis proved that serum miR-140-3p can discriminate among: (1 ASD and NC (Area under the ROC curve, AUC: 0.70; sensitivity: 63.33%; specificity: 68%; (2 ASD and TS (AUC: 0.72; sensitivity: 66.66%; specificity: 70.83%; (3 ASD and TS+ASD (AUC: 0.78; sensitivity: 73.33%; specificity: 76%. Characterization of miR-140-3p network would contribute to further clarify ASD etiology. Serum miR-140-3p could represent a potential non-invasive biomarker for ASD, easy to test through liquid biopsy.

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  16. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  17. Lysyl Oxidase Plays a Critical Role in Endothelial Cell Stimulation to Drive Tumor Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Ann-Marie; Bird, Demelza; Welti, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Identification of key molecules that drive angiogenesis is critical for the development of new modalities for the prevention of solid tumor progression. Using multiple models of colorectal cancer, we show that activity of the extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) is essential...... for stimulating endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We show that LOX activates Akt through platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFRß) stimulation, resulting in increased VEGF expression. LOX-driven angiogenesis can be abrogated through targeting LOX directly or using inhibitors of PDGFRß...

  18. Upregulation of Syndecan-1 in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma is associated with angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels F; Kristensen, Ida B; Preiss, Birgitte S

    2014-01-01

    : In this study, we examined the association between bone marrow angiogenesis estimated as micro-vessel density (MVD) and gene expression of SDC1, HGF, VEGF and IL6 in whole bone marrow biopsies from healthy volunteers (n = 10), patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 35...... plasma cell percentage and SDC1 gene expression was detected in patients with MM (P angiogenesis and gene...... expression of HGF, VEGF and IL6 was seen. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that SDC1 expressed by the bone marrow microenvironment is involved in angiogenesis in MM....

  19. Glycoconjugate Vaccines: The Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.

  20. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  1. Myocardial overexpression of TIMP3 after myocardial infarction exerts beneficial effects by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing early proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawale, Abhijit; Zhang, Pu; Azad, Abul; Wang, Wang; Wang, Xiuhua; Murray, Allan G; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2017-08-01

    that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 overexpression after myocardial infarction improves myocardial structural remodeling and function by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting early proteolysis. This demonstrates the therapeutic potential of preserving the local balance of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 in the heart given its diverse functions in modulating different processes involved in the adverse postmyocardial infarction remodeling. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor axis is involved in ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lan; Liu, Yixuan; Xie, Lei; Wu, Xia; Qiu, Lihua; Di, Wen

    2017-09-26

    Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of ovarian cancer. However, the function of this axis in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. Here we provided the first evidence that SphK1/S1P/S1PR 1/3 pathway played key roles in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. The expression level of SphK1, but not SphK2, was closely correlated with the microvascular density (MVD) of ovarian cancer tissue. In vitro , the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of ovarian cancer cells could be attenuated by SphK1, but not SphK2, blockage and were restored by the addition of S1P. Moreover, in these cells, we found S1P stimulation induced the angiogenic factor secretion via S1PR 1 and S1PR 3 , but not S1PR 2 . Furthermore, inhibition of S1PR 1/3 , but not S1PR 2 , attenuated the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of the cells. in vivo , blockage of SphK or S1PR 1/3 could attenuate ovarian cancer angiogenesis and inhibit angiogenic factor expression in mouse models. Collectively, the current study showed a novel role of SphK1/S1P/S1PR 1/3 axis within the ovarian cancer, suggesting a new target to block ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

  3. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    -regulated MMP-2 via VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways. • α-TEA up-regulated TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression in relation to invasion and migration. • Further studies are warranted on the anti-angiogenesis potential of α-TEA

  4. OSU-A9 inhibits angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via disrupting Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, Hany A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Arafa, El-Shaimaa A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Salama, Samir A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11511 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Weng, Jing-Ru, E-mail: columnster@gmail.com [Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of angiogenesis as a useful target for cancer therapy, few agents have been approved for clinical use due to the rapid development of resistance. This problem can be minimized by simultaneous targeting of multiple angiogenesis signaling pathways, a potential strategy in cancer management known as polypharmacology. The current study aimed at exploring the anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, an indole-3-carbinol-derived pleotropic agent that targets mainly Akt–nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling which regulates many key players of angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the in vitro anti-angiogenic effect of OSU-A9 on several key steps of angiogenesis. Results showed that OSU-A9 effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. Besides, OSU-A9 inhibited angiogenesis as evidenced by abrogation of migration/invasion and Matrigel tube formation in HUVECs and attenuation of the in vivo neovascularization in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Mechanistically, Western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA analyses showed the ability of OSU-A9 to inhibit MMP-2 production and VEGF expression induced by hypoxia or phorbol-12-myristyl-13-acetate. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the key regulators of angiogenesis, was observed. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, at least in part through the inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling and their consequent inhibition of VEGF and MMP-2. These findings support OSU-A9's clinical promise as a component of anticancer therapy. - Highlights: • The antiangiogenic activity of OSU-A9 in HUVECs was explored. • OSU-A9 inhibited HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. • OSU-A9

  5. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    -regulated MMP-2 via VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways. • α-TEA up-regulated TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression in relation to invasion and migration. • Further studies are warranted on the anti-angiogenesis potential of α-TEA.

  6. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  7. Targeting vascular NADPH oxidase 1 blocks tumor angiogenesis through a PPARα mediated mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Garrido-Urbani

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPARα, a regulator of NF-κB. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPARα dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  8. Local injection of high-molecular hyaluronan promotes wound healing in old rats by increasing angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luying; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hua; Huang, Jianhua

    2018-02-02

    Impaired angiogenesis contributes to delayed wound healing in aging. Hyaluronan (HA) has a close relationship with angiogenesis and wound healing. However, HA content decreases with age. In this study, we used high molecular weight HA (HMW-HA) (1650 kDa), and investigated its effects on wound healing in old rats by local injection. We found that HMW-HA significantly increases proliferation, migration and tube formation in endothelial cells, and protects endothelial cells against apoptosis. Local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing by increasing angiogenesis in old rats. HMW-HA increases the phosphorylation of Src, ERK and AKT, leading to increased angiogenesis, suggesting that local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing in elderly patients.

  9. Adjuvant Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs Are No Benefit in Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a recent clinical trial show that post-surgical therapy with two anti-angiogenesis drugs does not improve progression-free survival for patients with kidney cancer and may cause serious side effects.

  10. Angiogenesis gene expression in murine endothelial cells during post-pneumonectomy lung growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konerding Moritz A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although blood vessel growth occurs readily in the systemic bronchial circulation, angiogenesis in the pulmonary circulation is rare. Compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy is an experimental model with presumed alveolar capillary angiogenesis. To investigate the genes participating in murine neoalveolarization, we studied the expression of angiogenesis genes in lung endothelial cells. After left pneumonectomy, the remaining right lung was examined on days 3, 6, 14 and 21days after surgery and compared to both no surgery and sham thoracotomy controls. The lungs were enzymatically digested and CD31+ endothelial cells were isolated using flow cytometry cell sorting. The transcriptional profile of the CD31+ endothelial cells was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Focusing on 84 angiogenesis-associated genes, we identified 22 genes with greater than 4-fold regulation and significantly enhanced transcription (p

  11. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-Abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah; Puder, Mark; Bischoff, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  12. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-Abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah; Puder, Mark; Bischoff, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and, (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood, capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  13. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah

    2008-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and, (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood, capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  14. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  15. Manipulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing with Sphingosine-1-Phosphate for Terapeutic Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Priscilla Anne

    Ischemic vascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide and yet current therapies only delay disease progression and improve quality of life without addressing the fundamental problem of tissue loss. Within the field of tissue engineering, therapeutic angiogenesis provides a promising approach to alternatively provide new blood vessel formation via spatiotemporally controlled delivery of proangiogenic agents. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid that is upregulated under ischemic conditions, has recently gained great enthusiasm as a potential mediator in neovascularization strategies given its essential roles in promoting both neovessel formation and stabilization, and cellular trafficking along highly regulated endogenous gradients. Herein, the governing hypothesis guiding this dissertation is that local biomaterial-controlled delivery of S1P may be used to enhance migration and recruitment of vascular progenitor cells for enhanced therapeutic angiogenesis within ischemic tissue. The initial work in this dissertation investigated the effect of hypoxia on the angiogenic response of both mature and progenitor endothelial cells to S1P stimulation in vitro. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) were isolated from human umbilical cord blood to provide a clinically relevant source of vascular progenitor cells for the studies conducted within this dissertation. S1P stimulation promoted angiogenic activity of both ECs and OECs under both ambient and hypoxic (1%) oxygen tensions. Furthermore, dual therapy with the combination of S1P and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) further enhanced cellular responses. Interestingly, hypoxia substantially augmented the functional response of OECs to S1P, resulting in 25-fold and 6.5-fold increases in directed migration and sprouting, respectively. Thus, these studies highlighted the potential for S1P as a therapeutic agent for treatment of ischemic diseases. An injectable biomaterial system

  16. Generation and characterization of an anti-delta like ligand-4 Nanobody to induce non-productive angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharlou, Rasoul; Tajik, Nader; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Behdani, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    Antibody-based targeting of angiogenesis is a key approach for cancer treatment. Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) plays a pivotal role in tumor neovascular development and angiogenesis during tumor progression. It forecasts the prognosis of human malignancies and blocking its signaling can help to inhibit neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Nanobodies are the smallest antigen-binding domains of heavy chain antibodies in camelidae. The aim of this study was to develop a Nanobody against DLL4 and apply binding and functional approaches to target it. In this work, a Nanobody library against human recombinant DLL4 was developed. After panning, the periplasmic-extract (PE) of individual colonies were screened through ELISA. The interactions between Nanobody and DLL4 were assessed using immunohistochemistry and FACS. The functional assessment was carried out via tube formation assay. We selected a Nanobody (3Nb3) with a high binding signal to DLL4, associated with a binding affinity of 3.6 nM. It was demonstrated that 3Nb3 binds to native DLL4 on the surface of MKN cells and gastric carcinoma tissue, and also inhibits the maturation of capillary-like structures in HUVECs. The results were indicative of the potential of Nanobody for DLL4 identification and can broaden the scope for development of cancer diagnosis and treatment techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon skin enhances cutaneous wound healing and angiogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2011-09-01

    A wound is a clinical entity which often poses problems in clinical practice. The present study was aimed to investigate the wound healing potential of administering marine collagen peptides (MCP) from Chum Salmon skin by using two wound models (incision and excision) in rats. Ninety-six animals were equally divided into the two wound models and then within each model animals were randomly divided into two groups: vehicle-treated group and 2 g kg(-1) MCP-treated group. Wound closure and tensile strength were calculated. Collagen deposition was assessed by Masson staining and hydroxyproline measurement. Angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistological methods. MCP-treated rats showed faster wound closure and improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, which was supported by histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. MCP treatment improved angiogenesis and helped form thicker and better organised collagen fibre deposition compared to vehicle-treated group. The results show the efficacy of oral MCP treatment on wound healing in animals. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Granulin Secreted by the Food-Borne Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Haugen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma. An ES protein, the secreted granulin-like growth factor termed Ov-GRN-1, accelerates wound resolution in mice and in vitro. To investigate angiogenesis (blood vessel development that may contribute to wound healing promoted by liver fluke granulin and, by implication, to carcinogenesis during chronic opisthorchiasis, we employed an in vitro tubule formation assay (TFA where human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown on gelled basement matrix. Ten and 40 nM Ov-GRN-1 significantly stimulated angiogenesis as monitored by cellular proliferation and by TFA in real time. This demonstration of potent angiogenic property of Ov-GRN-1 bolsters earlier reports on the therapeutic potential for chronic non-healing wounds of diabetics, tobacco users, and the elderly and, in addition, showcases another of the hallmark of cancer characteristic of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 Activates c-Kit Progenitor Cells and Enhances Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Diabetic Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinender Singla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 would enhance angiogenesis via activating c-kit positive stem cells in the infarcted nondiabetic and diabetic heart. In brief, animals were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+FGF-9. Two weeks following MI or sham surgery, our data suggest that treatment with FGF-9 significantly diminished vascular apoptosis compared to the MI group in both C57BL/6 and db/db mice (p<0.05. Additionally, the number of c-kit+ve/SM α-actin+ve cells and c-kit+ve/CD31+ve cells were greatly enhanced in the MI+FGF-9 groups relative to the MI suggesting FGF-9 enhances c-Kit cell activation and their differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, respectively (p<0.05. Histology shows that the total number of vessels were quantified for all groups and our data suggest that the FGF-9 treated groups had significantly more vessels than their MI counterparts (p<0.05. Finally, echocardiographic data suggests a significant improvement in left ventricular output, as indicated by fractional shortening and ejection fraction in both nondiabetic and diabetic animals treated with FGF-9 (p<0.05. Overall, our data suggests FGF-9 has the potential to attenuate vascular cell apoptosis, activate c-Kit progenitor cells, and enhance angiogenesis and neovascularization in C57BL/6 and db/db mice leading to improved cardiac function.

  20. Linking transgene expression of engineered mesenchymal stem cells and angiopoietin-1-induced differentiation to target cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Hüsemann, Yves; Niess, Hanno; von Luettichau, Irene; Huss, Ralf; Bauer, Christian; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Klein, Christoph A; Bruns, Christiane; Nelson, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    To specifically target tumor angiogenesis by linking transgene expression of engineered mesenchymal stem cells to angiopoietin-1-induced differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to deliver therapeutic genes into solid tumors. These strategies rely on their homing mechanisms only to deliver the therapeutic agent. We engineered murine MSC to express reporter genes or therapeutic genes under the selective control of the Tie2 promoter/enhancer. This approach uses the differentiative potential of MSCs induced by the tumor microenvironment to drive therapeutic gene expression only in the context of angiogenesis. When injected into the peripheral circulation of mice with either, orthotopic pancreatic or spontaneous breast cancer, the engineered MSCs were actively recruited to growing tumor vasculature and induced the selective expression of either reporter red florescent protein or suicide genes [herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene] when the adoptively transferred MSC developed endothelial-like characteristics. The TK gene product in combination with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) produces a potent toxin, which affects replicative cells. The homing of engineered MSC with selective induction of TK in concert with GCV resulted in a toxic tumor-specific environment. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated by significant reduction in primary tumor growth and prolongation of life in both tumor models. This "Trojan Horse" combined stem cell/gene therapy represents a novel treatment strategy for tailored therapy of solid tumors.

  1. Angiogenesis-Related Biomarkers in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease: Their Association with Liver Disease Complications and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbinska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is believed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. We aimed to explore the usefulness and accuracy of plasma angiogenic biomarkers for noninvasive evaluation of the severity of liver failure and ALD outcome. One hundred and forty-seven patients with ALD were prospectively enrolled and assessed based on their (1 gender, (2 age, (3 severity of liver dysfunction according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh and MELD scores, and (4 the presence of ALD complications. Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A and angiopoietins 1 and 2 (Ang1 and Ang2 were investigated using ELISAs. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Significantly higher concentrations of Ang2 and VEGF-A in ALD patients as compared to controls were found. There was no difference in Ang1 levels in both groups. A positive correlation of Ang2 levels with INR (Rho 0.66; P<0.0001 and its inverse correlation with plasma albumin levels (Rho –0.62; P<0.0001 were found. High Ang2 concentrations turned out to be an independent predictor of severe liver dysfunction, as well as hepatic encephalopathy and renal impairment. Ang2 possessed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among three studied angiogenesis-related molecules.

  2. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  3. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Ho-Yuet Cheng, Grace; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain–hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ5 integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmen-tal vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19874420

  4. A computational model of in vitro angiogenesis based on extracellular matrix fibre orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lowell T; Sibole, Scott C; Underwood, Clayton J; Guilkey, James E; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in the process of vascularisation within the biomedical community has motivated numerous new research efforts focusing on the process of angiogenesis. Although the role of chemical factors during angiogenesis has been well documented, the role of mechanical factors, such as the interaction between angiogenic vessels and the extracellular matrix, remains poorly understood. In vitro methods for studying angiogenesis exist; however, measurements available using such techniques often suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolutions. For this reason, computational models have been extensively employed to investigate various aspects of angiogenesis. This paper outlines the formulation and validation of a simple and robust computational model developed to accurately simulate angiogenesis based on length, branching and orientation morphometrics collected from vascularised tissue constructs. Microvessels were represented as a series of connected line segments. The morphology of the vessels was determined by a linear combination of the collagen fibre orientation, the vessel density gradient and a random walk component. Excellent agreement was observed between computational and experimental morphometric data over time. Computational predictions of microvessel orientation within an anisotropic matrix correlated well with experimental data. The accuracy of this modelling approach makes it a valuable platform for investigating the role of mechanical interactions during angiogenesis.

  5. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Grace Ho-Yuet; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-02-01

    Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ(5) integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmental vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  7. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  9. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 is Required for Low-Concentration H2O2-Induced Angiogenesis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Dongxin; Huang, Hong; Lei, Yonghong; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    Background . The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low concentrations of H 2 O 2 on angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods . HUVECs were cultured and stimulated with different concentrations of H 2 O 2 . Flow cytometric analysis was used to select an optimal concentration of H 2 O 2 for the following experiments. Cell proliferation, migration, and tubule formation were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, scratch wound assays, and Matrigel tubule formation assays, respectively. For gain and loss of function studies, constitutively active MEK5 (CA-MEK5) and ERK5 shRNA lentiviruses were used to activate or knock down extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5). Results . We found that low concentrations of H 2 O 2 promoted HUVECs proliferation, migration, and tubule formation. ERK5 in HUVECs was significantly activated by H 2 O 2 . Enhanced ERK5 activity significantly amplified the proangiogenic effects of H 2 O 2 ; in contrast, ERK5 knock-down abrogated the effects of H 2 O 2 . Conclusions . Our results confirmed that low concentrations of H 2 O 2 promoted HUVECs angiogenesis in vitro, and ERK5 is an essential mediator of this process. Therefore, ERK5 may be a potential therapeutic target for promoting angiogenesis and improving graft survival.

  10. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CS5931, a Novel Polypeptide in Ciona savignyi, Represses Angiogenesis via Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. CS5931 inhibited the proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like structures of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CS5931 repressed spontaneous angiogenesis of the zebrafish vessels. Further studies showed that CS5931 also blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production but without any effect on its mRNA expression. Moreover, CS5931 reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 both on protein and mRNA levels in HUVEC cells. We demonstrated that CS5931 possessed strong anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo, possible via VEGF and MMPs. This study indicates that CS5931 has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent as an inhibitor of angiogenesis for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Upregulation of CREM/ICER suppresses wound endothelial CRE-HIF-1α-VEGF-dependent signaling and impairs angiogenesis in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad S. Bitar

    2015-01-01

    also point to CREM/ICER as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of pathological angiogenesis.

  13. Long term effect of curcumin in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis via modulation of stress activated genes in prevention of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmidhar Das

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1α, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKCα and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  14. Anti-angiogenesis effect of the novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiping; Arita, Makoto; Zhang, Qiang; Saban, Daniel R; Chauhan, Sunil K; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Dana, Reza

    2009-10-01

    Resolvins and lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids that are the first dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals identified in the resolution phase of inflammation. Here the authors investigated the potential of aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) A4 analog (ATLa), resolving (Rv) D1, and RvE1, in regulating angiogenesis in a murine model. ATLa and RvE1 receptor expression was tested in different corneal cell populations by RT-PCR. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by suture or micropellet (IL-1 beta, VEGF-A) placement. Mice were then treated with ATLa, RvD1, RvE1, or vehicle, subconjunctivally at 48-hour intervals. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages was quantified after immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, VEGFs, and VEGFRs were analyzed by real-time PCR. CNV was evaluated intravitally and morphometrically. The receptors for LXA4, ALX/Fpr-rs-2 and for RvE1, ChemR23 were each expressed by epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and infiltrated CD11b(+) cells in corneas. Compared to the vehicle-treated eye, ATLa-, RvD1-, and RvE1-treated eyes had reduced numbers of infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages and reduced mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGFR2. Animals treated with these mediators had significantly suppressed suture-induced or IL-1 beta-induced hemangiogenesis (HA) but not lymphangiogenesis. Interestingly, only the application of ATLa significantly suppressed VEGF-A-induced HA. ATLa, RvE1, and RvD1 all reduce inflammatory corneal HA by early regulation of resolution mechanisms in innate immune responses. In addition, ATLa directly inhibits VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis and is the most potent inhibitor of NV among this new genus of dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR of the prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation with angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xinchu; Shen Junkang; Lu Zhian; Zhou Lijuan; Yang Xiaochun; Wang Guanzhong; Zhang Caiyuan; Wang Shuizhen; Qian Minghui; Chan Yuxi; Qian Nong; Xiang Jianpo; Pan Changjie; Rong Weiliang; Chen Jianguo

    2005-01-01

    with MVD expression (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI are useful in the diagnose and differential diagnose of prostatic cancer and BPH. The characters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI are closely related to VEGF and MVD level. As a noninvasive method, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has a potential role in evaluating the degree of angiogenesis of prostatic cancer and BPH. (authors)

  16. CD4+ and Perivascular Foxp3+ T Cells in Glioma Correlate with Angiogenesis and Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Mu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAngiogenesis and immune cell infiltration are key features of gliomas and their manipulation of the microenvironment, but their prognostic significance remains indeterminate. We evaluate the interconnection between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL and tumor blood-vasculatures in the context of glioma progression.MethodsPaired tumor tissues of 44 patients from three tumor-recurrent groups: diffuse astrocytomas (DA recurred as DA, DA recurred as glioblastomas (GBM, and GBM recurred as GBM were evaluated by genetic analysis, immunohistochemistry for tumor blood vessel density, TIL subsets, and clinical outcomes. These cells were geographically divided into perivascular and intratumoral TILs. Associations were examined between these TILs, CD34+ tumor blood vessels, and clinical outcomes. To determine key changes in TIL subsets, microarray data of 15-paired tumors from patients who failed antiangiogenic therapy- bevacizumab, and 16-paired tumors from chemo-naïve recurrent GBM were also evaluated and compared.ResultsUpon recurrence in primary gliomas, similar kinetic changes were found between tumor blood vessels and each TIL subset in all groups, but only CD4+ including Foxp3+ TILs, positively correlated with the density of tumor blood vessels. CD4 was the predominant T cell population based on the expression of gene-transcripts in primary GBMs, and increased activated CD4+ T cells were revealed in Bevacizumab-resistant recurrent tumors (not in chemo-naïve recurrent tumors. Among these TILs, 2/3 of them were found in the perivascular niche; Foxp3+ T cells in these niches not only correlated with the tumor vessels but were also an independent predictor of shortened recurrence-free survival (RFS (HR = 4.199, 95% CI 1.522–11.584, p = 0.006.ConclusionThe minimal intratumoral T cell infiltration and low detection of CD8 transcripts expression in primary GBMs can potentially limit antitumor response. CD4+ and perivascular Foxp3

  17. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  18. Wound healing angiogenesis: The clinical implications of a simple mathematical model

    KAUST Repository

    Flegg, Jennifer A.

    2012-05-01

    Nonhealing wounds are a major burden for health care systems worldwide. In addition, a patient who suffers from this type of wound usually has a reduced quality of life. While the wound healing process is undoubtedly complex, in this paper we develop a deterministic mathematical model, formulated as a system of partial differential equations, that focusses on an important aspect of successful healing: oxygen supply to the wound bed by a combination of diffusion from the surrounding unwounded tissue and delivery from newly formed blood vessels. While the model equations can be solved numerically, the emphasis here is on the use of asymptotic methods to establish conditions under which new blood vessel growth can be initiated and wound-bed angiogenesis can progress. These conditions are given in terms of key model parameters including the rate of oxygen supply and its rate of consumption in the wound. We use our model to discuss the clinical use of treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, wound bed debridement, and revascularisation therapy that have the potential to initiate healing in chronic, stalled wounds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Curcumin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bimonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The best chemotherapeutic agent used to treat pancreatic cancer is the gemcitabine. However, gemcitabine treatment is associated with many side effects. Thus novel strategies involving less toxic agents for treatment of pancreatic cancer are necessary. Curcumin is one such agent that inhibits the proliferation and angiogenesis of a wide variety of tumor cells, through the modulation of many cell signalling pathways. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin plays antitumor effects in MIA PaCa-2 cells. In vitro studies showed that curcumin inhibits the proliferation and enhances apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 cells. To test whether the antitumor activity of curcumin is also observed in vivo, we generated an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer by injection of MIA PaCa-2 cells in nude mice. We placed mice on diet containing curcumin at 0.6% for 6 weeks. In these treated mice tumors were smaller with respect to controls and showed a downregulation of the transcription nuclear factor NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our data indicate that curcumin has a great potential in treatment of human pancreatic cancer through the modulation of NF-κB pathway.

  20. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  1. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim D. Seferovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p<0.0001 placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p<0.05 (n=18 was compared to controls (n=12. PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p<0.001 and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r=-0.68, p<0.0001. The plasma’s angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r=0.65, p<0.01. This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p<0.001. The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies.

  2. Effect of Chemistry on Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Towards Bone Tissue Engineering Using 3D Printed Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2017-01-01

    The functionality or survival of tissue engineering constructs depends on the adequate vascularization through oxygen transport and metabolic waste removal at the core. This study reports the presence of magnesium and silicon in direct three dimensional printed (3DP) tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds promotes in vivo osteogenesis and angiogenesis when tested in rat distal femoral defect model. Scaffolds with three different interconnected macro pore sizes were fabricated using direct three dimensional printing. In vitro ion release in phosphate buffer for 30 days showed sustained Mg 2+  and Si 4+  release from these scaffolds. Histolomorphology and histomorphometric analysis from the histology tissue sections revealed a significantly higher bone formation, between 14 and 20% for 4-16 weeks, and blood vessel formation, between 3 and 6% for 4-12 weeks, due to the presence of magnesium and silicon in TCP scaffolds compared to bare TCP scaffolds. The presence of magnesium in these 3DP TCP scaffolds also caused delayed TRAP activity. These results show that magnesium and silicon incorporated 3DP TCP scaffolds with multiscale porosity have huge potential for bone tissue repair and regeneration.

  3. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Theresa, E-mail: geis@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Döring, Claudia, E-mail: C.Doering@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Popp, Rüdiger, E-mail: popp@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grossmann, Nina, E-mail: grossmann@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fleming, Ingrid, E-mail: fleming@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hansmann, Martin-Leo, E-mail: m.l.hansmann@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dehne, Nathalie, E-mail: dehne@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Brüne, Bernhard, E-mail: b.bruene@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.

  4. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin

  5. Approaches to improve angiogenesis in tissue-engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Parbinder S; Burn, J Lance; Brown, Nicola J; MacNeil, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    A problem with tissue-engineered skin is clinical failure due to delays in vascularization. The aim of this study was to explore a number of simple strategies to improve angiogenesis/vascularization using a tissue-engineered model of skin to which small vessel human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were added. For the majority of these studies, a modified Guirguis chamber was used, which allowed the investigation of several variables within the same experiment using the same human dermis; cell type, angiogenic growth factors, the influence of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, mechanical penetration of the human dermis, the site of endothelial cell addition, and the influence of hypoxia were all examined. A qualitative scoring system was used to assess the impact of these factors on the penetration of endothelial cells throughout the dermis. Similar results were achieved using freshly isolated small vessel human dermal microvascular endothelial cells or an endothelial cell line and a minimum cell seeding density was identified. Cell penetration was not influenced by the addition of angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor); similarly, including epidermal keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts did not encourage endothelial cell entry, and neither did mechanical introduction of holes throughout the dermis. Two factors were identified that significantly enhanced endothelial cell penetration into the dermis: hypoxia and the site of endothelial cell addition. Endothelial cells added from the papillary surface entered into the dermis much more effectively than when cells were added to the reticular surface of the dermis. We conclude that this model is valuable in improving our understanding of how to enhance vascularization of tissue-engineered grafts.

  6. Angiogenesis and blood vessel stability in inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Aisling

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess blood vessel stability in inflammatory synovial tissue (ST) and to examine neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), oxidative DNA damage, and hypoxia in vivo. METHODS: Macroscopic vascularity and ST oxygen levels were determined in vivo in patients with inflammatory arthritis who were undergoing arthroscopy. Vessel maturity\\/stability was quantified in matched ST samples by dual immunofluorescence staining for factor VIII (FVIII)\\/alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). NCAM and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenesis was assessed in vitro, using human dermal endothelial cells (HDECs) in a Matrigel tube formation assay. RESULTS: A significant number of immature vessels (showing no pericyte recruitment) was observed in tissue from patients with inflammatory arthritis (P < 0.001), in contrast to osteoarthritic and normal tissue, which showed complete recruitment of pericytes. Low in vivo PO(2) levels in the inflamed joint (median [range] 22.8 [3.2-54.1] mm Hg) were inversely related to increased macroscopic vascularity (P < 0.04) and increased microscopic expression of FVIII and alpha-SMA (P < 0.04 and P < 0.03, respectively). A significant proportion of vessels showed focal expression of NCAM and strong nuclear 8-oxodG expression, implicating a loss of EC-pericyte contact and increased DNA damage, levels of which were inversely associated with low in vivo PO(2) (P = 0.04 for each comparison). Circulating cells were completely negative for 8-oxodG. Exposure of HDEC to 3% O(2) (reflecting mean ST in vivo measurements) significantly increased EC tube formation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the presence of unstable vessels in inflamed joints associated with hypoxia, incomplete EC-pericyte interactions, and increased DNA damage. These changes may further contribute to persistent hypoxia in the inflamed joint to further drive this unstable microenvironment.

  7. Regulatory perspectives of concept assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, Peter A.

    1987-09-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the head agency for the regulatory review of the Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal being done by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper describes the regulatory perspective of how the Concept Assessment could demonstrate the feasibility of a disposal conforming to regulatory requirements. The long-term aspects of Concept Assessment encourage the use of various predictive techniques for different time scales. Each technique will have a different potential for establishing confidence in the predictions. The predicted performance of a facility during operation should have a very high confidence, as it can be based on standard engineering calculations and the predictions can be validated later by monitoring during operation. The predictions of the transient period following closure of the facility should achieve a medium level of confidence, since they can be based on extrapolations of predictions of operational performance, using models that can be calibrated with monitoring data and with averaged input data derived from natural analog studies. Predictions based on fundamental processes will have a medium level of confidence when made to intermediate times after closure. Long-term predictions using generic or typical input data or Monte Carlo calculations of simplified models will have the least confidence and yet they can still contribute to the confidence that the disposal concept will conform to regulatory requirements

  8. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  9. Proteomic screening of human targets of viral microRNAs reveals functions associated with immune evasion and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia M Gallaher

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is caused by infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV. The virus expresses unique microRNAs (miRNAs, but the targets and functions of these miRNAs are not completely understood. In order to identify human targets of viral miRNAs, we measured protein expression changes caused by multiple KSHV miRNAs using pulsed stable labeling with amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC in primary endothelial cells. This led to the identification of multiple human genes that are repressed at the protein level, but not at the miRNA level. Further analysis also identified that KSHV miRNAs can modulate activity or expression of upstream regulatory factors, resulting in suppressed activation of a protein involved in leukocyte recruitment (ICAM1 following lysophosphatidic acid treatment, as well as up-regulation of a pro-angiogenic protein (HIF1α, and up-regulation of a protein involved in stimulating angiogenesis (HMOX1. This study aids in our understanding of miRNA mechanisms of repression and miRNA contributions to viral pathogenesis.

  10. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  11. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  12. ENSI’s regulatory framework strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This short brochure issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI defines the organisation’s regulatory framework strategy. Six guiding principles are declared and discussed: Comprehensive harmonisation with relevant international requirements, basing the regulatory framework on existing, tried-and-tested regulations, issuing of its own guidelines only when it is necessary to do so, guidelines to be drawn up transparently and with the involvement of all stakeholders and basing the level of detail of its regulatory framework on hazard potential and risk

  13. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  14. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cranial vasculature in zebrafish forms by angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Kira; Lu, Annie; Sumanas, Saulius

    2010-12-01

    Formation of embryonic vasculature involves vasculogenesis as endothelial cells differentiate and aggregate into vascular cords and angiogenesis which includes branching from the existing vessels. In the zebrafish which has emerged as an advantageous model to study vasculogenesis, cranial vasculature is thought to originate by a combination of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but how these processes are coordinated is not well understood. To determine how angioblasts assemble into cranial vasculature, we generated an etsrp:GFP transgenic line in which GFP reporter is expressed under the promoter control of an early regulator of vascular and myeloid development, etsrp/etv2. By utilizing time-lapse imaging we show that cranial vessels originate by angiogenesis from angioblast clusters, which themselves form by the mechanism of vasculogenesis. The two major pairs of bilateral clusters include the rostral organizing center (ROC) which gives rise to the most rostral cranial vessels and the midbrain organizing center (MOC) which gives rise to the posterior cranial vessels and to the myeloid and endocardial lineages. In Etsrp knockdown embryos initial cranial vasculogenesis proceeds normally but endothelial and myeloid progenitors fail to initiate differentiation, migration and angiogenesis. Such angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis is likely to be involved during vasculature formation in other vertebrate systems as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer A; Menon, Shakti N; Maini, Philip K; McElwain, D L Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  17. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon; So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC 50 of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases

  18. Macrophage Metalloelastase (MMP-12) Deficiency Mitigates Retinal Inflammation and Pathological Angiogenesis in Ischemic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingming; Wang, Joshua J.; Peng, Qisheng; Chen, Chen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Heinecke, Jay; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is a major cause of vision loss in ischemic and inflammatory retinal diseases. Recent evidence implicates macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), a macrophage-derived elastinolytic protease in inflammation, tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. However, little is known about the role of MMP-12 in retinal pathophysiology. The present study aims to explore the enzyme’s contributions to retinal angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) using MMP-12 knockout (KO) mice. We find that MMP-12 expression was upregulated in OIR, accompanied by elevated macrophage infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. Compared to wildtype mice, MMP-12 KO mice had decreased levels of adhesion molecule and inflammatory cytokines and reduced vascular leakage in OIR. Concomitantly, these mice had markedly reduced macrophage content in the retina with impaired macrophage migratory capacity. Significantly, loss of MMP-12 attenuated retinal capillary dropout in early OIR and mitigated pathological retinal neovascularization (NV). Similar results were observed in the study using MMP408, a pharmacological inhibitor of MMP-12. Intriguingly, in contrast to reducing pathological angiogenesis, lack of MMP-12 accelerated revascularization of avascular retina in OIR. Taken together, we conclude that MMP-12 is a key regulator of macrophage infiltration and inflammation, contributing to retinal vascular dysfunction and pathological angiogenesis. PMID:23285156

  19. Monitoring angiogenesis using a human compatible calibration for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runze; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ying; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method was not suita